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identification of eubacteria isolated from leaf cavities of four species of the n-fixing azolla fern as arthrobacter conn and dimmick.the nutritional and physiological characteristics of 15 isolates from four species of the azolla fern were determined. although some minor variation existed in levels of urease activity, ability to utilize xylose, and formation of n(2) gas from no(3), all 15 isolates were rather similar and believed to represent a single species. these eubacteria exhibited aminopeptidase activity and became viscous when treated with koh, similar to gram-negative organisms; however, the absence of lipopolysacchar ...198616347144
bacterial growth rates and competition affect nodulation and root colonization by rhizobium meliloti.the addition of streptomycin to nonsterile soil suppressed the numbers of bacterial cells in the rhizosphere of alfalfa (medicago sativa l.) for several days, resulted in the enhanced growth of a streptomycin-resistant strain of rhizobium meliloti, and increased the numbers of nodules on the alfalfa roots. a bacterial mixture inoculated into sterile soil inhibited the colonization of alfalfa roots by r. meliloti, caused a diminution in the number of nodules, and reduced plant growth. enterobacte ...198616347173
acetylene metabolism and stimulation of denitrification in an agricultural soil.the effects of c(2)h(2) metabolism on n(2)o production were examined in soil slurries. enrichment of c(2)h(2) consumption activity occurred only in aerobic incubations. rapid disappearance of subsequent c(2)h(2) additions, stimulation of co(2) production, and most-probable-number enumerations of c(2)h(2) utilizers indicated enrichment of the population responsible. during c(2)h(2) consumption in slurries incubated statically under air, maximal rates of n(2)o evolution were 19 times higher than t ...198616347172
microbial life at extremely low nutrient levels.many microorganisms ("oligotrophs") grow in distilled water: pseudomonas spp., caulobacter spp., hyphomicrobium spp., arthrobacter spp., seliberia spp., bactoderma alba, corynebacterium spp., amycolata (nocardia) autotrophica, mycobacterium spp., yeasts, and chlorella spp. also, certain lower fungi can be found here. in the laboratory, these organisms thrive on contaminations of the air (co, hydrocarbons, h2, alcohols etc.). all are euryosmotic and often grow also in higher concentrations of ...198611537832
on the influence of different growth conditions to the resistance of some methylotrophic bacteria to aldehydes.the resistance to formaldehyde of several facultatively methylotrophic bacteria has been investigated. the mic-values were in the range of formaldehyde concentrations used for preservation purposes. the resistance could be explained partly by the action of aldehyde dehydrogenase found in two of the strains and by the development of a penetration barrier by the cell envelopes described formerly.19863092505
[esterase activity of hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria].the activity of esterase was studied in bacteria oxidizing hydrocarbons and belonging to the genera rhodococcus, arthrobacter and pseudomonas. indophenyl acetate was used as a substrate of the reaction catalysed by the enzyme. exocellular esterases were not found. endocellular esterases differed in their activity and thermostability both among the genera and among species of one and the same genus.19863102911
evidence for the functional role of monosialoganglioside gm1 in synaptic transmission in the rat hippocampus.the hippocampal slices were incubated with compounds which hydrolyze, modify or bind with sialic acid containing molecules. the efficiency of synaptic transmission was tested in the presence of these compounds. the size of the evoked extracellularly recorded potential following schaffer collateral stimulation was used as an indicator of synaptic transmission efficiency. sodium periodate (10 mm) and sodium perchlorate (59.2 mm) evoked a reversible (after washout) decrease in the size of the popul ...19863008944
plasmid pao1 of arthrobacter oxidans encodes 6-hydroxy-d-nicotine oxidase: cloning and expression of the gene in escherichia coli.the 160 kb plasmid pao1 from arthrobacter oxidans (brandsch and decker 1984) was subcloned in escherichia coli with the aid of the plasmid vectors pur222 and pbr322. screening of the recombinant clones for enzyme activity revealed that the flavoenzyme 6-hydroxy-d-nicotine oxidase (6-hdno), one of the enzymes of the nicotine-degradative pathway in a. oxidans, is encoded on pao1. immunoprecipitation of 35s-methionine-labelled e. coli cells with 6-hdno-specific antiserum and expression of recombina ...19863007941
sensitive enzyme-immunostaining and densitometric determination of ganglio-series gangliosides on thin-layer plate: pmol detection of gangliosides in cerebrospinal fluid.an immunochemical method has been developed for sensitive detection and determination of ganglio-series gangliosides using thin-layer chromatography/enzyme-immunostaining. after chromatography of gangliosides, the plate was treated with arthrobacter ureafaciens sialidase to remove all sialic acids from ganglio-series gangliosides. for the complete hydrolysis of gangliosides, sodium taurodeoxycholate was found to be required. the resulting asialo-glycolipids, ga2 and ga1 were reacted first with a ...19863511969
enzymes of vitamin b6 degradation. purification and properties of pyridoxine 5'-dehydrogenase (oxidase).isolation and identification of a soil bacterium, arthrobacter cr-7, that grows with pyridoxine as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen are described. an inducible pyridoxine 5'-dehydrogenase (oxidase) (ec 1.1.99.9) that catalyzes conversion of pyridoxine to isopyridoxal, pyridoxine + x----isopyridoxal + xh2, the first step in utilization of pyridoxine as a growth substrate by this organism, was purified about 520-fold to homogeneity. the enzyme (mr = 112,000) is a dimer of probably identical su ...19863533935
[microbial transformation of 16 alpha-methyl-5 alpha-delta 9(11)- pregnene-3 beta, 17 alpha, 21-triol-20-one-3 beta, 21-diacetate]. 19863577788
surface localization of sialic acid on actinomyces viscosus.this study reports the presence of sialic acid in actinomyces viscosus strains t14v and t14av. mild acid hydrolysis of whole organisms released a compound which reacted positively in the periodate-thiobarbituric acid, direct ehrlich's and resorcinol assays, and which co-chromatographed on paper with authentic n-acetylneuraminic acid. strain t14v contained 10-fold greater concentrations of sialic acid than did strain t14av. sialic acid content was dependent upon the stage of growth of the culture ...19863655719
enzymes of vitamin b6 degradation. purification and properties of isopyridoxal dehydrogenase and 5-formyl-3-hydroxy-2-methylpyridine-4-carboxylic-acid dehydrogenase.two nad+-dependent, highly specific pyridine-5-aldehyde dehydrogenases, 5-formyl-3-hydroxy-2-methylpyridine-4-carboxylic-acid (compound 1) dehydrogenase and isopyridoxal dehydrogenase, were purified to homogeneity from pseudomonas ma-1 and arthrobacter cr-7, respectively. both enzymes are induced in response to growth of the organisms on pyridoxine and catalyze steps in the degradation of this compound by these organisms. compound 1 dehydrogenase (mr = 65,000) contains two subunits of equal size ...19863533936
cloning and expression in escherichia coli of the gene for an arthrobacter beta-(1----3)-glucanase.when inserted in the correct orientation at the bamhi site of plasmid yrp7, an 8.6-kilobase bamhi fragment of arthrobacter sp. strain ycwd3 dna gave escherichia coli hb101 cells harboring the recombinant plasmid pbx20 the ability to lyse bakers' yeast cell walls or bakers' yeast glucan in agar medium. an extract of the transformed e. coli cells contained an endo-beta-(1----3)-glucanase with the same activity pattern as that of glucanase i produced by arthrobacter sp. strain ycwd3. although part ...19863096974
enzymes of vitamin b6 degradation. purification and properties of 4- and 5-pyridoxolactonases.4-pyridoxolactone and 5-pyridoxolactone, formed by dehydrogenation of pyridoxal or isopyridoxal during the bacterial degradation of vitamin b6 by pseudomonas ma-1 and arthrobacter cr-7, respectively, are hydrolyzed to the corresponding acids by distinct inducible lactonases which were purified to homogeneity. 4-pyridoxolactonase from pseudomonas ma-1 has an mr of 54,000 and contains two probably identical subunits of mr = 28,600. it has a ph optimum of 7.0, a km of 5.9 microm, and a vmax at 25 d ...19863771565
enzymes of vitamin b6 degradation. purification and properties of 5-pyridoxic-acid oxygenase from arthrobacter sp.5-pyridoxic-acid oxygenase, a cytoplasmic enzyme formed when arthrobacter cr-7 is grown with pyridoxine as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen, was purified about 190-fold to homogeneity from fully induced cells. the enzyme catalyzes reaction a, (formula: see text) the essential ring-opening step in the degradation of pyridoxine, and provides a second example of an fad-dependent oxygenase that adds both two hydrogen and two oxygen atoms to its substrate. 5-pyridoxic-acid oxygenase has an isoele ...19863771566
[the use of bioelectrochemical systems in steroid biosynthesis].the feasibility of electrosynthesis involving the use of biocatalysts has been demonstrated in a model reaction of hydrocortisone oxidation to prednisolone catalyzed by arthrobacter globiformis cells. electrochemical regeneration of phenazine methosulfate, an artificial electron acceptor, was performed, using electrodes made of different materials. transformation products were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography.19863768442
studies in vitro on the flavinylation of 6-hydroxy-d-nicotine oxidase.the gene of 6-hydroxy-d-nicotine oxidase (6-hdno), a flavoenzyme from arthrobacter oxidans with covalently bound fad, was expressed with the aid of an expression vector in a cell-free coupled transcription-translation system derived from escherichia coli mz9. ultraviolet irradiation of the e. coli extract did not affect synthesis of the 6-hdno polypeptide nor total protein synthesis but enzymatic 6-hdno activity could not be detected. addition of fad to the irradiated cell extract restored the c ...19863533536
purification and properties of synephrinase from arthrobacter synephrinum.synephrinase, an enzyme catalyzing the conversion of (-)-synephrine into p-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde and methylamine, was purified to apparent homogeneity from the cell-free extracts of arthrobacter synephrinum grown on (+/-)-synephrine as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. a 40-fold purification was sufficient to produce synephrinase that is apparently homogeneous as judged by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and has a specific activity of 1.8 mumol product formed/min/mg protein. ...19863729420
initial reactions of xanthone biodegradation by an arthrobacter sp.this study examined the catabolism of xanthone by an arthrobacter sp. (strain gfb100) capable of growth on xanthone as its main source of carbon and energy. an early catabolic intermediate was 3,4-dihydroxyxanthone. this compound was isolated from the growth medium of a mutant strain of the arthrobacter sp. which lacked the xanthone-inducible dihydroxyxanthone ring-fission dioxygenase of the wild-type strain. cell extracts from wild-type xanthone-grown cells oxidized 3,4-dihydroxyxanthone to a y ...19863745120
methylamine oxidase from arthrobacter p1. a bacterial copper-quinoprotein amine oxidase.methylamine oxidase from arthrobacter p1 was purified to homogeneity. the enzyme oxidizes primary amines but not tyramine or polyamines like spermine and putrescine. the enzyme activity has a ph optimum of 8.0 with methylamine, and is inhibited by certain cations as well as anions at rather low concentrations. the enzyme has an mr of 167900, an isoelectric point of 4.6, consists of two (probably identical) subunits (mr 82250) and contains two copper atoms but no sugar residues. the visible absor ...19863780750
biochemical properties of n-methylamides of sialic acids in gangliosides.a simple and rapid method for the preparation of n-methylamides ( - conhch3) of sialic acids in gangliosides and biochemical properties of the modified gangliosides are described. the sialic acid carboxyl groups of gangliosides were esterified with ch3i-dimethylsulfoxide, followed by heating with monomethylamine. the modified gangliosides were chemically identified by tlc, ir spectroscopy, glc-mass spectrometry and nmr spectroscopy. the n-methylamide derivative of gm1 produced a high titer igg a ...19862420784
metabolism of glyphosate in an arthrobacter sp. glp-1.the metabolism of glyphosate [n-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] in a bacterium tentatively identified as an arthrobacter sp., capable of growth on this herbicide as its sole phosphorus source, has been investigated using solid-state nmr techniques as well as radiotracer analysis. the pathway involves the conversion of glyphosate to glycine, a c1 unit and phosphate. the phosphonomethyl carbon is specifically incorporated into the amino acids serine, cysteine, methionine, and histidine, as well as into ...19872439330
characterization of 1-chlorohexane halidohydrolase, a dehalogenase of wide substrate range from an arthrobacter sp.1-chlorohexane halidohydrolase from arthrobacter sp. strain ha1 was purified to homogeneity by fractional precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration, and high-performance liquid chromatography gel filtration. the enzyme was a monomer with a molecular weight of about 37,000; its amino acid composition and n-terminal sequence were determined. the enzyme had a broad optimum around ph 9.5, a temperature optimum near 50 degrees c, an activation energy of 40 kj/mol, and a molecular act ...19873667524
[immobilized systems producing fibrinolytic proteinases]. 19873319470
isolation and characterization of an s-ethyl-n,n-dipropylthiocarbamate-degrading arthrobacter strain and evidence for plasmid-associated s-ethyl-n,n-dipropylthiocarbamate degradation.arthrobacter sp. strain te1 isolated from s-ethyl-n,n-dipropylthiocarbamate (eptc)-exposed soil degraded this herbicide effectively and could grow on eptc as the sole carbon source. te1 harboured four plasmids of 65.5, 60, 50.5, and 2.5 megadaltons. spontaneous mutants unable to degrade eptc arose at a high frequency, and this was further increased by treatment of the culture with acridine orange or incubation at high temperature. all eptc degradation-deficient (e-) mutants lacked the 50.5-megad ...19873606092
[hydrocarbon-oxidizing microflora from the water of the baltic sea and kurshsky bay polluted after a fuel oil spill].microbiological studies were conducted in the water of the baltic sea and the kurshsky bay polluted with mazut as the result of a tanker wreck in november 1981 as well as in the water of nonpolluted regions. within the summer of 1982 and 1983, 755 bacterial strains were isolated from water samples taken at three different depths. bacteria belonging to the genera pseudomonas, rhodococcus + mycobacterium and arthrobacter predominated in the hydrocarbon-oxidizing cenoses of the baltic sea and the k ...19873657616
[kinetics of delta'-dehydrogenation of hydrocortisone by arthrobacter simplex by-2-13. i. kinetics of delta'-dehydrogenation of hydrocortisone by free cells of arthrobacter simplex by-2-13]. 19873630138
[microbial transformation of 16 alpha-methyl-3 beta, 17 alpha-dihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnane-20-one-3 acetate]. 19873618239
metabolism of endogenous trehalose by streptomyces griseus spores and by spores or cells of other actinomycetes.the disaccharide trehalose is accumulated as a storage product by spores of streptomyces griseus. nongerminating spores used their trehalose reserves slowly when incubated in buffer for several months. in contrast, spores rapidly depleted their trehalose pools during the first hours of germination. extracts of dormant spores contained a high specific activity of the enzyme trehalase. the level of trehalase remained relatively constant during germination or incubation in buffer. nongerminating sp ...19873117770
activation of the human complement cascade by bacterial cell walls, peptidoglycans, water-soluble peptidoglycan components, and synthetic muramylpeptides--studies on active components and structural requirements.cell walls isolated from 29 strains of 24 gram-positive bacterial species, whose peptidoglycans belong to the group a type of schleifer and kandler's classification, with one exception (arthrobacter sp.), were shown to activate the complement cascade in pooled fresh human serum mainly through the alternative pathway and partly through the classical one. the complement-activating effect of cell walls (5 species) possessing group b type peptidoglycan, except those of corynebacterium insidiosum, wa ...19873670125
[microbial reduction of c20-keto of corticosteroids by arthrobacter 9-2. ii. bioconversion of 3 beta,17 alpha,21-triol-5 alpha-pregnan-3-one]. 19873630139
[kinetics of delta'-dehydrogenation of hydrocortisone by arthrobacter simplex by-2-13. ii. kinetics of delta'-dehydrogenation of hydrocortisone by immobilized a. simplex by-2-13]. 19873630142
degradation 1,2-dimethylbenzene by corynebacterium strain c125.in an attempt to obtain bacteria growing on 1,2-dimethylbenzene as sole carbon and energy source two different strains were isolated. one was identified as an arthrobacter strain, the other as a corynebacterium strain. corynebacterium strain c125 was further investigated. the organism was not capable to grow on 1,3- and 1,4-dimethylbenzene. cis-1,2-dihydroxycyclohexa-3,5-diene oxidoreductase and 3,4-dimethylcatechol-2,3-dioxygenase activity was found in cell extracts. when 3,4-dimethylcatechol w ...19873662487
microbial desulfonation of substituted naphthalenesulfonic acids and benzenesulfonic acids.sulfur-limited batch enrichment cultures containing one of nine multisubstituted naphthalenesulfonates and an inoculum from sewage yielded several taxa of bacteria which could quantitatively utilize 19 sulfonated aromatic compounds as the sole sulfur source for growth. growth yields were about 4 kg of protein per mol of sulfur. specific degradation rates were about 4 to 14 mu kat/kg of protein. a pseudomonas sp., an arthrobacter sp., and an unidentified bacterium were examined. each desulfonated ...19873662502
microbiological and chemical dehydrogenation of withaferin a.arthrobacter simplex dehydrogenated withaferin a to 4-dehydrowithaferin a but it was not able to dehydrogenate this substrate in position 27. 27-dehydrowithaferin a was prepared chemically using pyridinium chlorochromate. whereas 4-dehydrowithaferin a surpassed in its effect on leukemic (388 cells the original compound and all its derivates synthesized so far, 27-dehydrowithaferin a was biologically inactive.19873583136
comparison of backbone structures of glucose isomerase from streptomyces and arthrobacter.the c alpha backbones of the glucose isomerase molecules of streptomyces rubiginosus and arthrobacter have been determined by x-ray crystallography and compared. each molecule is a tetramer of eight-stranded alpha/beta barrels, and the mode of association of the tetramers is identical in each case. the arthrobacter electron density shows four additional amino acids at the carboxyl terminus. there is also an insertion of six amino acids at position 277, and two individual insertions at about posi ...19873508294
6-hydroxy-d-nicotine oxidase of arthrobacter oxidans. gene structure of the flavoenzyme and its relationship to 6-hydroxy-l-nicotine oxidase.the nucleotide sequence of the 6-hydroxy-d-nicotine oxidase (6-hdno) gene of arthrobacter oxidans is presented. this covalently flavinylated enzyme specifically oxidizes 6-hydroxy-d-nicotine to 6-hydroxy-n-methylmyosmine. coinduced in the presence of nicotine is a 6-hydroxy-l-nicotine-specific enzyme, 6-hydroxy-l-nicotine oxidase (6-hlno), with fad noncovalently bound to the apoprotein. a comparison of the nucleotide-derived amino acid sequence of the 6-hdno with the amino acid sequence data obt ...19873622516
bacterial flora in bottled uncarbonated mineral drinking water.a quantitative study of bacterial populations in mineral water was carried out. samples were stored at 6 and 20 degrees c, and the colony counts were determined on tryptone agar plates incubated at 22 and 37 degrees c. samples were collected from the spring source in sterile glass flasks and from the bottling factory in conventional plastic and glass containers. in both cases, the initial population (10(1)-10(2) cfu/ml water) increased to 10(5)-10(6) cfu/ml after 3 days storage as determined fro ...19873446349
structural characteristics of the corynebacterium lilium bacteriophage cl31.bacteriophage cl31 was isolated on a corynebacterium lilium strain. out of 30 strains tested, only cl31 was able to form plaques on corynebacterium glutamicum atcc 13287, brevibacterium lactofermentum atcc 21086, and arthrobacter sp. strain si55, but at a very low frequency. this phage belongs to group b of bradley's classification (d. e. bradley, bacteriol. rev. 31:230-314; 1967). its head is 53 nm in diameter, and its tail is 396 nm in length. the phage capsid contains three major proteins, of ...19873033280
immobilization of living microbial cells in polyacrylamide gel. 19873298943
maintenance and stability of introduced genotypes in groundwater aquifer material.three indigenous groundwater bacterial strains and pseudomonas putida harboring plasmids tol (pwwo) and rk2 were introduced into experimentally contaminated groundwater aquifer microcosms. maintenance of the introduced genotypes was measured over time by colony hybridization with gene probes of various specificity. on the basis of the results of colony hybridization quantitation of the introduced organisms and genes, all introduced genotypes were stably maintained at approximately 10(5) positive ...19873300546
covalent flavinylation of 6-hydroxy-d-nicotine oxidase analyzed by partial deletions of the gene.the expression of the enzymatically active 6-hydroxy-d-nicotine oxidase (6-hdno) from arthrobacter oxidans requires the covalent attachment of fad to the polypeptide chain. how this modification takes place and at what time during the synthesis of the polypeptide is not known. we investigated the possibility of cotranslational flavinylation by generating various deletions of the 6-hdno gene carried on appropriate plasmid vectors. the polypeptides expressed from these plasmids were analyzed for t ...19873036509
transformation of arthrobacter and studies on the transcription of the arthrobacter erma gene in streptomyces lividans and escherichia coli.we report the development of a plasmid-mediated transformation system for arthrobacter sp. nrrlb3381, using the streptomyces cloning vector pij702. our procedure gives a transformation frequency of 10(3)/micrograms of plasmid dna. in addition we have explored the expression of the arthrobacter erma gene in streptomyces lividans and escherichia coli, and shown that the erma promoter is recognized in s. lividans not e. coli. the relationship between arthrobacter, streptomyces and e. coli promoters ...19872443127
synthesis of p-nitrophenyl 5-acetamido-3,5-dideoxy-alpha-d-glycero-d-galacto-2-nonulopyranosid onic acid, a chromogenic substrate for sialidases. 19872885090
phylogenetic analysis of the coryneform bacteria by 5s rrna sequences.nucleotide sequences of 5s rrnas from 11 coryneform bacteria were determined. these were the type strains of corynebacterium glutamicum, corynebacterium xerosis, brevibacterium linens, arthrobacter globiformis, cellulomonas biazotea, aureobacterium testaceum, curtobacterium citreum, pimelobacter simplex, and caseobacter polymorphus and representative strains of "corynebacterium aquaticum" and corynebacterium xerosis. a phylogenetic tree constructed from the sequences of these bacteria and publis ...19873106318
integration of bioconversions and downstream processing. some model studies. 19873124693
microbiological degradation of malodorous substances of swine waste under aerobic conditions.phenol, p-cresol, and volatile fatty acids (vfa; acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, and valeric acids) were used as odor indicators of swine waste. aeration of the waste allowed the indigenous microorganisms to grow and degrade these malodorous substances. the time required for degradation of these substances varied according to the waste used, and it was not necessarily related to their concentrations. using a minimal medium which contained one of the malodorous compounds as so ...198716347254
uptake of glyphosate by an arthrobacter sp.the uptake of glyphosate (n-[phosphonomethyl]glycine) by an arthrobacter sp. which can utilize this herbicide as its sole source of phosphorus was investigated. orthophosphate suppressed the expression of the uptake system for glyphosate and also competed with glyphosate for uptake. the k(m) for glyphosate uptake was 125 mum, and the k(i) for orthophosphate was 24 mum. organophosphonates as well as organophosphates inhibited glyphosate uptake, but only organophosphates and orthophosphate suppres ...198716347356
degradation of the phosphonate herbicide glyphosate by arthrobacter atrocyaneus atcc 13752.of nine authentic arthrobacter strains tested, only a. atrocyaneus atcc 13752 was capable of using the herbicide glyphosate [n-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] as its sole source of phosphorus. contrary to the previously isolated arthrobacter sp. strain glp-1, which degrades glyphosate via sarcosine, a. atrocyaneus metabolized glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid. the carbon of aminomethylphosphonic acid was entirely converted to co(2). this is the first report on glyphosate degradation by a bacter ...198816347639
mineralization of carbofuran by a soil bacterium.a bacterium, tentatively identified as an arthrobacter sp., was isolated from flooded soil that was incubated at 35 degrees c and repeatedly treated with carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl n-methylcarbamate). this bacterium exhibited an exceptional capacity to completely mineralize the ring-labeled c in carbofuran to co(2) within 72 to 120 h in a mineral salts medium as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen under aerobic conditions. mineralization was more rapid at 35 degrees c t ...198816347722
isolation and preliminary characterization of twenty bacteriophages infecting either brevibacterium or arthrobacter strains.thirty-seven bacteriophages plaquing on corynebacterium, brevibacterium, or arthrobacter strains were isolated from soil or vegetation samples. restriction analysis of phage dna indicated that 20 phages were unique; one of them produced entirely turbid plaques on brevibacterium ketoglutamicum and was characterized as temperate. all these phages were assigned to group b of the classification of bradley (bacteriol. rev. 31:230-314, 1967) and had relatively narrow host ranges.198816347657
isolation and characterization of a mutant of arthrobacter sp. strain glp-1 which utilizes the herbicide glyphosate as its sole source of phosphorus and nitrogen.arthrobacter sp. strain glp-1, grown on glucose as a carbon source, utilizes the herbicide glyphosate [n-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] as its sole source of phosphorus as well as its sole source of nitrogen. the mutant strain glp-1/nit-1 utilizes glyphosate as its sole source of nitrogen as well. in strain glp-1, p(i) was a potent competitive inhibitor of glyphosate uptake (k(i), 24 mum), while the affinity of p(i) for the uptake system of strain glp-1/nit-1 was reduced by 2 orders of magnitude (k(i ...198816347784
oxidative pathway from squalene to geranylacetone in arthrobacter sp. strain y-11.the reaction pathway from squalene to trans-geranylacetone in arthrobacter sp. strain y-11 was studied. the enzyme or enzymes catalyzing squalene degradation were found to be membrane bound. stoichiometric analysis of a cell-free system revealed that the ratio of squalene to trans-geranylacetone changed from 1:2 to 1:1 as the reaction proceeded, indicating two steps in geranylacetone formation. the initial step was found to be oxygenase catalyzed, from the absolute requirement for molecular oxyg ...198816347551
characterization of 15 selected coccal bacteria isolated from antarctic rock and soil samples from the mcmurdo-dry valleys (south-victoria land).approximately 1500 cultures of microorganisms were isolated from rocks and soils of the ross desert (mcmurdo-dry valleys). from these, 15 coccoid strains were chosen for more detailed investigation. they were characterized by morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomical properties. all isolates were gram-positive, catalase-positive and nonmotile. six strains showed red pigmentation and could be identified as members of the genera micrococcus (m. roseus, m. agilis) or deinococcus. in sp ...198811538335
molecular cloning of the penicillin g acylase gene from arthrobacter viscosus.penicillin g acylase was purified from the cultured filtrate of arthrobacter viscosus 8895gu and was found to consist of two distinct subunits with apparent molecular weights of 24,000 (alpha) and 60,000 (beta). the partial n-terminal amino acid sequences of the alpha and beta subunits were determined with a protein gas phase sequencer, and a 29-base oligonucleotide corresponding to the partial amino acid sequence of the alpha subunit was synthesized. an escherichia coli transformant having the ...19883214149
[the structure of extracellular polysaccharide of arthrobacter globiformis].an extracellular polysaccharide from arthrobacter globiformis is composed of n-acetyl-d-glucosamine, n-acetyl-d-fucosamine, 2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-d-mannuronic acid and o-acetyl groups in the ratio 1:1:2:1. on the basis of solvolysis with anhydrous hydrogen fluoride, which resulted in a tetrasaccharide fragment, and analysis by 1h and 13nmr spectroscopy, it was concluded that the polysaccharide has the following structure: (formula; see text).19883219122
arthrobacter viscosus dna is modified at gatc sequence.arthrobacter viscosus dna was resistance to digestion by restriction enzymes that are sensitive to methylation of the cytosine residue (but not of adenine) within the gatc recognition sequence. restriction enzymes sensitive to methylation of cytosine in other recognition sequences were not affected. a. viscosus dna thus appeared to contain methylated cytosine specifically at the gatc sequence.19882844183
enzymatic dehalogenation of 4-chlorobenzoate by extracts from arthrobacter sp. su dsm 20407.in extracts from arthrobacter sp. su dsm 20407 an enzyme was detectable, that converted 4-chlorobenzoate into 4-hydroxybenzoate. this conversion was also observed when no oxygen was present in the reaction mixture. boiling for 5 min destroyed the enzyme activity. 4-bromo- and 4-iodobenzoate were substrates for the enzyme too, but not 4-fluorobenzoate, 4-chlorophenylacetate and 4-chlorocinnamic acid. the enzyme showed optimum activity at 16 degrees c and at ph 7-7.5. the specific activity in the ...19883223988
a host-vector system for an arthrobacter species.an efficient host-vector system has been developed for an industrial strain of arthrobacter sp. (nrrl b3728)used for glucose isomerase production. protoplasts of arthrobacter were generated by treating the cells with 0.5 mg lysozyme ml(-1) for 60 min in a solution containing 0.5 m-sucrose. around 30% of the protoplasts regenerated on agar containing 0.5 m-sodium succinate as osmotic stabilizer. three hybrid vectors, pbl2100, pcg1100 and pcg2100, were constructed by combining the escherichia coli ...19882846755
interaction of n-acetyl-4-epi-d-neuraminic acid with key enzymes of sialic acid metabolism.in spite of the axially orientated hydroxy group at c-4, the benzyl alpha-glycoside of n-acetyl-4-epi-d-neuraminic acid (4-epi-neuac) is a substrate for sialidases from vibrio cholerae, clostridium perfringens, and arthrobacter ureafaciens, although to an extent which differs depending on the enzyme. surprisingly, v. cholerae sialidase is by far the slowest acting enzyme; this is in contrast to its usual behavior. fowl plague virus sialidase and bovine testis sialidase also cleave this glycoside ...19883166979
structure of a ganglioside with cad blood group antigen activity.the cad antigen is a rare erythrocyte blood group antigen expressed on both sialoglycoprotein and ganglioside structures. it is related both serologically and biochemically to the sda blood group antigen expressed on over 90% of caucasian erythrocytes. we reported previously that cad erythrocytes contain a novel ganglioside that binds helix pomatia lectin and inhibits human anti-sda antibody. we have now purified the cad ganglioside and determined its structure. the ganglioside contained glc-gal ...19883167001
nucleotide sequences of 5s ribosomal rnas of arthrobacter oxydans, arthrobacter polychromogenes, arthrobacter globiformis and 'brevibacterium helvolum'. 19882457874
[combined immobilized cultures producing fibrinolytic proteinases].the authors obtained combined immobilised systems composed of a culture producing fibrinolytic proteinases and a stimulating strain. the optimal ratio between the two cultures in gel was selected at a high starting cell density. highly stable immobilised cultures were produced by growing the cells in gel particles. the interrelationship of the partners was studied in the binary immobilised culture. the biosynthetic activity of the system fell down to the level of a monoculture when the cells of ...19882977814
the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system in gram-positive bacteria: properties, mechanism, and regulation.this review consists of three major sections. the first and largest section reviews the protein constituents and known properties of the phosphotransferase systems present in well-studied gram-positive bacteria. these bacteria include species of the following genera: (1) staphylococcus, (2) streptococcus, (3) bacillus, (4) lactobacillus, (5) clostridium, (6) arthrobacter, and (7) brochothrix. the properties of the different systems are compared. the second major section deals with the regulation ...19883060316
are 'light-derepressible' genes controlled by metal-protein complexes? 19883072697
neuraminidase induces capacitation and acrosome reaction in mammalian spermatozoa.the treatment of epididymal spermatozoa of guinea pig and ejaculated spermatozoa of rabbit with neuraminidase from arthrobacter ureafaciens induced significant acrosome reaction while the neuraminidase from cl. perfringens failed to do so. the addition of the neuraminidase inhibitors kept the enzyme induced acrosome reaction to the control level. the zona-free hamster ova test showed that the treatment of spermatozoa with arthrobacter neuraminidase rendered 82% of the guinea pig and 69% of the r ...19883351441
semisynthetic preparation of n-glycolylneuraminic acid containing gm1 ganglioside: chemical characterization, physico-chemical properties and some biochemical features.n-glycolylneuraminic acid containing gm1, gm1(neugc), was prepared by semisynthetic procedure. the procedure makes use of gm1 ganglioside deacetylated at the level of sialic acid residue (deac-gm1) and of 1,3-dioxalan-2,4-dione. deac-gm1 is prepared from gm1 by alkaline hydrolysis in the presence of tetramethylammonium hydroxide and the glycolylating compound by reaction of glycolic acid with phosgene in dioxane, followed by cyclization under vacuum. mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic reson ...19883370722
iron acquisition by haemophilus influenzae.the mechanisms for acquisition of iron by haemophilus influenzae and their role in pathogenesis are not known. heme and nonheme sources of iron were evaluated for their effect on growth of type b and nontypable strains of h. influenzae in an iron-restricted, defined medium. all 13 strains acquired iron from heme, hemoglobin, hemoglobin-haptoglobin, and heme-hemopexin. among nonheme sources of protein-bound iron, growth of h. influenzae was enhanced by partially saturated human transferrin but no ...19882964410
asni: a novel class ii restriction endonuclease from arthrobacter sp., strain n-cm, recognizing 5'-at/taat-3'.a new class ii restriction endonuclease, asni, with a novel sequence specificity was isolated from the gram-positive eubacterium arthrobacter species, strain n-cm. asni recognizes the unambiguously defined palindromic hexanucleotide (formula: see text) consisting of a- and t-residues. the novel enzyme in the presence of mg2+ cleaves specifically both strands as indicated by the arrows. the staggered cuts generate 5'-protruding ends with single-stranded 5'-ta-3' dinucleotide extensions. the novel ...19882841156
[identification of the causative agent of allergic alveolitis in a selected group of patients by using microbiological and immunological methods]. 19883043388
siderophore production by salmonella typhi.this study was initiated to determine the mechanism of iron-uptake in salmonella typhi. when stressed for iron, microorganisms produce siderophores to obtain the necessary nutrient. generally two types of siderophores exist: the phenolate-type predominantly produced by bacteria and the hydroxamate-type commonly secreted by fungi. results of this investigation showed that s. typhi produced siderophores of the phenolate-type since culture supernatant of the organism grown under iron-deprivation su ...19882962581
glycosaminoglycans in cortical autopsy samples from alzheimer brain.each of the known classes of mammalian glycosaminoglycans, with the exception of keratan sulphate, was found in cerebral cortex samples from patients with alzheimer-type dementia and age-matched controls. these molecules were quantitated, after electrophoresis and staining with alcian blue dye, by scanning densitometry. no significant differences were found between the mean levels of each of the above glycosaminoglycans in frontal cortex from patients with dementia compared with controls. an inc ...19883139840
cometabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls: enhanced transformation of aroclor 1254 by growing bacterial cells.acinetobacter sp. strain p6 and a soil isolate, arthrobacter sp. strain b1b, were tested for their ability to transform aroclor 1254 as washed resting cells and as growing cells with biphenyl as the substrate. growing cells were far superior to resting-cell suspensions in terms of total polychlorinated biphenyl (pcb) transformation, transformation of specific pcb congeners, and diversity of congeners that were attacked. growing cells of acinetobacter sp. strain p6 and arthrobacter sp. strain b1b ...19883140725
metabolic products of microorganisms. 249. tetracenomycins b3 and d3, key intermediates of the elloramycin and tetracenomycin c biosynthesis.tetracenomycins b3 and d3, besides tetracenomycin d (d1), were produced by a blocked mutant of the elloramycin producer streptomyces olivaceus tu 2353. the compounds were isolated as red powders, and their structures were elucidated by comparing their physicochemical data with those of the known tetracenomycins a2, b1, b2, d and e. tetracenomycin b3 (2), the main compound, and tetracenomycin d (3) were antibiotically inactive against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, whereas tetracenomyc ...19883170342
oxidative side-chain and ring fission of pregnanes by arthrobacter simplex.metabolic processes involving side-chain and ring cleavage of progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 11-deoxycortisol and 16-dehydropregnenolone by arthrobacter simplex were studied. the formation of the metabolites from progesterone indicates a pathway somewhat different from normal in the enzymic reaction sequence, and the 17-hydroxyprogesterone metabolites reveal a non-enzymic rearrangement step. the presence of a hydroxy group at c-21, as in 11-deoxycortisol, induces reduction of the c-20 car ...19883214423
stereochemical studies of d-glucal hydration by alpha-glucosidases and exo-alpha-glucanases: indications of plastic and conserved phases in catalysis by glycosylases.alpha-glucosidases from aspergillus niger, pig serum, ungerminated rice, buckwheat, and sugar beet seeds (but not from brewers' yeast or honeybee) were found to catalyze the hydration of d-glucal. each reactive alpha-glucosidase, incubated with d-glucal in d2o, was shown to protonate (deuteriate) this prochiral substrate from above its re face, i.e., from a direction opposite that assumed for protonating alpha-d-glucosidic substrates. at the same time, d-glucal hydration catalyzed by three of th ...19883284583
three dehalogenases and physiological restraints in the biodegradation of haloalkanes by arthrobacter sp. strain ha1.arthrobacter sp. strain ha1 utilizes 18 c2-to-c8 1-haloalkanes for growth and synthesizes an inducible 1-bromoalkane debrominase of unknown physiological function (r. scholtz, t. leisinger, f. suter, and a.m. cook, j. bacteriol. 169:5016-5021, 1987) in addition to an inducible 1-chlorohexane halidohydrolase which dehalogenates some 50 substrates, including alpha, omega-dihaloalkanes. alpha, omega-dihaloalkanes were utilized by cultures of strain ha1 under certain conditions only. c9 and c8 homol ...19883223767
synthetic ferrichrome analogues with growth promotion activity for arthrobacter flavescens.two families of trihydroxamic acid analogues of ferrichrome were chemically synthesized and tested for biological activity with arthrobacter flavescens. compounds using a tertiary amine as anchor showed little activity. several compounds using tetrahedral carbon as anchor showed activity approaching or equalling that of the natural siderophore, ferrichrome. the biological activity is discussed in relation to physical and chemical properties of the analogues.19883196346
dna probes with different specificities from a cloned 23s rrna gene of micrococcus luteus.a 7500 bp psti restriction fragment of chromosomal dna from micrococcus luteus containing a 23s rrna gene was cloned in vector phe3 in e. coli rr 28 (the recombinant plasmid was designated par1). a recombinant phage (par5) hybridizing to all eubacteria tested was constructed by shotgun subcloning of the psti fragment in phage m13mp8. further subcloning of the fragments of the 23s rrna gene in the vectors ptz18r and ptz19r using selected restriction sites of the gene enabled us to select cloned f ...19882462009
use of polyethylene glycol-modified uricase (peg-uricase) to treat hyperuricemia in a patient with non-hodgkin lymphoma.modification by covalent attachment of monomethoxypolyethylene glycol (peg) can reduce the immunogenicity and prolong the circulating life of injected enzymes, making their use as therapeutic agents feasible. we report the first clinical use of peg-modified arthrobacter protoformiae uricase (peg-uricase) to treat hyperuricemia in a patient with non-hodgkin lymphoma and renal insufficiency who was allergic to allopurinol. two intramuscular injections totaling 3 u/kg body weight during the first 3 ...19883289428
novel mechanisms of resistance to lincosamides in staphylococcus and arthrobacter spp.clinical isolates of staphylococcus and arthrobacter spp. were screened for lincosamide resistance. six different patterns of resistance were found. strains designated sf27 and sf28 showed low-level resistance to lincosamides: one was susceptible to erythromycin (sf27) and the other was resistant (sf28). analysis of ribosomes from the resistant strains in an in vitro poly(u)-dependent protein-synthesizing system showed that ribosomes of both strains were sensitive to lincomycin and clindamycin. ...19883377455
human and bovine coronaviruses recognize sialic acid-containing receptors similar to those of influenza c viruses.human coronavirus oc43 and bovine coronavirus elute from agglutinated chicken erythrocytes when incubated at 37 degrees c, suggesting the presence of a receptor-destroying enzyme. moreover, bovine coronavirus exhibits an acetylesterase activity in vitro using bovine submaxillary mucin as substrate similar to the enzymatic activity found in influenza c viruses. furthermore, pretreatment of erythrocytes with either influenza c virus or bovine coronavirus eliminates subsequent binding and agglutina ...19883380803
induction of a light-inducible gene in arthrobacter sp. by exposure of cells to chelating agents and ph 5.transcription of a light-inducible gene in the prokaryote arthrobacter sp. is induced in the dark when cells are incubated with chelating agents or in medium at ph 5. however, repletion of metal ions such as ca2+, mn2+ or zn2+ or an increase in ph is required for accumulation of the gene product, an mr 21,000 polypeptide. but such changes in condition restore repression of the gene, and the decay in the rate of synthesis of the polypeptide follows the same time-course as when photodynamically in ...19883382667
degradation of 3-aminophenol by arthrobacter spec. ma3.the bacterial strain ma3 capable of utilizing 3-aminophenol as the sole source of carbon, energy and nitrogen for growth was isolated from an enrichment culture and identified as an arthrobacter species. utilization of 0.68 mg/ml 3-aminophenol by batch cultures of this organism was characterized by a specific growth rate (mu) of 0.18 h-1 and a yield coefficient (y) of 0.60. in chemostat cultures of strain ma3 we determined a critical dilution rate (dc) of 0.175 h-1 by continuous addition of mine ...19883236220
the sulfated polysaccharide-peptidoglycan complex potently inhibits embryonic angiogenesis and tumor growth in the presence of cortisone acetate.in combination with cortisone acteate, the sulfated polysaccharide (sp)-peptidoglycan (pg) complex produced by an arthrobacter species was found to inhibit both embryonic angiogenesis of chick chorioallantoic membrane (cam) and growth of solid sarcoma 180 tumor in mice. three fractions obtained from the sp-pg complex by gel filtration showed a great difference in the inhibitory effect on angiogenesis of the cam, whereas in ex vivo study such a difference was reduced. of the three fractions, sp-p ...19882463087
expression of the arthrobacter viscosus penicillin g acylase gene in escherichia coli and bacillus subtilis.the penicillin g acylase gene cloned from arthrobacter viscosus 8895gu was subcloned into vectors, and the recombinant plasmids were transferred into escherichia coli or bacillus subtilis. both e. coli and b. subtilis transformants expressed the a. viscosus penicillin g acylase. the enzyme activity was found in the intracellular portion of the e. coli transformants or in the cultured medium of the b. subtilis transformants. penicillin g acylase production in the b. subtilis transformants was 7.2 ...19892504107
comparison of human, simian, and bovine rotaviruses for requirement of sialic acid in hemagglutination and cell adsorption.human rotaviruses (wa, kun, mo) showed hemagglutination (ha) only with fixed 1-day-old chicken erythrocytes, and their ha activities were completely destroyed by trypsin activation of virions. simian sa-11 and bovine ncdv had ha activities not only against fixed erythrocytes but also against fresh erythrocytes from various species. their ha activities against fixed erythrocytes were also inhibited by trypsin activation, but those against fresh erythrocytes were not. neuraminidase treatment of fi ...19892549710
structural analysis of phospho-d-mannan-protein complexes isolated from yeast and mold form cells of candida albicans nih a-207 serotype a strain.the immunochemical properties between phospho-d-mannan-protein complexes of yeast (y) and mycelial (m) forms of candida albicans nih a-207 (serotype a) strain were compared. hydrolysis of the y-form complex gave a mixture of beta-(1----2)-linked d-mannooligosaccharides consisting mainly of tri- and tetra-ose, whereas the m-form complex gave preponderantly d-mannose. the antiserum against y-form cells exhibited a lower reactivity with the m-form than with the y-form complex, whereas the antiserum ...19892663154
assay for sialidase using erythrocytes and peroxidase-labeled peanut lectin.a rapid and sensitive sialidase assay method based on peroxidase-labeled peanut lectin (pna) binding to desialylated erythrocyte is described. formalinized sheep erythrocytes were used both as a stable substrate for sialidase and as a target for the lectin. in the case of sialidases from vibrio cholerae and arthrobacter ureafaciens, a linear relationship was observed between the amount of peroxidase-labeled pna bound to erythrocytes and the enzyme amount. binding of the lectin to sialidase-treat ...19892688936
crystallisation and preliminary analysis of glucose isomerase from streptomyces albus.the glucose isomerase of streptomyces albus has been crystallised from a dilute solution of magnesium chloride buffered at a ph of 6.8-7.0. the crystals are in the space group i222 with cell dimensions a = 93.9 a, b = 99.5 a and c = 102.9 a. there is one monomer of the tetrameric molecule per asymmetric unit of the crystal and the packing density is 2.93 a3.da-1. the tetramer sits on the 222 symmetry point of the crystal. native data have been recorded to a resolution of 1.9 a and the crystals d ...19892651156
biodegradation of crude oils.petroleum from well sites in the gifhorn trough (lower saxony, nw-germany) and the maracaibo basin (venezuela) contained various types of microorganisms capable of degrading crude oils. genetically related oils were inoculated with the isolated microorganisms and the degradation of the oils was followed by chromatographic techniques. parameters important for the reactions (ph, supply of oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus, reaction medium) were monitored and optimized. the degradation of n-alkanes w ...19892727641
antitumor effects of an antiangiogenic polysaccharide from an arthrobacter species with or without a steroid.a sulfated polysaccharide-peptidoglycan complex, ds-4152, isolated from the culture supernatant of an arthrobacter species inhibited angiogenesis and tumor growth and enhanced the antiangiogenic activity of 11 steroid hormones by 2 to 100 times. in the presence of cortisone acetate or tetrahydro s, ds-4152 suppressed chick chorioallantoic membrane angiogenesis and murine tumor m5076 cell-induced s.c. angiogenesis. the antitumor effects of ds-4152 administered in combination with a steroid whose ...19892479471
homology and distribution of co dehydrogenase structural genes in carboxydotrophic bacteria.the 17 (s), 30 (m) and 87 kda (l) subunits of co dehydrogenases from the co-oxidizing bacteria pseudomonas carboxydoflava, pseudomonas carboxydohydrogena and pseudomonas carboxydovorans om5 were isolated and purified. the n-terminal sequences of same subunits from different bacteria showed distinct homologies. dot blot hybridization employing oligonucleotide probes derived from the sequences of the s-subunit of p. carboxydovorans om5 and the m-subunit of p. carboxydohydrogena and dna of the plas ...19892818128
binding of fad to 6-hydroxy-d-nicotine oxidase apoenzyme prevents degradation of the holoenzyme.expression of the 6-hydroxy-d-nicotine oxidase (6-hdno) gene from arthrobacter oxidans cloned into escherichia coli showed a marked temperature-dependence. transformed e. coli cells grown at 30 degrees c exhibited a several-fold higher 6-hdno activity than did cells grown at 37 degrees c. this effect did not depend on the promoter used for expression of the cloned gene in e. coli, nor was it an effect of 6-hdno mrna instability at 37 degrees c. studies performed in vivo and in vitro revealed tha ...19892649085
nitrogen metabolism in the facultative methylotroph arthrobacter p1 grown with various amines or ammonia as nitrogen sources.the metabolism of trimethylamine (tma) and dimethylamine (dma) in arthrobacter p1 involved the enzymes tma monooxygenase and trimethylamine-n-oxide (tma-no) demethylase, and dma monooxygenase, respectively. the methylamine and formaldehyde produced were further metabolized via a primary amine oxidase and the ribulose monophosphate (rump) cycle. the amine oxidase showed activity with various aliphatic primary amines and benzylamine. the organism was able to use methylamine, ethylamine and propyla ...19892589850
13c, 15n, and 31p nmr studies on 6-hydroxy-l-nicotine oxidase from arthrobacter oxidans.the interaction between the apoprotein of 6-hydroxy-l-nicotine oxidase from arthrobacter oxidans and the prosthetic group fad has been investigated by 13c, 15n, and 31p nmr techniques. the fad prosthetic group was selectively enriched in 13c and 15n isotopes by adding isotopically labeled riboflavin derivatives to the growth medium of riboflavin-requiring mutant cells. in the oxidized state the chemical shift of the c(7) and c(8) atoms indicates that the xylene moiety of the isoalloxazine ring i ...19892540800
[hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties of microorganisms under various culturing conditions].the index of hydrophobicity and the hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties of seven microbial cultures were determined by studying their adhesion to n-hexadecane. the index of hydrophobicity was shown to be a stable characteristic of a culture grown in media with different carbon sources. as was found for escherichia coli k-12 and acinetobacter calcoaceticus k-9 whose hydrophobicity indicates were quite different, the character of cell hydration was virtually independent of the growth phase and did ...19892511395
purification and properties of neuraminidase isozymes in arthrobacter ureafaciens mutant.an arthrobacter ureafaciens mutant (m1057) capable of producing neuraminidase constitutively was isolated by ntg mutagenesis from a. ureafaciens kms 3663. four molecular species (l, m1, m2, and s) of neuraminidase isozymes were homogeneously purified from the mutant and parent strains by means of deae-cellulose, affinity chromatography, ammonium sulfate precipitation, chromatofocusing, and ultrogel aca44 gel filtration. the molecular weights of l, m1, m2, and s isozymes were shown to be approxim ...19892628425
two structural types of mercury reductases and possible ways of their evolution.structural differences have been revealed among mercury reductases of immunologically unrelated types from gram-positive bacteria: enzymes of one immunological type have a molecular mass of 62-69 kda and seem to contain an n-terminal extension of 5-15 kda, which is easily cleaved by trypsin and chymotrypsin; enzymes of the other immunological type have a molecular mass of 52-57 kda and are resistant to proteolysis. the existence of at least two different lines in the evolution of mercury reducta ...19892714439
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