hypothesis: structures, evolution, and ancestor of glucose kinases in the hexokinase family.glucose kinase, which we tentatively use in this review, represents the enzymes catalyzing the phosphorylation of glucose and other hexoses by means of phosphoryl donors (atp, adp, and inorganic polyphosphate [poly(p)]). except for glucose kinases utilizing adp, all other glucose kinases belong to the hexokinase (hk) family and are classified into three groups based on primary structural information, i.e., groups hk, a, and b. the structural and evolutionary relationships of glucose kinases belo ...200516233797
[patterns of formation of microbial communities of alluvial soils in the selenga estuary].microbial communities of alluvial soils in the facies on islands in the selenga estuary and near stepnoi dvorets and istomino settlements were studied. the distribution of the cfu-dominant microorganisms (bacillus and pseudomonas + arthrobacter) has been revealed in the studied island soils. in addition, actinomycetes streptomyces were found among the dominants in soils of the near-terrace floodplain. the quantitative distribution of microorganisms across soil layers was demonstrated. the effect ...200516240750
surface microflora of four smear-ripened cheeses.the microbial composition of smear-ripened cheeses is not very clear. a total of 194 bacterial isolates and 187 yeast isolates from the surfaces of four irish farmhouse smear-ripened cheeses were identified at the midpoint of ripening using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge), repetitive sequence-based pcr, and 16s rrna gene sequencing for identifying and typing the bacteria and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and mitochondrial dna restriction fragment length polymorphism (mtdna rflp ...200516269673
novel 4-chlorophenol degradation gene cluster and degradation route via hydroxyquinol in arthrobacter chlorophenolicus a6.arthrobacter chlorophenolicus a6, a previously described 4-chlorophenol-degrading strain, was found to degrade 4-chlorophenol via hydroxyquinol, which is a novel route for aerobic microbial degradation of this compound. in addition, 10 open reading frames exhibiting sequence similarity to genes encoding enzymes involved in chlorophenol degradation were cloned and designated part of a chlorophenol degradation gene cluster (cph genes). several of the open reading frames appeared to encode enzymes ...200516269679
[the product identification study on the isolating process of strains produced trehalose].in the isolating process of stains whose endocellular enzymes can produce trehalose on starch or maltooligosaccharides, we discovered the components of enzymatic reactant were complicated and it was difficult to purify them each other, however, we have to know quickly whether there was tehalose in the enzymatic reactant above. in order to make it clearly, thinner layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and 13c-nuclear magnetic resona ...200316276879
development of a microtiter plate-based method for determination of degradation profile of nitrophenolic compounds.a microtiter plate-based assay was developed for the automatic monitoring of degradation profile of the yellow-coloured nitrophenolic compounds. the method enables to reduce the intervals between measurements of substrate concentration to minutes and to overcome the problem of discontinuity of sampling typical for conventional methods. the concentrations of nitrophenolic compounds were calculated from the absorbance values determined automatically by bioscreen c. verification of the method was b ...200616289394
degradation of di-butyl-phthalate by soil bacteria.twelve gram-positive phthalate ester degraders were isolated from soil. using biolog gp2 plates, eight of them were identified as belonging to the corynebacterium-mycobacterium-nocardia group, while the remaining four were unidentifiable. when cultured in the presence of di-butyl-phthalate (dbp) in basal salts solution, five of these isolates accomplished more than 90% of dbp degradation within 48 h (fast group), three were placed in the medium group, and the remaining four were placed in the sl ...200616289698
[characterization of communities of heterotrophic bacteria associated with healthy and diseased corals in nha trang bay (vietnam)].a comparative investigation of the heterotrophic microflora of 11 species of healthy corals and of white-band-diseased and yellow-band-diseased corals inhabiting the reefs of nha trang bay (vietnam), which has been exposed to anthropogenic impact, was performed. fifty-nine strains of heterotrophic bacteria isolated on y/k and endo media were investigated and characterized. all the isolates were identified at the genus level by consideration of the results of analysis of their phenotypic properti ...200516315986
an alpha/beta-fold c--c bond hydrolase is involved in a central step of nicotine catabolism by arthrobacter nicotinovorans.the enzyme catalyzing the hydrolytic cleavage of 2,6-dihydroxypseudooxynicotine to 2,6-dihydroxypyridine and gamma-n-methylaminobutyrate was found to be encoded on pao1 of arthrobacter nicotinovorans. the new enzyme answers an old question about nicotine catabolism and may be the first c--c bond hydrolase that is involved in the biodegradation of a heterocyclic compound.200516321959
characterization of microbial contamination in united states air force aviation fuel tanks.bacteria and fungi, isolated from united states air force (usaf) aviation fuel samples, were identified by gas chromatograph fatty acid methyl ester (gc-fame) profiling and 16s or 18s rrna gene sequencing. thirty-six samples from 11 geographically separated usaf bases were collected. at each base, an above-ground storage tank, a refueling truck, and an aircraft wing tank were sampled at the lowest sample point, or sump, to investigate microbial diversity and dispersion within the fuel distributi ...200616328508
characterization of arthrobacter nicotinovorans him, an atrazine-degrading bacterium, from agricultural soil new zealand.arthrobacter nicotinovorans him was isolated directly from an agricultural sandy dune soil 6 months after a single application of atrazine. it grew in minimal medium with atrazine as sole nitrogen source but was unable to mineralize 14c-ring-labelled atrazine. atrazine was degraded to cyanuric acid. in addition to atrazine the bacterium degraded simazine, terbuthylazine, propazine, cyanazine and prometryn but was unable to grow on terbumeton. when added to soil, a. nicotinovorans him did enhance ...200416329913
impacts on microbial communities and cultivable isolates from groundwater contaminated with high levels of nitric acid-uranium waste.microbial communities were characterized at contaminated sites that had elevated levels of nitrate, nickel, aluminum, and uranium (up to 690 mm, 310 microm, 42 mm, and 30 microm, respectively). the bacterial community structure based upon clonal libraries of the ssu rrna genes (screened clones = 876) was diverse at the background site, but the three acidic samples had decreased diversity and the majority of clones were closely related to azoarcus and pseudomonas species. arthrobacter and novosph ...200516329960
epiphytic microorganisms on strawberry plants (fragaria ananassa cv. elsanta): identification of bacterial isolates and analysis of their interaction with leaf surfaces.epiphytic bacteria were isolated from strawberry plants cultivated in the field or in the greenhouse in order to investigate their interaction with leaf-surface transport properties. colonization of lower leaf sides was higher on field-grown plants, whereas upper leaf sides were more densely colonized on plants cultivated in the greenhouse. fungal isolates significantly contributed to total microbial biomass on leaf surfaces of greenhouse-grown strawberry plants, whereas these organisms were rar ...200516329966
class 1 integrons and tetracycline resistance genes in alcaligenes, arthrobacter, and pseudomonas spp. isolated from pigsties and manured soil.the presence of tetracycline resistance (tc(r)) genes and class i integrons (in-1), and their ability to cotransfer were investigated in tc(r) gram-negative (185 strains) and gram-positive (72 strains) bacteria from danish farmland and pigsties. the isolates belonged to the groups or species escherichia coli, enterobacter spp., arthrobacter spp., alcaligenes spp., pseudomonas spp., and corynebacterium glutamicum. the 257 isolates were screened for in-1. eighty-one of the gram-negative isolates w ...200516332771
plasmids for nicotine-dependent and -independent gene expression in arthrobacter nicotinovorans and other arthrobacter species.the first inducible arthrobacter overexpression system, based on the promoter/operator and the repressor of the 6-d-hydroxynicotine oxidase gene of arthrobacter nicotinovorans, is described here. nicotine-dependent overproduction and affinity purification of recombinant proteins are presented. the system will allow the production of complex enzymes and genetic complementation studies in arthrobacter species.200516332890
microbiology and biochemistry of nicotine degradation.several bacterial species are adapted to nicotine, the main alkaloid produced by the tobacco plant, as growth substrate. a general outline of nicotine catabolism by these bacteria is presented, followed by an emphasis on new insights based on molecular biology and biochemical work obtained with the catabolic plasmid pao1 of arthrobacter nicotinovorans. its 165-kb sequence revealed the genetic structure of nicotine catabolism and allowed the assignment of new enzyme activities to specific gene pr ...200616333621
utilization of homoserine lactone as a sole source of carbon and energy by soil arthrobacter and burkholderia species.homoserine lactone (hsl) is a ubiquitous product of metabolism. it is generated by all known biota during the editing of certain mischarged aminoacyl-trna reactions, and is also released as a product of quorum signal degradation by bacterial species expressing acyl-hsl acylases. little is known about its environmental fate over long or short periods of time. the mammalian enzyme paraoxonase, which has no known homologs in bacteria, has been reported to degrade hsl via a lactonase mechanism. cert ...200616341844
chemo-enzymatic synthesis of eel calcitonin glycosylated at two sites with the same and different carbohydrate structures.naturally occurring glycopeptides and glycoproteins usually contain more than one glycosylation site, and the structure of the carbohydrate attached is often different from site to site. therefore, synthetic methods for preparing peptides and proteins that are glycosylated at multiple sites, possibly with different carbohydrate structures, are needed. here, we report a chemo-enzymatic approach for accomplishing this. complex-type oligosaccharides were introduced to the calcitonin derivatives tha ...200616343462
extradiol cleavage of 3-methylcatechol by catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from various microorganisms.the isofunctional enzymes of catechol 1,2-dioxygenase from species of acinetobacter, pseudomonas, nocardia, alcaligenes, and corynebacterium oxidize 3-methylcatechol according to both the intradiol and extradiol cleavage patterns. however, the enzyme preparations from brevibacterium and arthrobacter have only the intradiol cleavage activity. comparison of substrate specificity among these isofunctional dioxygenases shows striking differences in the oxidation of 3-methylcatechol, 4-methylcatechol ...197716345232
metabolism of di- and mono-n-butyl phthalate by soil bacteria.di-n-butyl phthalate and other dialkyl phthalates are used as carbon sources by three nocardia sp. isolates; mono-n-butyl phthalate is used as a carbon source by an arthrobacter sp. isolate and a pseudomonas sp. isolate. the compounds were metabolized in these organisms by hydrolysis to the corresponding monoesters and free phthalic acid. phthalic acid was then metabolized via protocatechuic acid by 3,4-dioxygenative ring cleavage.197816345266
attachment to autoclaved soil of bacterial cells from pure cultures of soil isolates.pure cultures of arthrobacter globiformis and four fresh soil isolates were incubated individually in autoclaved soil, in both the presence and absence of glucose. these bacteria grew in the soil and, except for a. globiformis, eventually attached firmly to the soil solids. firmly attached cells were defined as those which could not be separated from the soil solids by blending combined with a series of low-speed centrifugal washings. the attachment attained by the soil isolates appeared to dupl ...197916345373
elution and inactivation of bacteriophages on soil and cation-exchange resin.a variety of elution schemes was tested to determine the most effective procedure for eluting arthrobacter bacteriophages from soil. a buffer solution of ph 8.0 was found to be the most satisfactory eluent. bacteriophages were adsorbed to cation-exchange sites on soils, clays, and dowex-50 resin and eluted. eluted bacteriophages were detected by passive hemagglutination and plaque assay. although bacteriophage antigen was successfully eluted, most recovered bacteriophages were noninfective. inac ...197916345416
isolation of arthrobacter bacteriophage from soil.soil was percolated with water and various nutrient solutions, and then the percolates were analyzed for bacteriophages which produced plaques on various arthrobacter strains. the water percolates did not contain detectable phage. in contrast, phages for a. globiformis strains atcc 8010 and 4336, and for several recent arthrobacter species soil isolates, were easily detected in nutrient broth, soil extract, and cation-complete medium percolates. these percolates did not contain phage that produc ...198116345792
possible role of coryneform bacteria in age gelation of ultrahigh-temperature-processed milk.two strains of psychrotrophic, gram-positive, proteolytic bacteria isolated from raw milk were identified as arthrobacter or closely related coryneform species. we inoculated raw-milk samples with the strains (one strain per sample) and compared rates of gelation after ultrahigh-temperature processing with that of ultrahigh-temperature-processed controls. the trial indicated that either organism could play a role in age gelation of ultrahigh-temperature-processed milk.198216346043
microbial treatment of soil to remove inoculation of bacteria capable of degrading pentachlorophenol (pcp) into pcp-contaminated soil was investigated as a prophylactic measure to reduce the hazards of runoffs when spills occur or when wooden poles freshly treated with pcp-containing preservatives are located near streams and lakes. in laboratory tests at 30 degrees c, the direct addition of 10 pcp-utilizing arthrobacter cells per g of dry soil reduced the half-life of the pesticide from 2 weeks to <1 day. soil inoculation al ...198316346232
bacterial methylation of chlorinated phenols and guaiacols: formation of veratroles from guaiacols and high-molecular-weight chlorinated lignin.two strains of bacteria, provisionally assigned to the genus arthrobacter, were shown to metabolize mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrachloroguaiacols and pentachlorophenol to the corresponding o-methyl compounds. hydroxylated intermediates were formed only transiently, except for the synthesis by one strain of 3,4,5-trichlorosyringol from 3,4,5-trichloroguaiacol. two isomeric trichloroveratroles and tetrachloroveratrole were formed by three of the strains from a high-molecular-weight chlorinated lignin ...198316346242
isolation of a bacterium capable of degrading peanut hull lignin.thirty-seven bacterial strains capable of degrading peanut hull lignin were isolated by using four types of lignin preparations and hot-water-extracted peanut hulls. one of the isolates, tentatively identified as arthrobacter sp., was capable of utilizing all four lignin preparations as well as extracted peanut hulls as a sole source of carbon. the bacterium was also capable of degrading specifically labeled [c]lignin-labeled lignocellulose and [c]cellulose-labeled lignocellulose from the cordgr ...198316346424
formation and identification of interfacial-active glycolipids from resting microbial cells.resting cells of arthrobacter sp. strain dsm2567 incubated in the presence of various mono-, di-, or trisaccharides biosynthesized different glycolipids. all eight glycolipids, containing the corresponding carbohydrate moiety and one, two, or three alpha-branched beta-hydroxy fatty acids, were produced when mannose, glucose, cellobiose, maltose, and maltotriose were used as carbon sources in a simple phosphate buffer. the structures of the compounds were elucidated by means of h and c nuclear ma ...198416346628
distribution of brown blotch bacteria in wild and cultivated species of basidiomycetes.wild and cultivated basidiomycetes species were cultured to determine the distribution of bacteria causing brown blotch disease of agaricus bisporus. colonies from each basidiocarp were screened for brown blotch organisms by the white line and host pathogenicity tests. isolates causing brown blotch were identified as pseudomonas tolaasi and an arthrobacter species.198416346653
degradation of 4-chlorobenzoic acid by arthrobacter sp.a mixed population, enriched and established in a defined medium, from a sewage sludge inoculum was capable of complete mineralization of 4-chlorobenzoate. an organism, identified as arthrobacter sp., was isolated from the consortium and shown to be capable of utilizing 4-chlorobenzoate as the sole carbon and energy source in pure culture. this organism (strain tm-1), dehalogenated 4-chlorobenzoate as the initial step in the degradative pathway. the product, 4-hydroxybenzoate, was further metabo ...198416346660
production of d-tagatose from dulcitol by arthrobacter globiformis.a process for the bacterial oxidation of dulcitol to d-tagatose has been developed. the strain arthrobacter globiformis st48 used in this fermentation was isolated from soil. the yield of d-tagatose accumulated in the medium from dulcitol was as high as 85%. about 14 g of d-tagatose crystals was isolated from 1 liter of 2% dulcitol medium.198416346663
use of the mushroom tissue block rapid pitting test to detect brown blotch pathogens.isolates of an arthrobacter species known to produce a positive host pathogenicity test were evaluated by the mushroom tissue block rapid pitting test. all 11 isolates of the arthrobacter species yielded a positive test response. the time required for a positive test was the same for pseudomonas tolaasi and the arthrobacter species.198516346775
selective isolation of bacillus sphaericus from soil by use of acetate as the only major source of carbon.a simple chemically defined medium containing sodium acetate (37 or 74 mm) as the only major source of carbon was inoculated with soil from various locations. the bacteria which grew most rapidly at 30 degrees c were almost entirely strains of bacillus sphaericus and arthrobacter species. pasteurization of the soils made the medium selective for b. sphaericus. several new strains were isolated, and the peptidoglycans of their cell walls were examined.198516346815
survival of bacteria and fungi in relation to water activity and the solvent properties of water in biopolymer gels.survival of bacteria (rhizobium, agrobacterium, and arthrobacter spp.), fungal spores (penicillium sp.), and yeasts (saccharomyces sp.) was studied in relation to water activity (a(w)) and the presence of nutritive solutes. the cells were entrapped in polysaccharide gels, as is done to immobilize cells or enzymes, and then dehydrated. the number of living cells (10 g of dry polymer) remained constant for periods of storage of >3 years at 28 degrees c when the inocula were kept at an a(w) of <0.0 ...198516346829
characterization of subsurface bacteria associated with two shallow aquifers in oklahoma.the bacterial microflora of two shallow aquifers (saturated subsurface zones) in oklahoma was characterized by direct observation with light and electron microscopy, by plating, and by examination of colony morphology and distribution. isolated bacterial strains were also examined. total cell counts varied only slightly (2.9 x 10 to 9.8 x 10 g [dry wt]) from sample to sample, whereas colony counts varied widely (6.3 x 10 to 6.5 x 10 cfu g [dry wt]). colony counts on nutritionally rich media were ...198516346877
production and characterization of a polymer from arthrobacter arthrobacter sp. isolated from a glucose-sucrose agar plate was found to produce a neutral, extremely viscous, opalescent extracellular polymer. growth, polymer production, and rheological properties and chemical composition of the isolated polymer were examined. the polymer was found to be substantially different from other arthrobacter polymers. some unusual properties included irreversible loss of viscosity with high temperature and degradation of the polymer during fermentation and upon s ...198516346883
purification and characterization of benzonitrilases from arthrobacter sp. strain j-1.we found two kinds of benzonitrilases, designated benzonitrilases a and b, in a cell extract of arthrobacter sp. strain j-1 grown on benzonitrile as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. benzonitrilases a and b were purified approximately 409-fold and 38-fold, respectively. purified benzonitrilase a appeared to be homogeneous according to the criteria of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. both the enzymes hydrolyzed benzonitrile to benzoic acid and ammonia without forming benzamide as an intermedi ...198616346987
identification of eubacteria isolated from leaf cavities of four species of the n-fixing azolla fern as arthrobacter conn and dimmick.the nutritional and physiological characteristics of 15 isolates from four species of the azolla fern were determined. although some minor variation existed in levels of urease activity, ability to utilize xylose, and formation of n(2) gas from no(3), all 15 isolates were rather similar and believed to represent a single species. these eubacteria exhibited aminopeptidase activity and became viscous when treated with koh, similar to gram-negative organisms; however, the absence of lipopolysacchar ...198616347144
acetylene metabolism and stimulation of denitrification in an agricultural soil.the effects of c(2)h(2) metabolism on n(2)o production were examined in soil slurries. enrichment of c(2)h(2) consumption activity occurred only in aerobic incubations. rapid disappearance of subsequent c(2)h(2) additions, stimulation of co(2) production, and most-probable-number enumerations of c(2)h(2) utilizers indicated enrichment of the population responsible. during c(2)h(2) consumption in slurries incubated statically under air, maximal rates of n(2)o evolution were 19 times higher than t ...198616347172
bacterial growth rates and competition affect nodulation and root colonization by rhizobium meliloti.the addition of streptomycin to nonsterile soil suppressed the numbers of bacterial cells in the rhizosphere of alfalfa (medicago sativa l.) for several days, resulted in the enhanced growth of a streptomycin-resistant strain of rhizobium meliloti, and increased the numbers of nodules on the alfalfa roots. a bacterial mixture inoculated into sterile soil inhibited the colonization of alfalfa roots by r. meliloti, caused a diminution in the number of nodules, and reduced plant growth. enterobacte ...198616347173
microbiological degradation of malodorous substances of swine waste under aerobic conditions.phenol, p-cresol, and volatile fatty acids (vfa; acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, and valeric acids) were used as odor indicators of swine waste. aeration of the waste allowed the indigenous microorganisms to grow and degrade these malodorous substances. the time required for degradation of these substances varied according to the waste used, and it was not necessarily related to their concentrations. using a minimal medium which contained one of the malodorous compounds as so ...198716347254
uptake of glyphosate by an arthrobacter sp.the uptake of glyphosate (n-[phosphonomethyl]glycine) by an arthrobacter sp. which can utilize this herbicide as its sole source of phosphorus was investigated. orthophosphate suppressed the expression of the uptake system for glyphosate and also competed with glyphosate for uptake. the k(m) for glyphosate uptake was 125 mum, and the k(i) for orthophosphate was 24 mum. organophosphonates as well as organophosphates inhibited glyphosate uptake, but only organophosphates and orthophosphate suppres ...198716347356
oxidative pathway from squalene to geranylacetone in arthrobacter sp. strain y-11.the reaction pathway from squalene to trans-geranylacetone in arthrobacter sp. strain y-11 was studied. the enzyme or enzymes catalyzing squalene degradation were found to be membrane bound. stoichiometric analysis of a cell-free system revealed that the ratio of squalene to trans-geranylacetone changed from 1:2 to 1:1 as the reaction proceeded, indicating two steps in geranylacetone formation. the initial step was found to be oxygenase catalyzed, from the absolute requirement for molecular oxyg ...198816347551
degradation of the phosphonate herbicide glyphosate by arthrobacter atrocyaneus atcc 13752.of nine authentic arthrobacter strains tested, only a. atrocyaneus atcc 13752 was capable of using the herbicide glyphosate [n-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] as its sole source of phosphorus. contrary to the previously isolated arthrobacter sp. strain glp-1, which degrades glyphosate via sarcosine, a. atrocyaneus metabolized glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid. the carbon of aminomethylphosphonic acid was entirely converted to co(2). this is the first report on glyphosate degradation by a bacter ...198816347639
isolation and preliminary characterization of twenty bacteriophages infecting either brevibacterium or arthrobacter strains.thirty-seven bacteriophages plaquing on corynebacterium, brevibacterium, or arthrobacter strains were isolated from soil or vegetation samples. restriction analysis of phage dna indicated that 20 phages were unique; one of them produced entirely turbid plaques on brevibacterium ketoglutamicum and was characterized as temperate. all these phages were assigned to group b of the classification of bradley (bacteriol. rev. 31:230-314, 1967) and had relatively narrow host ranges.198816347657
mineralization of carbofuran by a soil bacterium.a bacterium, tentatively identified as an arthrobacter sp., was isolated from flooded soil that was incubated at 35 degrees c and repeatedly treated with carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl n-methylcarbamate). this bacterium exhibited an exceptional capacity to completely mineralize the ring-labeled c in carbofuran to co(2) within 72 to 120 h in a mineral salts medium as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen under aerobic conditions. mineralization was more rapid at 35 degrees c t ...198816347722
isolation and characterization of a mutant of arthrobacter sp. strain glp-1 which utilizes the herbicide glyphosate as its sole source of phosphorus and nitrogen.arthrobacter sp. strain glp-1, grown on glucose as a carbon source, utilizes the herbicide glyphosate [n-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] as its sole source of phosphorus as well as its sole source of nitrogen. the mutant strain glp-1/nit-1 utilizes glyphosate as its sole source of nitrogen as well. in strain glp-1, p(i) was a potent competitive inhibitor of glyphosate uptake (k(i), 24 mum), while the affinity of p(i) for the uptake system of strain glp-1/nit-1 was reduced by 2 orders of magnitude (k(i ...198816347784
isolation and preliminary characterization of hydroxamic acids formed by nitrogen-fixing azotobacter chroococcum b-8.the free-living diazotroph azotobacter chroococcum b-8 responded to iron-limited growth conditions by forming hydroxamic acids and an 85,000-dalton outer membrane protein. the fe(iii)-binding hydroxamate compounds stimulated the growth of arthrobacter flavescens jg-9 and gave a positive csaky reaction for bound hydroxylamines. the hydroxamates were isolated from liquid cultures by benzyl alcohol extraction and purified by size exclusion chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. ...198916347843
degradation of 4-chlorobenzoate by facultatively alkalophilic arthrobacter sp. strain sb8.a facultative alkalophile capable of utilizing 4-chlorobenzoate (4-cba), strain sb8, was isolated from soil with an alkaline medium (ph 10.0) containing the haloaromatic compound as the carbon source. the strain, identified as an arthrobacter sp., showed rather extensive 4-cba-degrading ability. 4-cba utilization by the strain was possible in the alkaline medium containing up to 10 g of the compound per liter. the 4-cba-dechlorinating activity of resting cells was almost completely uninhibited b ...198916347854
protozoan response to the addition of bacterial predators and other bacteria to soil.representatives of several categories of bacteria were added to soil to determine which of them might elicit responses from the soil protozoa. the various categories were nonobligate bacterial predators of bacteria, prey bacteria for these predators, indigenous bacteria that are normally present in high numbers in soil, and non-native bacteria that often find their way in large numbers into soil. the soil was incubated and the responses of the indigenous protozoa were determined by most-probable ...198916347983
induction and purification of endo-beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase from arthrobacter protophormiae grown in ovalbumin.arthrobacter protophormiae produced a high level of extracellular endo-beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase when cells were grown in a medium containing ovalbumin. the enzyme was induced by the glycopeptide fraction of ovalbumin prepared by pronase digestion. production of the enzyme was also induced by glycoproteins such as yeast invertase and bovine ribonuclease b but not by monosaccharides such as mannose, n-acetylglucosamine, and galactose. the enzyme was purified to homogeneity as demonstrated by p ...198916348072
adhesion of an amylolytic arthrobacter sp. to starch-containing plastic films.cells of the amylolytic bacterium kb-1 (thought to be an arthrobacter sp.) adhered ( approximately 70%) to the surface of plastic films composed of starch-poly (methylacrylate) graft copolymer (starch-pma), but did not adhere (<10%) to films composed of polymethylacrylate (pma), polyethylene (pe), carboxymethyl cellulose, or a mixture of pe plus poly (ethylene-coacrylic acid) (eaa), starch plus pe, or starch plus pe and eaa. about 30% of the cells adhered to gelatinized insoluble starch. dithiot ...199016348173
relationship between cell surface properties and transport of bacteria through soil.a study was conducted to relate the properties of enterobacter, pseudomonas, bacillus, achromobacter, flavobacterium, and arthrobacter strains to their transport with water moving through soil. the bacteria differed markedly in their extent of transport; their hydrophobicity, as measured by adherence to n-octane and by hydrophobic-interaction chromatography; and their net surface electrostatic charge, as determined by electrostatic interaction chromatography and by measurements of the zeta poten ...199116348394
biodegradation by an arthrobacter species of hydrocarbons partitioned into an organic arthrobacter strain mineralized naphthalene and n-hexadecane dissolved in 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane. the extent of mineralization increased with greater volumes of solvent. measurements under aseptic conditions of the partitioning of naphthalene into the aqueous phase from the solid phase or from heptamethylnonane showed that the rates were rapid and did not limit mineralization. the rate of mineralization of hexadecane was rapid, although partitioning of the compound into aqueous solut ...199116348485
competition for ammonium between nitrifying and heterotrophic bacteria in dual energy-limited chemostats.the absence of nitrification in soils rich in organic matter has often been reported. therefore, competition for limiting amounts of ammonium between the chemolithotrophic ammonium-oxidizing species nitrosomonas europaea and the heterotrophic species arthrobacter globiformis was studied in the presence of nitrobacter winogradskyi in continuous cultures at dilution rates of 0.004 and 0.01 h. ammonium limitation of a. globiformis was achieved by increasing the glucose concentration in the reservoi ...199116348588
effects of grazing by flagellates on competition for ammonium between nitrifying and heterotrophic bacteria in chemostats.the enhanced mineralization of organic nitrogen by bacteriophagous protozoa is thought to favor the nitrification process in soils, in which nitrifying bacteria have to compete with heterotrophic bacteria for the available ammonium. to obtain more insight into this process, the influence of grazing by the bacteriovorous flagellate adriamonas peritocrescens on the competition for limiting amounts of ammonium between the ammonium-oxidizing species nitrosomonas europaea and the heterotrophic specie ...199216348722
relationship between transport of bacteria and their clogging efficiency in sand an earlier article, we reported that, under conditions in which neither exopolymers nor bacterial mats were produced, arthrobacter sp. strain ak19 was an effective plugging agent in sand columns, whereas the bacterial strain sli had no significant effect on the permeability of the medium. a laboratory experiment with sand columns was carried out to elucidate the causes of this difference in behavior. measured values of the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the sand were explained in terms o ...199216348753
competition for ammonium between nitrifying and heterotrophic bacteria in continuously percolated soil columns.although the absence of nitrate formation in grassland soils rich in organic matter has often been reported, low numbers of nitrifying bacteria are still found in these soils. to obtain more insight into these observations, we studied the competition for limiting amounts of ammonium between the chemolithotrophic ammonium-oxidizing species nitrosomonas europaea and the heterotrophic species arthrobacter globiformis in the presence of nitrobacter winogradskyi with soil columns containing calcareou ...199216348787
scanning electron and light microscopic study of microbial succession on bethlehem st. nectaire nectaire cheese is a semisoft cheese of french origin that, along with brie and camembert cheeses, belongs to the class of surface mold-ripened cheese. the surface microorganisms that develop on the cheese rind during ripening impart a distinctive aroma and flavor to this class of cheese. we have documented the sequential appearance of microorganisms on the cheese rind and in the curd over a 60-day ripening period. scanning electron microscopy was used to visualize the development of surface ...199216348797
heteropolysaccharide formation by arthrobacter viscosus grown on xylose and xylose oligosaccharides.arthrobacter viscosus nrrl b-1973 produces its viscous extracellular polysaccharides (eps) when grown on media containing xylose or enzymatic xylan hydrolysates. crude eps formation from xylose averaged 12 g/liter when initial culture ph was adjusted to 8.0 and total nitrogen was limited to 0.03%. purified eps from pentose and hexose substrates were analyzed for their monosaccharide, acetyl, and uronic acid components, intrinsic viscosities, and average molecular masses. differences were apparen ...199216348800
molecular rearrangement of longifolene by arthrobacter ilicis t(2).arthrobacter ilicis t(2) brings about a unique type of cometabolic structural rearrangement of longifolene, a sesquiterpene, resulting in the formation of an acid. infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, and decoupling studies indicate that the acid product has a sativenelike structure, which is confirmed by conversion of the acid to its methyl ester and hydrocarbon.199316348946
effects of grazing by flagellates on competition for ammonium between nitrifying and heterotrophic bacteria in soil columns.the enhanced mineralization of immobilized nitrogen by bacteriophagous protozoa has been thought to favor the nitrification process in soils in which nitrifying bacteria must compete with heterotrophic bacteria for the available ammonium. to obtain more insight into this process, the influence of grazing by the flagellate adriamonas peritocrescens on the competition for ammonium between the chemolithotrophic species nitrosomonas europaea and the heterotrophic species arthrobacter globiformis in ...199316348988
physicochemical cell surface and adhesive properties of coryneform bacteria related to the presence and chain length of mycolic acids.the presence and chain length of mycolic acids of bacteria of the genera corynebacterium, rhodococcus, gordona, mycobacterium, and arthrobacter and of coryneform bacteria containing a type b peptidoglycan were related to the cell surface hydrophobicity of the bacteria, which in turn was related to adhesion of the cells to defined surfaces such as teflon and glass. the origin of the overall negative charge of these bacteria is discussed.199316349100
effect of organic matter decomposition level on bacterial species diversity and composition in relationship to pythium damping-off severity.rhizosphere bacteria were isolated from root tip segments of cucumber seedlings grown in a suppressive, slightly decomposed light-colored peat mix, a conducive, more decomposed dark-colored peat mix, and a suppressive dark peat mix amended with composted hardwood bark. the bacteria were identified by a gas chromatographic fatty acid methyl ester analysis. the total number of taxa recovered from a single root tip segment ranged from 9 to 18. no single taxon predominated on all root tip segments h ...199316349117
changes in ester-linked phospholipid fatty acid profiles of subsurface bacteria during starvation and desiccation in a porous medium.ester-linked phospholipid fatty acid (plfa) profiles of a pseudomonas aureofaciens strain and an arthrobacter protophormiae strain, each isolated from a subsurface sediment, were quantified in a starvation experiment in a silica sand porous medium under moist and dry conditions. washed cells were added to sand microcosms and maintained under saturated conditions or subjected to desiccation by slow drying over a period of 16 days to final water potentials of approximately - 7.5 mpa for the p. aur ...199416349382
metabolism of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid by soil bacteria.a microorganism capable of degrading 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (mcpa) was isolated from soil and identified as flavobacterium peregrinum. all of the chlorine of mcpa was released as chloride, and the carboxyl-carbon was converted to volatile products by growing cultures of the bacterium, but a phenol accumulated in the medium. the phenol was identified as 4-chloro-2-methylphenol on the basis of its gas chromatographic and infrared characteristics. extracts of cells of f. peregrinum and ...196716349751
arthrobacter globiformis and its bacteriophage in soil.bacteriophages in soil for arthrobacter globiformis were rarely detected unless the soil was nutritionally amended and incubated. in amended soil, phage were continuously produced for at least 48 h, and this did not require the addition of host cells. rod and spheroid stage host cells added to the amended soil encountered indigenous bacteriophage, but added phage did not encounter sensitive indigenous host cells for some time, if at all. the indigenous phage in nonincubated soil seemed to be pre ...197416350007
ecology of soil arthrobacters in clarion-webster toposequences of iowa.toposequence variations in soil properties were characterized and related to variations in populations of total isolatable bacteria and arthrobacters. increases in soil no(3)-n, available phosphorous, no(3)-n-producing power, arthrobacter counts, and the percentage of the total counts represented by arthrobacters were correlated with decreases in soil acidity. the total bacterial counts were not correlated with soil acidity but were associated with percentage of soil organic matter and percentag ...197516350010
electrochemical sensor based on arthrobacter globiformis for cholinesterase activity determination.the sensors applied recently for determination of cholinesterase activity are mostly enzymatic amperometric sensors, in spite of their disadvantages: short life-time at ambient temperature, instability of the response, interferences, as well as passivation of the electrode surface. in the present paper a new approach for determination of cholinesterase activity was proposed, overcoming the main drawbacks of the analysis performed with amperometric enzymatic sensors. instead of the immobilization ...200616376069
bacteria isolated from the different developmental stages and larval organs of the obligate parasitic fly, wohlfahrtia magnifica (diptera: sarcophagidae).wohlfahrtia magnifica (diptera: sarcophagidae) is the major myiasis-causing fly species in the whole of eurasia for most important domestic animals. the aim of the present work was to obtain data on the culturable bacteria isolated under aerobic conditions from this fly: bacteria were isolated from all developmental stages (larvae, pupa, and imago) of wohlfahrtia magnifica, and the third-stage larval organs were also sampled. to determine the possible antagonistic effects between the dominant ba ...200616382282
removal and recovery of lithium using various microorganisms.the accumulation of lithium by microorganisms was examined. among the 70 strains of the 63 species tested (20 bacteria, 18 actinomycetes, 18 fungi, and 14 yeasts), a high lithium accumulating ability was exhibited by strains of the bacteria, arthrobacter nicotianae and brevibacterium helovolum. lithium accumulation by a. nicotianae cells was strongly affected by the ph of the solution. the amount of accumulated lithium was maximum at ph 6. cells immobilized with polyacrylamide gel also adsorbed ...200516384797
pcr evaluation of false-positive signals from two automated blood-culture systems.rapid detection of micro-organisms from blood is one of the most critical functions of a diagnostic microbiology laboratory. automated blood-culture systems reduce the time needed to detect positive cultures, and reduce specimen handling. the false-positive rate of such systems is 1-10%. in this study, the presence of pathogens in 'false-positive' bottles obtained from bactec 9050 (becton dickinson) and bact/alert (biomérieux) systems was investigated by eubacterial and fungal pcr. a total of 16 ...200616388030
[experimental and mathematical modeling of population dynamics of rhizospheric bacteria under conditions of cadmium stress].the method of membrane filters was used to study the population dynamics of bacteria belonging to the genera arthrobacter, flavobacterium, and klebsiella in barley (hordeum vulgare) rhizosphere under conditions of cadmium stress (5-15 mg cd/g soil). mathematical modeling allowed us to demonstrate that the phytoprotective effect is implemented via the following succession of events: the bacteria synthesize phytohormones (iaa and ethylene)-->root excretory activity increases-->the number of the ba ...200516400997
[phosphorus compensates aluminium-induced effects on arthrobacter cells]. 200516400998
decolorization and degradation of methylene blue by arthrobacter globiformis. 200516402302
treatment of naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid from tannery wastewater by a granular activated carbon fixed bed inoculated with bacterial isolates arthrobacter globiformis and comamonas testosteroni.the kinetics of naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid (2-nsa) adsorption by granular activated carbon (gac) were measured and the relationships between adsorption, desorption, bioavailability and biodegradation assessed. the conventional langmuir model fitted the experimental sorption isotherm data and introduced 2-nsa degrading bacteria, established on the surface of the gac, did not interfere with adsorption. the potential value of gac as a microbial support in the aerobic degradation of 2-nsa by arthro ...200616427119
low temperature reduction of hexavalent chromium by a microbial enrichment consortium and a novel strain of arthrobacter aurescens.chromium is a transition metal most commonly found in the environment in its trivalent [cr(iii)] and hexavalent [cr(vi)] forms. the epa maximum total chromium contaminant level for drinking water is 0.1 mg/l (0.1 ppm). many water sources, especially underground sources, are at low temperatures (less than or equal to 15 centigrade) year round. it is important to evaluate the possibility of microbial remediation of cr(vi) contamination using microorganisms adapted to these low temperatures (psychr ...200616436214
acaricomes phytoseiuli gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis.a gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium, strain csct, was isolated from diseased, surface-sterilized specimens of the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis athias-henriot and subjected to polyphasic taxonomic analysis. comparative analysis of the 16s rrna gene sequence revealed that the strain was a new member of the family micrococcaceae. nearest phylogenetic neighbours were determined as renibacterium salmoninarum (94.0%), arthrobacter globiformis (94.8%) and arthrobacter rus ...200616449459
attachment of different soil bacteria to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal extraradical hyphae is determined by hyphal vitality and fungal species.attachment of certain bacteria to living arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal extraradical hyphae may be an important prerequisite for interactions between these microorganisms, with implications for nutrient supply and plant health. the attachment of five different strains of gfp-tagged soil bacteria (paenibacillus brasilensis pb177 (pnf8), bacillus cereus va1 (pnf8), pseudomonas fluorescens sbw25 :: gfp/lux, arthrobacter chlorophenolicus a6g, and paenibacillus peoriae bd62 (pnf8)) to vital and nonvit ...200616451176
phenol degradation by immobilized cells of arthrobacter aerobic microorganism with an ability to utilize phenol as carbon and energy source was isolated from a hydrocarbon contamination site by employing selective enrichment culture technique. the isolate was identified as arthrobacter citreus based on morphological, physiological and biochemical tests. this mesophilic organism showed optimal growth at 25 degrees c and at ph of 7.0. the phenol utilization studies with arthrobacter citreus showed that the complete assimilation occurred in 24 hours. ...200616453171
purification, characterization, and gene cloning of a novel maltosyltransferase from an arthrobacter globiformis strain that produces an alternating alpha-1,4- and alpha-1,6-cyclic tetrasaccharide from starch.a glycosyltransferase, involved in the synthesis of cyclic maltosylmaltose [cmm; cyclo-{-->6)-alpha-d-glcp(1-->4)-alpha-d-glcp(1-->6)-alpha-d-glcp(1-->4)-alpha-d-glcp(1-->}] from starch, was purified to homogeneity from the culture supernatant of arthrobacter globiformis m6. the cmm-forming enzyme had a molecular mass of 71.7 kda and a pi of 3.6. the enzyme was most active at ph 6.0 and 50 degrees c and was stable from ph 5.0 to 9.0 and up to 30 degrees c. the addition of 1 mm ca2+ enhanced the ...200616461650
biochemical evidence for the proteolytic degradation of infectious prion protein prpsc in hamster brain homogenates by foodborne bacteria.prp(sc) is a general term to describe the infectious agent causing transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse), and the protease-resistant form of cellular prp(c). in this study, we have identified several protease-secreting bacteria able to degrade prp(sc) under more or less native conditions (30 degrees c, ph 8), focusing on strains isolated mainly from cheese. one hundred and ninty-nine protease-secreting isolates belonging to the actinomycetales and bacillales were screened for the express ...200616464698
glycopeptide synthesis through endo-glycosidase-catalyzed oligosaccharide transfer of sugar oxazolines: probing substrate structural array of sugar oxazolines was synthesized and tested as donor substrates for the arthrobacter endo-beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase (endo-a)-catalyzed glycopeptide synthesis. the experiments revealed that the minimum structure of the donor substrate required for endo-a catalyzed transglycosylation is a man beta1-->4-glcnac oxazoline moiety. replacement of the beta-d-man moiety with beta-d-glc, beta-d-gal, and beta-d-glcnac monosaccharides resulted in the loss of substrate activity for the disacch ...200616470771
paranodulation of wheat roots. 200516485645
crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of endo-1,3-beta-glucanase from arthrobacter sp.endo-1,3-beta-glucanases hydrolyze internal 1,3-beta-glucosyl linkages. the endo-1,3-beta-glucanase from arthrobacter sp. was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. the crystals belonged to space group p4(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 71.31, c = 60.07 a, and contained one molecule per asymmetric unit. the matthews coefficient (vm) and the solvent content were 2.35 a3 da(-1) and 47.63%, respectively. diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.66 a at spring-8 usin ...200516508094
evaluation of the stress-inducible production of choline oxidase in transgenic rice as a strategy for producing the stress-protectant glycine betaine.glycine betaine (gb) is a compatible solute that is also capable of stabilizing the structure and function of macromolecules. several gb-producing transgenic rice lines were generated in which the arthrobacter pascens choline oxidase (cox) gene, fused to a chloroplast targeting sequence (tp) was expressed under the control of an aba-inducible promoter (sip; stress-inducible promoter) or a ubiquitin (ubi) gene promoter that is considered to be constitutive. this comparison led to interesting obse ...200616510513
crystallization and x-ray diffraction analysis of 6-aminohexanoate-dimer hydrolase from arthrobacter sp. investigate the structure-function relationship between 6-aminohexanoate-dimer hydrolase (eii) from arthrobacter sp. and a cryptic protein (eii') which shows 88% sequence identity to eii, a hybrid protein (named hyb-24) of eii and eii' was overexpressed, purified and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with ammonium sulfate as a precipitant in mes buffer ph 6.5. the crystal belongs to space group p3(1)21 or p3(2)21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 96.37, c = 113.09 a ...200516511198
allergenicity assessment of transgenic mustard (brassica juncea) expressing bacterial coda gene.assessing the allergenicity and toxicity of genetically modified (gm) crops is essential before they become a regular part of our food supply. the present study aimed to assess the allergenicity of brassica juncea (mustard) expressing choline oxidase (coda) gene from arthrobacter globiformis that provides resistance against abiotic stresses.200616512812
optimization of maldi-tof ms for strain level differentiation of arthrobacter isolates.matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) has been shown to be a rapid and sensitive method for characterization of bacteria, but it has not yet become a routine microbiological procedure. currently there are no standardized protocols that would allow development of large libraries of reproducible protein profiles from a broad range of microorganisms to use for identification purposes. important variables that may affect spectrum quality are mald ...200616513195
optimization of culture conditions and properties of immobilized sulfide oxidase from arthrobacter species.arthrobacter species strain fr-3, isolated from sediments of a swamp, produced a novel serine-type sulfide oxidase. the production of sulfide oxidase was maximal at ph 7.5 and 30 degrees c. among various carbon and nitrogen sources tested, glucose and yeast extract were found to be the most effective substrates for the secretion of sulfide oxidase. the sulfide oxidase was purified to homogeneity and the molecular weight of the purified enzyme was 43 kda when estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-p ...200616530872
nickel-resistant bacteria from anthropogenically nickel-polluted and naturally nickel-percolated ecosystems.dna fragments harboring the nickel resistance determinants from bacteria isolated from anthropogenically polluted ecosystems in europe and zaire were compared with those harboring the nickel resistance determinants from bacteria isolated from naturally nickel-percolated soils from new caledonia by dna-dna hybridization. the biotinylated dna probes were derived from the previously described alcaligenes eutrophus ch34, alcaligenes xylosoxidans 31a, alcaligenes denitrificans 4a-2, and klebsiella ox ...199516535048
sulfur-specific microbial desulfurization of sterically hindered analogs of dibenzothiophene.dibenzothiophenes (dbts) bearing alkyl substitutions adjacent to the sulfur atom, such as 4,6-diethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-dedbt), are referred to as sterically hindered with regard to access to the sulfur moiety. by using enrichment cultures with 4,6-dedbt as the sole sulfur source, bacterial isolates which selectively remove sulfur from sterically hindered dbts were obtained. the isolates were tentatively identified as arthrobacter species. 4,6-dedbt sulfone was shown to be an intermediate in ...199516535189
stereoselective production of (+)-trans-chrysanthemic acid by a microbial esterase: cloning, nucleotide sequence, and overexpression of the esterase gene of arthrobacter globiformis in escherichia coli.volume 61, no. 9, p. 3209, column 2, line 23: "l22165" should read "l22516." [this corrects the article on p. 3208 in vol. 61.].199616535302
production of two extracellular alkaline phosphatases by a psychrophilic arthrobacter strain.we surveyed our collection of psychrophilic bacteria to determine the types of phosphatases they produce and whether any had heat-labile activities with potential applications. assays at different temperatures showed that the activity from one isolate was optimal at 45(deg)c and decreased dramatically above 55(deg)c. this isolate, d10, had the rod-coccus morphological cycle and cell wall amino acids associated with members of the arthrobacter genus. interestingly, we found that this strain made ...199616535422
survival and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of surface and subsurface bacteria in natural sediment microcosms.although starvation survival has been characterized for many bacteria, few subsurface bacteria have been tested, and few if any have been tested in natural subsurface porous media. we hypothesized that subsurface bacteria may be uniquely adapted for long-term survival in situ. we further hypothesized that subsurface conditions (sediment type and moisture content) would influence microbial survival. we compared starvation survival capabilities of surface and subsurface strains of pseudomonas fluo ...199716535578
purification and characterization of two extracellular alkaline phosphatases from a psychrophilic arthrobacter isolate.two extracellular, heat-labile alkaline phosphatases were purified from a psychrophilic arthrobacter isolate, d10. the enzymes were active over different ph ranges, used distinct substrates, and had different kinetic properties. each enzyme reacted specifically to its own antibody during immunoblot analysis. one had both monophosphatase and diesterase activities.199716535659
revisiting the cellulosimicrobium cellulans yeast-lytic beta-1,3-glucanases toolbox: a review.cellulosimicrobium cellulans (also known with the synonyms cellulomonas cellulans, oerskovia xanthineolytica, and arthrobacter luteus) is an actinomycete that excretes yeast cell wall lytic enzyme complexes containing endo-beta-1,3-glucanases [ec and] as key constituents. three genes encoding endo-beta-1,3-glucanases from two c. cellulans strains have been cloned and characterised over the past years. the betaglii and betagliia genes from strain dsm 10297 (also known as o. xanth ...200616545129
polymer-producing species of arthrobacter.gasdorf, helen j. (northern regional research laboratory, peoria, ill.), r. g. benedict, m. c. cadmus, r. f. anderson, and r. w. jackson. polymer-producing species of arthrobacter. j. bacteriol. 90:147-150.1965.-two slime-producing microorganisms, designated as nrrl b-1973 and nrrl b-1797, were isolated from a guatemalan soil sample. their morphological and physiological characteristics permit their assignment to the genus arthrobacter. both cultures produce a large amount of extracellular polys ...196516562010
kinetic and structural studies on the catalytic role of the aspartic acid residue conserved in copper amine oxidase.copper amine oxidase contains a post-translationally generated quinone cofactor, topa quinone (tpq), which mediates electron transfer from the amine substrate to molecular oxygen. the overall catalytic reaction is divided into the former reductive and the latter oxidative half-reactions based on the redox state of tpq. in the reductive half-reaction, substrate amine reacts with the c5 carbonyl group of the oxidized tpq, forming the substrate schiff base (tpq(ssb)), which is then converted to the ...200616566584
purification and molecular characterization of cold-active beta-galactosidase from arthrobacter psychrolactophilus strain this study, we purified and molecularly characterized a cold-active beta-galactosidase from arthrobacter psychrolactophilus strain f2. the purified beta-galactosidase from strain f2 exhibited high activity at 0 degrees c, and its optimum temperature and ph were 10 degrees c and 8.0, respectively. it was possible to inactivate the beta-galactosidase rapidly at 45 degrees c in 5 min. the enzyme was able to hydrolyze lactose as a substrate, as well as o-nitrophenyl-beta-d-galactopyranoside (onpg ...200616607530
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