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ultrastructure and partial characterization of a regular array in the cell wall of lactobacillus brevis.the cell wall of lactobacillus brevis was revealed by electron microscopy to have an outer layer composed of a regular array. the morphological unit of the regular array appeared to consist of four spherical subunits, each about 2 nm in diameter, which were arranged in a tetragonal pattern about 4.5 by 7.0 nm in dimension. the regular array was composed of the tetragonal units in rows in two directions at an angle of about 75 degrees to each other. the average spacing between the rows was about ...197992747
d-xylose isomerase from lactobacillus brevis. 1975236477
adjuvanticity of lactobacilli. i. differential effects of viable and killed bacteria.the adjuvanticity of lactobacillus brevis and lactobacillus plantarum was the subject of this study. the latter was the better adjuvant in both delayed hypersensivity and antibody formation to sheep red blood cells. viable l. plantarum stimulated exclusively the delayed hypersensivity, where heat-killed bacteria had an adjuvant effect on antibody formation. for optimal adjuvant effects lactobacilli had to be injected in a dose of 10(8) into the same site as the antigen. viable lactobacilli and t ...1979387312
colonization resistance against potentially pathogenic bacteria in hexaflora-associated gnotobiotic mice.a study of colonization resistance against potentially pathogenic bacteria (escherichia coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa) was conducted in hexaflora-associated gnotobiotic mice. groups of germfree akr mice were swabbed with five bacterial and a single gastrointestinal yeast species: streptococcus faecalis. lactobacillus brevis. staphylococcus epidermidis, enterobacter aerogenes, bacteroides fragilis var. vulgatus, and torulopsis sp. all species became established in the gut in 8 weeks. later thes ...1978417787
[on the metabolism of amino acids by lactic acid bacteria isolated from wine (author's transl)].the changes in the concentrations of amino acids in the culture medium of lactic acid bacteria were determined by ion exchange chromatography after growth of 105 strains that were mainly isolated from wine. after growth of lactic acid bacteria a small but not significant decrease in the concentration of most amino acids is observed. there is apparently no difference between essential or not essential amino acids. certain bacterial strains decompose the amino acids arginine, glutamic acid, histid ...1976973463
existence of phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate phosphotransferase systems in lactobacillus fermentum, an obligate heterofermenter.the presence or absence of the phosphoenolpyruvate: carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (pts) in obligately heterofermentative group iii lactobacilli including lactobacillus brevis (3 strains), l. buchneri (2 strains) and l. fermentum (3 strains) was surveyed systematically for a series of sugars utilizable by these organisms. contrary to common expectation, ptss were found in two strains of l. fermentum: sucrose-pts in one strain; sucrose- and mannose-ptss in the other. all these activities ...19921513267
headspace flavour compounds produced by yeasts and lactobacilli during fermentation of preferments and bread doughs.production of volatile flavour compounds during fermentation with pure cultures of saccharomyces cerevisiae and candida guilliermondii, lactobacillus brevis and lactobacillus plantarum have been investigated, using wheat doughs and several preferements as substrates. for yeast, preferments consisted of 10% (w/v) glucose, maltose and sucrose solutions, whereas for lactobacilli they consisted of supplemented and unsupplemented (3% and 10% (w/v)) glucose solutions, and a 10% (w/v) wheat flour slurr ...19921622751
ecology of accelerated natural lactic fermentation of sorghum-based infant food formulas.accelerated natural lactic fermentation of mixed sorghum-cowpea (formula 1) and sorghum-milkpowder (formula 2) infant food formulas was achieved by repetitive (60 fermentation cycles of 24 h each) use of the previous batch as an inoculum at a rate of 10% (w/w) and resulted in a gradual establishment of mixed populations of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. in formula 1, early fermentation stages (fermentation cycles 1-4) were dominated by leuconostoc and lactococcus spp. which caused conditions i ...19912049286
evidence for the presence of heat-stable protein (hpr) and atp-dependent hpr kinase in heterofermentative lactobacilli lacking phosphoenolpyruvate:glycose phosphotransferase activity.an analysis of the biochemical basis for the lack of phosphoenolpyruvate:glycose phosphotransferase activity in heterofermentative lactobacilli was carried out. extracts of lactobacillus brevis and lactobacillus buchneri failed to reconstitute phosphotransferase activity of extracts of staphylococcus aureus mutants impaired in the phosphotransferase system due to the absence of enzyme i, enzyme iilac, or enzyme iiilac activity, suggesting that these lactobacilli lack those phosphotransferase sys ...19882832843
lipase activity of lactobacillus brevis. 19734732852
sequence characterization of 5s ribosomal rna from eight gram positive procaryotes.the available comparative data on procaryotic 5s rrna was extended through sequencing studies of eight gram positive procaryotes. complete nucleotide sequences were presented for 5s rrna from bacillus subtilis, b. firmus, b. pasteurii, b. brevis, lactobacillus brevis and streptococcus faecalis. in addition, 5s rrna oligonucleotide catalogs and partial sequence data were provided for b. cereus and sporosarcina ureae. these sequences and catalogs were discussed in terms of known features of procar ...1976823342
a new hydrolase specific for taurine-conjugates of bile acids.through the investigation of the bile acid-deconjugation activities of human intestinal anaerobes, a new enzyme was discovered in peptostreptococcus intermedius which hydrolyzed specifically the taurine-conjugates, but not the glycine-conjugates of bile acids. however, the enzymes in streptococcus faecalis and lactobacillus brevis hydrolyzed chiefly the glycine-conjugates.1978100491
superprecipitation-like phenomenon and destruction induced by adenosine 5'-triphosphate in spirosomes isolated from lactobacillus brevis. 19826298583
distribution and effects of a defined six-member murine-derived microflora in gnotobiotic gerbils.the gnotobiotic gerbil was selected as a model with which to study the effects of colonization with a defined microflora on organ morphology, histology, and selected blood biochemical parameters. gerbils were maintained germfree for 13 months but failed to reproduce, presumably because of the enlarged cecum. a colony of gnotobiotic gerbils that was associated with a bacterial flora consisting of lactobacillus brevis, streptococcus faecalis, staphylococcus epidermidis, bacteroides vulgatus, enter ...19846426388
grouping antigens of four lactobacillus species and their characteristics.antigenic analyses of lactobacillus bulgaricus, lactobacillus lactis, lactobacillus brevis and lactobacillus buchneri were carried out by double immunodiffusion in agar. antigens were extracted from whole cells and cell wall preparations with cold trichloroacetic acid. most strains of the four species possessed antigen 9 in their cell walls. another antigen, antigen 10, was found in the cell walls of all the strains of l. brevis and l. buchneri, and in some strains of l. lactis, but not in l. bu ...197662862
purification and characterization of spirosomes in lactobacillus brevis.spirosomes, very find spiral particles, were isolated from a protoplastlysate of lactobacillus brevis atcc 8287 by differential centrifugation and purified further by potassium tartrate density gradient centrifugation. the purified spirosome preparation showed a maximum peak around 275 nm on the ultraviolet absorption spectrum and it consisted of about 94.5% protein. the buoyant density in cscl of the spirosomes was 1.320 g/cm3. the spirosomes were composed mainly of a single protein (spirosin w ...19827109979
[antibiotic properties of lactobacterium breve]. 19675618077
kefiran, a novel polysaccharide produced in the kefir grain by lactobacillus brevis. 19675602464
reassembly of the regularly arranged subunits in the cell wall os lactobacillus brevis and their reattachment to cell walls.the reassembly of tetragonally arranged subunits in the cell wall of lactobacillus brevis and the reattachment of the subunits to cell wall fragments were investigated by electron microscopy. the subunits dissociated from the cell wall with guanidine hydrochloride (ghcl) reassembled into the same regular array as seen in native cell wall after dialysis against neutral buffer even in the absence of specific cations. the subunits could also reattach to the cell wall fragments from which they had b ...19807392976
metabolic activities of lactobacillus brevis. effect of ph, glucose and butane-2,3-diol.the effect of ph on the metabolic activities of lactobacillus brevis was studied. significant changes in the patterns of volatile components were found at ph 6. butan-2-ol was formed; the concentration of propan-1-ol was increased by 38,5% at ph 6, 62% at ph 4.5, and 30% at ph 3.0. the effect of glucose and butane-2,3-diol on the production of volatile components was examined. it was shown that propan-1-ol was formed exclusively from glucose, whereas ethyl acetate, butan-2-ol and other unknown s ...19807415533
biosynthesis of diacetyl in bacteria and yeast.both diacetyl and acetoin were produced by cell-free extracts and cultures of pseudomonas fluorescens, aerobacter aerogenes, lactobacillus brevis, and saccharomyces cerevisiae 299, whereas only acetoin was produced by cell-free extracts and cultures of streptococcus lactis, serratia marcescens, escherichia coli, and s. cerevisiae strains 513 and 522. cell-free extracts that produced diacetyl did not produce it from acetoin; they produced it from pyruvate, but only if acetyl-coenzyme a was was ad ...19684876127
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-independent lactate dehydrogenases in homofermentative and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria.three homofermentative (lactobacillus plantarum b38, l. plantarum b33, pediococcus pentosaceus b30) and three heterofermentative (leuconostoc mesenteroides 39, l. oenos b70, lactobacillus brevis) lactic acid bacteria were examined for the presence or absence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (nad)-dependent and nad-independent d- and l-lactate dehydrogenases. two of the six strains investigated, p. pentosaceus and l. oenos, did not exhibit an nad-independent enzyme activity capable of reducin ...19714333320
comparative characterization of spirosomes isolated from lactobacillus brevis, lactobacillus fermentum, and lactobacillus buchneri.spirosomes, cytoplasmic fine spirals, were isolated and purified from lactobacillus brevis atcc 8287, l. fermentum f-1, and l. buchneri atcc 4005, and their morphological, biochemical, and immunological properties were investigated. the spirosomes of these lactobacilli were morphologically indistinguishable from one another, and they had the same buoyant density of 1.320 g/cm3 in cscl. all of the spirosomes were composed of a single protein, spirosin, with an apparent molecular weight of about 9 ...19892733612
cooperative binding of lactose and the phosphorylated phosphocarrier protein hpr(ser-p) to the lactose/h+ symport permease of lactobacillus brevis.lactobacillus brevis accumulates lactose and nonmetabolizable lactose analogues via sugar/h+ symport, but addition of glucose to the extracellular medium results in rapid efflux of the free sugar from the cells due to the uncoupling of sugar transport from proton transport. by using vesicles of l. brevis cells, we recently showed that these regulatory/effects could be attributed to the metabolite-activated atp-dependent protein kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation of serine-46 in the phosphocarrier ...19957831302
allosteric regulation of the glucose:h+ symporter of lactobacillus brevis: cooperative binding of glucose and hpr(ser-p).lactobacillus brevis transports glucose and the nonmetabolizable glucose analog 2-deoxyglucose via a proton symport mechanism that is allosterically inhibited by the seryl-phosphorylated derivative of hpr, the small phosphocarrier protein of the phosphotransferase system. we have demonstrate that s46dhpr, a mutant analog of hpr which conformationally resembles hpr(ser-p) but not free hpr, specifically binds to membranes derived from glucose-grown l. brevis cells if and only if a substrate of the ...19957896720
evidence for an essential histidine residue in d-xylose isomerases.diethyl pyrocarbonate inactivated d-xylose isomerases from streptomyces violaceoruber, streptomyces sp., lactobacillus xylosus and lactobacillus brevis with second-order rate constants of 422, 417, 99 and 92 m-1.min-1 respectively (at ph 6.0 and 25 degrees c). activity was completely restored by the addition of neutral hydroxylamine, and total protection was afforded by the substrate analogue xylitol in the presence of either mg2+ or mn2+ according to the genus studied. the difference spectra of ...19883355509
biological utilisation of pearl millet flour fermented with yeasts and lactobacilli.mixed culture fermentation of pearl millet flour with saccharomyces diastaticus, saccharomyces cerevisiae, lactobacillus brevis and lactobacillus fermentum brought about an improvement in its biological utilisation in rats. protein efficiency ratio, feed efficiency ratio, apparent protein digestibility, true protein digestibility, net protein utilisation, net protein retention, protein retention efficiency and utilisable protein values in case of pure culture fermented pearl millet four were hig ...19911796088
sugar-glycerol cofermentations in lactobacilli: the fate of lactate.the simultaneous fermentation of glycerol and sugar by lactobacillus brevis b22 and lactobacillus buchneri b190 increases both the growth rate and total growth. the reduction of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol by the lactobacilli was found to influence the metabolism of the sugar cofermented by channelling some of the intermediate metabolites (e.g., pyruvate) towards nadh-producing (rather than nadh-consuming) reactions. ultimately, the absolute requirement for nadh to prevent the accumulation of 3- ...19921732191
[bacteriocin properties of lactobacillus fermenti, lactobacillus brevis and lactobacillus buchneri].four bacteriocins of l. fermenti, 3 bacteriocins of l. brevis and 1 bacteriocin of l. buchneri were studied with respect to morphology of the inhibition growth zones of the indicator strains, capacity for diffusion through cellophane, sensitivity to high temperature, bacterial proteases, trypsin, chymotrypsin, pepsin, papain, nucleases and lysozyme. according to the differences in their properties the bacteriocins were classified as belonging to 8 types, including 4 types of l. fermenti bacterio ...1979507777
microbial determinations by flow cytometry.recent improvements in the optics and electronics of flow cytometry systems, as well as in staining techniques, permit the assay of such minute cellular constituents as the dna and protein contents of micro-organisms. to assess the usefulness of this technique, dna and protein content distributions were determined in escherichia coli, lactobacillus brevis, lactobacillus casei, chlorella kessleri 8k, saccharomyces cerevisiae, candida utilis, schizosaccharomyces pombe and euglena gracilis. investi ...1979390094
fermentation of glucuronic acid by lactobacillus brevis. 19685649870
identification of an anaerobically induced phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent fructose-specific phosphotransferase system and evidence for the embden-meyerhof glycolytic pathway in the heterofermentative bacterium lactobacillus brevis.heterofermentative gram-positive bacteria are believed to metabolize sugars exclusively via the pentose phosphoketolase pathway following uptake via sugar:cation symport. here we show that anaerobic growth of one such bacterium, lactobacillus brevis, in the presence of fructose induces the synthesis of a phosphotransferase system and glycolytic enzymes that allow fructose to be metabolized via the embden-meyerhof pathway.19968550437
analysis of s-layer proteins of lactobacillus brevis.the presence of s-layer proteins in lactobacillus brevis was examined by sds-page analysis. thirty six out of a total of 41 l. brevis strains possessed s-layer proteins of molecular masses ranging from 38 to 55 kda. western blot analysis using antisera raised against whole cells of s-layer protein-carrying strains demonstrated the heterogeneity of l. brevis s-layer proteins. no clear relationship was observed between the presence of s-layer proteins or their immunological characteristics and the ...19958566706
the antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria from fermented maize (kenkey) and their interactions during fermentation.a total of 241 lactic acid bacteria belonging to lactobacillus plantarum, pediococcus pentosaceus, lactobacillus fermentum/reuteri and lactobacillus brevis from various processing stages of maize dough fermentation were investigated. results indicated that each processing stage has its own microenvironment with strong antimicrobial activity. about half of the lact. plantarum and practically all of the lact. fermentum/reuteri investigated were shown to inhibit other gram-positive and gram-negativ ...19958567490
production of brevicin 286 by lactobacillus brevis vb286 and partial characterization.brevicin 286 was produced by lactobacillus brevis vb286 isolated from vacuum-packaged meat and was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration and dialysis. the bacteriocin was susceptible to proteolytic enzymes, stable to heating at 100 degrees c particularly under acidic against listeria sp. production of brevicin 286 was optimal during exponential growth at 20 degrees c. higher rates of cell growth occurred between 30 and 37 degrees c but with little or no expression ...19968698657
metabolism of paeoniflorin and related compounds by human intestinal bacteria. ii. structures of 7s- and 7r-paeonimetabolines i and ii formed by bacteroides fragilis and lactobacillus brevis. 19873435970
reaction of woodward's reagent k with d-xylose isomerases. modification of an active site carboxylate residue.d-xylose isomerases from streptomyces violaceoruber, streptomyces sp., lactobacillus xylosus, lactobacillus brevis and bacillus coagulans were rapidly inactivated by woodward's reagent k. second-order rate constants in the absence of ligands, at ph 6.0 and 25 degrees c, were 41, 36, 22, 95 and 26 m-1.min-1 respectively. spectral analysis at 340 nm revealed that inactivation was correlated with modification of five, six, two, three and six carboxylate residues per monomer respectively. in the pre ...19892775179
nucleic acids of species of lactobacillus.nucleic acid composition of 17 cultures representing the type or neotype strains of 15 named lactobacillus species was studied. nucleic acid characterization of these isolates was accompanied by a comparative study of conventional phenotypic reactions. the overall guanine plus cytosine mean deoxyribonucleic acid base composition ranged from 33 to 50% and genome sizes varied between 700 and 1500 x 10(6) daltons. sporolactobacillus inulinus contained 2500 x 10(6) daltons of chromosomal deoxyribonu ...19853939582
regulation of beta-galactoside transport and accumulation in heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria.galactose-grown cells of the heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria lactobacillus brevis and lactobacillus buchneri transported methyl-beta-d-thiogalactopyranoside (tmg) by an active transport mechanism and accumulated intracellular free tmg when provided with an exogenous source of energy, such as arginine. the intracellular concentration of tmg resultant under these conditions was approximately 20-fold higher than that in the medium. in contrast, the provision of energy by metabolism of gluco ...19873680171
metabolism of paeoniflorin and related compounds by human intestinal bacteria. iv. formation and structures of adducts of a metabolic intermediate with sulfhydryl compounds by lactobacillus brevis. 19883240512
1,3-propanediol:nad+ oxidoreductases of lactobacillus brevis and lactobacillus buchneri.in the cofermentation of glycerol with a sugar by lactobacillus brevis and lactobacillus buchneri, a 1,3-propanediol:nad+ oxidoreductase provides an additional method of nadh disposal. the enzyme has been purified from both l. brevis b22 and l. buchneri b190 and found to have properties very similar to those reported for the enzyme from klebsiella pneumoniae. the enzymes required mn2+ and are probably octamers with a molecular mass of 350 kda. although not absolutely specific for 1,3-propanediol ...19921622279
factors affecting antibacterial activity of hop compounds and their derivatives.the antibacterial effect of weak acids derived from the hop plant (humulus lupulus l.) increased with decreasing ph. analysis of the minimum inhibitory concentration of such compounds against lactobacillus brevis ifo 3960 over ph 4-7 suggests that undissociated molecules were mainly responsible for inhibition of bacterial growth. the antibacterial activity of trans-isohumulone was ca 20 times greater than that of humulone, 11 times greater than that of colupulone and nine times greater than that ...19921517174
s-layer protein gene of lactobacillus brevis: cloning by polymerase chain reaction and determination of the nucleotide sequence.the surface (s)-layer protein of lactobacillus brevis was isolated, purified, and characterized. the s-layer protein is the major protein of the cell, with an apparent molecular mass of 46 kda in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page). immunogold electron microscopy with polyclonal antiserum against the isolated 46-kda protein was used to confirm the surface location of this protein. n-terminal amino acid sequences of the intact 46-kda protein and its tryptic peptid ...19921429463
isolation and ultrastructural characterization of fine spirals (spirosomes) from lactobacillus brevis. 19761027895
kirromycin-resistant elongation factor tu from wild-type of lactobacillus brevis.properties of the elongation factor tu from lactobacillus brevis which is naturally insensitive to kirromycin are described. the protein is characterized by an unusual nucleotide-binding site with increased affinity for gtp and extreme heat stability. ef-tu is sensitive to pulvomycin in the assay of polyphenylalanine synthesis. however, the failure of the protein to display pulvomycin-dependent gdp-binding and gtpase activity indicates that pulvomycin action in l. brevis differs from that in e. ...19826890473
[purification of glucosoisomerase from lactobacillus brevis and its physico-chemical properties].glucosoisomerase isolated from disrupted cells of lactobacillus brevis 74 by extraction with k, na phosphate buffer was purified by step-by-step fractionation with (nh4)2so4 and deae-cellulose chromatography. the purified enzyme was examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation. the examination showed the enzyme to be homogeneous. the sedimentation constant of the enzyme was found to be 8.3 s. the molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be 200 000. the presence o ...19807220512
maltose phosphorylase from lactobacillus brevis: purification, characterization, and application in a biosensor for ortho-phosphate.with the goal to obtain maltose phosphorylase as a tool to determine ortho-phosphate, the enzyme from lactobacillus brevis was purified to 98% by an expeditious fplc-aided procedure which included anion exchange chromatography, gel filtration, and hydroxyapatite chromatography. the native maltose phosphorylase had a molecular mass of 196 kda and consisted of two 88 kda subunits. in isoelectric focusing two isoforms with pi values of 4.2 and 4.6 were observed. maximum enzyme activity was obtained ...19979343859
influence of sodium nitrite, temperature, and lactic acid bacteria on the growth of brochothrix thermosphacta under anaerobic conditions.in commercial vacuum-packed bologna, growth of brochothrix thermosphacta was limited at 5 degrees c during a 4-week storage period. factors controlling the growth of this organism were associated in part with certain lactobacilli isolated from the meat. the lactic acid bacteria associated with the decline of b. thermosphacta and overall spoilage of vacuum-packed bologna were isolated and identified. the principal organisms were lactobacillus brevis, lactobacillus buchneri, lactobacillus plantaru ...19807237267
cloning, purification, and properties of a cofactor-independent glutamate racemase from lactobacillus brevis atcc 8287.a glutamate racemase gene of lactobacillus brevis atcc 8287 was cloned into escherichia coli tm93 by the phenotypic complementation of a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase deficiency on minimum agar medium containing d-glutamate. the gene was localized to a 1.4-kb hindiii-ecori dna fragment and the total nucleotide sequence of the fragment was analyzed. the gene has typical promoter and sd sequences which appeared to function in e. coli. the deduced amino acid sequence of the enzyme had 276 amino a ...19957772825
identification of lactobacilli from sourdough and description of lactobacillus pontis sp. nov.the microflora of sourdough preparations was investigated by examining the physiological characteristics, whole-cell protein patterns, and 16s rrna sequences of lactobacillus isolates. strains isolated from sourdough were placed in the species lactobacillus brevis, lactobacillus sanfrancisco, and lactobacillus reuteri. 16s rrna sequences were determined for l. brevis, lactobacillus fructivorans, lactobacillus fermentum, l. sanfrancisco, and l. reuteri, and oligonucleotide probes for fast specifi ...19948186088
regulation of the glucose:h+ symporter by metabolite-activated atp-dependent phosphorylation of hpr in lactobacillus brevis.lactobacillus brevis takes up glucose and the nonmetabolizable glucose analog 2-deoxyglucose (2dg), as well as lactose and the nonmetabolizable lactose analoge thiomethyl beta-galactoside (tmg), via proton symport. our earlier studies showed that tmg, previously accumulated in l. brevis cells via the lactose:h+ symporter, rapidly effluxes from l. brevis cells or vesicles upon addition of glucose and that glucose inhibits further accumulation of tmg. this regulation was shown to be mediated by a ...19948206825
cloning and sequencing the lactobacillus brevis gene encoding xylose isomerase.the gene (xyla) coding for the lactobacillus brevis xylose isomerase (xi) has been isolated and its complete nucleotide sequence determined. l. brevis xi was purified and the n-terminal sequence determined. all attempts to directly clone the intact xyla using a degenerative primer deduced from amino acids (aa) 10-14 were not successful. a fragment coding for the first 462 bp from the 5' end of xyla was isolated by pcr with two primers, one coding for aa m36 to w43 and the second coding for an aa ...19921587475
partial purification and some properties of beta-phosphoglucomutase from lactobacillus brevis.a phosphoglucomutase (beta-phosphoglucomutase) specific for beta-glucose 1-phosphate, which catalyzes the beta-glucose 1-phosphate:glucose 6-phosphate interconversion, was 560-fold purified from lactobacillus brevis strain l6. the isoelectric point of beta-phosphoglucomutase was 3.8 and it had an apparent molecular weight of 29,000 estimated by gel chromatography. the enzyme required a divalent cation (mn2+ greater than mg2+ greater than ni2+ greater than co2+) and beta-glucose 1,6-bisphosphate ...19846230052
study of the micro-organisms associated with the fermented bread (khamir) produced from sorghum in gizan region, saudi arabia.traditional bread (khamir) was made from sorghum flour of two local varieties, bayadh and hamra. the bread was prepared by mixing the sorghum flour with water and spices (onion, garlic, lemon juice and fenugreek) in a 1:0.8 (w/w) ratio and fermented for 24 h at 30 degrees c. two other fermentations were carried out using an inoculum from the previous fermentation. the micro-organisms were isolated from different plates and identified using different characterization systems. both total bacterial ...199910063620
the expression signals of the lactobacillus brevis slpa gene direct efficient heterologous protein production in lactic acid bacteria.a cassette based on the expression signals of the lactobacillus brevis surface (s)-layer protein gene (slpa) was constructed. the low-copy-number vector pkth2095, derived from pgk12, was used as the cloning vector. the efficiency of slpa promoters in intracellular protein production was studied using three reporter genes, beta-glucuronidase (gusa), luciferase (luc) and aminopeptidase n (pepn) in three different lactic acid bacteria hosts: lactococcus lactis, lactobacillus plantarum and lactobaci ...199910077822
staphylococcus aureus has clustered trna genes.the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) was used to detect large trna gene clusters in bacillus subtilis, bacillus badius, bacillus megaterium, lactobacillus brevis, lactobacillus casei, and staphylococcus aureus. the primers were based on conserved sequences of known gram-positive bacterial trna(arg) and trna(phe) genes. this pcr procedure detected an unusually large trna gene cluster in s. aureus. pcr-generated probes were used to identify a 4.5-kb ecori fragment that contained 27 trna genes immed ...19938349549
sterilization of microorganisms by the supercritical carbon dioxide micro-bubble method.lactobacillus brevis and saccharomyces cerevisiae were completely sterilized by the supercritical (sc) co2 micro-bubble method. gaseous (g) and liquid (lq) co2 were used in a similar manner to compare the sterilizing effect. among the three treatments, the microorganisms were only effectively sterilized by the sc co2 treatment at 25 mpa and 35 degrees c.19958534989
purification, crystallization and properties of the d-xylose isomerase from lactobacillus brevis. 19685646045
molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of a thermostable glutamate racemase from a hyperthermophilic bacterium, aquifex pyrophilus.a gene encoding glutamate racemase has been cloned from aquifex pyrophilus, a hyperthermophilic bacterium, and expressed in escherichia coli. the a. pyrophilus glutamate racemase is composed of 254 amino acids and shows high homology with glutamate racemase from escherichia coli, bacillus subtilis, or lactobacillus brevis. this racemase converts l- or d-glutamate to d- or l-glutamate, respectively, but not other amino acids such as alanine, aspartate, and glutamine. the cloned gene was expressed ...199910484173
mathematical modelling of the combined effect of water activity, ph and redox potential on the heat destruction.heat destruction of seven foodborne microorganisms (lactobacillus plantarum, lactobacillus brevis, saccharomyces cerevisiae, zygosaccharomyces bailii, yarrowia lipolytica, paecilomyces varioti and neosartoria fischeri) as a function of the temperature, ph, redox potential and water activity was studied in synthetic heating media. several mathematical models were developed for describing the heat destruction rate, most of them resulted in a good correlation between the fitted and measured values. ...19947703004
characterization of lactobacilli by southern-type hybridization with a lactobacillus plantarum pyrdfe probe.lactobacillus plantarum, lactobacillus pentosus, and lactobacillus paraplantarum (m.-c. curk, j.-c. hubert, and f. bringel, int. j. syst. bacteriol. 46:595-598, 1996) can hardly be distinguished on the basis of their phenotypes. unlike l. plantarum and l. paraplantarum, l. pentosus ferments glycerol and xylose but not melezitose. we identified two l. pentosus strains (cnrz 1538 and cnrz 1544) which ferment glycerol and melezitose but not xylose. alpha-methyl-d-mannoside was fermented by 66% of t ...19968934911
atp-dependent phosphorylation of serine-46 in the phosphocarrier protein hpr regulates lactose/h+ symport in lactobacillus brevis.lactobacillus brevis takes up lactose and the nonmetabolizable lactose analogue thiomethyl beta-galactoside (tmg) by a permease-catalyzed lactose/h+ symport mechanism. earlier studies have shown that tmg, previously accumulated in l. brevis cells, rapidly effluxes from the cells upon addition of glucose, and that glucose inhibits further uptake of tmg. we have developed a vesicular system to analyze this regulatory mechanism and have used electroporation to shock proteins and membrane-impermeant ...19948159711
lactic acid fermentation of cassava dough into agbelima.the souring of cassava dough during fermentation into the fermented cassava meal, agbelima, was investigated. four different types of traditional inocula were used to ferment the dough and increases in titrable acidity expressed as lactic acid from 0.31-0.38 to 0.78-0.91% (w/w) confirmed the fermentation to be a process of acidification. the microflora of all inocula and fermenting dough contained high counts of lactic acid bacteria, 10(8)-10(9) cfu/g in all inocula and 10(7)-10(8), 10(8)-10(9) ...19968880299
regulation of acetic acid production by homo- and heterofermentative lactobacilli in whole-wheat sour-doughs.the efficiency of sour-dough as a possible preservative agent of microbial spoilage of bread depends on its acetic acid content. as a secondary metabolite of sugar fermentation by lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid may be promoted in the presence of o2 or h+ acceptors. this paper studies the influence of o2 and high fructose content products (pure sugar, invert sugar, fructose syrup) addition on acetic acid production by hetero- (lactobacillus brevis 25a, b-21, l-62; l. sanfrancisco l-99) and hom ...19947975904
molecular cloning and functional expression in lactobacillus plantarum 80 of xylt, encoding the d-xylose-h+ symporter of lactobacillus brevis.a 3-kb region, located downstream of the lactobacillus brevis xyla gene (encoding d-xylose isomerase), was cloned in escherichia coli tg1. the sequence revealed two open reading frames which could code for the d-xylulose kinase gene (xylb) and another gene (xylt) encoding a protein of 457 amino acids with significant similarity to the d-xylose-h+ symporters of e. coli, xyle (57%), and bacillus megaterium, xylt (58%), to the d-xylose-na+ symporter of tetragenococcus halophila, xyle (57%), and to ...19989835554
reduction of campylobacter jejuni in a simulated chicken digestive tract by lactobacilli cultures.studies were conducted to investigate the impact of a selected lactobacilli mixed culture on campylobacter jejuni in simulated chicken digestive tract models. veronal buffer solutions corresponding to the ph of successive segments of the chicken digestive tract were prepared. the lactobacilli mixtures were prepared by mixing four fresh lactobacilli cultures, including lactobacillus acidophilus, lactobacillus fermenentum, lactobacillus crispatus, and lactobacillus brevis. the c. jejuni and lactob ...200011079707
purification and characterization of glutamate decarboxylase from lactobacillus brevis ifo 12005.glutamate decarboxylase (gad) [ec 4.1.1.15] was purified from a cell-free extract of lactobacillus brevis ifo 12005 by chromatographies on sephadex g-100, deae-sepharose cl-6b, and mono q. about 9 mg of purified gad was obtained from 90.2 g of wet cells. the purified preparation showed a single protein band on sds-page. the molecular weights of purified gad by sds-page and gel filtration on superdex 200 were 60,000 and 120,000, respectively, indicating that gad from l. brevis exists as a dimer. ...19979255981
a novel enzyme, maltose 1-epimerase from lactobacillus brevis ifo 3345.a novel enzyme, maltose 1-epimerase (mer), that catalyzes the interconversion of alpha and beta anomers of maltose was found in a cell-free extract of lactobacillus brevis ifo 3345, and mer was purified to homogeneity from the crude extract. the m(r) of the enzyme was estimated to be 43,000 and 45,000 by hplc gel filtration and sds-page, respectively. it showed optimum activity at ph 6.5-7.0. this novel enzyme catalyzed the conversion of beta-maltose more effectively than disaccharides such as a ...19957796915
high level heterologous protein production in lactococcus and lactobacillus using a new secretion system based on the lactobacillus brevis s-layer signals.a secretion cassette, based on the expression and secretion signals of a s-layer protein (slpa) from lactobacillus brevis, was constructed. e. coli beta-lactamase (bla) was used as the reporter protein to determine the functionality of the s-layer signals for heterologous expression and secretion in lactococcus lactis, lactobacillus brevis, lactobacillus plantarum, lactobacillus gasseri and lactobacillus casei using a low-copy-number plasmid derived from pgk12. in all hosts tested, the bla gene ...19979074504
the effects of processing methods on the levels of lysine, methionine and the general acceptability of ogi processed using starter cultures.batches of ogi were produced from maize flour slurry, dehulled maize grains and whole maize grains using saccharomyces cerevisiae and lactobacillus brevis as starter cultures. fermentation over time showed that dehulled maize grains inoculated with the starter cultures and processed whole maize grains requiring steeping led to higher acid production than fermentation with dry-milled maize slurry. ogi from dehulled maize grains inoculated with starter cultures showed the highest levels of lysine ...200111205940
identification of lactic acid bacteria constituting the predominating microflora in an acid-fermented condiment (tempoyak) popular in malaysia.tempoyak is a traditional malaysian fermented condiment made from the pulp of the durian fruit (durio zibethinus). salt is sometime added to proceed fermentation at ambient temperature. in various samples obtained from night markets, lactic acid bacteria (lab) were the predominant microorganisms, ranging from log 8.4 to log 9.2 cfu g(-1). no other microorganisms were present to such a level. these samples contained reduced amount of saccharose, glucose and fructose but increased amount of d- and ...200111205946
effect of the oral administration of lactobacillus brevis subsp. coagulans on interferon-alpha producing capacity in humans.this study was designed to determine whether the oral administration of lactobacillus brevis subsp. coagulans modulates immunological responses in human subjects, and whether there are differences in response between live and heat-treated preparations.19968829098
isolation, properties and behaviour of tyramine-producing lactic acid bacteria from wine.wines containing high levels of biogenic amines were investigated for the presence of tyramine-producing strains. two different lactobacillus brevis (ioeb 9809 and ioeb 9901) able to produce the amine were isolated. none of the isolated strains identified as oenococcus oeni formed tyramine. in addition, other lact. brevis and lact. hilgardii strains from our collection (ioeb) and the american type culture collection (atcc) were strong tyramine producers. lactobacillus brevis ioeb 9809 and lact. ...200010792516
microorganism inactivation using high-pressure generation in sealed vessels under sub-zero temperature.in order to test the possibility of utilizing high pressure in bioscience and biotechnology, a simple method for high-pressure generation and its use for microbial inactivation have been studied. when a pressure vessel was filled with water, sealed tightly and cooled to sub-zero temperatures, high pressure was generated in the vessel. the pressure generation was 60 mpa at -5 degrees c, 103 mpa at -10 degrees c, and 140 mpa at -15 degrees c, -20 degrees c, and -22 degrees c. the high pressure gen ...19989830091
in vivo expression of the lactobacillus brevis s-layer gene.lactobacillus brevis possesses a surface layer protein (slpa) with tightly regulated synthesis. the slpa gene is expressed by two adjacent promoters, p1 and p2. the level of p2-derived transcripts was approximately 10 times higher than that of p1-derived transcripts throughout the entire growth of l. brevis. the half-lives of slpa transcripts were shown to be exceptionally long (14 min).19978982011
inducer expulsion and the occurrence of an hpr(ser-p)-activated sugar-phosphate phosphatase in enterococcus faecalis and streptococcus pyogenes.inducer expulsion, a phenomenon in which rapidly metabolizable sugars cause cytoplasmic dephosphorylation and efflux of pre-accumulated sugar-phosphates (sugar-p), has been documented for streptococcus pyogenes, streptococcus bovis, and lactococcus lactis, but not for other gram-positive bacteria. using intact cells and membrane vesicles, we show that enterococcus faecalis exhibits both inducer exclusion and inducer expulsion, and that the latter phenomenon is dependent on the metabolite-activat ...19968868433
molecular cloning of a putative divalent-cation transporter gene as a new genetic marker for the identification of lactobacillus brevis strains capable of growing in beer.random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) pcr analysis of lactobacillus brevis isolates from breweries revealed that one of the random primers could distinguish beer-spoilage strains of l. brevis from nonspoilage strains. the 1.1-kb dna fragment amplified from all beer-spoilers included one open reading frame, termed hita (hop-inducible cation transporter), which encodes an integral membrane protein with 11 putative trans-membrane domains and a binding protein-dependent transport signature of a no ...200111414327
new paeonilactone-a adducts formed by anaerobic incubation of paeoniflorin with lactobacillus brevis in the presence of arylthiols.during the course of preparing anticonvulsant paeonimetabolin-i adducts, new paeonilactone-a adducts: 9-phenylthiopaeonilactone-a, 9-(o-tolylthio)paeonilactone-a, 9-(m-tolylthio)paeonilactone-a, 9-(p-tolylthio)-paeonilactone-a and 9-(2-naphthylthio)paeonilactone-a, were obtained along with expected paeonimetabolin-i adducts by anaerobic incubation of paeoniflorin from peony roots with lactobacillus brevis in the presence of the aromatic thiols, phenylthiol, o-tolylthiol, m-tolylthiol, p-tolylthi ...200111456104
hop resistance in the beer spoilage bacterium lactobacillus brevis is mediated by the atp-binding cassette multidrug transporter hora.lactobacillus brevis is a major contaminant of spoiled beer. the organism can grow in beer in spite of the presence of antibacterial hop compounds that give the beer a bitter taste. the hop resistance in l. brevis is, at least in part, dependent on the expression of the hora gene. the deduced amino acid sequence of hora is 53% identical to that of lmra, an atp-binding cassette multidrug transporter in lactococcus lactis. to study the role of hora in hop resistance, hora was functionally expresse ...200111514522
contribution of starter culture to the sensory characteristics of fermented almagro eggplants.trial fermentations were performed using three experimental starter cultures with a view to selecting the most appropriate starter for use in the manufacture of almagro eggplants. the lactic acid bacterial strains used in the starters had previously been isolated from spontaneous fermentations. the combined action of the obligate heterofermentative species lactobacillus brevis and the facultative heterofermentative species l. plantarum yielded almagro eggplants with sensory properties preferred ...200111518429
production and stabilization of pure maltose phosphorylase from lactobacillus brevis for sensing inorganic phosphate. 19968992944
purification and characterization of novel antifungal compounds from the sourdough lactobacillus plantarum strain 21b.sourdough lactic acid bacteria were selected for antifungal activity by a conidial germination assay. the 10-fold-concentrated culture filtrate of lactobacillus plantarum 21b grown in wheat flour hydrolysate almost completely inhibited eurotium repens ibt18000, eurotium rubrum ftdc3228, penicillium corylophilum ibt6978, penicillium roqueforti ibt18687, penicillium expansum idm/fs2, endomyces fibuliger ibt605 and idm3812, aspergillus niger ftdc3227 and idm1, aspergillus flavus ftdc3226, monilia s ...200010966432
enumeration of carnobacterium divergens v41, carnobacterium piscicola v1 and lactobacillus brevis lb62 by in situ hybridization-flow cytometry.the specific detection and enumeration of lactobacillus brevis lb62, carnobacterium divergens v14 and carnobacterium piscicola vi were studied by in situ hybridization-flow cytometry. the method was performed on the exponential growth phase with three probes targeting 16s rrna labelled with fluorescein isothicyanate (fitc): eub338 probe universal for eubacteria, lb probe specific for lact. brevis and cb probe specific for the genus carnobacterium. eub338 was used to determine the permeabilizatio ...19989830150
evolution of the lactic acid bacterial community during malt whisky fermentation: a polyphasic study.the development of the lactic acid bacterial community in a commercial malt whisky fermentation occurred in three broad phases. initially, bacteria were inhibited by strong yeast growth. fluorescence microscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy revealed, in this early stage, both cocci and rods that were at least partly derived from the wort and yeast but also stemmed from the distillery plant. denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge) of partial 16s rrna genes and sequence ana ...200211772639
lactic acid production from wheat straw hemicellulose hydrolysate by lactobacillus pentosus and lactobacillus brevis.lactic acid production by lactobacillus brevis and lactobacillus pentosus on a hemicellulose hydrolysate (hh) of wet-oxidized wheat straw was evaluated. the potential of 11-12 g/l fermentable sugars was released from the hh through either enzymatic or acidic pretreatment. fermentation of added xylose in untreated hh after wet-oxidation, showed no inhibition on the lactic acid production by either lb. pentosus or lb. brevis. lb. pentosus produced lactate corresponding to 88% of the theoretical ma ...200211800488
a specific oligonucleotide primer for the rapid detection of lactobacillus lindneri by polymerase chain reaction.a polymerase chain reaction (pcr) method was developed for the rapid detection of the beer-spoilage heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium lactobacillus lindneri. three strains, the chinese brewery isolate da1, the japanese commercial beer isolate bg2, and the japanese brewery isolate se3, which were serologically classified as belonging to l. lindneri, were used in this study. after sequencing the 16s rdna of the isolates da1 and bg2 and the typical beer-spoilage heterofermentative lactobacil ...19979090105
purification and partial characterization of an antigen specific to lactobacillus brevis strains with beer spoilage activity.certain lactobacillus brevis strains are resistant to hop-derived compounds such as isohumulone and are able to grow in beer. in this study, we raised an antiserum against our beer spoilage laboratory strain l. brevis 578 which reacted with 23 of 24 beer spoilers and two of 13 non-spoilers in precipitation reactions using 0.5 m naoh cell extracts. this specific antigen to the beer spoilage l. brevis strains (sabsl) was demonstrated to be located beneath the s-layer proteins by agglutination reac ...19979228750
imaging of lactobacillus brevis single cells and microcolonies without a microscope by an ultrasensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay with a photon-counting television camera.an ultrasensitive chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (cleia) was developed for the rapid detection and quantification of lactobacillus brevis contaminants in beer and pitching yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae slurry collected for reinoculation). l. brevis cells trapped on a 47-mm nucleopore membrane (0.4-micron pore size) were reacted with a peroxidase-labelled lactobacillus group e antibody and then subjected to an enhanced cleia analysis with 4-iodophenol as the enhancer. the combination of a ...19979361439
tyrosine decarboxylase activity of lactobacillus brevis ioeb 9809 isolated from wine and l. brevis atcc 367.tyramine, a frequent amine in wines, is produced from tyrosine by the tyrosine decarboxylase (tdc) activity of bacteria. the tyramine-producing strain lactobacillus brevis ioeb 9809 isolated from wine and the reference strain l. brevis atcc 367 were studied. at the optimum ph, 5.0, k(m) values of ioeb 9809 and atcc 367 crude extracts for l-tyrosine were 0.58 mm and 0.67 mm, and v(max) was higher for the wine strain (115 u) than the atcc 367 (66 u). tdc exhibited a preference for l-tyrosine over ...199910547444
potent anticonvulsant paeonimetabolin-i derivatives obtained by incubation of paeoniflorin and thiol compounds with lactobacillus brevis.seventeen thiopaeonimetabolin-i adducts were obtained as mixtures of diastereoisomers after incubation of paeoniflorin with lactobacillus brevis in the presence of various thiols. four compounds, 8-(n-hexylthio)- (8), 8-cyclopentylthio-, 8-(p-tolyl)thio- and 8-benzoylthio- (18) paeonimetabolins, showed 100% protection against pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions at doses of 0.125, 0.25, or 0.50 mmol/kg, relative to valproic acid (100% protection at 1.5 mmol/kg). for 8 and 18, the principle ant ...19989775444
purification and partial gene sequence of the tyrosine decarboxylase of lactobacillus brevis ioeb 9809.some lactic acid bacteria contain a tyrosine decarboxylase (tdc) which converts tyrosine to tyramine, a biogenic amine frequently encountered in fermented food and wine. purification and microsequencing of the tdc of lactobacillus brevis ioeb 9809 allowed us to determine a partial sequence of the tdc gene encoding 264 amino acids of the enzyme. analysis of this protein sequence revealed typical features of pyridoxal phosphate-dependent amino acid decarboxylases while not any known decarboxylase ...200212052555
purification and characterization of tyrosine decarboxylase of lactobacillus brevis ioeb 9809 isolated from wine.tyrosine decarboxylase (ec 4.1.1.25) (tdc) from the wine lactobacillus brevis ioeb 9809 was purified by a rapid procedure involving anion exchange chromatography, ultrafiltration and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. the protein comprised two subunits of identical molecular mass (approximately 70000 da). enzyme activity was dependent on exogenously supplied pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and the enzyme was stable at 4 degrees c in the presence of the coenzyme. optimum ph for the pure enzyme was 5. ...200111167003
characterization and selection of vaginal lactobacillus strains for the preparation of vaginal tablets.to characterize and select lactobacillus strains for properties that would make them a good alternative to the use of antibiotics to treat human vaginal infections.200212392537
gene cloning and expression and secretion of listeria monocytogenes bacteriophage-lytic enzymes in lactococcus lactis.bacteriophage lysins (ply), or endolysins, are phage-encoded cell wall lytic enzymes which are synthesized late during virus multiplication and mediate the release of progeny virions. bacteriophages of the pathogen listeria monocytogenes encode endolysin enzymes which specifically hydrolyze the cross-linking peptide bridges in listeria peptidoglycan. ply118 is a 30.8-kda l-alanoyl-d-glutamate peptidase and ply511 (36.5 kda) acts as n-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase. in order to establish dairy ...200010877791
biochemical characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from spontaneous fermentation of 'almagro' eggplants.a total of 149 strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of 'almagro' eggplants were characterized and identified. of the isolates, 148 were determined as belonging to the genus lactobacillus. a coccoid, gram-positive database-negative isolate was obtained in the early stages of fermentation. the lactobacillus strains were divided into six groups based on sugar fermentation patterns and other physiological and morphological characteristics, and were identified as ...200010946834
microbiological and fermentation characteristics of togwa, a tanzanian fermented food.selected microbiological and metabolic characteristics of sorghum, maize, millet and maize-sorghum togwa were investigated during natural fermentation for 24 h. the process was predominated by lactic acid bacteria (lab) and yeasts. the mesophiles, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts increased and the enterobacteriaceae decreased to undetectable levels within 24 h. the isolated microorganisms were tentatively identified as lactobacillus plantarum, lactobacillus brevis, lactobacillus fermentum, lacto ...200312423921
crystallization and preliminary characterization of crystals of r-alcohol dehydrogenase from lactobacillus brevis.the r-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (radh) from lactobacillus brevis is a valuable catalyst for the production of chiral alcohols that can be used as synthons in asymmetric syntheses. radh is a homotetramer with 222 symmetry and a molecular mass of 107 kda. the recombinant enzyme has been expressed in escherichia coli, purified to homogeneity and crystallized. the crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group i222, with unit-cell parameters a = 56.5, b = 85.1, c = 115.4 a, and diffract x-rays ...200011092950
surface display of foreign epitopes on the lactobacillus brevis s-layer.so far, the inability to establish viable lactobacillus surface layer (s-layer) null mutants has hampered the biotechnological applications of lactobacillus s-layers. in this study, we demonstrate the utilization of lactobacillus brevis s-layer subunits (slpa) for the surface display of foreign antigenic epitopes. with an inducible expression system, l. brevis strains producing chimeric s-layers were obtained after testing of four insertion sites in the slpa gene for poliovirus epitope vp1, that ...200212450814
purification and partial amino acid sequence of brevicin 27, a bacteriocin produced by lactobacillus brevis sb27.brevicin 27, a bacteriocin produced by lacto bacillus brevis sb27, is inhibitory mainly against closely related lactobacillus brevis and lactobacillus büchneri strains. it was purified from the culture supernatant by a four-step purification procedure including ammonium sulfate precipitation, cation exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and reverse-phase, high performance liquid chromatographies. the purified bacteriocin was subjected to mass spectrometry, amino acid composition analysis, and seque ...19979009071
arginine catabolism by sourdough lactic acid bacteria: purification and characterization of the arginine deiminase pathway enzymes from lactobacillus sanfranciscensis cb1.the cytoplasmic extracts of 70 strains of the most frequently isolated sourdough lactic acid bacteria were screened initially for arginine deiminase (adi), ornithine transcarbamoylase (otc), and carbamate kinase (ck) activities, which comprise the adi (or arginine dihydrolase) pathway. only obligately heterofermentative strains such as lactobacillus sanfranciscensis cb1; lactobacillus brevis am1, am8, and 10a; lactobacillus hilgardii 51b; and lactobacillus fructivorans dd3 and da106 showed all t ...200212450844
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