respiratory outbreak of mycobacterium abscessus subspecies massiliense in a lung transplant and cystic fibrosis center. 201222246710
a phosphorylated pseudokinase complex controls cell wall synthesis in mycobacteria.prokaryotic cell wall biosynthesis is coordinated with cell growth and division, but the mechanisms regulating this dynamic process remain obscure. here, we describe a phosphorylation-dependent regulatory complex that controls peptidoglycan (pg) biosynthesis in mycobacterium tuberculosis. we found that pknb, a pg-responsive ser-thr protein kinase (stpk), initiates complex assembly by phosphorylating a kinase-like domain in the essential pg biosynthetic protein, mvin. this domain was structurally ...201222275220
mycobacterium tuberculosis - heterogeneity revealed through whole genome sequencing.the emergence of whole genome sequencing (wgs) technologies as primary research tools has allowed for the detection of genetic diversity in mycobacterium tuberculosis (mtb) with unprecedented resolution. wgs has been used to address a broad range of topics, including the dynamics of evolution, transmission and treatment. here, we have analyzed 55 publically available genomes to reconstruct the phylogeny of mtb, and we have addressed complications that arise during the analysis of publically avai ...201222218163
low dose aerosol fitness at the innate phase of murine infection better predicts virulence amongst clinical strains of mycobacterium tuberculosis.evaluation of a quick and easy model to determine the intrinsic ability of clinical strains to generate active tb has been set by assuming that this is linked to the fitness of mycobacterium tuberculosis strain at the innate phase of the infection. thus, the higher the bacillary load, the greater the possibility of inducting liquefaction, and thus active tb, once the adaptive response is set.201222235258
an intramedullary tuberculous abscess of the conus in a 5-year-old child presenting with urinary report a case of the primary presence of an intramedullary tuberculous abscess in the conus medullaris with neither a history of contact nor tuberculous infection elsewhere in the body.201122251511
risk of progression to active tuberculosis following reinfection with mycobacterium tuberculosis.background. the risk of progression to active tuberculosis is greatest in the several years following initial infection. the extent to which latent tuberculosis infection reduces the risk of progressive disease following reexposure and reinfection is not known. indirect estimates from population models have been highly variable.methods. we reviewed prospective cohort studies of persons exposed to individuals with infectious tuberculosis that were published prior to the widespread treatment of la ...201222267721
mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibits neutrophil apoptosis, leading to delayed activation of naive cd4 t cells.mycobacterium tuberculosis promotes its replication by inhibiting the apoptosis of infected macrophages. a proapoptotic m. tuberculosis mutant lacking nuog, a subunit of the type i nadh dehydrogenase complex, exhibits attenuated growth in vivo, indicating that this virulence mechanism is essential. we show that m. tuberculosis also suppresses neutrophil apoptosis. compared to wild-type, the nuog mutant spread to a larger number of lung phagocytic cells. consistent with the shorter lifespan of in ...201222264515
a pseudokinase debut at the mycobacterial cell wall.mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, has a complex cellular envelope that comprises both the cytoplasmic membrane and the outer cell wall. despite advances in elucidating the structural and biochemical composition of these features, the processes that ensure cell wall homeostasis remain poorly understood. new findings implicate the essential mycobacterial serine-threonine protein kinase (stpk), pknb, in regulating the formation of a regulatory complex that includes th ...201222275218
mycobacterium avium complex infection-related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome of the central nervous system in an hiv-infected patient: case report and review.disseminated mycobacterium avium complex (mac) infection involves the central nervous system (cns) less frequently than tuberculosis, and mac-related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (iris) of the cns in aids patients is even more rarely described. we report a case of mac-related iris of the cns in an hiv-infected patient who presented with meningoencephalitis and myelitis 2 months after discontinuation of antimac therapy, when he had achieved prolonged suppression of hiv replication ...201222227308
inhibition of bacterial carbonic anhydrases and zinc proteases: from orphantargets to innovative new antibiotic drugs.zinc-containing enzymes, such as carbonic anhydrases (cas) and metalloproteases (mps) play critical functions in bacteria, being involved in various steps of their life cycle, which are important for survival, colonization, acquisition of nutrients for growth and proliferation, facilitation of dissemination, invasion and pathogenicity. the development of resistance to many classes of clinically used antibiotics emphasizes the need of new antibacterial drug targets to be explored. there is a weal ...201222214451
identification of the leprosy agent mycobacterium lepromatosis in singapore.background: a new leprosy-causing species, namely mycobacterium lepromatosis, was discovered recently to be the cause of diffuse lepromatous leprosy (dll) in mexico. it is unknown whether this organism exists beyond mexico. methods: we sought to determine the identity of the mycobacteria in the skin tissue of two patients from singapore who died of dll. dna was extracted from archived biopsy tissue, and conserved polymerase chain reaction primers were used to amplify and sequence two to three my ...201222270197
human mycobacterium bovis infection in buenos aires: epidemiology, microbiology and clinical presentation.we performed a retrospective study of clinical, epidemiological and microbiological characteristics of patients with confirmed mycobacterium bovis infection treated at francisco muñiz hospital, buenos aires, argentina, between 1996 and 2008. a total of 39 patients were included, accounting for 0.4% of tuberculosis cases in our hospital. of these, 93% had at least one risk factor form. bovis; the most frequent was occupational exposure (65%), followed by history of living in a rural area (31%) an ...201222230360
in this issue.cover image: the cover is based on a spinal cord histology section taken from a tnfr2(-/-) mouse adoptively transferred with tnfr2(-/-) treg cells prior to immunization with mog(35-55) to induce eae. the section is stained with luxol fast blue to detect demyelination; luxol fast red, which detects inflammatory infiltration, is the counterstain. the image is taken from the article by tsakiri et al. (pp. 403-412) in which it is shown that tnfr2 on non-haematopoietic cells is necessary for treg- ...201222266713
[pulmonary aspergillosis complicating atypical mycobacterial infection in two patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].atypical mycobacteria and aspergillus are opportunistic organisms responsible for severe pulmonary diseases whose development is encouraged by the presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd) and related immunosuppression.201222240225
conserved mechanisms of mycobacterium marinum pathogenesis within the environmental amoeba, acanthamoeba castellanii.mycobacterium marinum is a water-borne mycobacterial pathogen. due to their common niche, protozoa likely represent natural hosts for m. marinum. we demonstrate that the esx-1 secretion system is required for m. marinum pathogenesis and that m. marinum utilizes actin-based motility in amoebae. therefore, at least two virulence pathways used by m. marinum in macrophages are conserved during m. marinum infection of amoeba.201222247144
sero-epidemiology as a tool to screen populations for exposure to mycobacterium ulcerans.previous analyses of sera from a limited number of ghanaian buruli ulcer (bu) patients, their household contacts, individuals living in bu non-endemic regions as well as european controls have indicated that antibody responses to the m. ulcerans 18 kda small heat shock protein (shsp) reflect exposure to this pathogen. here, we have investigated to what extent inhabitants of regions in ghana regarded as non-endemic for bu develop anti-18 kda shsp antibody titers.201222253937
resistance patterns of mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from pulmonary tuberculosis patients in kenya, which ranks thirteenth of 27 high tuberculosis burden countries, diagnosis is based on ziehl-neelsen staining alone and patients are treated without information on sensitivity patterns. this study aimed to determine resistance patterns of mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from pulmonary samples.201222240426
[nontuberculous mycobacteria in wet areas of a hospital and standard residences].from 1998 to 2000, uoeh hospital identified a problem with bronchoscopes which were contaminated with mycobacteria. while conducting research into the problem, we found an extensive amount of nontuberculous mycobacteria (ntm) in wet areas. in this study, we collected a total of 114 samples to screen wet areas such as drains and taps in our hospital and in standard residences. we used the ziehl-neelsen staining method and specific pcr for mycobacteria. as a result, mycobacteria were detected in 9 ...201122259837
occurrence of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk at dairy cattle farms: a systematic review and meta-analysis.presence of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) in milk for human consumption is a concern due to its possible relationship with crohn's disease in humans. pasteurization effectively reduces the map load by four to five logs, but the efficacy depends on the map concentration, which depends on the prevalence among contributing herds and individuals. considerable variation of map in bulk tank milk (btm) and individual cow's milk (im) is reported, but factors associated with map occur ...201122245166
accumulation of pyruvate by changing the redox status in escherichia coli.pyruvate was produced from glucose by escherichia coli bw25113 that contained formate dehydrogenase (fdh) from mycobacterium vaccae. in aerobic shake-flask culture (k (l) a = 4.9 min(-1)), the recombinant strain produced 6.7 g pyruvate l(-1) after 24 h with 4 g sodium formate l(-1) and a yield of 0.34 g pyruvate g glucose(-1). these values were higher than those of the original strain (0.2 g l(-1) pyruvate and 0.02 g pyruvate g glucose(-1)). based on the ...201222215378
investigation on mycobacterium tuberculosis diversity in china and the origin of the beijing clade.investigation of the genetic diversity of mycobacterium tuberculosis in china has shown that beijing genotype strains play a dominant role in the tuberculosis (tb) epidemic. in order to examine the strain diversity in the whole country, and to study the evolutionary development of beijing strains, we sought to genotype a large collection of isolates using different methods.201122220207
production of volatile organic compounds by mycobacteria.the need for improved rapid diagnostic tests for tuberculosis disease has prompted interest in the volatile organic compounds (vocs) emitted by mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria. we have investigated vocs emitted by mycobacterium bovis bcg grown on lowenstein-jensen media using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry and thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. compounds observed included dimethyl sulphide, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, butanone, 2-methyl-1- ...201222224870
effects of decontamination, dna extraction and amplification procedures on the molecular diagnosis of mycobacterium ulcerans disease (buruli ulcer).we compared two dna extraction methods (a semi-automated method using maxwell® kit and a modified boom method) and three amplification procedures (a single-step pcr, a nested pcr and a real-time quantitative pcr) on 74 surgical tissue specimens from clinically suspected buruli ulcer patients. all these procedures were compared before and after decontamination.we observed that, among the procedures tested, real-time pcr after the modified boom extraction method or a single-run pcr assay after the ...201222259213
coronin-1a inhibits autophagosome formation around mycobacterium tuberculosis-containing phagosomes and assists mycobacterial survival in macrophages.mycobacterium tuberculosis is an intracellular bacterium that can survive within macrophages. such survival is potentially associated with coronin-1a (coro1a). we investigated the mechanism by which coro1a promotes the survival of m. tuberculosis in macrophages and found that autophagy was involved in the inhibition of mycobacterial survival in coro1a knockdown (kd) macrophages. fluorescence microscopy and immunoblot analyses revealed that lc3, a representative autophagic protein, was recruited ...201222256790
patterns of pnca mutations in drug-resistant mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from patients in south korea.pyrazinamide (pza), one of the most effective anti-tuberculosis drugs, becomes toxic to mycobacterium tuberculosis when converted to pyrazinoic acid by pyrazinamidase (pzase). pza resistance is caused mainly by the loss of enzyme activity by mutation.201222236853
diagnostic yield of post-bronchoscopy sputum smear in pulmonary tuberculosis.background: the early definitive diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (tb) is important for control of the disease in the community. we performed this study to evaluate the additional gain of post-bronchoscopy sputum in the diagnosis of pulmonary tb. methods: bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage were performed for 126 patients suspected of pulmonary tb who either had 3 negative sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli or could not expectorate. after bronchoscopy the patients were asked to give sput ...201222216899
immune defects in active mycobacterial diseases in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (pids).natural human immunity to the mycobacteria group, including mycobacterium tuberculosis, bacille calmette-guérin (bcg) or nontuberculous mycobacteria (ntm), and/or salmonella species, relies on the functional il-12/23-ifn-γ integrity of macrophages (monocyte/dendritic cell) connecting to t lymphocyte/nk cells. patients with severe forms of primary immunodeficiency diseases (pids) have more profound immune defects involving this impaired circuit in patients with severe combined immunodeficiencies ...201122248828
computed tomography of children with pulmonary mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.surveillance and control of tuberculous infection in pediatric patients, especially in those with a contact history, is important to prevent tuberculous infection in the general population. totally 26 patients, younger than 14 years of age, who had a diagnosis of pulmonary mycobacterium tuberculosis (tb), underwent both chest radiographs and computed tomography (ct), which were retrospectively reviewed and compared with those of 20 patients with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (cabp). tb ...201122248827
cojedes: a leprosy hyperendemic state.background  leprosy is a chronic infectious disease produced by mycobacterium leprae. in 1997 venezuela reached the goal of elimination of leprosy as a public health problem (according to the world health organization a prevalence rate of ≤1/10,000 inhabitants), but five states still had prevalence rates over that goal. for this study we selected cojedes state, where prevalence rates remain over the elimination goal. objective  evaluate the real leprosy situation in high-prevalence areas of coje ...201222250629
label-free detection of a bacterial pathogen using an immobilized siderophore, deferoxamine.pathogenic bacteria obtain the iron necessary for survival by releasing an iron chelator, termed a siderophore, and retrieving the iron-siderophore complex via a cell surface siderophore receptor. we have exploited the high affinity of yersinia enterocolitica for its siderophore, deferoxamine, to develop a rapid method for capture and identification of yersinia. in this methodology, a deferoxamine-bovine serum albumin conjugate is printed onto a gold-plated chip in a parallel line pattern. after ...201222274807
sq109 targets mmpl3, a membrane transporter of trehalose monomycolate involved in mycolic acid donation to the cell wall core of mycobacterium tuberculosis.sq109, a 1,2-diamine related to ethambutol, is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of tuberculosis, but its mode of action remains unclear. here we demonstrate that sq109 disrupts cell wall assembly as evidenced by macromolecular incorporation assays and ultrastructural analyses. sq109 interferes with the assembly of mycolic acids into the cell wall core of mycobacterium tuberculosis, as bacilli exposed to sq109 show immediate inhibition of trehalose dimycolate (tdm) production and fa ...201222252828
identification of rv0535 as methylthioadenosine phosphorylase from mycobacterium tuberculosis.5'-methylthioadenosine (mta) is a natural purine that is metabolized by methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (mtap, e.c in eukarya and archaea but generally not in bacteria. in this work, rv0535, which has been annotated as a probable mtap in mycobacteriumtuberculosis, was expressed in and purified from escherichiacoli bl21 (de3). the purified protein displayed properties of a phosphorylase and mta was the preferred substrate. adenosine and s-adenosyl-l-homocysteine were poor substrates a ...201222225784
rifampicin-monoresistant mycobacterium tuberculosis disease among children in cape town, south africa.tygerberg children's hospital (tch) and brooklyn chest hospital (bch), south africa.201222236850
acanthamoeba polyphaga-enhanced growth of mycobacterium smegmatis.mycobacterium smegmatis is a rapidly-growing mycobacterium causing rare opportunistic infections in human patients. it is present in soil and water environments where free-living amoeba also reside, but data regarding m. smegmatis-amoeba relationships have been contradictory from mycobacteria destruction to mycobacteria survival.201222253795
snp genotypes of mycobacterium leprae isolates in thailand and their combination with rpot and ttc genotyping for analysis of leprosy distribution and transmission.based on the discovery of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps) in mycobacterium leprae, it has been previously reported that there are four major snp types associated with different geographic regions around the world. another typing system for global differentiation of m. leprae is the analysis of the variable number of short tandem repeats within the rpot gene. to expand the analysis of geographic distribution of m. leprae, classified by snp and rpot gene polymorphisms, we studied ...201222274158
autoluminescent mycobacterium tuberculosis for rapid, real-time, non-invasive assessment of drug and vaccine efficacy.preclinical efforts to discover and develop new drugs and vaccines for tuberculosis are hampered by the reliance on colony-forming unit (cfu) counts as primary outcomes for in vivo efficacy studies and the slow growth of mycobacterium tuberculosis. the utility of bioluminescent m. tuberculosis reporter strains for real-time in vitro and ex vivo assessment of drug and vaccine activity has been demonstrated but a simple, non-invasive, real-time surrogate marker to replace cfu counts for real-time ...201222253776
hiv-1 infection alters cd4(+) memory t cell phenotype at the site of disease in extrapulmonary infected people have an increased risk of developing extrapulmonary tuberculosis (tb), the immunopathogenesis of which is poorly understood. here we conducted a detailed immunological analysis of human pericardial tb, to determine the effect of hiv-1 co-infection on the phenotype of mycobacterium tuberculosis (mtb)-specific memory t cells and the role of polyfunctional t cells at the disease site, using cells from pericardial fluid and blood of 74 patients with (n=50) and without (n=24) hi ...201122215422
evaluation of conventional molecular diagnosis of mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical specimens from morocco.tuberculosis is a major public health threat, annually affecting new individuals worldwide, especially those in developing countries. rapid detection of the agent and effective treatment are two important factors in controlling this disease.201222240427
coa adducts of 4-oxo-4-phenylbut-2-enoates: inhibitors of menb from the m. tuberculosis menaquinone biosynthesis pathway.a high-throughput screen led to the discovery of 2-amino-4-oxo-4-phenylbutanoate inhibitors of the 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl-coa synthase (menb) from the menaquinone biosynthesis pathway in mycobacterium tuberculosis. however, these compounds are unstable in solution and eliminate to form the corresponding 4-oxo-4-phenylbut-2-enoates that then react with coa in situ to form nanomolar inhibitors of menb. the potency of these compounds results from interaction of the coa adduct carboxylate with th ...201122267981
lipidomic discovery of deoxysiderophores reveals a revised mycobactin biosynthesis pathway in mycobacterium measure molecular changes underlying pathogen adaptation, we generated a searchable dataset of more than 12,000 mass spectrometry events, corresponding to lipids and small molecules that constitute a lipidome for mycobacterium tuberculosis. iron is essential for m. tuberculosis survival, and the organism imports this metal using mycobactin and carboxymycobactin siderophores. detection of an unexpected siderophore variant and deletions of genes for iron scavenging has led to a revised mycobact ...201222232695
molecular epidemiology of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis at a regional scale in germany.mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) is the causal agent of johne's disease in dairy cattle. genotyping of map is useful to gain a better understanding of the origin of infection, to evaluate regional control programs, to improve diagnostics, and to develop vaccines. in this study 91 map isolates mainly from symptomatic dairy cattle in rhineland-palatinate (rp, germany), its neighbor federal states, and luxembourg were genotyped using mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-vari ...201222217908
a case of igg4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis with left hydronephrosis after a remission of urinary tract tuberculosis.igg4-related systemic disease encompasses multi-organ disorders, including tubulointerstitial nephritis. this disease is accompanied by a high serum igg4 concentration and igg4-positive plasma cell infiltration. we herein describe a 63-year-old woman with renal failure and dryness of the eyes and mouth, who had been treated with antituberculosis agents for urinary tract tuberculosis. she had a negative finding for a pcr analysis for mycobacterium tuberculosis, a positive quantiferon-tb test, hig ...201222218636
risk factors associated with transmission of mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to calves within dairy herd: a systematic review.paratuberculosis has a worldwide distribution and many countries have implemented control programs to prevent transmission among and within herds. for these programs to be efficient, knowledge of the risk factors involved in transmission is essential.201222211394
the mycobacterium avium esx-5 ppe protein, ppe25-mav, interacts with an esat-6 family protein, mav_2921, and localizes to the bacterial surface.previous research has demonstrated that inactivation of the mycobacterium avium gene, ppe25-mav (mav-2928), leads to a significant attenuation of virulence in both in vitro and in vivo models. ppe25-mav encodes for a ppe family protein, a family from which many members have been implicated in both bacterial virulence and host immune recognition. recent research has shown that many ppe family proteins are exported by a specialized type vii secretion system in mycobacteria. in this context, the me ...201222265661
glycopeptidolipids: immuno-modulators in greasy mycobacterial cell envelope.species of opportunistic mycobacteria are the major causative agent for disseminating pulmonary infections in immuno-compromised individuals. these naturally resistant strains recruit a unique type of glycolipid known as glycopeptidolipids (gpls), noncovalently attached to the outer surface of their thick lipid rich cell envelope. species specific gpls constitute the chemical determinants of most nontuberculous mycobacterial serotypes, and their absence from the cell surface confers altered colo ...201222252955
[peritoneal tuberculosis in a patient with suspected disseminated ovarian cancer.]we present a case study of a 43 year-old female immigrant from turkey with abdominal pain, ascites and elevated cancer antigen 125. the symptoms were similar to those of ovarian cancer, and imaging (computed tomography (ct), positron emission tomography/computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) supported this suspicion. peritoneal biopsy from laparoscopy showed granulomas with central necrosis. microscopy, culture and polymerase chain reaction from biopsy samples were negative for myco ...201222233724
spoligotyping of mycobacterium africanum, burkina faso.using ziehl-neelsen-positive slides collected from tuberculosis diagnostic centers in burkina faso, we showed that 20% of 80 spoligotyping-positive dna samples had a characteristic mycobacterium africanum-specific genomic signature. this result suggests that m. africanum is still present in burkina faso at almost the same prevalence as 15-20 years ago.201222257494
mycobacterium riyadhense pulmonary infection, france and the editor: mycobacterium riyadhense is a newly described mycobacterial species that is potentially pathogenic for humans. extrapulmonary infection with this nontuberculous mycobacterium (ntm) has been reported (1).we report 2 cases of pulmonary infection with this ntm.201222261434
the mcp-1 (ccl2) -2518 gg genotype is associated with protection against pulmonary tuberculosis in moroccan patients.both monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (mcp-1), also designated officially as chemokine (c-c motif) ligand 2 (ccl2), and interleukin-12 p40 (il-12 p40) molecules, encoded by polymorphic genes, are central components of the immune response to infection by mycobacterium tuberculosis (mtb). their genetic diversity has previously been associated with the outcome of tuberculosis (tb) infection. we investigated whether the mcp-1 -2518 a/g and the il-12b (p40) +1188 a/c polymorphisms influence suscept ...201222240432
synthesis and evaluation of anti-tubercular and antibacterial activities of new 4-(2,6-dichlorobenzyloxy)phenyl thiazole, oxazole and imidazole derivatives. part 2.a series of substituted 4-(2,6-dichlorobenzyloxy)phenyl thiazole, oxazole and imidazole derivatives were synthesized. the derivatives were screened for in vitro anti-tubercular activities against mycobacterium tuberculosis h37rv using the microplate alamar blue assay (maba), and antibacterial activities with agar dilution method against clinical s. aureus, e. coli, s. pneumoniae and penicilin-resistant s. pneumoniae. among 15 compounds, several thiazole derivatives exhibited good anti-tubercular ...201222264895
performance assessment of a novel two-step mda-pcr (multiple displacement amplification as a pre-polymerase chain reaction) assay for detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from sputum specimens.a novel two-step mda-pcr (multiple displacement amplification as a pre-polymerase chain reaction) assay for tuberculosis detection from 200 sputum specimens was evaluated. the mda-pcr assay indicated a significant increase in sensitivity and specificity compared with standard pcr alone.201222259205
optimizing illumina next-generation sequencing library preparation for extremely at-biased genomes.abstract: background: massively parallel sequencing technology is revolutionizing approaches to genomic and genetic research. since its advent, the scale and efficiency of next-generation sequencing (ngs) has rapidly improved. in spite of this success, sequencing genomes or genomic regions with extremely biased base composition is still a great challenge to the currently available ngs platforms. the genomes of some important pathogenic organisms like plasmodium falciparum (high at content) and ...201222214261
failure to recruit anti-inflammatory cd103+ dendritic cells and a diminished cd4+foxp3+ regulatory t cell pool in mice that display excessive lung inflammation and increased susceptibility to mycobacterium tuberculosis.susceptibility to mycobacterium tuberculosis (mtb) is characterized by excessive lung inflammation, tissue damage and failure to control bacterial growth. to increase our understanding of mechanisms that may regulate the host immune response in the lungs, we characterized dendritic cells expressing cd103 (α(e) integrin) (αe-dc) and cd4(+)foxp3(+) regulatory t (t(reg)) cells during mtb infection. in resistant c57bl/6 and balb/c mice, the number of lung αe-dc increased dramatically during mtb infe ...201222215739
the pathology of mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.mycobacterium tuberculosis is an old enemy of the human race, with evidence of infection observed as early as 5000 years ago. although more host-restricted than mycobacterium bovis, which can infect all warm-blooded vertebrates, m. tuberculosis can infect, and cause morbidity and mortality in, several veterinary species as well. as m. tuberculosis is one of the earliest described bacterial pathogens, the literature describing this organism is vast and overwhelming. this review strives to distill ...201222262351
mycobacterium abscessus glycopeptidolipid prevents respiratory epithelial tlr2 signaling as measured by hβd2 gene expression and il-8 release.mycobacterium abscessus has emerged as an important cause of lung infection, particularly in patients with bronchiectasis. innate immune responses must be highly effective at preventing infection with m. abscessus because it is a ubiquitous environmental saprophyte and normal hosts are not commonly infected. m. abscessus exists as either a glycopeptidolipid (gpl) expressing variant (smooth phenotype) in which gpl masks underlying bioactive cell wall lipids, or as a variant lacking gpl which is i ...201122216191
investigation of the levels of oxidative stress parameters in hiv and hiv-tb co-infected patients.among opportunistic pathogens associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids), mycobacterium tuberculosis is distinguished by its relative virulence and potential for person-to-person transmission. oxidative stress is associated with tb infection with a high level in patients with hiv-tb co-infection. however, the comparative level of oxidative stress in hiv patients on highly active anti-retroviral therapy (haart) and naïve (untreated) hiv patients is not clear.201222240433
pyrazinamide susceptibility testing in all isolates of the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex - a critical analysis. 201222257727
tlr2 signaling depletes irak1 and inhibits induction of type i ifn by tlr7/9.pathogens may signal through multiple tlrs with synergistic or antagonistic effects on the induction of cytokines, including type i ifn (ifn-i). ifn-i is typically induced by tlr9, but not tlr2. moreover, we previously reported that tlr2 signaling by mycobacterium tuberculosis or other tlr2 agonists inhibited tlr9 induction of ifn-i and ifn-i-dependent mhc-i ag cross processing. the current studies revealed that lipopeptide-induced tlr2 signaling inhibited induction of first-wave ifn-α and ifn-β ...201222227568
the stress-response factor sigh modulates the interaction between mycobacterium tuberculosis and host phagocytes.the mycobacterium tuberculosis stress response factor sigh plays a crucial role in modulating the pathogen's response to heat, oxidative-stress, envelope damage and hypoxia. we hypothesized that the lack of this key stress response factor would alter the interaction between the pathogen and its host cells. we compared the interaction of mtb, mtb:δ-sigh and a strain where the mutation had been genetically complemented (mtb: δ-sigh:co) with primary rhesus macaque bone marrow derived macrophages (r ...201222235255
bridging the gap between pcr detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and tuberculosis diagnosis.the growing demand for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis (tb) has led to the incorporation of nucleic acid amplification (naa) tests in case definitions. the objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of a real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay in providing a result predictive of a confirmed tb case. respiratory and extra-pulmonary specimens (n = 308) were subjected to naa, culture and smear microscopy. qualitative pcr assessment, translated by an increase in naa cycles, dis ...201222230008
mycobacterial induction of autophagy varies by species and occurs independently of mtor inhibition.the interaction of host cells with mycobacteria is complex and can lead to multiple outcomes ranging from bacterial clearance to latent infection. while many factors are involved, the mammalian autophagy pathway is recognized as a determinant that can influence the course of infection. intervention aimed at utilizing autophagy to clear infection requires an examination of the autophagy and signal transduction induced by mycobacteria under native conditions. with both pathogenic and non-pathoge ...201222275355
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