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clostridium septicum arthritis in three foals. 200415887383
subcutaneous emphysema at the site of central line placement due to the haematogenous spread of clostridium septicum. 200312622503
atraumatic clostridial myonecrosis: case report and literature review.clostridial myonecrosis (cm) is a rare, life-threatening infection that is most often associated with recent surgery or skeletal muscle trauma. it usually affects patients with some degree of underlying immunocompromise or vascular insufficiency. occasionally, cm can occur at remote sites, with seeding from a gastrointestinal source in the setting of malignancy. we report a case of a 75-year-old man who developed rapidly progressive myonecrosis in the right shoulder, without prior trauma, caused ...200312745042
molecular cloning, expression, and characterization of novel hemolytic lectins from the mushroom laetiporus sulphureus, which show homology to bacterial toxins.we describe herein the cdna cloning, expression, and characterization of a hemolytic lectin and its related species from the parasitic mushroom laetiporus sulphureus. the lectin designated lsl (l. sulphureus lectin), is a tetramer composed of subunits of approximately 35 kda associated by non-covalent bonds. from a cdna library, three similar full-length cdnas, termed lsla, lslb, and lslc, were generated, each of which had an open reading frame of 945 bp encoding 315 amino acid residues. these p ...200312900403
the alpha-toxin of clostridium septicum is essential for virulence.clostridium septicum is the causative agent of spontaneous gas gangrene or atraumatic myonecrosis, a sudden and frequently fatal infection that is increasingly associated with malignancy of the colon. little is known about the disease process although the focus of virulence studies has been the alpha-toxin, a pore-forming cytolysin that is encoded by the csa gene and secreted as an inactive protoxin. until now a lack of techniques for the genetic manipulation of c. septicum has hindered the use ...200516102005
mycotic aneurysm of the infrarenal abdominal aorta infected by clostridium septicum: a case report of surgical management and review of the literature.we report a surgical case of mycotic aneurysm of the infrarenal abdominal aorta infected by clostridium septicum. the patient was first treated with an in situ prosthetic graft replacement. when the infection recurred 5 weeks after the aortic surgery, the patient was successfully treated by transposition of rectus abdominis muscle flap around the graft. only 19 cases of mycotic aneurysm or aortic dissection caused by clostridium septicum have been reported. ten of 12 patients who underwent vascu ...200314560242
[acetone purification of vibrio septicus anatoxin]. 195913636339
[paraneoplastic clostridium septicum bacteremia]. 200111333609
[chick embryo as an object for the determination of vibrio septicus virulence]. 195913636345
thyroid abscess--an acute emergency.an abscess in a long-standing goitre is usually life threatening. a patient with a large goitre was lost to follow-up for about 10 years and presented with a large thyroid abscess causing acute respiratory obstruction. the abscess caused erosion of the tracheal wall and perforation of the esophagus. clostridium septicum was the causative organism, which is almost always associated with cancer of the colon. this led to the detection of colonic malignancy in this patient on further investigations. ...200414652771
studies upon growth phases of clostridium septicum. 193516559834
the growth of clostridium septicum and its inhibition. 194716561290
diagnosing clostridium perfringens-associated necrotic enteritis in broiler flocks by an immunoglobulin g anti-alpha-toxin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.the tools available for monitoring necrotic enteritis caused by clostridium perfringens in broiler chickens have been limited, particularly for identifying subclinical disease. in this study, a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify levels of specific immunoglobulin g to c. perfringens alpha-toxin in serum from broilers. we found significantly higher antibody levels in broilers with a history of subclinical necrotic enteritis compared with a zinc-bacitracin-treated group ...200314522709
[fulminant spontaneous clostridium septicum gas gangrene].clostridium septicum gas gangrene is a rare fulminant infectious disease for which signs and symptoms like extreme pain, subcutaneous crepitus and violaceous necrotic bullae must be recognised. early diagnosis followed by large surgical debridement are the only ways to ameliorate the bad prognosis. here we describe a case of cervico-thoracic spontaneous gas gangrene.200312943837
crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a novel haemolytic lectin from the mushroom laetiporus sulphureus.the novel haemolytic lectin from the parasitic mushroom laetiporus sulphureus (lsl) is a homotetramer (approximately 140 kda) composed of subunits associated by non-covalent bonds. it exhibits haemagglutination and haemolytic activities, both of which are inhibited by n-acetyllactosamine. the structural similarity found between lsl and the bacterial pore-forming toxins mosquitocidal toxin (mtx2) from bacillus sphaericus and alpha-toxin from clostridium septicum points to a mechanism of biologica ...200415159581
clostridium septicum myonecrosis in congenital neutropenia.severe congenital neutropenia (scn) and clostridium septicum myonecrosis is an uncommon and life-threatening association requiring urgent combined aggressive medical and surgical management. we report 2 cases of scn (1 with known kostmann's syndrome and 1 not known at presentation to have a congenital neutropenic disorder but subsequently received a diagnosis of cyclic neutropenia) who presented with spontaneous c septicum myonecrosis. the cases highlight the importance of response to recombinan ...200415574607
cytotoxicity of clostridium septicum alpha-toxin: its oligomerization in detergent resistant membranes of mammalian cells.alpha-toxin is an important agent of the virulence of clostridium septicum. we examined cytotoxicity for alpha-toxin to various mammalian cells with recombinant toxin fused with a histidine-tag at the amino-terminal. the recombinant toxin retained the activity indistinguishable from the native form. mammalian nucleated cells examined in this study are more sensitive to the protoxin than to the trypsinized toxin, except raw 264.7 and p3u1 cells of myeloid lineage. cellular proteins of various mol ...200415619423
pasteur, oxygen and the anaerobes revisited.as a biochemist, louis pasteur focused on fermentation, demonstrating that it was a vital process. in 1860, he discovered anaerobic life and the strict anaerobes, particularly those responsible for butyric fermentation. then, in spite of his lack of medical background, pasteur turned to investigating the role of bacteria in human and animal diseases. in 1877, pasteur and joubert described for the first time a pathogenic anaerobe, the 'septic vibrio' (now clostridium septicum). not only was the b ...199516887501
intracellular glycosylphosphatidylinositols accumulate on endosomes: toxicity of alpha-toxin to leishmania major.glycosylphosphatidylinositols (gpis) are ubiquitous glycolipids in eukaryotes. in the protozoan leishmania major, gpis occur "free" or covalently linked to proteins (e.g., gp63) and polysaccharides. while some free gpis are detected on the plasma membrane, specific sites where gpis accumulate intracellularly are unknown in most cells, although the glycolipids are synthesized within the secretory system. herein, we describe a protocol for identifying intracellular sites of gpi accumulation by usi ...200515755918
[necrotizing bacterial skin and software tissue infection with muscular involvement revealing of cancer of the colon].we report the case of a 38-year-old woman with a necrotizing bacterial skin and soft tissue infection with muscular involvement. the clinical picture was similar to a gaseous gangrene of the right lower limb with a septic shock and multiple organ failure, without predisposing factor such as trauma, and necessitating a hip amputation. the primary site of the disease was a perforated colic adenocarcinoma with peritoneal and retroperitoneal infection. the association of necrotizing skin and soft ti ...200515826791
liver abscess due to clostridium septicum. a case report and review of the literature.the onset of liver abscess due to clostridium septicum -an anaerobic gram-positive bacillus- is a rare condition, generally arising in cancer patients. the radiological picture is that of gas-containing pyogenic abscess, that predominates within preexisting liver metastases. we report a case of a 50-year-old patient with metastatic colon cancer who was referred with multiple clostridium septicum liver abscesses. the patient underwent parenteral antibiotherapy as well as transcutaneous drainage o ...200516201118
activities of four frog skin-derived antimicrobial peptides (temporin-1dra, temporin-1va and the melittin-related peptides ar-23 and rv-23) against anaerobic bacteria.the activities of two antimicrobial peptides belonging to the temporin family (temporin-1dra from rana draytonii and temporin-1va from rana virgatipes) and two peptides with structural similarity to the bee venom peptide melittin (ar-23 from rana tagoi and rv-23 from r. draytonii) were evaluated against a range of reference strains and clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria. these peptides were selected because they show broad-spectrum growth inhibitory activity against reference strains of sev ...200717196372
binocular endogenous clostridium septicum endophthalmitis. 200717305750
sepsis due to clostridium septicum: case report. 200010786915
clostridium septicum myositis in a western lowland gorilla (gorilla gorilla gorilla).a 10-yr-old male gorilla (gorilla gorilla gorilla) with a history of conspecific bite wounds was evaluated for acute onset of depression, anorexia, and right hemiparesis. the animal was immobilized for diagnostic examination and treatment for suspected toxic shock from a necrotizing, emphysematous wound infection, but was euthanized due to complications during recovery. gross and histopathologic examination revealed acute necrotizing myositis, fasciitis, cellulitis, and emphysema in the affected ...200517312773
panophthalmitis due to clostridium septicum.to describe patient survival in a rare case of endogenous clostridium septicum sepsis with panophthalmitis.200415126166
genetic variation and cross-reactivity of clostridium septicum alpha-toxin.clostridium septicum alpha-toxin genes were sequenced with the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) products amplified from dnas of 25 c. septicum strains, and were classified into 10 patterns. alpha-toxins were purified from the culture supernatant of four c. septicum strains (strains no. 44, kagoshima 8, mie and tokachi) which were specially chosen from patterns of the deduced amino acid sequences. the molecular weights of the alpha-toxins were not different according to sodium dodecyl sulfate-poly ...200616337096
unusual bacterial infections and colorectal carcinoma--streptococcus bovis and clostridium septicum: report of three cases.several types of unusual bacterial infections have been reported in association with colorectal malignancy. in the three cases described, uncommon infections resulted in further workup and subsequent resection for occult colonic malignancy. awareness of this association is critical for early diagnosis and management.200616845563
braxy or bradsot-like abomastitis caused by clostridium septicum in a calf. 198617422653
spontaneous fulminant gas gangrene.gas gangrene is a rare condition, usually associated with contaminated traumatic injuries. it carries a high rate of mortality and morbidity. a number of studies have implicated non-traumatic gas gangrene and colonic neoplasia. this paper reports a patient who presented spontaneously with clostridium septicum gas gangrene and an occult caecal carcinoma.200515983095
clostridium septicum infections in children: a case report and review of the literature.clostridium myonecrosis is a rare and deadly infection that progresses very rapidly; thus, prompt diagnosis and treatment is vital. in adults, clostridial myonecrosis used to be a well-known complication of war wounds. today, it is usually seen in settings of trauma, surgery, malignancy, skin infections/burns, and septic abortions. more recently, cases of nontraumatic or spontaneous clostridial myonecrosis have been reported in both adults and children. clostridium perfringens and clostridium se ...200616567392
the identification and structure of the membrane-spanning domain of the clostridium septicum alpha toxin.alpha toxin (at) is a pore-forming toxin produced by clostridium septicum that belongs to the unique aerolysin-like family of pore-forming toxins. the location and structure of the transmembrane domains of these toxins have remained elusive. using deletion mutagenesis, cysteine-scanning mutagenesis and multiple spectrofluorimetric methods a membrane-spanning amphipathic beta-hairpin of at has been identified. spectrofluorimetric analysis of cysteine-substituted residues modified with an environm ...200414715670
[neutropenic enterocolitis in adult patients with acute leukemia or stem cell transplant recipients: study of 7 cases].neutropenic enterocolitis (ne) is a complication arising in neutropenic patients with acute leukemia or solid tumours while treated with intensive chemotherapy. the optimal therapeutic procedures have not been well established.200718005634
characterization of the venom from the brazilian brown spider loxosceles similis moenkhaus, 1898 (araneae, sicariidae).accidents caused by brown spiders (loxosceles genus) are frequent in brazil and are associated with dermonecrotic lesions and, eventually, systemic reactions that may be lethal. the major species implicated with human envenoming have been: l. intermedia, l. gaucho and l. laeta. in this study we characterized the venom from loxosceles similis, a species of spider normally found inside caves. l. similis venom was characterized by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and enzymatic activity (dermonec ...200516289643
diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria by fluorescent clostridium septicum alpha toxin.paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (pnh), a hematopoietic stem cell disorder, is caused by the loss of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (gpi)-anchored proteins on the cell membrane. pnh can be simply diagnosed by flow cytometry using monoclonal antibodies against gpi-anchored proteins or fluorescent-tagged aerolysin, a bacterial toxin that binds gpi anchored proteins. clostridium septicum alpha toxin is homologous to aerolysin and specifically binds gpi-anchored proteins. previously, we found that ...200616825787
clostridium septicum myonecrosis complicating diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome.we report the case of a 19-month-old male child with diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (hus) who developed swelling of the right arm at the site of a peripherally inserted central venous catheter (picc), fever, and later, ecchymosis. wound cultures at the time of surgical debridement grew clostridium septicum. the child subsequently required amputation of the right arm and prolonged therapy with parenteral penicillin and clindamycin. clostridium septicum infections in children with h ...200818301926
images in clinical medicine. nontraumatic clostridium septicum myonecrosis. 200415496616
metastatic gas gangrene and colonic perforation: a case report.abstract: clostridium septicum myonecrosis is associated with diabetes, colorectal and haematological malignancies. we present a case of metastatic myonecrosis in a diabetic patient with a perforated caecal tumour. the literature since 1989 is reviewed and 28 cases of clostridium septicum myonecrosis are discussed.200818373865
clostridium septicum infrarenal aortitis secondary to occult cecal adenocarcinoma. 200415505296
spontaneous occurrence of gangrene due to clostridium septicum in a patient with advanced endometrial carcinoma.we report the first known case of spontaneous, atraumatic clostridium septicum gangrene occurring in a patient with recurrent endometrial adenocarcinoma.199418475364
a fulminant enterocolitis. 200717415645
fulminant clostridium septicum infection mimicking appendicitis in a healthy child.a 5-year-old boy with clostridium septicum enterocolitis presented with severe right lower abdominal pain. on the day after admission, shock, neutropenia and pneumoperitoneum prompted a laparotomy. gangrene of the ileum and colon was identified, associated with a fatal clostridium septicum infection.200717469739
[gas gangrene with ulcerative colitis under immunosuppressive therapy: report of a case].we report on a 30-year-old male with ulcerative colitis who developed a spontaneous gas gangrene in the right limb, the gluteal muscles and the retroperitoneal region under immunosuppressive therapy. in spite of immediate aggressive surgical and antibiotic therapy the massive infection led to septicemia and ultimately death. clostridium septicum was identified with multiple local manifestations in the skeletal muscles. gas gangrene is extremely rare in patients with ulcerative colitis or crohn's ...200616485217
epidemiology of clostridium species bacteremia in calgary, canada, 2000-2006.to define the incidence, risk factors for acquisition, and outcomes associated with clostridial bacteremia in a large canadian health region.200818672296
case report of sudden death [multiple clostridium septicum emboli in intrahepatic portal veins, with extensive necrosis of the liver]. 194718906905
spontaneous gas gangrene associated with occult carcinoma of the colon: a case report and review of literature.clostridium septicum infection is a rare cause of spontaneous nontraumatic gas gangrene. the resultant myonecrosis is acutely painful and rapidly fatal. the infection occurs in the absence of trauma and is usually associated with an underlying malignancy. a case of spontaneous gas gangrene of the upper limb caused by c. septicum infection associated by carcinoma of the colon is presented, with a review of the literature.200516548324
[on liver lipids in guinea pigs. 3. the total lipid, neutral fat, phosphatide, cholesterol, fat-free dry substance and water content of the liver in clostridium septicum-infected guinea pigs]. 196314107836
pore-forming activity of alpha-toxin is essential for clostridium septicum-mediated myonecrosis.clostridium septicum alpha-toxin is a beta-barrel pore-forming cytolysin that is functionally similar to aerolysin. residues important in receptor binding, oligomerization, and pore formation have been identified; however, little is known about the activity of the toxin in an infection, although it is essential for disease. we have now shown that deletion of a small portion of the transmembrane domain, so that the toxin is no longer able to form pores, completely abrogates its ability to contrib ...200919139192
clostridium septicum bacteremia without gas gangrene as a late consequence of a contaminated wound.clostridium septicum is an unusual human pathogen associated with colorectal malignancy and gas gangrene.200415684803
a reminder of the association between clostridium septicum and colonic adenocarcinoma.we present the case of a patient, with previously unknown liver metastases, presenting with a liver abscess and clostridium septicum septicaemia. c. septicum is known to be associated with both malignancy and immunosuppression and therefore in patients where this organism is isolated, efforts must be made to exclude an occult underlying malignancy or haematological disorder.200616646975
[clostridium infections in leukemias and malignant neoplasms].this review describes the subject of clostridial complications in leukemia and malignant neoplasms. these complications include bacteremia and spontaneous nontraumatic gas gangrene of the muscles. the mechanism of anaerobic microenvironment formation, which is necessary for infection development in neoplastic tumors, is also demonstrated. the role of risk factors contributing to the occurrence of clostridial infections is discussed. further, the etiology of infections, related mostly to the acti ...200415690715
fatal clostridium septicum infection in a young pregnant woman. 200616929089
fatal clostridium septicum infection in a patient with non-hodgkin's lymphoma undergoing multimodal oncologic therapy.clostridium septicum infections are rare but often fatal. they are known to be associated with a compromised immune system, e.g. with hematologic malignancies.200919295250
spontaneous clostridium septicum septic arthritis of the shoulder and gas gangrene. a case report. 200515805220
identification of functional domains of clostridium septicum alpha toxin.alpha toxin (at) is the major virulence factor of clostridium septicum that is a proteolytically activated pore-forming toxin that belongs to the aerolysin-like family of toxins. at is predicted to be a three-domain molecule on the basis of its functional and sequence similarity with aerolysin, for which the crystal structure has been determined. in this study, we have substituted the entire primary structure of at with alanine or cysteine to identify those amino acids that comprise functional d ...200617128973
mlst analysis reveals a highly conserved core genome among poultry isolates of clostridium septicum.clostridium septicum is a highly virulent, anaerobic bacterium capable of establishing necrotizing tissue infections and forming heat resistant endospores. disease is primarily facilitated by secretion of numerous toxic products including a lethal pore-forming cytolysin. spontaneously occurring clostridial myonecrosis involving c. septicum has recently reemerged as a concern for many poultry producers. however, despite its increasing prevalence, the epidemiology of infection and population struc ...200919402197
spontaneous remission of acute monocytic leukemia after infection with clostridium septicum.spontaneous remissions of acute myeloid leukemia (aml) have been reported in association with infection. here, we report a case of spontaneous remission of aml in a 47-year-old saudi arabian male patient who presented with a few weeks history of recurrent abdominal pain, vomiting and fever. he was diagnosed with acute monocytic leukemia (aml, fab m5b) and a perforated bowel. he also had clostridium septicum bacteremia and thus chemotherapy was deferred. he received supportive therapy and intrave ...200717824921
use of clostridium septicum alpha toxins for isolation of various glycosylphosphatidylinositol-deficient cells.in eukaryotic cells, various proteins are anchored to the plasma membrane through glycosylphosphatidylinositol (gpi). to study the biosynthetic pathways and modifications of gpi, various mutant cells have been isolated from the cells of chinese hamster ovaries (cho) supplemented with several exogenous genes involved in gpi biosynthesis using aerolysin, a toxin secreted from gram-negative bacterium aeromonas hydrophila. alpha toxin from gram-positive bacterium clostridium septicum is homologous t ...200515995645
[spontaneous gas gangrene in a diabetic patient with clostridium septicum].atraumatic infections due to clostridium septicum are known to be associated with immunosuppression or even malignancy. in this case report, we present a patient with severe clostridium septicum infection related to advanced colon cancer that had not previously been diagnosed. the case demonstrates the strong association between clostridium septicum infections and malignancy, particularly in the presence of other predisposing diseases such as diabetes mellitus. it strongly suggests excluding mal ...200516021394
[fever and abdominal pain in a patient with multiple hepatic masses]. 200919646794
suprarenal clostridium septicum aortitis with rupture and simultaneous colon cancer.we report a case of combined colon cancer and clostridium septicum aortitis involving the suprarenal abdominal aorta with rupture. an 82-year-old male presented with fever, abdominal pain, and back pain associated with constipation. he was successfully treated by in situ aortic graft placement with polytetrafluroethylene and concomitant colon resection. only 20 other cases of c. septicum mycotic aneurysm, aortitis, or aortic dissection have been reported. concomitant surgical treatment for clost ...200616773491
a case of contained ruptured aortitis due to clostridium septicum infection in a patient with a colon malignancy.we discuss a case of contained ruptured aortitis due to clostridium septicum infection in a 71-year-old man, who had undergone a right hemicolectomy and cholecystectomy to treat an ascending colon carcinoma. computed tomography identified a juxtarenal abdominal aneurysm with gas formation in the right psoas muscle. emergency abdominal exploration revealed a ruptured aortitis. after in situ graft replacement of the abdominal aorta, clostridium septicum was identified in tissue culture. antibiotic ...200718019648
excruciating thigh pain and hepatic air collection. 200718190321
parallelism in the lethal and hemolytic activity of the toxin of clostridium septicum.the relation of the lethal toxin to the hemolysin produced by clostridium septicum, strain 44, has been investigated. the following results suggest that the hemolytic and lethal actions of crude toxin are functions of a single substance or that they are functions of two substances which have similar physical, chemical, and antigenic properties. (1) within the limits of experimental error, the lethal activity of cultures is directly proportional to their hemolytic activity. (2) treatment of a cul ...194419871418
nutritional requirements and factors affecting the production of toxin of clostridium septicum.a medium consisting of a complete acid hydrolysate of casein supplemented with cystine, tryptophan, growth accessory factors, glucose, and inorganic salts, has been developed for the cultivation of clostridium septicum. toxin equivalent to 400 to 700 l.d(50) per ml. has been obtained regularly in this medium. the principal factors found to affect the yield of toxin are:- (a) phase of strain employed: cultures of cl. septicum may contain a number of variants. some of these may be characterized by ...194419871419
[the study on the cloning and expression of alpha toxin gene of clostridium septicum and the immunity of the toxoid].in order to amplify alpha toxin gene of clostridium septicum heb01 strain, one pair of primers was designed according to the genbank sequence, and a 1323bp alpha toxin gene fragment was obstained by pcr. sequence analysis indicated that the homology of the nucleotid sequence of heb01 strain to those other reference strains was more than 99.5% . the expression plasmid pqe30-alpha was constructed by inserting alpha toxin gene into the prokaryotic expression vector pqe30. the plasmid expressed when ...200717366890
a case of clostridium septicum spontaneous gas gangrene.severe skin and soft tissue infections (sstis) are often life-threatening emergencies that require a rapid diagnosis. gas gangrene is one of the most fulminant types of ssti and is usually caused by clostridium perfringens' contamination of an open wound. although gas gangrene is usually associated with fecally contaminated wounds, "spontaneous" cases occur and are most commonly caused by clostridium (c.) septicum. we report a case of spontaneous gas gangrene caused by c. septicum that only beca ...200717391589
clostridium septicum necrotizing fasciitis of the forefoot secondary to adenocarcinoma of the colon: case report and review of the literature.clostridium septicum accounts for 1% of all reported clostridial infections. c septicum infections are most often nontraumatic in nature and associated with either an occult colonic or hematologic malignancy. the initial presentation of a c septicum infection can be relatively benign with rapid progression to fatality without emergent treatment. presented is a case of necrotizing fasciitis of the forefoot caused by c septicum associated with an occult adenocarcinoma of the colon in a patient wit ...201019945301
alpha-toxin production by clostridium septicum at different culture conditions.clostridium septicum is responsible for a number of diseases, the most serious of which are a frequently fatal non-traumatic gas gangrene in man and braxy malignant oedema and blackquarter in farm animals. immunity to these diseases is mediated mainly by antitoxin raised against c. septicum alpha toxin, which has hemolytic, lethal and necrotizing activities. clostridium septicum produces lethal antigen only in low titre and in a variable way. in addition, the immunogenicity of native toxic filtr ...199716887590
clostridium septicum aortitis: report of two cases and review of the literature.clostridium septicum aortitis is a rare infection that has a strong association with occult colonic malignancy. to our knowledge, we report the 25th and 26th cases of c septicum aortitis in the english literature and make recommendations for its management. the first patient was a 75-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain. computed tomography showed the presence of periaortic gas. he underwent aortic débridement and extra-anatomic bypass after blood cultures revealed c septicum. four mon ...200919307090
novel real-time pcr assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of clostridium chauvoei and clostridium septicum in clostridial myonecrosis.a real-time pcr assay based on the 16s rrna gene sequence was designed for differentiation of blackleg-causing clostridium chauvoei and clostridium septicum, a phylogenetically closely related bacterium responsible for malignant edema. in order to exclude false-negative results, an internal amplification control was included in the assay. a set of three probes, one specific for c. chauvoei, one specific for c. septicum, and one specific for both species, permitted unequivocal detection of c. cha ...201020129968
clostridium septicum aortitis and cecal adenocarcinoma.clostridium septicum aortitis is a rare infection that is highly associated with underlying malignancy. we present a case of an 82-year-old male diagnosed with both c. septicum aortitis and a high-grade cecal tubulovillous adenoma. the patient was offered aortic resection; however, he opted for only suppressive antibiotic therapy and a right hemicolectomy with ileocolonic anastomosis. he ultimately passed away 75 days following admission. the authors report on the connection between c. septicum ...201020224641
immunization with clostridium septicum toxoid and with trivalent gas gangrene toxoid. 194720261077
the growth of clostridium septicum and its inhibition. 194720292333
development and validation of a multiplex real-time pcr for detection of clostridium chauvoei and clostridium septicum.clostridium chauvoei is the causative agent of blackleg in cattle and sheep. the clinical symptoms of this severe disease are very similar to that of malignant edema (clostridium septicum), infections of other clostridium species belonging to the gas edema complex, and anthrax (bacillus anthracis). c. chauvoei and c. septicum are closely related taxa and share many phenotypic properties hampering diagnosis by using traditional microbiological methods. thus, there is a need for a fast and reliabl ...201020362050
[clostridium myonecrosis: a complication of inguinal hernia repair].clostridial myonecrosis is a necrotizing soft tissue infection characterized by muscular necrosis and, by extension, that of the surrounding tissue. if this infection develops quickly, it can cause septic shock and death if treatment is delayed. this infection does not occur frequently in civil medicine but nor is it exceptional after traumatic injuries or as a septic infection resulting from certain surgical interventions. spontaneous development of clostridial myonecrosis is not uncommon (most ...200717306127
malignant edema in postpartum dairy cattle.five cases of postparturient vulvovaginitis and metritis in cattle caused by clostridium septicum (malignant edema) are described in the current report. the diagnosis was established based on detection of c. septicum by culture and fluorescent antibody test. all animals were holsteins, and 4 were primiparous (the parity of 1 animal was not reported). all animals developed clinical signs 1-3 days after calving, consisting of swelling of perineal and perivulvar areas, fever, and depression. perine ...200919901305
lethal complication after abdominal wall reduction.obesity is a growing medical problem in europe and the usa. plastic surgery is increasing in popularity as a treatment option for correcting skin surplus after dieting. this is often done in private clinics, and is not without risk. in this case, the early symptoms of disproportionate pain and swelling were not followed by immediate inspection in a hospital. the patient died within 48 hours due to clostridium infection. we advocate a 24/7 postoperative care facility, and recommend a sequence of ...200918555001
successful management of spontaneous clostridium septicum myonecrosis.spontaneous clostridium septicum myonecrosis, or gas gangrene, is an extremely rare soft tissue infection associated with malignancy and immunosuppression. even with appropriate treatment the mortality rate approaches 100%. we present the case of a patient who presented with fulminant clostridium septicum sepsis and myonecrosis who was successfully treated and made a full recovery within two weeks of the initial episode.200918555761
an unusual cause of chest pain: atraumatic clostridial myonecrosis.atraumatic clostridial myonecrosis is a rare but potentially life-threatening infective condition which is thought to occur in elderly and immunocompromised subjects via bacterial translocation through the gut wall and distant haematological seeding. previous case reports have mainly focused on an association with malignancy and bowel inflammation. the case is reported of an 84-year-old woman initially treated for cardiac chest pain, with a medical history comprising only of type 2 diabetes, hyp ...200919104111
a crackling priapism related to fournier's gangrene in a patient on chronic peritoneal dialysis. 201020600298
sepsis and gas-forming splenic abscess by clostridium septicum in a patient with type 2 diabetes.clostridium infections are rare but frequently associated with malignancy, and mortality approaches 100% if care is not rendered within 12 to 24 h. these infections are associated with various medical problems including diabetes mellitus. in this report, we describe a unique case of sepsis and a gas-forming splenic abscess caused by clostridium septicum in a type 2 diabetes patient which was treatable solely with antibiotics.201019285435
evidence for clostridium septicum as a primary cause of cellulitis in commercial turkeys.etiology and methods of immunoprophylaxis against common field cellulitis in commercial turkeys were evaluated. it was determined that intravenous administration ( approximately 10(8) cells/ml) of 1 of 4 isolates of clostridium septicum from cellulitis lesions rapidly caused the classic lesions of cellulitis followed by death within 36 hr at high doses. when the supernatant alone was injected into turkey poults, signs of depression and ataxia were temporarily observed for up to 20 hr after injec ...200919407093
molecular and cellular basis of microvascular perfusion deficits induced by clostridium perfringens and clostridium septicum.reduced tissue perfusion leading to tissue ischemia is a central component of the pathogenesis of myonecrosis caused by clostridium perfringens. the c. perfringens alpha-toxin has been shown capable of inducing these changes, but its potential synergy with perfringolysin o (theta-toxin) is less well understood. similarly, clostridium septicum is a highly virulent causative agent of spontaneous gas gangrene, but its effect on the microcirculation has not been examined. therefore, the aim of this ...200818404211
myonecrosis secondary to clostridium septicum in a patient with occult colon malignancy: a case report.abstract:200818992141
a rare trifocal presentation of clostridium septicum myonecrosis.gas gangrene or clostridial myonecrosis is a rare, life threatening infection of the muscle that is typically associated with recent surgery or trauma. it usually affects older individuals who suffer from vascular insufficiency or who are immunocompromised. the typical pathogen is clostridium perfringens. atraumatic gas gangrene caused by clostridium septicum is less common and has a unique association with colon cancer. this condition aggressively spreads through the muscular tissue and often c ...200819292235
clostridial toxins.clostridia produce the highest number of toxins of any type of bacteria and are involved in severe diseases in humans and other animals. most of the clostridial toxins are pore-forming toxins responsible for gangrenes and gastrointestinal diseases. among them, perfringolysin has been extensively studied and it is the paradigm of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysins, whereas clostridium perfringens epsilon-toxin and clostridium septicum alpha-toxin, which are related to aerolysin, are the prototy ...200919824793
fulminant clostridium septicum myonecrosis in well controlled diabetes: a case report.abstract: diabetic myonecrosis with clostridium septicum is uncommon but carries a high mortality rate. this commensal organism is part of the gastrointestinal tract flora and can become extremely virulent, often in the setting of immuno-suppression such as neutropenia, occult malignancy (commonly caecal) and poorly controlled diabetes. the case report is unusual in that there are few risk factors other than very mild neutropenia. this highlights the opportunistic character of the organism and r ...200717967202
images in cardiovascular medicine. clostridium septicum arch aortitis. 200818362245
phenotyping clostridium septicum infection: a surgeon's infectious disease.clostridium septicum infection is associated with malignancy. whether disease phenotype is affected by malignant status is not known. surgical treatment is used frequently but its impact on survival has not been examined in a cohort >30 patients.200818570933
[endogenous clostridium septicum panophthalmitis associated with gastrointestinal malignancy].endogenous panophthalmitis due to clostridium septicum (c. septicum) is a rare, but life-threatening condition. there is a known association between infection and malignancy. our patient presented with panophthalmitis - with visual loss, proptosis, raised intraocular pressure and air bubble in the anterior chamber. c. septicum was found in cultures of pus. he was treated with antibiotics and surgery, and recovered. further investigations showed carcinoma of the colon. this case stresses the need ...200919176171
cross-complementation of clostridium perfringens plc and clostridium septicum alpha-toxin mutants reveals plc is sufficient to mediate gas gangrene.clostridium perfringens and clostridium septicum are the most common causes of clostridial myonecrosis or gas gangrene. although they mediate a similar disease pathology, they elaborate functionally very different alpha-toxins. we used a reciprocal complementation approach to assess the contribution of the primary toxin of each species to disease and found that c. perfringens alpha-toxin (plc) was able to mediate the gross pathology of myonecrosis even in a c. septicum background, although it co ...200919284973
electronic clinical challenges and images in gi. clostridium septicum arch aortitis. 200919332173
programmed cellular necrosis mediated by the pore-forming alpha-toxin from clostridium septicum.programmed necrosis is a mechanism of cell death that has been described for neuronal excitotoxicity and ischemia/reperfusion injury, but has not been extensively studied in the context of exposure to bacterial exotoxins. the alpha-toxin of clostridium septicum is a beta-barrel pore-forming toxin and a potent cytotoxin; however, the mechanism by which it induces cell death has not been elucidated in detail. we report that alpha-toxin formed ca(2+)-permeable pores in murine myoblast cells, leadin ...200919609357
clostridium septicum alpha-toxin forms pores and induces rapid cell necrosis.alpha-toxin is the unique lethal virulent factor produced by clostridium septicum, which causes traumatic or non-traumatic gas gangrene and necrotizing enterocolitis in humans. here, we analyzed channel formation of the recombinant septicum alpha-toxin and characterized its activity on living cells. recombinant septicum alpha-toxin induces the formation of ion-permeable channels with a single-channel conductance of about 175ps in 0.1m kcl in lipid bilayer membranes, which is typical for a large ...201019632260
clostridium septicum aortitis causing aortic dissection in a 22-year-old man.clostridium septicum infection is a rare cause of aortic dissection, and the mortality rate for the condition is high. only 26 cases of c. septicum aortitis have been reported; all of those patients were elderly, and 20 of them had an associated colonic neoplasm. herein, we present the case of a 22-year-old man whose c. septicum aortitis resulted in aortic dissection that involved the entire length of the aorta. upon autopsy, no neoplasm or other predisposing condition was identified in this pat ...200919693310
clostridium septicum sepsis and colorectal cancer - a reminder.spontaneous clostridium septicum infections are rare and are associated with a high mortality. association of clostridium infection with colorectal malignancies have been previously reported and most cases are described in tumours of the ascending colon. we report our experience of clostridium septicum infection in the presence of tumour perforation in a series of two patients as a reminder of its association with sepsis in the presence of colorectal malignancy.200919807912
kinetics of lysis by clostridium septicum hemolysin.the kinetics of the hemolytic reaction effected by the hemolysin of clostridium septicum, strain 44, has been studied with regard to the effect of concentration, temperature, and hydrogen ion concentration on the rate of the hemolytic reaction. the kinetics of hemolysis was found to resemble in several respects that of enzyme-catalyzed reactions, but differed in the absence of a clearly defined ph optimum. attention is drawn to differences between the hemolytic system studied and certain other h ...194419871420
anaerobic bacteria as a cause of mycotic aneurysm of the aorta: microbiology and antimicrobial therapy.this review summarizes the microbiology, and antimicrobial management of mycotic aneurysm of the aorta (maa) due to anaerobic bacteria. anaerobic bacteria are an uncommon but important cause of maa. most cases of anaerobic maa are caused anaerobic gram-negative bacilli (mostly b. fragilis group), clostridium spp. (mostly clostridium septicum, and propionobacterium spp. (mostly p. acnes). clostridial infection is frequently associated with gastrointestinal or hematologic malignancy. a review of a ...200920066146
clostridium septicum infection of hepatic metastases following alcohol injection: a case report.clostridium septicum infections are generally associated with gastrointestinal or hematologic malignancies. we report the first case of hepatic metastases infection with clostridium septicum that followed alcohol injection of liver lesion. clinicians should consider this possibility in patients with underlying malignancy who present with hepatic abscess, as prompt surgical drainage and empiric antibiotics may be life saving.200920072687
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