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enzymatic properties of neuraminidases from arthrobacter ureafaciens.neuraminidase i and neuraminidase ii from arthrobacter ureafaciens were characterized. as determined by gel filtration on ultrogel aca 44, the molecular weights of neuraminidases i and ii were 51,000 and 39,000, respectively. neuraminidases i and ii were similar to each other in their enzymatic properties except for the substrate specificities towards gangliosides and erythrocyte stroma. their optimal phs were between 5.0 and 5.5 with n-acetylneuraminosyl-lactose or bovine submaxillary mucin as ...197942648
exocellular, microbial polysaccharides. 1979380276
rate of drying and the survival of microorganisms.the survival rate of cells of the genera arthrobacter, pseudomonas, mycobacterium, escherichia, micrococcus and saccharomyces when counted immediately after fast or slow drying (20 minutes and 24 hours, respectively) was rather similar. however, after prolonged periods of dry storage, the number of viable cells after slow drying was much higher as compared with the rapidly dried cells. investigations with escherichia coli demonstrated this phenomenon only when more than about 8 mg of water per 1 ...1979386942
degradation of even-numbered reduced and non-reduced hyaluronate oligosaccharides with d-glucuronic acid or n-acetyl-d-glucosamine as non-reducing terminal by chondroitin abc and ac lyases.chondroitin abc and ac lyases split hexosaminidic linkages in galactosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid. even-numbered oligosaccharides from hyaluronic acid with either d-glucuronic acid or n-acetylglucosamine in non-reducing position were used, prior to and after reduction with sodium borohydride, as substrates for chondroitin abc and ac lyases. these substrates allowed elucidation of the effects of the nearest neighborhood of the bond to be split on the action of the enzymes. the results indica ...1979387569
chitin structures of the cell walls of synchronously grown virgin cells of saccharomyces cerevisiae.the ability of a lytic beta-glucanase of arthrobacter gjm-1 to dissolve cell walls of saccharomyces cerevisiae with exception of the chitin-containing fraction was employed for the isolation of chitin-rich residues of the cell walls of synchronously growing populations of virgin cells. electron microscopical examination of such wall residues isolated from cells at various stages of the budding cycle showed that the first phase of chitin deposition in the wall corresponds to the formation of an a ...1979396723
physiological responses of bacteria to cytochalasin a: effects on growth, transport, and enzyme induction.cytochalasin a at 5 to 25 microgram/ml (1.0 x 10(-5) to 5.2 x 10(-5) m) inhibited the growth of three gram-positive bacteria, arthrobacter sialophilus, staphyloccus aureus, and bacillus amyloliquifaciens, but had little or no effect on the growth of three gram-negative bacteria, excherichia coli, pseudomonas maltophilia, and aeromonas proteolytica. a. sialophilus and s. aureus recovered spontaneously from cytochalasin a-mediated growth inhibition after a considerable lag period, which was depend ...1979422516
evidence for selective sulfhydryl reactivity in cytochalasin a--mediated bacterial inhibitions. 1979435298
covalently bound flavin as prosthetic group of choline oxidase. 1979435313
[hydrocarbon-oxidizing microflora of uncontaminated seawater].the distribution of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microflora in noncontaminated sea waters was studied in the northern region of the pacific ocean in the vicinity of the copper island. the total number of microorganisms was assayed as well as the number of heterotrophic, oligocarbophilic and hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms. oligocarbophilic bacteria were the most abundant group (from 120 to 24,000 cells per 1 ml), and predominated in 12 stations among 23. the number of heterotrophic organisms was n ...1979440168
dna-dna homology studies among strains of arthrobacter and brevibacterium.sixteen named strains of arthrobacter and two strains of brevibacterium were investigated by nucleic acid hybridisation. the arthrobacter strains show homology values ranging between 11 and 55% to the type strain a. globiformis dsm 20124 (atcc 8010), indicating only a low to moderate relationship. two strains of a. globiformis, dsm 20124 and dsm 20125, exhibit only poor relationship to one another (30%). among all the arthrobacter strains the homology data range between 10 to 70% demonstrating s ...1979443991
emulsifier of arthrobacter rag-1: determination of emulsifier-bound fatty acids. 1979446732
emulsifier of arthrobacter rag-1: specificity of hydrocarbon substrate.the purified extracellular emulsifying factor produced by arthrobacter rag-1 (ef-rag) emulsified light petroleum oil, diesel oil, and a variety of crude oils and gas oils. although kerosine and gasoline were emulsified poorly by ef-rag, they were converted into good substrates for emulsification by addition of aromatic compounds, such as 2-methylnaphthalene. neither aromatic nor aliphatic fractions of crude oil were emulsified by ef-rag; however, mixtures containing both fractions were emulsifie ...1979453821
emulsifier of arthrobacter rag-1: chemical and physical properties.the extracellular emulsifier of arthrobacter rag-1 was deproteinized by hot phenol treatment and purified by fractional precipitation with (nh(4))(2)so(4). the active fraction, precipitating between 30 and 35% saturation [ef-rag(uet) wa], appeared to be homogeneous by immunodiffusion and sedimentation analysis. ef-rag(uet) wa had an intrinsic viscosity of 750 cm(3)/g, a sedimentation constant of 6.06s, a diffusion constant of 5.25 x 10(-8) cm(2) s(-1), and a partial molar volume of 0.712 cm(3) g ...1979453822
plasmid-determined 2-hydroxypyridine utilization by arthrobacter crystallopoietes.arthrobacter crystallopoietes has the ability to utilize 2-hydroxypyridine (2-hp) as a source of carbon and nitrogen and forms a blue extracellular pigment when grown in the presence of 2-hp. ultracentrifugal analyses of pigment producing (pig+) and pigment nonproducing (pig-) strains of a. crystallopoietes revealed the presence of plasmid material in both strains. recovery of plasmid dna from pig+ strains is two or three times greater than from pig- strains. the molecular weight of plasmid dna ...1979455149
induction of the phosphoenolpyruvate: hexose phosphotransferase system associated with relative anaerobiosis in an obligate aerobe.arthrobacter pyridinolis possesses alternative transport systems for d-fructose: a respiration-coupled transport system whereby d-fructose transport occurs with concomitant oxidation of l-malate, and a phosphoenolpyruvate: d-fructose phosphotransferase system. studies of d-fructose uptake by whole cells in the presence and absence of cyanide demonstrate that respiration-coupled transport is used almost exclusively during the first half of logarithmic growth, after which it accounts for only 15-2 ...1979456352
action of arthrobacter ureafaciens sialidase on sialoglycolipid substrates. mode of action and highly specific recognition of the oligosaccharide moiety of ganglioside gm1.a new bacterial sialidase (n-acetylneuraminate glycohydrolase, ec 3.2.1.18) isolated from the culture filtrate of arthrobacter ureafaciens was characterized in detail with respect to its action on sialoglycolipids. strong electrolytes had a reversible inhibitory effect on the action of the enzyme on brain gangliosides in accordance with debye-hückel effect of ionic environment on ionic activity, and resulted in an acidic shift and a broadening of the ph optimum. both ionic and non-ionic detergen ...1979468792
[microbiologic studies of a spodumene deposit].a wide spectrum of heterotrophic and autotrophic microorganisms was detected in the zones of decomposition of spodumene and bed rocks, pegmatites and shales, in the spodumene deposit. the following aerobic microorganisms which did not from spores predominated in the deposit: arthrobacter globiformis, a. pascens, a. simplex, nocardia globerula, pseudomonas fluorescens, ps. putida, ps. testosteronii. the following specific bacterial groups were found: thionic, sulfate reducing, and nitrifying bact ...1979470634
structural homologies in alanine-rich acidic ribosomal proteins from procaryotes and eucaryotes.the amino acid composition and amino-terminal sequence have been determined for the alanine-rich, acidic ribosomal 'a' protein (equivalent to escherichia coli l7/l12) from three procaryotic cell types that live under extreme environmental conditions (arthrobacter glacialis, clostridium pasteurianum, and bacillus stearothermophilus) as well as from wheat germ, a eucaryote source. these data are compared with previously published 'a' protein sequences from other procaryotes and eucaryotes. all the ...1979476516
effect of oxygen on batch and continuous cultures of a nitrogen-fixing arthrobacter sp.growth, acetylene reduction, and respiration rate were studied in batch and continuous cultures of arthrobacter fluorescents at different oxygen partial pressures. the optimum po2 values for growth and acetylene reduction were 0.05 and 0.025 atm, respectively, but microorganisms can tolerate higher po2 values. the growth of cultures provided with combined nitrogen was dependent on oxygen availability, and strict anaerobic conditions did not support growth. acetylene reduction of a population gro ...1979476551
mass-transfer effects on the rate of isomerization of d-glucose into d-fructose, catalyzed by whole-cell immobilized glucose isomerase.the investigated catalyst system consists of immobilized arthrobacter cells containing the enzyme glucose isomerase, which catalyzes the isomerization of glucose into fructose. the internal structure of the catalyst was determined from electrom microscope photographs of replicas of freeze-etched catalyst. on the basis of the photographs a model for the internal structure of the catalyst was proposed. this structure was subsequently used to describe the reaction including mass-transfer effects. i ...1979486717
adenosine triphosphate pool levels and endogenous metabolism in arthrobacter crystallopoietes during growth and starvation.the adenosine triphosphate (atp) content of arthrobacter crystallopoietes was measured during growth, starvation and recovery from starvation. during exponential growth of the cells as spheres in a glucose slats medium, the level of atp per cell remained constant at 8.0 x 10(-10) micrograms/cell. morphogenesis to rodshaped cells and an increased growth rate following addition of casein hydrolysate was accompanied by an almost two-fold increase in the atp level. as division of the rod-shaped cell ...1979518237
adenylate nucleotide levels and energy charge in arthrobacter crystallopoietes during growth and starvation.the adenylate nucleotide concentrations, based on internal water space, were determined in cells of arthrobacter crystallopoietes during growth and starvation and the energy charge of the cells was calculated. the energy charge of spherical cells rose during the first 10 h of growth, then remained nearly constant for as long as 20 h into the stationary phase. the energy charge of rod-shaped cells rose during the first 4 h of growth, then remained constant during subsequent growth and decreased i ...1979518238
enzymic assay for lecithin in amniotic fluid.we describe an enzymic method for determining lecithin in amniotic fluid. phospholipase d from savoy cabbage is used to liberate choline from lecithin, and the liberated choline is oxidized to betaine and hydrogen peroxide by choline oxidase from arthrobacter globiformis. the hydrogen peroxide forms a colored complex with phenol and 4-aminoantipyrene in the presence of horseradish peroxidase, and this color is measured spectrophotometrically. the method is relatively easy, precise, and accurate, ...1979761344
nature of transformation of hydrocortisone by cells incorporated into polyacrylamide gel.the ability of mycobacterium globiforme 193 cells immobilized in polyacrylamide gel (paag) to transform soluble and microcrystalline hydrocortisone was investigated under conditions to periodic aeration. it was found that the specific 3-oxosteroid-delta'-dehydrogenase activity of immobilized cells hardly differs from that of free cells and averages 0.06 mumole/mg cells . min; the quantitative and qualitative composition of the transformation products formed by free and immobilized cells was iden ...1979297469
attachment to autoclaved soil of bacterial cells from pure cultures of soil isolates.pure cultures of arthrobacter globiformis and four fresh soil isolates were incubated individually in autoclaved soil, in both the presence and absence of glucose. these bacteria grew in the soil and, except for a. globiformis, eventually attached firmly to the soil solids. firmly attached cells were defined as those which could not be separated from the soil solids by blending combined with a series of low-speed centrifugal washings. the attachment attained by the soil isolates appeared to dupl ...197916345373
elution and inactivation of bacteriophages on soil and cation-exchange resin.a variety of elution schemes was tested to determine the most effective procedure for eluting arthrobacter bacteriophages from soil. a buffer solution of ph 8.0 was found to be the most satisfactory eluent. bacteriophages were adsorbed to cation-exchange sites on soils, clays, and dowex-50 resin and eluted. eluted bacteriophages were detected by passive hemagglutination and plaque assay. although bacteriophage antigen was successfully eluted, most recovered bacteriophages were noninfective. inac ...197916345416
preparation of gdp-d-mannose specifically labeled with tritium in the d-mannosyl moiety. 19806158275
the synthesis of cytokinin-like substances by coryneform bacteria isolated from the roots of pine seedlings (pinus silvestris l.).seven of ten strains studied produced cytokinin-like substances, mainly in 7 day old cultures. the cytokinin-like substances were most often located on chromatograms at rf values 0.8 to 0.9, rarely at rf 0.6 to 0.7.19806158833
synthesis of macromolecules in synchronously grown arthrobacter.the synchronous growth of arthrobacter has not yet been studied. we have shown that synchrony of a. crystallopoietes and a. globiformis cultures can be achieved in a liquid synthetic medium by inoculating a fresh medium with cells taken from an advanced stationary phase culture. dna content measurements and pulsed incorporations of tritiated thymidine have been used to show that dna synthesis occurs in a stepwise manner in these synchronized cultures. the use of absorbance of cultures as a monit ...19806159519
the synthesis of 4-methylumbelliferyl alpha-ketoside of n-acetylneuraminic acid and its use in a fluorometric assay for neuraminidase. 19806243885
[1h-nmr-spectroscopic evidence for the release of n-acetyl-alpha-d-neuraminic acid as the first product of neuraminidase action (author's transl)].the 1h-nmr spectroscopy was used to study the anomeric configuration of n-acetyl-d-neuraminic acid released by the action of neuraminidase. the hydrolysis of neuacalpha 2 leads to 3 gal-beta 1 leads to 4glc (20mm) by the enzymes of clostridium perfringens and arthrobacter ureafaciens (50 mu, 150 mu and 800 mu, respectively) in 50mm na/k-phosphate buffer pd 5.4 was observed by recording the spectra. on the basis of the characteristic signals of the protons at c-3 (alphaneuac: delta[h(3e)] = 2.72, ...19806253376
myceloid growth of arthrobacter globiformis and other arthrobacter species.transitory myceloid growth occurs in certain complex media with arthrobacter globiformis strain atcc 8010. this type of growth, however, was not observed in a medium which contained an array of metal ions but did not contain agents able to complex metal ions. addition of metal-complexing agents to this medium caused an interruption in the life cycle of strain 8010 so that growth occurred only as the myceloid form. it appeared that manganese was the critical metal that was removed by the metal-co ...19806254945
a comparison of the cytochrome complements of seven strains of marine manganese-oxidizing bacteria. 19806259842
[change in the microbiol complexes of soddy podzol soil under the influence of long-term spring wheat monoculture].the special composition and the properties of microorganisms predominant in the soil and in the rhizosphere of summer wheat were studied in the conditions of monoculture and corp rotation. noticeable differences were found in the composition of microbial complexes: microorganisms belonging to the genus arthrobacter prevailed in the conditions of corp rotation, whereas cultures of the genera pseudomonas and bacillus predominated in the conditions of monoculture. many of the latter possessed weak ...19806451787
a critical analysis of kinetic data of 3-hexulosephosphate synthases. michaelis-menten or complex characteristics.investigations of the 3-hexulosephosphate synthase (hps) from different methylotrophic bacteria have revealed apparent discrepancies in kinetic behaviour. in all methanol-utilizing species investigated by us the kinetic characteristics showed intermediary plateau regions. therefore, this behaviour is assumed to be a general feature of the hps from all non-methane-utilizing methylotrophic bacteria. however, this assumption is in contrast to the results of other authors. both for methylomonas m15 ...19806775423
[sulfur and iron cycling bacteria in low-sulfate meromictic lake kuznechikha].the hydrochemical characteristics, the composition of species and the localization of bacterial species involved in oxidation of sulfide and ferrous salts were studied in the meromictic lake kuznechikha with a low sulfate content in summer and in winter. the rate of bacterial sulfate reduction and the rates of bacterial and algal photosynthesis were determined using a radioisotope technique. the meromictic nature of the lake is due to the accumulation of ferrous salts (up to 212 mg/l fe2+) in th ...19806777648
radioimmunoassay of arthrobacter neuraminidase: applications to catalytic and taxonomic studies. 19806779664
[ratio of coryneform bacteria to the organic substance concentration].the effect of various organic substances and their concentrations on growth was studied with 10 strains of coryneform bacteria belonging to different taxonomic groups. the dynamics of the cultural growth depended on the nature of a substrate, glucose or acetate. arthrobacter globiformis 281, a. variabilis 289, nocardia erythropolis 236, n. globerula 502, n. minima 311 and n. rhodochrous 435 had a higher growth rate on acetate than on glucose. a. pascens 284, brevibacterium ammoniagenes 334, cory ...19806782432
[hydrocortisone transformation into prednisolone by microorganisms]. 19807041529
cell wall composition in the classification and identification of coryneform bacteria. 19806792712
a taxonomic study of gardnerella vaginalis (haemophilus vaginalis) gardner and dukes 1955.fifty-five strains received as haemophilus vaginalis or as catalase-negative coryneform bacteria from the vagina together with 61 marker cultures were subjected to numerical phenetic analyses using 149 unit characters. the data were examined using the simple matching (ssm), jaccard (sj) and pattern (dp) coefficients and clustering was achieved using the average linkage algorithm. cluster composition was not markedly affected by the coefficient used or by test error, estimated at 6 . 5%. the h. v ...19806971916
cell-free synthesis of a flavoprotein containing the 8 alpha-(n3-histidyl)-riboflavin linkage.6-hydroxy-d-nicotine oxidase is an inducible flavorprotein of arthrobacter oxidans in which one mole of fad is bound covalently to the polypeptide chain. during cell-free translation of polysomes from nicotine-induced a. oxidans cells in the presence of an escherichia coli (mre 600) supernatant fraction, labelled fad, leucine and histidine were incorporated into 6-hydroxy-d-nicotine oxidase in the same ratio found in the enzyme isolated from whole cells. this indicates that one mole fad is coval ...19806988214
evolutionary relationship between halobacterium cutirubrum and eukaryotes determined by use of aminoacyl-trna synthetases as phylogenetic probes.the cross-species reactivities between trnas and aminoacyl-trna synthetases have been employed as a basis to estimate the relatedness of various prokaryotes to the eukaryotes. the trna of halobacterium cutirubrum, unlike that of other prokaryotes tested, including agrobacterium tumefaciens, arthrobacter luteus, bacillus subtilis, bacillus stearothermophilus, escherichia coli, micrococcus luteus, myxococcus xanthus, rhodopseudomonas spheroides, and thermus aquaticus, was found to share with yeast ...19806989454
[superoxide dismutase--radiobiologic significance and possibilities (review)].modern data are considered on the importance of superoxide radical in the oxygen effect of ionizing radiation as well as the participation of superoxide dismutase in biological radioresistance. biological role and some physico-chemical properties of the enzyme are described. estimation of the superoxide dismutase activity might serve as a test for study of the primary effect of ionizing radiation on cells; at the same time, the enzymatic preparations could be used as radioprotective drugs.19807006203
[isolation and characterization of microorganisms with mannanase activity].twenty-three strains of soil microorganisms synthetizing extracellular mannanase were isolated on the medium containing baker's yeast mannan as the sole carbon source. ten most active strains were identified with respect to their genera. these microorganisms proved capable to hydrolyze mannans, whose mannopyranose units were bound by alpha-1,2-and alpha-1,6-bonds. in addition, 5 of these strains were able to hydrolyze mannans whose mannose residues were bound by alpha-1,3-bond, and 2 strains cou ...19807220513
[arthrobacter simplex var. amylolyticus var. nov., a producer of a hexaene antibiotic in the fradicin-mycelin group]. 19807356309
malonichrome, a new iron chelate from fusarium roseum.the predominant iron chelates, or siderochromes, produced by the fungus, fusarium roseum during culture periods up to seven days are the ester type fusarinine compounds. during longer periods of incubation, the fusarinine compounds completely disappear from the culture medium and are replaced by a new siderochrome. the new compound has been isolated, purified, and its structure determined. it is a cyclic hexapeptide containing one residue of l-alanine, two residues of glycine and three residues ...19807388041
bioconversion of pregnenolone to 1,4 androstadiene 3,17 dione by arthrobacter simplex. 19807390551
[triglycerides of saprophytic mycobacteria].triglycerides produced by mycobacteria and arthrobacteria grown in media with hexadecane or glucose were studied by mass spectrometry. in all of the cases, triglycerides were mixtures of homologues. the triglycerides of arthrobacter ceroformans grown in a medium with hexadecane contained 90% of tripalmitate and 10% of a mixed triglyceride comprising two residues of palmitic acid and one residue of palmitoleinic acid. mixed triglycerides containing one unsaturated acyl group prevailed in mycobact ...19807393006
[electrokinetic properties of arthobacter siderocapsulatus].the electro-kinetic properties of arthrobacter siderocapsulatus were determined using microelectrophoresis in alternating electric field. the surface of bacterial cells was shown to bear positive charge within a wide range of ph. the positive charge of the cells should be attributed apparently to the presence of mucous capsules containing manganese dioxide since the growth of the bacterium is known to involve oxidation of manganese or ferrous iron and accumulation of their hydroxides in the caps ...19807402120
degradation of (-)-ephedrine by pseudomonas putida. detection of (-)-ephedrine: nad+-oxidoreductase from arthrobacter globiformis.a bacterium utilizing the alkaloid (-)-ephedrine as its sole source of carbon was isolated by an enrichment-culture technique from soil supplemented with 4-benzoyl-1,3-oxazolidinon-(2). the bacterium was indentified as pseudomonas putida by morphological and physiological studies. the following metabolites were isolated from the culture fluid: methylamine, formaldehyde, methylbenzoylcarbinol (2-hydroxy-1-oxo-1 phenylpropane), benzoid acid, pyrocatechol and cis, cis-muconic acid. a pathway for th ...19807405363
purification, properties and formation of arginine-alpha-ketoglutarate transaminase in arthrobacter simplex.arginine-alpha-ketoglutarate transaminase was purified 460-fold with 1.4% yield from arthrobacter simplex grown on arginine as a carbon source. the preparation was more than 90% pure on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the molecular weight of the enzyme was calculated to be 110 000. the enzyme exhibited absorption maxima at 280, 330 and 370 nm. the 370 nm peak decreased with increase in the 330 nm peak on addition of arginine km values for arginine, alpha-ketoglutarate, glutamate and alph ...19807426667
microbial growth on 2-bromobutane.a member of the genus arthrobacter was isolated which grew at the expense of 2-bromobutane as sole source of carbon and energy. evidence is presented which suggests that the initial conversion of 2-bromobutane to 2-butanol is a spontaneous chemical hydrolysis and not mediated by the organism. further evidence from oxygen consumption experiments indicates that 2-bromobutane is oxidized through 2-butanol, methyl ethyl ketone, ethyl acetate to acetate and ethanol. results of experiments with cells ...19807447436
a deficiency of citrate synthase results in constitutive expression of the glyoxylate pathway in arthrobacter pyridinolis.previous studies of arthrobacter pyridinolis indicated that during the first half of the growth cycle on d-fructose, the organism utilizes a respiration-coupled transport system and exhibits glyoxylate pathway activity; during the second half of the growth cycle, a phosphoenolypyruvate:d-fructose phosphotransferase system is used for transport and no glyoxylate pathway activity is found [pelliccione et al. (1979) eur. j. biochem. 95, 69--75]. a citrate-synthase-deficient mutant had the following ...19807460950
arthrobacter p1, a fast growing versatile methylotroph with amine oxidase as a key enzyme in the metabolism of methylated amines.a facultative methylotrophic bacterium was isolated from enrichment cultures containing methylamine as the sole carbon source. it was tentatively identified as an arthrobacter species. extracts of cells grown on methylamine or ethylamine contained high levels of amine oxidase (e.c. 1.4.3) activity. glucose- or choline-grown cells lacked this enzyme. oxidation of primary amines by the enzyme resulted in the formation of h2o2; as a consequence high levels of catalase were present in methylamine- a ...19817224781
[microbial transformation of 16 beta-methyl-5 alpha-delta 9(11)-pregnene-3 beta, 17 alpha, 21-triol-20-one-3 beta, 21-diacetate and 17 alpha-methyl-17 beta-hydroxy-5 alpha-androstan-3-one (author's transl)]. 19817246181
the effect of phytohormones produced by arthrobacter sp. on the phosphatase activity in plant roots.phytohormonal activity (auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins) was tested in the supernatant of a culture of arthrobacter sp. crude extract of the phytohormonal fraction was used as substrate for the growth of lactuca sativa seedlings. treating with bacterial hormones resulted in an increased plant develop- ment. furthermore, a sharp increase of the acid phosphatase activity was observed in the roots.19817262713
bacterial degradation of 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylacetic and 3-ketoglutaric acids.when grown at the expense of 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylacetic acid, a species of arthrobacter readily oxidized 3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxyphenylacetic acid, but other structurally related aromatic acids were oxidized only slowly. cell extracts contained a dioxygenase for 3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxyphenylacetate, and the corresponding trihydroxy acid, which was not attacked by the enzyme, inhibited oxidation of this ring-fission substrate. cell suspensions did not release carbon dioxide from 3,4-[methoxyl-14 ...19817263613
2,3-dehydro-4-epi-n-acetylneuraminic acid; a neuraminidase inhibitor.treatment of n-acetylneuraminic acid methyl ester with sulfuric acid and acetic anhydride at 50 degrees followed by deacetylation gave 2,3-dehydro-2-deoxy-n-acetylneuraminic acid methyl ester and methyl 5-acetamido-2,6-anhydro-2,3,5-trideoxy-d-glycero-d-talo-non-2-enonate (2,3-dehydro-4-epi-neuac methyl ester) in equal yields (approximately 40% each). the structure of the latter was ascertained primarily from analysis of its mass spectrum and 1h- and 13c-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. the r ...19817273035
[3-oxosteroid-delta 1-dehydrogenase localization in mycobacterium rubrum and arthobacter globiformis cells].osmotically susceptible forms were obtained from mycobacterium rubrum and arthrobacter globiformis (mycobacterium globiforme) cells. the activity of 3-oxosteroid-delta 1-dehydrogenase was comparatively estimated in subcellular fractions after differential centrifugation of cell homogenates prepared either mechanically or by lysis of osmotically susceptible forms. the results indicate that the enzyme is located in the cells of the above microorganisms in both the free state (in the fraction of so ...19817311905
the release of n-acetyl- and n-glycolloyl-neuraminic acid from soluble complex carbohydrates and erythrocytes by bacterial, viral and mammalian sialidases.a series of substrates, sialyl(2 leads to 6)galnac and ganglioside gm3, containing either n-acetylneuraminic acid (acneu) or n-glycolloylneuraminic acid (gcneu), has been prepared. the trisaccharide gcneu(2 leads to 3)lactose was preapred by ozonolysis of gcneu-gm3, and the disaccharides acneu(2 leads to 6)galnac and gcneu(2 leads to 6)galnac were isolated from bovine submandibular-gland mucin by alkali elimination. sialidases from newcastle-disease virus, fowl-plague virus, influenza virus a2, ...19817325957
enzymic formation of difructose anhydride iv from bacterial levan.a novel enzyme for producing difructose anhydride iv (di-d-fructofuranose 2,6' : 6,2' dianhydride) from levan of bacillus mesentericus was prepared from a culture of arthrobacter ureafaciens, and the conditions and method to determine the enzymatic activity were determined. levan of bacillus subtilis also yielded the difructose dianhydride, but inulin, inulobiose, sucrose, levanbiose, and levantriose did not produce it on enzymic reaction under similar test conditions.19817338521
[glycomacropeptide from whey: a substrate for determining the activity of bacterial neuraminidases]. 19817345910
a new enzymatic method for the determination of sialic acid in serum and its application for a marker of acute phase reactants. 19817021999
microbial adaptations to stress: some lessons to be learned from aerobes. 19817023462
an efficient technique for the isolation of yeast spores and the preparation of spheroplast lysates active in protein synthesis. 19817032354
influence of methylheptenone and related phytoplankton norcarotenoids on heterotrophic aquatic bacteria.certain norcarotenoids, which have recently been found as excretion products of freshwater cyanobacteria and algae, are potent inhibitors of different metabolic functions in heterotrophic bacteria. 6-methylhept-5-en-2-one showed the strongest effects and acted as a noncompetitive inhibitor of both glucose uptake and respiration by aquatic isolates of chromobacterium lividum and arthrobacter sp. inhibition of the heterotrophic potential of glucose uptake by 6-methylhept-5-en-2-one was characteriz ...19817214229
inhibition of fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans, the causal agent of pine pitch canker, by the soil bacterium arthrobacter sp.a species of arthrobacter was recovered during culture of the causal organism of pitch canker of southern pines. fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans (fms). arthrobacter is a relatively common soil bacterium and is lytic to several fungal pathogens in the soil. soil samples from two seed orchards with pitch canker and one from a healthy pine plantation all yielded arthrobacter. these isolates were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of fms isolates from pitch canker tissue and fr ...19817214230
[bacterial population dynamics in a soil--plant system].the dynamics of rhizobium leguminosarum and arthrobacter crystallopoietes populations introduced into soil at different levels of density was studied in a zone near barley roots. microbial life with a high rate of growth was found only at the root surface. for a. crystallopoietes, the ultimate bacterial incidence at the root surface was found to depend on the original level of population density. for rh. leguminosarum, the ultimate incidence was shown to reach an identical level irrespective of ...19817219211
[utilization of 4-chlorobenzoic acid by arthrobacter globiformis].a strain of arthrobacter globiformis utilizing 4-chlorobenzoic acid as a sole source of carbon and energy was isolated by the method of enrichment cultures from vegetable garden soil near moscow. the yield of released chlorine upon the utilization of 4-chlorobenzoic acid exceeded 96% of the theoretically possible one. biotin stimulated noticeably the utilization of the acid. the concentration of 4-chlorobenzoic acid that apparently did not inhibit the growth of the isolated organism was within t ...19817219218
scope and mechanism of carbohydrase action. stereocomplementary hydrolytic and glucosyl-transferring actions of glucoamylase and glucodextranase with alpha- and beta-d-glucosyl fluoride.rhizopus niveus glucoamylase and arthrobacter globiformis glucodextranase, which catalyze the hydrolysis of starch and dextrans, respectively, to form d-glucose of inverted (beta) configuration, were found to convert both alpha- and beta-d-glucosyl fluoride to beta-d-glucose and hydrogen fluoride. each enzyme directly hydrolyzes alpha-d-glucosyl fluoride but utilizes th beta-anomer in reactions that require 2 molecules of substrate and yield glucosyl transfer products which are then rapidly hydr ...19816787047
isolation and structural characterization of human lymphocyte and neutrophil gangliosides.gangliosides were isolated from purified preparations of human peripheral blood lymphocytes and neutrophils. structural analyses and comparisons were performed by direct probe mass spectrometry and by degradation studies with the following enzymes: escherichia freundii endo-beta-galactosidase; clostridium perfringens and arthrobacter ureafaciens neuraminidase; and jack bean beta-n-acetylhexosaminidase and beta-galactosidase. this combination of techniques allowed us to obtain carbohydrate compos ...19816780555
production and isolation of siderophores from the soil fungus epicoccum purpurascens.a large number of iron transport agents, siderophores, which stimulated the growth of arthrobacter flavescens jg-9, were isolated during a study of the antitumor activity associated with the metabolic products of the fungus epicoccum purpurascens. the production of the siderophores was significantly enhanced in a variety of media by culture of the fungus in the near absence of ferric iron. a novel method of purification involving a carboxylic ion-exchange resin separated the siderophores into fo ...19816453608
siderophore production by pathogenic neisseria spp.previous studies have established the importance of iron acquisition to the growth and virulence of neisseria meningitidis and neisseria gonorrhoeae. although preliminary evidence that the neisseria spp. produce siderophores has been presented, the exact mechanism of iron acquisition has remained obscure. siderophore production by n. gonorrhoeae and n. meningitidis was induced in two different low-iron media. the iron-reactive siderophores, "gonobactin" and "meningobactin," were partially purifi ...19816454659
[dna-methylase from arthrobacter luteus screens dna from the action of site-specific endonuclease alu i].dna-methylase was isolated from a cell extract of a. luteus and partially purified by chromatography on phosphocellulose. the purified enzyme methylates dna of phage lambda and plasmids pbr322, thus making them resistant to a subsequent action of endonuclease alu i. it has been shown that cytosine is the object of methylation within dna. this modification does not screen dna from the action of site-specific endonucleases sal i, bam hi, ecor i, ecor ii, xho i and xho ii. it has been experimentall ...19816268201
[1h-nmr spectroscopy--a potent method for the determination of substrate specificity of sialidases (author's transl)].we describe here the application of 1h-nmr spectroscopy to determine the substrate specificity of sialidases using a 1:1 mixture of neuac alpha 2-3gal beta 1-4glc and neuac alpha 2-6gal beta 1-4glc, one viral and five bacterial sialidases. this method utilizes the separate signals in nmr spectra, characteristic for the different alpha ketosidically linked neuac residues and also for bound and free neuac. the signals generally most suitable for these purposes are those of h3a, h3e and ncoch3. by ...19816273284
effect of microorganisms on the phytotoxicity of herbicides. vi. modification of venzar activity by bacterial cultures.interactions between two bacterial strains and venzar were compared. it was found that the mechanism of interactions is various and causes the modification of herbicide phytotoxicity. metabolites of bacillus subtilis 72 interfered with herbicide by affecting physiological processes in plant tissues and enhancing its inhibitory influence. arthrobacter sp. 18 strain decreased the phytoinhibitory effect of herbicide due to conjugation with the carrier from venzar.19816168180
a phylogenetic analysis of staphylococci, peptococcus saccharolyticus and micrococcus mucilaginosus.the intra- and intergeneric relationships of the genus staphylococcus, and the phylogenetic position of peptococcus saccharolyticus and micrococcus (staphylococcus salivarius), were investigated by comparative oligonucleotide cataloguing of 16s rrna. all the staphylococci investigated form a phylogenetically coherent group at the genus level that, in addition, contains the anaerobic species peptococcus saccharolyticus. the genus staphylococcus belongs to the broad bacillus-lactobacillus-streptoc ...19816172548
isolation of arthrobacter bacteriophage from soil.soil was percolated with water and various nutrient solutions, and then the percolates were analyzed for bacteriophages which produced plaques on various arthrobacter strains. the water percolates did not contain detectable phage. in contrast, phages for a. globiformis strains atcc 8010 and 4336, and for several recent arthrobacter species soil isolates, were easily detected in nutrient broth, soil extract, and cation-complete medium percolates. these percolates did not contain phage that produc ...198116345792
possible role of coryneform bacteria in age gelation of ultrahigh-temperature-processed milk.two strains of psychrotrophic, gram-positive, proteolytic bacteria isolated from raw milk were identified as arthrobacter or closely related coryneform species. we inoculated raw-milk samples with the strains (one strain per sample) and compared rates of gelation after ultrahigh-temperature processing with that of ultrahigh-temperature-processed controls. the trial indicated that either organism could play a role in age gelation of ultrahigh-temperature-processed milk.198216346043
production of surfactant by arthrobacter paraffineus atcc 19558.a. paraffineus atcc 19558 grown in mmsm (modified mineral salts medium) containing hydrocarbon produced surfactant, with a maximum cmc(-1) value obtained by using hexadecane as the carbon source. no activity of surface active agent in whole broth was observed when glucose was used in the mmsm instead of hexadecane. the biomass concentration obtained with glucose was about 40% of that obtained with hexadecane. glucose (4%) in the medium containing hexadecane caused a 27 and 21% decrease of biomas ...198218546108
nucleic acid hybridization studies on microbacterium, curtobacterium, agromyces and related taxa.thirty strains of agromyces, arthrobacter, curtobacterium, brevibacterium, corynebacterium and microbacterium, exhibiting the rare peptidoglycan of group b, were subjected to extensive nucleic acid hybridization studies. the dna homology values indicate that corynebacterium insidiosum dsm 20157 is genetically identical with corynebacterium michiganense dsm 20134. corynebacterium sepedonicum ncppb 378 and corynebacterium nebraskense dsm 20400 are closely related to corynebacterium michiganense ds ...19826183393
production of glutamic acid by an arthrobacter sp. i. identification and nutritional requirement in relation to glutamic acid production. 19826188337
microflora of antarctic krill (euphausia superba). 19826188340
a sulfated polysaccharide produced by an arthrobacter species.a new sulfated polysaccharide was isolated from the culture supernatant of a strain of arthrobacter sp. the polysaccharide purified with quaternary ammonium salts consists of d-galactose, d-glucose, sulfate, phosphorus, glucosamine, muramic acid, alanine, glutamic acid, glycine, and ll-diaminopimelic acid in a molar ratio of 56 : 9.0 : 68 : 6.4 : 2.0 : 1.1 : 2.1 : 1.0 : 1.2 : 1.2. the presence of the two amino sugars and four amino acids suggests that the polysaccharide, which is principally a g ...19826298190
the effect of gyrase inhibitors and cyclic amp on induction and glucose repression of the 6-hydroxy-nicotine oxidases in arthrobacter oxidans.the induction by d,l-nicotine of the enantiozymes 6-hydroxy-l-nicotine oxidase and 6-hydroxy-d-nicotine oxidase in arthrobacter oxidans was differently affected by the inhibitors of escherichia coli gyrase, novobiocin and nalidixic acid. these compounds inhibited 6-hydroxy-l-nicotine oxidase induction slightly, but led to an increase in the level of 6-hydroxy-d-nicotine oxidase activity. furthermore, the specific repression by glucose of 6-hydroxy-d-nicotine oxidase synthesis was not abolished b ...19826303240
purification and characterization of beta-galactoside (alpha 2 leads to 6)sialyltransferase from rat liver and hepatomas.asialofetuin sialyltransferase from triton x-100 extracts of rat liver was resolved by phosphocellulose chromatography into two fractions, designated i and ii in order of elution. when previously treated with arthrobacter ureafaciens neuraminidase, fraction i eluted at about the same position as ii while no alteration occurred in ii. primary rat hepatomas contained only a single asialofetuin sialyltransferase, identical to fraction i in chromatographic behavior. transferases i and ii were purifi ...19826751821
factors determining steric course of enzymic glycosylation reactions: glycosyl transfer products formed from 2,6-anhydro-1-deoxy-d-gluco-hept-1-enitol by alpha-glucosidases and an inverting exo-alpha-glucanase.glycosyl transfer products were formed from 2,6-anhydro-1-deoxy-d-gluco-hept-1-enitol (heptenitol) by purified alpha-glucosidases from candida tropicalis and rice and by an inverting exo-alpha-glucanase (glucodextranase) from arthrobacter globiformis. the products were structurally defined through 1h and 13c nmr (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectra of their crystalline per-o-acetates in comparison with those of authentic methyl 1-deoxy-alpha- and methyl 1-deoxy-beta-d-gluco-heptuloside. 1-deoxy- ...19826758847
[microbiological transformation of hydrocortisone by free and immobilized cells]. 19826763460
[factors increasing exoprotease activity in the associative cultures of coryneform bacteria].specific features of the effect of artrobacter citreus on the biosynthesis of fibrinolytic enzymes of nocardia sp. 1 were investigated during the combined cultivation of both microorganisms. it was demonstrated that an increase in the synthesis of fibrinolytic proteases in the mixed culture of a. citreus and n. species 1 was determined by the compounds containing in the a. citreus supernatant rather than by the nutrient deficiency.19827043443
oxygen tolerance of strictly aerobic hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria.growth of various bacteria, especially aerobic hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria, in the presence of 2 to 100% (v/v) oxygen in the gas atmosphere was evaluated. the bacterial strains included alcaligenes eutrophus, a. paradoxus, aquaspirillum autotrophicum, arthrobacter spec. strain 11 x, escherichia coli, arthrobacter globiformis, nocardia opaca, n. autotrophica, paracoccus denitrificans, pseudomonas facilis, p. putida, and xanthobacter autotrophicus. under heterotrophic conditions with fructose or g ...19827049081
contractile effects of bacterial cell walls, their enzymatic digests, and muramyl dipeptides on ileal strips from guinea pigs.cell walls isolated from four bacterial species (streptococcus pyogenes, lactobacillus plantarum, streptomyces gardneri, and nocardia corynebacteriodes), which exhibited the adjuvant effect of stimulating cellular and humoral immune responses against ovalbumin in guinea pigs, caused the slow-starting and long-lasting contraction of guinea pig ileal strips suspended in tyrode solution. in contrast to these cell walls active in immunoadjuvancy, those isolated from five bacterial species (micrococc ...19827056578
substrate and product specificity of arthrobacter sialophilus neuraminidase.arthrobacter sialophilus neuraminidase catalyzes the hydrolysis of n-acetylneuraminyl-alpha-oxygen, nitrogen, and azido glycosides. the most effective of those substrates examined was n-acetylneuraminyl-alpha-4-methylumbelliferylglycoside (acneu-alpha-4-mu; km app, 0.0193 mm; kcat, 136.4 sec-1). the products resulting from the enzymic hydrolysis of n-acetylneuraminyl-alpha-azido-glycoside were n-acetylneuraminic acid and azide ion. n-acetylneuraminyl-alpha-2,3-thiogalactylglycoside and n-acetyln ...19827068676
metabolism of cyclohexaneacetic acid and cyclohexanebutyric acid by arthrobacter sp. strain ca1.a strain of arthrobacter was isolated by enrichment culture with cyclohexaneacetate as the sole source of carbon and grew with a doubling time of 4.2 h. in addition to growing with cyclohexaneacetate, the organism also grew with cyclohexanebutyrate at concentrations not above 0.05%, and with a variety of alicyclic ketones and alcohols. oxidation of cyclohexaneacetate proceeded through formation of the coenzyme a (coa) ester followed by initiation of a beta-oxidation cycle. beta-oxidation was blo ...19827076617
microbial transformations of warfarin: stereoselective reduction by nocardia corallina and arthrobacter species.the microbiological metabolism of warfarin was examined as a model of metabolism in higher organisms, including humans, and to determine the chirality of microbial reductases for application in organic synthesis. nineteen cultures were examined based on their reported abilities to reduce ketonic substrates, and several were shown to catalyze the desired reaction. nocardia corallina (atcc 19070) exhibited complete substrate and product stereoselectivity as it reduced s-warfarin to the correspondi ...19827081986
a survey of the structures of mycolic acids in corynebacterium and related taxa.acid methanolysates of 104 strains of coryneform and related bacteria were examined for mycolic acids by thin-layer chromatography and mass spectrometry. the mycolic acids of corynebacterium sensu stricto strains were not uniform in size and structure, and considerable variation existed within the approximate limiting range of c22 to c36. two species, corynebacterium bovis and 'corynebacterium mycetoides', were particularly distinctive; the former had exceptionally low molecular weight mycolic a ...19827086391
a preferential isolation procedure for asporogenous gram-positive bacteria.a preferential isolation procedure was devised for asporogenous (asp), gram-positive (gp), aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria which included the genera arthrobacter, corynebacterium, brevibacterium, microbacterium, mycobacterium, and micrococcus (asp-gp bacteria). an antibiotics-mixture agar which contained 5 to 10 micrograms per ml of colistin, 10 to 20 micrograms per ml of nalidixic acid and 30 micrograms per ml of cycloheximide was used in the isolation. using this technique 47 asp-gp ...19827096199
microbiological examination of sebeel water.water samples from clay storage jugs ("zeers") located in homes and at public watering stands ("sebeels") at streets, mosques, and schools were examined. coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci were detected in 100, 69, 88, and 91.56% of the samples, respectively. the general microbiology of the water and some factors affecting microbial load were studied. the predominant bacterial genera of sebeel water were found to be staphylococcus. aerococcus, micrococcus, streptococcus, bacillus ...19827103483
structural requirements for neuraminidase induction in arthrobacter sialophilus.the effectiveness of 13 n-acetylneuraminic acid derivatives as potential inducers of arthrobacter sialophilus neuraminidase were examined. n-acetylneuraminic acid nitrogen and thioglycosides were not inducers, whereas 2,3-dehydro-n-acetylneuraminic acid, a transition state analog for neuraminidases, was the most effective inductive ligand. the c-4 hydroxyl function of n-acetylneuraminic acid was essential for enzyme derepression.19827107565
lack of ultraviolet mutagenesis in radiation-resistant bacteria.ultraviolet (uv) radiation did not induce rifampicin-resistant mutants in populations of the taxonomically-related radiation-resistant bacteria deinococcus radiodurans, d. radiopugnans, d. radiophilus and d. proteolyticus, although such mutants arose spontaneously at a low frequency and at a high frequency after treatment of cultures with n-nitroso compounds. the radiation-resistant bacteria arthrobacter radiotolerans and p-30-a were also uv-immutable whereas the more radiation-sensitive pseudom ...19827110166
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