PMID(sorted descending)
studies on biodegradation of nicotine by arthrobacter sp. strain hf-2.a nicotine-degrading bacterium, strain hf-2, was isolated from tobacco waste-contaminated soil and identified as a member of arthrobacter sp. based on morphology, physiological tests, 16s rdna sequence and phylogenetic characteristics. at thermal denaturation test indicated that the g + c mol% of strain hf-1 was 63.5. the relationship between the growth of the isolate and the nicotine degradation suggested that strain hf-2 could utilize nicotine as sole sources of carbon, nitrogen and energy. bl ...200616923598
genetic diversity of dioxygenase genes in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria isolated from mangrove investigate the diversity of dioxygenase genes involved in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pah)-degradation, a total of 32 bacterial strains were isolated from surface mangrove sediments, from the genera mycobacterium, sphingomonas, terrabacter, sphingopyxis, sphingobium and rhodococcus. two sets of pcr primers were constructed to detect the nida-like and nahac-like sequences of the alpha subunit of the pah ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase. pcr amplified the dna fragments from all gram-positiv ...200616923069
arthrobacter sp. lipase immobilization for improvement in stability and enantioselectivity.arthrobacter sp. lipase (abl, mtcc no. 5125) is being recognized as an efficient enzyme for the resolution of drugs and their intermediates. the immobilization of abl on various matrices for its enantioselectivity, stability, and reusability has been studied. immobilization by covalent bonding on sepharose and silica afforded a maximum of 380 and 40 iu/g activity, respectively, whereas sol-gel entrapment provided a maximum of 150 iu/g activity in dry powder. the immobilized enzyme displayed exce ...200616896604
trzn from arthrobacter aurescens tc1 is a zinc amidohydrolase.trzn, the broad-specificity triazine hydrolase from arthrobacter and nocardioides spp., is reportedly in the amidohydrolase superfamily of metalloenzymes, but previous studies suggested that a metal was not required for activity. to help resolve that conundrum, a double chaperone expression system was used to produce multimilligram quantities of functionally folded, recombinant trzn. the trzn obtained from escherichia coli (trzn) cells cultured with increasing zinc in the growth medium showed co ...200616885454
microbial production of optically active beta-phenylalanine through stereoselective degradation of racemic beta-phenylalanine.the ability to produce (r)- or (s)-beta-phenylalanine from racemic beta-phenylalanine through stereoselective degradation was screened for. variovorax sp. jh2 and arthrobacter sp. the faculty of agriculture, kyoto university (aku) 638 were found to be potential catalysts for (r)- and (s)-beta-phenylalanine production respectively. on 192 h cultivation of variovorax sp. in medium containing 1.0% (w/v) racemic beta-phenylalanine, 0.46% (w/v) (r)-beta-phenylalanine with an enantiomeric purity of 99 ...200616880592
effectiveness of biodegradation of petroleum products by mixed bacterial populations in liquid medium at different ph values.the possibility of using mineral oils as a carbon source by bacteria adapted to high oil concentrations was tested in liquid media with different ph values (ph = 5, 7 and 9). two types of inocula were tested: inoculum i consisted of selected strains used in the bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils and inoculum ii contained bacteria isolated from soil samples previously bioremediated at ph = 5, 7 and 9. biodegradation was observed in all the investigated media independently of initial ph valu ...200616878607
multiple microbial activities for volatile organic compounds reduction by the northeast of italy, high volatile organic carbon (voc) emissions originate from small-medium companies producing furniture. in these conditions it is difficult to propose a single, efficient, and economic system to reduce pollution. among the various choices, the biofiltration method could be a good solution, because microbial populations possess multiple voc degradation potentials used to oxidize these compounds to co2. starting from the air emissions of a typical industrial wood-paintin ...200616878585
[biosynthetic features and properties of xylose isomerases from arthrobacter nicotianae, escherichia coli, and erwinia carotovota subsp. atroseptica].the characteristics of xylose isomerase biosynthesis in the bacteria arthrobacter nicotianae bim b-5, erwinia carotovota subsp atroseptica jn42xyla, and escherichia coli hb101xyla have been studied. the bacteria formed the enzyme constitutively. out of the carbon sources studied, d-glucose and d-xylose were most favorable for the biosynthesis of xylose isomerase in e. carotovota subsp atroseptica, but the least appropriate in terms of the enzyme production efficiency in e. coli. minimum and maxi ...200616878542
[bacterial communities of brown and red algae from peter the great bay, the sea of japan].the structure of microbial communities of brown algae, red algae, and of the red alga gracilaria verrucosa, healthy and affected with rotten thallus, were comparatively investigated; 61 strains of heterotrophic bacteria were isolated and characterized. most of them were identified to the genus level, some vibrio spp., to the species level according to their phenotypic properties and the fatty acid composition of cellular lipids. the composition of the microflora of two species of brown algae was ...200616871810
a comparative study of the binding and inhibition of four copper-containing amine oxidases by azide: implications for the role of copper during the oxidative half-reaction.copper amine oxidases (cuaos) catalyze the oxidative deamination of primary amines operating through a ping-pong bi-bi mechanism. in this work, azide (an exogenous monodentate ligand) was used to probe the role of copper during the oxidative half-reaction of cuao catalysis. the effects of azide on both the reductive and oxidative half-reactions of pea seedling amine oxidase (psao), the recombinant human kidney diamine oxidase (rhdao), arthrobacter globiformis amine oxidase (agao), and pichia pas ...200616846222
lateral transfers of serine hydroxymethyltransferase (glya) and udp-n-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferase (mura) genes from free-living actinobacteria to the parasitic chlamydiae.the chlamydiae are important human and animal pathogens which form a phylogentically distinct lineage within the bacteria. there is evidence that some genes in these obligate intracellular parasites have undergone lateral exchange with other free-living organisms. in the present work, we describe two interesting cases of lateral gene transfer between chlamydiae and actinobacteria, which have been identified based on the shared presence of conserved inserts in two important proteins. in the enzym ...200616830093
a functional moba gene for molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide cofactor biosynthesis is required for activity and holoenzyme assembly of the heterotrimeric nicotine dehydrogenases of arthrobacter nicotinovorans.two arthrobacter nicotinovorans molybdenum enzymes hydroxylate the pyridine ring of nicotine. molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide (mcd) was determined to be a cofactor of these enzymes. a moba gene responsible for the formation of mcd could be identified and its function shown to be required for assembly of the heterotrimeric molybdenum enzymes.200616820521
bacterial community structure of a pesticide-contaminated site and assessment of changes induced in community structure during bioremediation.the introduction of culture-independent molecular screening techniques, especially based on 16s rrna gene sequences, has allowed microbiologists to examine a facet of microbial diversity not necessarily reflected by the results of culturing studies. the bacterial community structure was studied for a pesticide-contaminated site that was subsequently remediated using an efficient degradative strain arthrobacter protophormiae rkj100. the efficiency of the bioremediation process was assessed by mon ...200616819955
bacterial community in ancient siberian permafrost as characterized by culture and culture-independent methods.the microbial composition of ancient permafrost sediments from the kolyma lowland of northeast eurasia was examined through culture and culture-independent approaches. these sediments have been continuously frozen for 5,000 to 2-3 million years. a total of 265 bacteria 16s rrna gene sequences were amplified from the permafrost total-community genomic dna and screened by amplified ribosomal 16s rrna restriction analysis. members of three major lineages were found: gamma-proteobacteria (mostly xan ...200616805696
selective accumulation of light or heavy rare earth elements using gram-positive bacteria.the accumulation of samarium from a solution only containing samarium by arthrobacter nicotianae was examined. the amount of accumulated samarium was strongly affected by the concentration of samarium and ph of the solution. the accumulation of samarium by the strain was very rapid and reached equilibrium within 3h. the accumulation of samarium-europium or europium-gadolinium from the solution containing the two metals using various actinomycetes and gram-positive bacteria was also examined. mos ...200616797944
cloning and nucleotide sequence of carbaryl hydrolase gene (caha) from arthrobacter sp. rc100.a carbaryl hydrolase gene (caha) encoded on the plasmid prc1 in arthrobacter sp. rc100 was cloned and sequenced. the entire region of the deduced amino acid sequence was found to be homologous to that of an amidase family. parts of the consensus sequences of the amidase gene have been identified in caha from strain rc100. caha was overexpressed in escherichia coli jm109, and the enzyme was purified to homogeneity by protamine sulfate treatment, ammonium sulfate precipitation, and hydrophobic and ...200616781470
phenanthrene degradation in arthrobacter sp. p1-1: initial 1,2-, 3,4- and 9,10-dioxygenation, and meta- and ortho-cleavages of naphthalene-1,2-diol after its formation from naphthalene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid and hydroxyl naphthoic acids.arthrobacter sp. p1-1, isolated from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pah)-contaminated site in hilo, hi, usa, can decompose phenanthrene (40 mg l(-1)) completely within 7 days. a detailed phenanthrene metabolism map was constructed based on metabolite analysis and replacement cultures. initial dioxygenation occurs on 1,2-, 3,4-, and 9,10-c of phenanthrene, dominantly on 3,4-c positions. rapid accumulation of 5,6- and 7,8-benzocoumarin suggests that phenanthrene-1,2- and -3,4-diols mainly unde ...200616777186
reclassification of arthrobacter duodecadis lochhead 1958 as tetrasphaera duodecadis comb. nov. and emended description of the genus tetrasphaera.phylogenetic analysis based on 16s rrna gene sequences and chemotaxonomic features of arthrobacter duodecadis lochhead 1958 indicated that the bacterium belonged within the genus tetrasphaera. a. duodecadis iam 14868(t) could be distinguished from other species by the presence of 3-hydroxy meso-diaminopimelic acid in the peptidoglycan and a series of 10-methyl fatty acids. in addition, dna-dna relatedness studies indicated that the strain belonged to a genomic species that could be readily disti ...200616738116
[investigation and analysis of the bacteria community in silkworm intestine].majority of the environmental microorganisms are still unculturable. to shed a light on the bacteria community in the silkworm intestine more completely, culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were used to perform the investigation. as the latter, 16s rrna gene was amplified and a library was constructed by using the meta-genomic dna extracted from the bacteria in the silkworm intestine as template. restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) method was used to screen recombinants ...200616736593
protein engineering of a cold-active beta-galactosidase from arthrobacter sp. sb to increase lactose hydrolysis reveals new sites affecting low temperature activity.we examined variants of an especially cold-active beta-galactosidase (bgas) to better understand features affecting enzyme activity at temperature extremes. we targeted locations corresponding to a region in the lacz enzyme previously shown to increase activity and decrease thermostability. changes in this region of bgas consistently caused the elimination or reduction of activity. a gene (bgas3) encoding a loss of function variant was subjected to random mutagenesis to restore activity and disc ...200616736094
on the contribution of the positively charged headgroup of choline to substrate binding and catalysis in the reaction catalyzed by choline oxidase.recent kinetic studies established that the positive charge on the trimethylammonium group of choline plays an important role in substrate binding and specificity in the reaction catalyzed by choline oxidase. in the present study, ph and solvent viscosity effects with the isosteric analogue of choline 3,3-dimethyl-butan-1-ol have been used to further dissect the contribution of the substrate positive charge to substrate binding and catalysis in the reaction catalyzed by choline oxidase. both the ...200616713988
the x-ray structure of the haloalcohol dehalogenase hhea from arthrobacter sp. strain ad2: insight into enantioselectivity and halide binding in the haloalcohol dehalogenase family.haloalcohol dehalogenases are bacterial enzymes that cleave the carbon-halogen bond in short aliphatic vicinal haloalcohols, like 1-chloro-2,3-propanediol, some of which are recalcitrant environmental pollutants. they use a conserved ser-tyr-arg catalytic triad to deprotonate the haloalcohol oxygen, which attacks the halogen-bearing carbon atom, producing an epoxide and a halide ion. here, we present the x-ray structure of the haloalcohol dehalogenase hhea(ad2) from arthrobacter sp. strain ad2 a ...200616707696
phylogenetic diversity of culturable bacteria from alpine permafrost in the tianshan mountains, northwestern china.microbes have been discovered in permafrost sediments for nearly a century. however, microbiological analyses of alpine permafrost are very scarce. this study is a first attempt to describe the phylogenetic diversity of a culturable bacterial community isolated from alpine permafrost in the tianshan mountains in northwestern china. aerobic 2.5-6.0x10(5) cfu/gdw (cfu per 1 gram of dry weight) on modified pygv medium were recovered from alpine permafrost samples at 4 degrees c; among these, 91 bac ...200616690258
final steps in the catabolism of enzymes of nicotine catabolism instrumental in the detoxification of the tobacco alkaloid by arthrobacter nicotinovorans pao1 have been identified and characterized. nicotine breakdown leads to the formation of nicotine blue from the hydroxylated pyridine ring and of gamma-n-methylaminobutyrate (ch(3)-4-aminobutyrate) from the pyrrolidine ring of the molecule. surprisingly, two alternative pathways for the final steps in the catabolism of ch(3)-4-aminobutyrate could be identified. ch(3)-4-am ...200616689938
xylose utilization and short-chain fatty acid production by selected components of the intestinal microflora of a rodent pollinator (aethomys namaquensis).namaqua rock mice (aethomys namaquensis) consume nectar xylose when visiting protea flowers. whole-animal metabolism studies suggest that the gastrointestinal microflora plays an important role in xylose metabolism in a. namaquensis. we collected caecal contents under anaerobic conditions, cultured caecal microflora both aerobically and anaerobically, and assessed caecal microbial xylose utilization using a (14)c-xylose incubation assay. all four mice sampled hosted culturable caecal micro-organ ...200616676189
a single monooxygenase, ese, is involved in the metabolism of the organochlorides endosulfan and endosulfate in an arthrobacter this paper we describe isolation of a bacterium capable of degrading both isomers of the organochloride insecticide endosulfan and its toxic metabolite, endosulfate. the bacterium was isolated from a soil microbial population that was enriched with continuous pressure to use endosulfate as the sole source of sulfur. analysis of the 16s rrna sequence of the bacterium indicated that it was an arthrobacter species. the organochloride-degrading activity was not observed in the presence of sodium ...200616672499
horizontal gene transfer of pib-type atpases among bacteria isolated from radionuclide- and metal-contaminated subsurface soils.aerobic heterotrophs were isolated from subsurface soil samples obtained from the u.s. department of energy's (doe) field research center (frc) located at oak ridge, tenn. the frc represents a unique, extreme environment consisting of highly acidic soils with co-occurring heavy metals, radionuclides, and high nitrate concentrations. four hundred isolates obtained from contaminated soil were assayed for heavy metal resistance, and a smaller subset was assayed for tolerance to uranium. the vast ma ...200616672448
effects of site and plant species on rhizosphere community structure as revealed by molecular analysis of microbial guilds.the bacterial and fungal rhizosphere communities of strawberry (fragaria ananassa duch.) and oilseed rape (brassica napus l.) were analysed using molecular fingerprints. we aimed to determine to what extent the structure of different microbial groups in the rhizosphere is influenced by plant species and sampling site. total community dna was extracted from bulk and rhizosphere soil taken from three sites in germany in two consecutive years. bacterial, fungal and group-specific (alphaproteobacter ...200616629753
molecular identification and differentiation of brevibacterium species and strains.amplified ribosomal dna restriction enzyme analysis (ardra), pulsed field gel electrophoresis (pfge) and ribotyping were used to differentiate among 24 strains of brevibacterium linens, brevibacterium casei and brevibacterium epidermidis obtained from type culture collections or isolated from various smear ripened cheeses. ardra was applied to the 16s rdna. b. linens was shown to be a quite heterogenic group with 2 to at least 4 copies of rrn operons per strain with aberrant nucleotide sequences ...200716624515
rapid analysis of two food-borne microbial communities at the species level by fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy.the species composition of microbial communities in natural habitats may be extremely complex and therefore a quantitative analysis of the fraction each species contributes to the consortium has proven to be difficult. during recent years, the identification of bacterial pure cultures based on their infrared spectra has been established. fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy now proceeds a step further and allows identification of microorganisms directly plated from community dilutions. i ...200616623742
screening for microbial markers in miocene sediment exposed during open-cast brown coal mining.viable microorganisms were found in miocene lacustrine clays of the cypris formation excavated from 200-m below the surface as spoil during open-cast brown coal mining (sokolov brown coal basin, north-western bohemia, czech republic). both saprotrophic microfungi of the genera penicillium, verticillium, cladosporium and aspergillus as well as heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from an intact sediment cores. heterotrophic bacteria were classified by the mis sherlock system as representatives of ...200616622790
application of thermoalkalophilic xylanase from arthrobacter sp. mtcc 5214 in biobleaching of kraft pulp.a thermoalkalophilic and cellulase-free xylanase produced from arthrobacter sp. mtcc 5214 by solid-state fermentation using wheat bran as a carbon source was evaluated for prebleaching of kraft pulp. the uv absorption spectrum of the compounds released by enzyme treatment showed a characteristic peak at 280 nm, indicating the presence of lignin in the released colouring matter. enzymatic prebleaching of kraft pulp showed 20% reduction in kappa number of the pulp without much change in viscosity. ...200716617015
purification and molecular characterization of cold-active beta-galactosidase from arthrobacter psychrolactophilus strain this study, we purified and molecularly characterized a cold-active beta-galactosidase from arthrobacter psychrolactophilus strain f2. the purified beta-galactosidase from strain f2 exhibited high activity at 0 degrees c, and its optimum temperature and ph were 10 degrees c and 8.0, respectively. it was possible to inactivate the beta-galactosidase rapidly at 45 degrees c in 5 min. the enzyme was able to hydrolyze lactose as a substrate, as well as o-nitrophenyl-beta-d-galactopyranoside (onpg ...200616607530
kinetic and structural studies on the catalytic role of the aspartic acid residue conserved in copper amine oxidase.copper amine oxidase contains a post-translationally generated quinone cofactor, topa quinone (tpq), which mediates electron transfer from the amine substrate to molecular oxygen. the overall catalytic reaction is divided into the former reductive and the latter oxidative half-reactions based on the redox state of tpq. in the reductive half-reaction, substrate amine reacts with the c5 carbonyl group of the oxidized tpq, forming the substrate schiff base (tpq(ssb)), which is then converted to the ...200616566584
polymer-producing species of arthrobacter.gasdorf, helen j. (northern regional research laboratory, peoria, ill.), r. g. benedict, m. c. cadmus, r. f. anderson, and r. w. jackson. polymer-producing species of arthrobacter. j. bacteriol. 90:147-150.1965.-two slime-producing microorganisms, designated as nrrl b-1973 and nrrl b-1797, were isolated from a guatemalan soil sample. their morphological and physiological characteristics permit their assignment to the genus arthrobacter. both cultures produce a large amount of extracellular polys ...196516562010
revisiting the cellulosimicrobium cellulans yeast-lytic beta-1,3-glucanases toolbox: a review.cellulosimicrobium cellulans (also known with the synonyms cellulomonas cellulans, oerskovia xanthineolytica, and arthrobacter luteus) is an actinomycete that excretes yeast cell wall lytic enzyme complexes containing endo-beta-1,3-glucanases [ec and] as key constituents. three genes encoding endo-beta-1,3-glucanases from two c. cellulans strains have been cloned and characterised over the past years. the betaglii and betagliia genes from strain dsm 10297 (also known as o. xanth ...200616545129
purification and characterization of two extracellular alkaline phosphatases from a psychrophilic arthrobacter isolate.two extracellular, heat-labile alkaline phosphatases were purified from a psychrophilic arthrobacter isolate, d10. the enzymes were active over different ph ranges, used distinct substrates, and had different kinetic properties. each enzyme reacted specifically to its own antibody during immunoblot analysis. one had both monophosphatase and diesterase activities.199716535659
survival and phospholipid fatty acid profiles of surface and subsurface bacteria in natural sediment microcosms.although starvation survival has been characterized for many bacteria, few subsurface bacteria have been tested, and few if any have been tested in natural subsurface porous media. we hypothesized that subsurface bacteria may be uniquely adapted for long-term survival in situ. we further hypothesized that subsurface conditions (sediment type and moisture content) would influence microbial survival. we compared starvation survival capabilities of surface and subsurface strains of pseudomonas fluo ...199716535578
production of two extracellular alkaline phosphatases by a psychrophilic arthrobacter strain.we surveyed our collection of psychrophilic bacteria to determine the types of phosphatases they produce and whether any had heat-labile activities with potential applications. assays at different temperatures showed that the activity from one isolate was optimal at 45(deg)c and decreased dramatically above 55(deg)c. this isolate, d10, had the rod-coccus morphological cycle and cell wall amino acids associated with members of the arthrobacter genus. interestingly, we found that this strain made ...199616535422
stereoselective production of (+)-trans-chrysanthemic acid by a microbial esterase: cloning, nucleotide sequence, and overexpression of the esterase gene of arthrobacter globiformis in escherichia coli.volume 61, no. 9, p. 3209, column 2, line 23: "l22165" should read "l22516." [this corrects the article on p. 3208 in vol. 61.].199616535302
sulfur-specific microbial desulfurization of sterically hindered analogs of dibenzothiophene.dibenzothiophenes (dbts) bearing alkyl substitutions adjacent to the sulfur atom, such as 4,6-diethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-dedbt), are referred to as sterically hindered with regard to access to the sulfur moiety. by using enrichment cultures with 4,6-dedbt as the sole sulfur source, bacterial isolates which selectively remove sulfur from sterically hindered dbts were obtained. the isolates were tentatively identified as arthrobacter species. 4,6-dedbt sulfone was shown to be an intermediate in ...199516535189
nickel-resistant bacteria from anthropogenically nickel-polluted and naturally nickel-percolated ecosystems.dna fragments harboring the nickel resistance determinants from bacteria isolated from anthropogenically polluted ecosystems in europe and zaire were compared with those harboring the nickel resistance determinants from bacteria isolated from naturally nickel-percolated soils from new caledonia by dna-dna hybridization. the biotinylated dna probes were derived from the previously described alcaligenes eutrophus ch34, alcaligenes xylosoxidans 31a, alcaligenes denitrificans 4a-2, and klebsiella ox ...199516535048
optimization of culture conditions and properties of immobilized sulfide oxidase from arthrobacter species.arthrobacter species strain fr-3, isolated from sediments of a swamp, produced a novel serine-type sulfide oxidase. the production of sulfide oxidase was maximal at ph 7.5 and 30 degrees c. among various carbon and nitrogen sources tested, glucose and yeast extract were found to be the most effective substrates for the secretion of sulfide oxidase. the sulfide oxidase was purified to homogeneity and the molecular weight of the purified enzyme was 43 kda when estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-p ...200616530872
optimization of maldi-tof ms for strain level differentiation of arthrobacter isolates.matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) has been shown to be a rapid and sensitive method for characterization of bacteria, but it has not yet become a routine microbiological procedure. currently there are no standardized protocols that would allow development of large libraries of reproducible protein profiles from a broad range of microorganisms to use for identification purposes. important variables that may affect spectrum quality are mald ...200616513195
allergenicity assessment of transgenic mustard (brassica juncea) expressing bacterial coda gene.assessing the allergenicity and toxicity of genetically modified (gm) crops is essential before they become a regular part of our food supply. the present study aimed to assess the allergenicity of brassica juncea (mustard) expressing choline oxidase (coda) gene from arthrobacter globiformis that provides resistance against abiotic stresses.200616512812
crystallization and x-ray diffraction analysis of 6-aminohexanoate-dimer hydrolase from arthrobacter sp. investigate the structure-function relationship between 6-aminohexanoate-dimer hydrolase (eii) from arthrobacter sp. and a cryptic protein (eii') which shows 88% sequence identity to eii, a hybrid protein (named hyb-24) of eii and eii' was overexpressed, purified and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with ammonium sulfate as a precipitant in mes buffer ph 6.5. the crystal belongs to space group p3(1)21 or p3(2)21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 96.37, c = 113.09 a ...200516511198
evaluation of the stress-inducible production of choline oxidase in transgenic rice as a strategy for producing the stress-protectant glycine betaine.glycine betaine (gb) is a compatible solute that is also capable of stabilizing the structure and function of macromolecules. several gb-producing transgenic rice lines were generated in which the arthrobacter pascens choline oxidase (cox) gene, fused to a chloroplast targeting sequence (tp) was expressed under the control of an aba-inducible promoter (sip; stress-inducible promoter) or a ubiquitin (ubi) gene promoter that is considered to be constitutive. this comparison led to interesting obse ...200616510513
crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of endo-1,3-beta-glucanase from arthrobacter sp.endo-1,3-beta-glucanases hydrolyze internal 1,3-beta-glucosyl linkages. the endo-1,3-beta-glucanase from arthrobacter sp. was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. the crystals belonged to space group p4(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 71.31, c = 60.07 a, and contained one molecule per asymmetric unit. the matthews coefficient (vm) and the solvent content were 2.35 a3 da(-1) and 47.63%, respectively. diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.66 a at spring-8 usin ...200516508094
paranodulation of wheat roots. 200516485645
glycopeptide synthesis through endo-glycosidase-catalyzed oligosaccharide transfer of sugar oxazolines: probing substrate structural array of sugar oxazolines was synthesized and tested as donor substrates for the arthrobacter endo-beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase (endo-a)-catalyzed glycopeptide synthesis. the experiments revealed that the minimum structure of the donor substrate required for endo-a catalyzed transglycosylation is a man beta1-->4-glcnac oxazoline moiety. replacement of the beta-d-man moiety with beta-d-glc, beta-d-gal, and beta-d-glcnac monosaccharides resulted in the loss of substrate activity for the disacch ...200616470771
biochemical evidence for the proteolytic degradation of infectious prion protein prpsc in hamster brain homogenates by foodborne bacteria.prp(sc) is a general term to describe the infectious agent causing transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse), and the protease-resistant form of cellular prp(c). in this study, we have identified several protease-secreting bacteria able to degrade prp(sc) under more or less native conditions (30 degrees c, ph 8), focusing on strains isolated mainly from cheese. one hundred and ninty-nine protease-secreting isolates belonging to the actinomycetales and bacillales were screened for the express ...200616464698
purification, characterization, and gene cloning of a novel maltosyltransferase from an arthrobacter globiformis strain that produces an alternating alpha-1,4- and alpha-1,6-cyclic tetrasaccharide from starch.a glycosyltransferase, involved in the synthesis of cyclic maltosylmaltose [cmm; cyclo-{-->6)-alpha-d-glcp(1-->4)-alpha-d-glcp(1-->6)-alpha-d-glcp(1-->4)-alpha-d-glcp(1-->}] from starch, was purified to homogeneity from the culture supernatant of arthrobacter globiformis m6. the cmm-forming enzyme had a molecular mass of 71.7 kda and a pi of 3.6. the enzyme was most active at ph 6.0 and 50 degrees c and was stable from ph 5.0 to 9.0 and up to 30 degrees c. the addition of 1 mm ca2+ enhanced the ...200616461650
phenol degradation by immobilized cells of arthrobacter aerobic microorganism with an ability to utilize phenol as carbon and energy source was isolated from a hydrocarbon contamination site by employing selective enrichment culture technique. the isolate was identified as arthrobacter citreus based on morphological, physiological and biochemical tests. this mesophilic organism showed optimal growth at 25 degrees c and at ph of 7.0. the phenol utilization studies with arthrobacter citreus showed that the complete assimilation occurred in 24 hours. ...200616453171
attachment of different soil bacteria to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal extraradical hyphae is determined by hyphal vitality and fungal species.attachment of certain bacteria to living arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal extraradical hyphae may be an important prerequisite for interactions between these microorganisms, with implications for nutrient supply and plant health. the attachment of five different strains of gfp-tagged soil bacteria (paenibacillus brasilensis pb177 (pnf8), bacillus cereus va1 (pnf8), pseudomonas fluorescens sbw25 :: gfp/lux, arthrobacter chlorophenolicus a6g, and paenibacillus peoriae bd62 (pnf8)) to vital and nonvit ...200616451176
acaricomes phytoseiuli gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis.a gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium, strain csct, was isolated from diseased, surface-sterilized specimens of the predatory mite phytoseiulus persimilis athias-henriot and subjected to polyphasic taxonomic analysis. comparative analysis of the 16s rrna gene sequence revealed that the strain was a new member of the family micrococcaceae. nearest phylogenetic neighbours were determined as renibacterium salmoninarum (94.0%), arthrobacter globiformis (94.8%) and arthrobacter rus ...200616449459
low temperature reduction of hexavalent chromium by a microbial enrichment consortium and a novel strain of arthrobacter aurescens.chromium is a transition metal most commonly found in the environment in its trivalent [cr(iii)] and hexavalent [cr(vi)] forms. the epa maximum total chromium contaminant level for drinking water is 0.1 mg/l (0.1 ppm). many water sources, especially underground sources, are at low temperatures (less than or equal to 15 centigrade) year round. it is important to evaluate the possibility of microbial remediation of cr(vi) contamination using microorganisms adapted to these low temperatures (psychr ...200616436214
treatment of naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid from tannery wastewater by a granular activated carbon fixed bed inoculated with bacterial isolates arthrobacter globiformis and comamonas testosteroni.the kinetics of naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid (2-nsa) adsorption by granular activated carbon (gac) were measured and the relationships between adsorption, desorption, bioavailability and biodegradation assessed. the conventional langmuir model fitted the experimental sorption isotherm data and introduced 2-nsa degrading bacteria, established on the surface of the gac, did not interfere with adsorption. the potential value of gac as a microbial support in the aerobic degradation of 2-nsa by arthro ...200616427119
decolorization and degradation of methylene blue by arthrobacter globiformis. 200516402302
[phosphorus compensates aluminium-induced effects on arthrobacter cells]. 200516400998
[experimental and mathematical modeling of population dynamics of rhizospheric bacteria under conditions of cadmium stress].the method of membrane filters was used to study the population dynamics of bacteria belonging to the genera arthrobacter, flavobacterium, and klebsiella in barley (hordeum vulgare) rhizosphere under conditions of cadmium stress (5-15 mg cd/g soil). mathematical modeling allowed us to demonstrate that the phytoprotective effect is implemented via the following succession of events: the bacteria synthesize phytohormones (iaa and ethylene)-->root excretory activity increases-->the number of the ba ...200516400997
pcr evaluation of false-positive signals from two automated blood-culture systems.rapid detection of micro-organisms from blood is one of the most critical functions of a diagnostic microbiology laboratory. automated blood-culture systems reduce the time needed to detect positive cultures, and reduce specimen handling. the false-positive rate of such systems is 1-10%. in this study, the presence of pathogens in 'false-positive' bottles obtained from bactec 9050 (becton dickinson) and bact/alert (biomérieux) systems was investigated by eubacterial and fungal pcr. a total of 16 ...200616388030
removal and recovery of lithium using various microorganisms.the accumulation of lithium by microorganisms was examined. among the 70 strains of the 63 species tested (20 bacteria, 18 actinomycetes, 18 fungi, and 14 yeasts), a high lithium accumulating ability was exhibited by strains of the bacteria, arthrobacter nicotianae and brevibacterium helovolum. lithium accumulation by a. nicotianae cells was strongly affected by the ph of the solution. the amount of accumulated lithium was maximum at ph 6. cells immobilized with polyacrylamide gel also adsorbed ...200516384797
bacteria isolated from the different developmental stages and larval organs of the obligate parasitic fly, wohlfahrtia magnifica (diptera: sarcophagidae).wohlfahrtia magnifica (diptera: sarcophagidae) is the major myiasis-causing fly species in the whole of eurasia for most important domestic animals. the aim of the present work was to obtain data on the culturable bacteria isolated under aerobic conditions from this fly: bacteria were isolated from all developmental stages (larvae, pupa, and imago) of wohlfahrtia magnifica, and the third-stage larval organs were also sampled. to determine the possible antagonistic effects between the dominant ba ...200616382282
electrochemical sensor based on arthrobacter globiformis for cholinesterase activity determination.the sensors applied recently for determination of cholinesterase activity are mostly enzymatic amperometric sensors, in spite of their disadvantages: short life-time at ambient temperature, instability of the response, interferences, as well as passivation of the electrode surface. in the present paper a new approach for determination of cholinesterase activity was proposed, overcoming the main drawbacks of the analysis performed with amperometric enzymatic sensors. instead of the immobilization ...200616376069
ecology of soil arthrobacters in clarion-webster toposequences of iowa.toposequence variations in soil properties were characterized and related to variations in populations of total isolatable bacteria and arthrobacters. increases in soil no(3)-n, available phosphorous, no(3)-n-producing power, arthrobacter counts, and the percentage of the total counts represented by arthrobacters were correlated with decreases in soil acidity. the total bacterial counts were not correlated with soil acidity but were associated with percentage of soil organic matter and percentag ...197516350010
arthrobacter globiformis and its bacteriophage in soil.bacteriophages in soil for arthrobacter globiformis were rarely detected unless the soil was nutritionally amended and incubated. in amended soil, phage were continuously produced for at least 48 h, and this did not require the addition of host cells. rod and spheroid stage host cells added to the amended soil encountered indigenous bacteriophage, but added phage did not encounter sensitive indigenous host cells for some time, if at all. the indigenous phage in nonincubated soil seemed to be pre ...197416350007
metabolism of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid by soil bacteria.a microorganism capable of degrading 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (mcpa) was isolated from soil and identified as flavobacterium peregrinum. all of the chlorine of mcpa was released as chloride, and the carboxyl-carbon was converted to volatile products by growing cultures of the bacterium, but a phenol accumulated in the medium. the phenol was identified as 4-chloro-2-methylphenol on the basis of its gas chromatographic and infrared characteristics. extracts of cells of f. peregrinum and ...196716349751
changes in ester-linked phospholipid fatty acid profiles of subsurface bacteria during starvation and desiccation in a porous medium.ester-linked phospholipid fatty acid (plfa) profiles of a pseudomonas aureofaciens strain and an arthrobacter protophormiae strain, each isolated from a subsurface sediment, were quantified in a starvation experiment in a silica sand porous medium under moist and dry conditions. washed cells were added to sand microcosms and maintained under saturated conditions or subjected to desiccation by slow drying over a period of 16 days to final water potentials of approximately - 7.5 mpa for the p. aur ...199416349382
effect of organic matter decomposition level on bacterial species diversity and composition in relationship to pythium damping-off severity.rhizosphere bacteria were isolated from root tip segments of cucumber seedlings grown in a suppressive, slightly decomposed light-colored peat mix, a conducive, more decomposed dark-colored peat mix, and a suppressive dark peat mix amended with composted hardwood bark. the bacteria were identified by a gas chromatographic fatty acid methyl ester analysis. the total number of taxa recovered from a single root tip segment ranged from 9 to 18. no single taxon predominated on all root tip segments h ...199316349117
physicochemical cell surface and adhesive properties of coryneform bacteria related to the presence and chain length of mycolic acids.the presence and chain length of mycolic acids of bacteria of the genera corynebacterium, rhodococcus, gordona, mycobacterium, and arthrobacter and of coryneform bacteria containing a type b peptidoglycan were related to the cell surface hydrophobicity of the bacteria, which in turn was related to adhesion of the cells to defined surfaces such as teflon and glass. the origin of the overall negative charge of these bacteria is discussed.199316349100
effects of grazing by flagellates on competition for ammonium between nitrifying and heterotrophic bacteria in soil columns.the enhanced mineralization of immobilized nitrogen by bacteriophagous protozoa has been thought to favor the nitrification process in soils in which nitrifying bacteria must compete with heterotrophic bacteria for the available ammonium. to obtain more insight into this process, the influence of grazing by the flagellate adriamonas peritocrescens on the competition for ammonium between the chemolithotrophic species nitrosomonas europaea and the heterotrophic species arthrobacter globiformis in ...199316348988
molecular rearrangement of longifolene by arthrobacter ilicis t(2).arthrobacter ilicis t(2) brings about a unique type of cometabolic structural rearrangement of longifolene, a sesquiterpene, resulting in the formation of an acid. infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, and decoupling studies indicate that the acid product has a sativenelike structure, which is confirmed by conversion of the acid to its methyl ester and hydrocarbon.199316348946
heteropolysaccharide formation by arthrobacter viscosus grown on xylose and xylose oligosaccharides.arthrobacter viscosus nrrl b-1973 produces its viscous extracellular polysaccharides (eps) when grown on media containing xylose or enzymatic xylan hydrolysates. crude eps formation from xylose averaged 12 g/liter when initial culture ph was adjusted to 8.0 and total nitrogen was limited to 0.03%. purified eps from pentose and hexose substrates were analyzed for their monosaccharide, acetyl, and uronic acid components, intrinsic viscosities, and average molecular masses. differences were apparen ...199216348800
scanning electron and light microscopic study of microbial succession on bethlehem st. nectaire nectaire cheese is a semisoft cheese of french origin that, along with brie and camembert cheeses, belongs to the class of surface mold-ripened cheese. the surface microorganisms that develop on the cheese rind during ripening impart a distinctive aroma and flavor to this class of cheese. we have documented the sequential appearance of microorganisms on the cheese rind and in the curd over a 60-day ripening period. scanning electron microscopy was used to visualize the development of surface ...199216348797
competition for ammonium between nitrifying and heterotrophic bacteria in continuously percolated soil columns.although the absence of nitrate formation in grassland soils rich in organic matter has often been reported, low numbers of nitrifying bacteria are still found in these soils. to obtain more insight into these observations, we studied the competition for limiting amounts of ammonium between the chemolithotrophic ammonium-oxidizing species nitrosomonas europaea and the heterotrophic species arthrobacter globiformis in the presence of nitrobacter winogradskyi with soil columns containing calcareou ...199216348787
relationship between transport of bacteria and their clogging efficiency in sand an earlier article, we reported that, under conditions in which neither exopolymers nor bacterial mats were produced, arthrobacter sp. strain ak19 was an effective plugging agent in sand columns, whereas the bacterial strain sli had no significant effect on the permeability of the medium. a laboratory experiment with sand columns was carried out to elucidate the causes of this difference in behavior. measured values of the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the sand were explained in terms o ...199216348753
effects of grazing by flagellates on competition for ammonium between nitrifying and heterotrophic bacteria in chemostats.the enhanced mineralization of organic nitrogen by bacteriophagous protozoa is thought to favor the nitrification process in soils, in which nitrifying bacteria have to compete with heterotrophic bacteria for the available ammonium. to obtain more insight into this process, the influence of grazing by the bacteriovorous flagellate adriamonas peritocrescens on the competition for limiting amounts of ammonium between the ammonium-oxidizing species nitrosomonas europaea and the heterotrophic specie ...199216348722
competition for ammonium between nitrifying and heterotrophic bacteria in dual energy-limited chemostats.the absence of nitrification in soils rich in organic matter has often been reported. therefore, competition for limiting amounts of ammonium between the chemolithotrophic ammonium-oxidizing species nitrosomonas europaea and the heterotrophic species arthrobacter globiformis was studied in the presence of nitrobacter winogradskyi in continuous cultures at dilution rates of 0.004 and 0.01 h. ammonium limitation of a. globiformis was achieved by increasing the glucose concentration in the reservoi ...199116348588
biodegradation by an arthrobacter species of hydrocarbons partitioned into an organic arthrobacter strain mineralized naphthalene and n-hexadecane dissolved in 2,2,4,4,6,8,8-heptamethylnonane. the extent of mineralization increased with greater volumes of solvent. measurements under aseptic conditions of the partitioning of naphthalene into the aqueous phase from the solid phase or from heptamethylnonane showed that the rates were rapid and did not limit mineralization. the rate of mineralization of hexadecane was rapid, although partitioning of the compound into aqueous solut ...199116348485
relationship between cell surface properties and transport of bacteria through soil.a study was conducted to relate the properties of enterobacter, pseudomonas, bacillus, achromobacter, flavobacterium, and arthrobacter strains to their transport with water moving through soil. the bacteria differed markedly in their extent of transport; their hydrophobicity, as measured by adherence to n-octane and by hydrophobic-interaction chromatography; and their net surface electrostatic charge, as determined by electrostatic interaction chromatography and by measurements of the zeta poten ...199116348394
adhesion of an amylolytic arthrobacter sp. to starch-containing plastic films.cells of the amylolytic bacterium kb-1 (thought to be an arthrobacter sp.) adhered ( approximately 70%) to the surface of plastic films composed of starch-poly (methylacrylate) graft copolymer (starch-pma), but did not adhere (<10%) to films composed of polymethylacrylate (pma), polyethylene (pe), carboxymethyl cellulose, or a mixture of pe plus poly (ethylene-coacrylic acid) (eaa), starch plus pe, or starch plus pe and eaa. about 30% of the cells adhered to gelatinized insoluble starch. dithiot ...199016348173
induction and purification of endo-beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase from arthrobacter protophormiae grown in ovalbumin.arthrobacter protophormiae produced a high level of extracellular endo-beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase when cells were grown in a medium containing ovalbumin. the enzyme was induced by the glycopeptide fraction of ovalbumin prepared by pronase digestion. production of the enzyme was also induced by glycoproteins such as yeast invertase and bovine ribonuclease b but not by monosaccharides such as mannose, n-acetylglucosamine, and galactose. the enzyme was purified to homogeneity as demonstrated by p ...198916348072
protozoan response to the addition of bacterial predators and other bacteria to soil.representatives of several categories of bacteria were added to soil to determine which of them might elicit responses from the soil protozoa. the various categories were nonobligate bacterial predators of bacteria, prey bacteria for these predators, indigenous bacteria that are normally present in high numbers in soil, and non-native bacteria that often find their way in large numbers into soil. the soil was incubated and the responses of the indigenous protozoa were determined by most-probable ...198916347983
degradation of 4-chlorobenzoate by facultatively alkalophilic arthrobacter sp. strain sb8.a facultative alkalophile capable of utilizing 4-chlorobenzoate (4-cba), strain sb8, was isolated from soil with an alkaline medium (ph 10.0) containing the haloaromatic compound as the carbon source. the strain, identified as an arthrobacter sp., showed rather extensive 4-cba-degrading ability. 4-cba utilization by the strain was possible in the alkaline medium containing up to 10 g of the compound per liter. the 4-cba-dechlorinating activity of resting cells was almost completely uninhibited b ...198916347854
isolation and preliminary characterization of hydroxamic acids formed by nitrogen-fixing azotobacter chroococcum b-8.the free-living diazotroph azotobacter chroococcum b-8 responded to iron-limited growth conditions by forming hydroxamic acids and an 85,000-dalton outer membrane protein. the fe(iii)-binding hydroxamate compounds stimulated the growth of arthrobacter flavescens jg-9 and gave a positive csaky reaction for bound hydroxylamines. the hydroxamates were isolated from liquid cultures by benzyl alcohol extraction and purified by size exclusion chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. ...198916347843
isolation and characterization of a mutant of arthrobacter sp. strain glp-1 which utilizes the herbicide glyphosate as its sole source of phosphorus and nitrogen.arthrobacter sp. strain glp-1, grown on glucose as a carbon source, utilizes the herbicide glyphosate [n-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] as its sole source of phosphorus as well as its sole source of nitrogen. the mutant strain glp-1/nit-1 utilizes glyphosate as its sole source of nitrogen as well. in strain glp-1, p(i) was a potent competitive inhibitor of glyphosate uptake (k(i), 24 mum), while the affinity of p(i) for the uptake system of strain glp-1/nit-1 was reduced by 2 orders of magnitude (k(i ...198816347784
mineralization of carbofuran by a soil bacterium.a bacterium, tentatively identified as an arthrobacter sp., was isolated from flooded soil that was incubated at 35 degrees c and repeatedly treated with carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl n-methylcarbamate). this bacterium exhibited an exceptional capacity to completely mineralize the ring-labeled c in carbofuran to co(2) within 72 to 120 h in a mineral salts medium as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen under aerobic conditions. mineralization was more rapid at 35 degrees c t ...198816347722
isolation and preliminary characterization of twenty bacteriophages infecting either brevibacterium or arthrobacter strains.thirty-seven bacteriophages plaquing on corynebacterium, brevibacterium, or arthrobacter strains were isolated from soil or vegetation samples. restriction analysis of phage dna indicated that 20 phages were unique; one of them produced entirely turbid plaques on brevibacterium ketoglutamicum and was characterized as temperate. all these phages were assigned to group b of the classification of bradley (bacteriol. rev. 31:230-314, 1967) and had relatively narrow host ranges.198816347657
degradation of the phosphonate herbicide glyphosate by arthrobacter atrocyaneus atcc 13752.of nine authentic arthrobacter strains tested, only a. atrocyaneus atcc 13752 was capable of using the herbicide glyphosate [n-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] as its sole source of phosphorus. contrary to the previously isolated arthrobacter sp. strain glp-1, which degrades glyphosate via sarcosine, a. atrocyaneus metabolized glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid. the carbon of aminomethylphosphonic acid was entirely converted to co(2). this is the first report on glyphosate degradation by a bacter ...198816347639
oxidative pathway from squalene to geranylacetone in arthrobacter sp. strain y-11.the reaction pathway from squalene to trans-geranylacetone in arthrobacter sp. strain y-11 was studied. the enzyme or enzymes catalyzing squalene degradation were found to be membrane bound. stoichiometric analysis of a cell-free system revealed that the ratio of squalene to trans-geranylacetone changed from 1:2 to 1:1 as the reaction proceeded, indicating two steps in geranylacetone formation. the initial step was found to be oxygenase catalyzed, from the absolute requirement for molecular oxyg ...198816347551
uptake of glyphosate by an arthrobacter sp.the uptake of glyphosate (n-[phosphonomethyl]glycine) by an arthrobacter sp. which can utilize this herbicide as its sole source of phosphorus was investigated. orthophosphate suppressed the expression of the uptake system for glyphosate and also competed with glyphosate for uptake. the k(m) for glyphosate uptake was 125 mum, and the k(i) for orthophosphate was 24 mum. organophosphonates as well as organophosphates inhibited glyphosate uptake, but only organophosphates and orthophosphate suppres ...198716347356
microbiological degradation of malodorous substances of swine waste under aerobic conditions.phenol, p-cresol, and volatile fatty acids (vfa; acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, and valeric acids) were used as odor indicators of swine waste. aeration of the waste allowed the indigenous microorganisms to grow and degrade these malodorous substances. the time required for degradation of these substances varied according to the waste used, and it was not necessarily related to their concentrations. using a minimal medium which contained one of the malodorous compounds as so ...198716347254
bacterial growth rates and competition affect nodulation and root colonization by rhizobium meliloti.the addition of streptomycin to nonsterile soil suppressed the numbers of bacterial cells in the rhizosphere of alfalfa (medicago sativa l.) for several days, resulted in the enhanced growth of a streptomycin-resistant strain of rhizobium meliloti, and increased the numbers of nodules on the alfalfa roots. a bacterial mixture inoculated into sterile soil inhibited the colonization of alfalfa roots by r. meliloti, caused a diminution in the number of nodules, and reduced plant growth. enterobacte ...198616347173
acetylene metabolism and stimulation of denitrification in an agricultural soil.the effects of c(2)h(2) metabolism on n(2)o production were examined in soil slurries. enrichment of c(2)h(2) consumption activity occurred only in aerobic incubations. rapid disappearance of subsequent c(2)h(2) additions, stimulation of co(2) production, and most-probable-number enumerations of c(2)h(2) utilizers indicated enrichment of the population responsible. during c(2)h(2) consumption in slurries incubated statically under air, maximal rates of n(2)o evolution were 19 times higher than t ...198616347172
identification of eubacteria isolated from leaf cavities of four species of the n-fixing azolla fern as arthrobacter conn and dimmick.the nutritional and physiological characteristics of 15 isolates from four species of the azolla fern were determined. although some minor variation existed in levels of urease activity, ability to utilize xylose, and formation of n(2) gas from no(3), all 15 isolates were rather similar and believed to represent a single species. these eubacteria exhibited aminopeptidase activity and became viscous when treated with koh, similar to gram-negative organisms; however, the absence of lipopolysacchar ...198616347144
purification and characterization of benzonitrilases from arthrobacter sp. strain j-1.we found two kinds of benzonitrilases, designated benzonitrilases a and b, in a cell extract of arthrobacter sp. strain j-1 grown on benzonitrile as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. benzonitrilases a and b were purified approximately 409-fold and 38-fold, respectively. purified benzonitrilase a appeared to be homogeneous according to the criteria of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. both the enzymes hydrolyzed benzonitrile to benzoic acid and ammonia without forming benzamide as an intermedi ...198616346987
production and characterization of a polymer from arthrobacter arthrobacter sp. isolated from a glucose-sucrose agar plate was found to produce a neutral, extremely viscous, opalescent extracellular polymer. growth, polymer production, and rheological properties and chemical composition of the isolated polymer were examined. the polymer was found to be substantially different from other arthrobacter polymers. some unusual properties included irreversible loss of viscosity with high temperature and degradation of the polymer during fermentation and upon s ...198516346883
characterization of subsurface bacteria associated with two shallow aquifers in oklahoma.the bacterial microflora of two shallow aquifers (saturated subsurface zones) in oklahoma was characterized by direct observation with light and electron microscopy, by plating, and by examination of colony morphology and distribution. isolated bacterial strains were also examined. total cell counts varied only slightly (2.9 x 10 to 9.8 x 10 g [dry wt]) from sample to sample, whereas colony counts varied widely (6.3 x 10 to 6.5 x 10 cfu g [dry wt]). colony counts on nutritionally rich media were ...198516346877
survival of bacteria and fungi in relation to water activity and the solvent properties of water in biopolymer gels.survival of bacteria (rhizobium, agrobacterium, and arthrobacter spp.), fungal spores (penicillium sp.), and yeasts (saccharomyces sp.) was studied in relation to water activity (a(w)) and the presence of nutritive solutes. the cells were entrapped in polysaccharide gels, as is done to immobilize cells or enzymes, and then dehydrated. the number of living cells (10 g of dry polymer) remained constant for periods of storage of >3 years at 28 degrees c when the inocula were kept at an a(w) of <0.0 ...198516346829
selective isolation of bacillus sphaericus from soil by use of acetate as the only major source of carbon.a simple chemically defined medium containing sodium acetate (37 or 74 mm) as the only major source of carbon was inoculated with soil from various locations. the bacteria which grew most rapidly at 30 degrees c were almost entirely strains of bacillus sphaericus and arthrobacter species. pasteurization of the soils made the medium selective for b. sphaericus. several new strains were isolated, and the peptidoglycans of their cell walls were examined.198516346815
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