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microbial conversion of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol: physiological comparison of a natural producer, clostridium butyricum vpi 3266, and an engineered strain, clostridium acetobutylicum dg1(pspd5).clostridium acetobutylicum is not able to grow on glycerol as the sole carbon source since it cannot reoxidize the excess of nadh generated by glycerol catabolism. nevertheless, when the pspd5 plasmid, carrying the nadh-consuming 1,3-propanediol pathway from c. butyricum vpi 3266, was introduced into c. acetobutylicum dg1, growth on glycerol was achieved, and 1,3-propanediol was produced. in order to compare the physiological behavior of the recombinant c. acetobutylicum dg1(pspd5) strain with t ...200616391030
effect of clostridium butyricum on fecal flora in helicobacter pylori eradication therapy.to investigate the effect of probiotic bacterium, clostridium butyricum miyairi 588 strain (cbm) on the changes of the fecal flora in helicobacter pylori (h. pylori) treatment.200516437727
isolation and characterization of clostridium butyricum dsm 5431 mutants with increased resistance to 1,3-propanediol and altered production of acids.clostridium butyricum mutants were isolated from the parent strain dsm 5431 after mutagenesis with n-methyl-n(prm1)-nitro-n-nitrosoguanidine and two selection procedures: osmotic pressure and the proton suicide method. isolated mutants were more resistant to glycerol and to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-pd) than was the wild type, and they produced more biomass. in batch culture on 62 g of glycerol per liter, the wild type produced more acetic acid than butyrate, with an acetate/butyrate ratio of 5.0, wh ...199516535195
properties of allyl alcohol-resistant mutants of clostridium butyricum grown on glycerol.mutants of clostridium butyricum e5 exhibiting resistance to allyl alcohol which produced the same quantities of 1,3-propanediol as the wild-type strain but more acetate than butyrate were isolated. the acetate-butyrate formation plays a major function in the regulation of the internal redox balance. allyl alcohol resistance can be attributed not to the loss of 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase but to a shift in the reductive properties of the enzyme. the data support the view that cellular regulati ...199616535411
degradation of pyruvate by micrococcus lactilyticus ii. : studies of cofactors in the formate-exchange reaction.mccormick, n. g. (university of washington, seattle), e. j. ordal, and h. r. whiteley. degradation of pyruvate by micrococcus lactilyticus. ii. studies of cofactors in the formate-exchange reaction. j. bacteriol. 83:899-906. 1962.-enzyme preparations from micrococcus lactilyticus(2) are rendered inactive with respect to formate exchange by treatment with charcoal or dowex-50, by dialysis, or by fractionation with ammonium sulfate. the activity may be completely restored by a "kochsaft" preparati ...196216561937
laboratory diagnostics of botulism.botulism is a potentially lethal paralytic disease caused by botulinum neurotoxin. human pathogenic neurotoxins of types a, b, e, and f are produced by a diverse group of anaerobic spore-forming bacteria, including clostridium botulinum groups i and ii, clostridium butyricum, and clostridium baratii. the routine laboratory diagnostics of botulism is based on the detection of botulinum neurotoxin in the patient. detection of toxin-producing clostridia in the patient and/or the vehicle confirms th ...200616614251
efficiency of hydrogen photoproduction by chloroplast-bacterial hydrogenase systems.a comparative study of h(2) photoproduction by chloroplasts and solubilized chlorophyll was performed in the presence of hydrogenase preparations of clostridium butyricum. the photoproduction of h(2) by chloroplasts in the absence of exogenous electron donors, and with irreversibly oxidized dithiothreitol and cysteine, is thought to be limited by a cyclic transport of electrons wherein methylviologen short-circuits the electron transport in photosystem i. the efficiency of h(2) photoproduction b ...198016661554
effects of dietary supplementation with clostridium butyricum on the growth performance and humoral immune response in miichthys miiuy.the effects of dietary supplementation with clostridium butyricum on growth performance and humoral immune response in miichthys miiuy were evaluated. one hundred and fifty miichthys miiuy weighing approximately 200-260 g were divided into five groups and reared in 15 tanks with closed circuiting culture system. the animals were fed 5 diets: basal diet only (control) or supplemented of the basal diet with c. butyricum at doses of 10(3) (cb1), 10(5) (cb2), 10(7) (cb3) or 10(9) (cb4) cfu/g. compar ...200616773736
studies on a kinetic model for butyric acid bioproduction by clostridium butyricum.this paper discusses the establishment of a kinetic model for cell growth, butyric acid production and substrate consumption of clostridium butyricum zjucb in batch cultivation.200616834724
degradation of 2-nitrodiphenylamine, a component of otto fuel ii, by clostridium spp.otto fuel ii, a propellant in torpedoes, is composed of 76% 1,2 propanediol dinitrate (pgdn), 22.5% di-n-butyl sebacate, and 1.5% 2-nitrodiphenylamine (ndpa), and is largely recalcitrant to aerobic microbial degradation. anaerobic microbial degradation of otto fuel ii was tested by inoculating anaerobic enrichment media, containing either 2% (vol:vol) complete otto fuel ii or 2% of a 0.02% solution of otto fuel ii in methanol, with soil and water from sites contaminated with munitions or with la ...199816887628
classification of clostridium butyricum based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.eleven strains of clostridium butyricum collected from different sources were analysed by both sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge). the strains could be classified into four groups based on their banding profiles of the proteins extracted from the cells on sds-page. group i consisted of seven strains, and these strains were further divided into five subgroups by pfge. the strains belonging to groups ii, iii, and iv on s ...199816887639
[investigation for proper use of probiotics in nagasaki university hospital of medicine and dentistry].antimicrobial agents sometimes cause the adverse effects of diarrhea and loose stool. antibiotic-resistant lactic acid bacteria are used to prevent these adverse effects. the bacteria are not resistant to several antimicrobial agents, although the bacterium preparations are sometimes prescribed the antimicrobial agents concomitantly. therefore this paper reports that the minimal inhibitory concentration of three new antimicrobial agents against antibiotic-resistant lactic acid bacteria were dete ...200617077616
antimicrobial activity of different proteins and their fragments from bacillus thuringiensis parasporal crystals against clostridia and archaea.proteins of parasporal crystals (cry proteins) from entomopathogenic bacterium bacillus thuringiensis (subspecies kurstaki, galleriae, tenebrionis) as well as some fragments of these proteins, obtained by limited proteolysis, are capable of antimicrobial action against anaerobic bacteria and archaea-clostridium butyricum, clostridium acetobutylicum and methanosarcina barkeri. the mics are 45-150 microg/ml. electron microscopy showed that lysis of m. barkeri cells in the presence of 49kda fragmen ...200717126041
the relationship between instability of h2 production and compositions of bacterial communities within a dark fermentation fluidized-bed bioreactor.microbial community composition dynamics was studied during h(2) fermentation from glucose in a fluidized-bed bioreactor (fbr) aiming at obtaining insight into the h(2) fermentation microbiology and factors resulting in the instability of biofilm processes. fbr h(2) production performance was characterised by an instable pattern of prompt onset of h(2) production followed by rapid decrease. gradual enrichment of organisms increased the diversity of fbr attached and suspended-growth phase bacteri ...200717163514
clostridium saccharogumia sp. nov. and lactonifactor longoviformis gen. nov., sp. nov., two novel human faecal bacteria involved in the conversion of the dietary phytoestrogen secoisolariciresinol diglucoside.two anaerobic bacteria involved in the conversion of the plant lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside were isolated from faeces of a healthy male adult. the first isolate, strain sdg-mt85-3db, was a mesophilic strictly anaerobic gram-positive helically coiled rod. based on 16s r rna gene sequence analysis, its nearest relatives were clostridium cocleatum (96.7% similarity) and clostridium ramosum (96.6%). in contrast to these species, the isolate was devoid of alpha-galactosidase and -glucosida ...200717196483
botulism: the challenge of diagnosis and treatment.botulism is a rare paralytic disease caused by a neurotoxin produced from the spore-forming bacterium clostridium botulinum and in rare cases clostridium butyricum and clostridium baratii. botulism has 4 naturally occurring syndromes: foodborne, wound, infant botulism, and adult intestinal toxemia. inhalational botulism could result from aerosolization of botulinum toxin, and iatrogenic botulism can result from injection of toxin. all of these produce the same clinical syndrome of symmetrical cr ...200617224901
flow-fish analysis and isolation of clostridial strains in an anaerobic semi-solid bio-hydrogen producing system by hydrogenase gene target.by using hydrogenase gene-targeted polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and reverse transcriptase pcr (rt-pcr), the predominant clostridial hydrogenase that may have contributed to biohydrogen production in an anaerobic semi-solid fermentation system has been monitored. the results revealed that a clostridium pasteurianum-like hydrogenase gene sequence can be detected by both pcr and rt-pcr and suggested that the bacterial strain possessing this specific hydrogenase gene was dominant in hydrogenase a ...200717277963
sybr green real-time pcr method to detect clostridium botulinum type a.botulinum toxins (bonts) are classically produced by clostridium botulinum but rarely also from neurotoxigenic strains of clostridium baratii and clostridium butyricum. bont type a (bont/a), bont/b, bont/e, and very rarely bont/f are mainly responsible for human botulism. standard microbiological methods take into consideration only the detection of c. botulinum. the presumptive identification of the toxigenic strains together with the typing of bont has to be performed by mouse bioassay. the de ...200717369349
clostridium butyricum to-a culture supernatant downregulates tlr4 in human colonic epithelial cells.the present study was performed to examine whether probiotics affect toll-like receptor 4 (tlr4) expression in human colonic epithelial cells. culture supernatants or heat-killed bacteria of bacillus mesentericus to-a, clostridium butyricum to-a, and streptococcus faecalis t-110 were applied to human colonic epithelial cells. treatment with c. butyricum to-a culture supernatant significantly reduced tlr4 mrna level (x0.16), even in the presence of interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma; x0.21) as compared ...200717404865
intestinal toxemia botulism in italy, 1984-2005.botulism in humans is caused by botulinum neurotoxins, produced in most cases by clostridium botulinum, although other clostridia species are implicated as well. of the five forms of botulism in humans, three are referred to as "infective": wound botulism, infant botulism, and adult intestinal botulism; the latter two forms are also referred to as "intestinal toxemia botulism" because the organism colonizes the lumen of the intestinal tract and produces botulinum neurotoxin in vivo. twenty-three ...200717516104
clostridium aestuarii sp. nov., from tidal flat sediment.a strictly anaerobic, halophilic, motile, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain hy-45-18(t), was isolated from a sediment sample of a tidal flat in korea. the isolate produced butyric acid, propionic acid, glycerol and h(2) as fermentation end products from glucose. strain hy-45-18(t) is halophilic as it was unable to grow in the absence of sea salts. a 16s rrna gene sequence analysis clearly indicated that the tidal flat isolate is a member of cluster i of the order clostri ...200717551049
[helicobacter pylori infection and probiotics]. 200717575794
probiotics reduce infectious complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy.postoperative morbidity is a significant problem associated with pancreaticoduodenectomy. the clinical value of probiotics in surgical patients remains unclear. this study investigated the effect of probiotics on surgical outcome after pancreaticoduodenectomy.200717591036
description of the bacteriocins produced by two strains of enterococcus faecium isolated from italian goat milk.in this study two strains of enterococcus faecium, m241 and m249, isolated from goat milk, were studied for their capability to produce antibacterial compounds. it was determined that the bacteriocins produced by both strains were active towards listeria monocytogenes and clostridium butyricum, and they did not have any activity with respect to other species of lactic acid bacteria. enterocins a and b were targeted by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and sequenced, after cloning, in both strains. ...200717613373
dark h2 fermentation from sucrose and xylose using h2-producing indigenous bacteria: feasibility and kinetic studies.cellulosic materials are the major components in biomass feedstock used for bioenergy production. hydrolytic products of cellulosic substances consist primarily of hexose (e.g., glucose) and pentose (e.g., xylose). in this study, the efficiency of fermentative conversion of sucrose (representing hexose) and xylose into h2 was examined with seven h2-producing pure strains isolated from a high-rate h2-producing system in our recent work. the isolates were identified as clostridium butyricum (strai ...200817889245
improving pcr and qpcr detection of hydrogenase a (hyda) associated with clostridia in pure cultures and environmental sludges using bovine serum albumin.detection of hyda genes of clostridia spp. using degenerative and species specific primers for c. butyricum were optimized by the addition of bovine serum albumin (bsa) to polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and quantitative pcr (qpcr) reactions. bsa concentrations ranging from 100 to 400 ng/microl were examined using pure cultures and a variety of environmental samples as test targets. a bsa concentration of 100 ng/microl, which is lower than previously reported in the literature, was found to be m ...200717909787
dark hydrogen fermentation from hydrolyzed starch treated with recombinant amylase originating from caldimonas taiwanensis on1.starch is one of the most abundant resources on earth and is suited to serve as a cost-effective feedstock for biological hydrogen production. however, producing hydrogen from direct fermentation of starch is usually inefficient, as the starch hydrolysis is often the rate-limiting step. therefore, in the present work, enzymatic starch hydrolysis was conducted to enhance the feasibility of using starch feedstock for h2 production. the amylase (with a molecular weight of ca. 112 kda) used for star ...200717924646
biochemical energy conversion using immobilized whole cells of clostridium butyricum.hydrogen producing bacteria, clostridium butyricum, were immobilized in agar gel (2 per cent). the immobilized whole cells were employed for continuous production of hydrogen from alcohol factory waste waters. the hydrogen production rate became constant above bod 1500 ppm when hydrogen production was performed with a batch system. the immobilized whole cells continuously produced hydrogen over a 20-day period. the amount of hydrogen produced was about 6 ml/min/kg wet gels. hydrogen produced was ...198017941443
the isolation and microbial community analysis of hydrogen producing bacteria from activated sludge.to profile the fractions of bacteria in heat-treated activated sludge capable of producing hydrogen and subsequently to isolate those organisms and confirm their ability to produce hydrogen.200717953552
quality of silages from italian farms as attested by number and identity of microbial indicators.this study evaluated the quality and possible hygiene risks related to farm-made silages by analysing the presence and number of micro-organisms that influence the preservation and safety in samples from four italian regions.200717953581
real-time pcr detection of the nontoxic nonhemagglutinin gene as a rapid screening method for bacterial isolates harboring the botulinum neurotoxin (a-g) gene complex.botulinum neurotoxin (bont) producing clostridia contain genes encoding a specific neurotoxin serotype (a-g) and nontoxic associated proteins that form the toxin complex. the nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (ntnh) is a conserved component of the toxin complex in all seven toxin types. a real-time pcr assay that utilizes a locked nucleic acid hydrolysis probe to target the ntnh gene was developed to detect bacterial strains harboring the botulinum neurotoxin gene cluster. the specificity of the assay f ...200717961766
infantile botulism caused by clostridium butyricum type e toxin.the case of a 9-month-old boy with infantile botulism caused by clostridium butyricum type e toxin is reported. because infantile botulism is rare in japan, it was difficult to diagnose it at an early stage. electrophysiologic findings were useful for the diagnosis, and were characterized by incremental responses (waxing) to short intervals and rapid repetitive nerve stimulation. a bioassay for botulism in mice indicated that the patient had botulism due to type e or f botulinum toxin. c. butyri ...200818054696
relationship among growth parameters for clostridium butyricum, hyda gene expression, and biohydrogen production in a sucrose-supplemented batch reactor.this study was undertaken to identify the relationship between the performance of dark h2 fermentation and expression of the key functional gene (i.e., hydrogenase gene) involved in the bioh2 production process. clostridium butyricum cgs5 isolated from anaerobic sewage sludge was used as the model strain for this study. copy number of the hydrogenase gene (hyda) and mrna transcripts (cdna hyda) (after amplification) and the total dna and rna (before amplification) were measured over the course o ...200818193215
clostridium butyricum sepsis in an injection drug user with an indwelling central venous catheter.clostridium novyi has been associated with a large outbreak of severe infections in injection drug users. a case of bacteraemia with clostridium butyricum in an injection drug user is reported. during treatment for staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis, the patient used an indwelling central venous catheter to inject cocaine. he was admitted with c. butyricum sepsis that responded to broad spectrum antibiotics, including vancomycin. local investigation for other cases was unrevealing; however, gro ...200818201992
ability of lactobacillus fermentum to overcome host alpha-galactosidase deficiency, as evidenced by reduction of hydrogen excretion in rats consuming soya alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides.soya and its derivatives represent nutritionally high quality food products whose major drawback is their high content of alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides. these are not digested in the small intestine due to the natural absence of tissular alpha-galactosidase in mammals. the passage of these carbohydrates to the large intestine makes them available for fermentation by gas-producing bacteria leading to intestinal flatulence. the aim of the work reported here was to assess the ability of alpha-gala ...200818230145
effects of active egg white product/ clostridium butyricum miyairi 588 additive on peripheral leukocyte populations in periparturient dairy cows.the leukocyte populations of periparturient dairy cows were analyzed after administration of active egg white/clostridium butyricum miyairi additive. sixty-eight holstein milking cows were divided into 3 groups. group a was administered active egg white product (aewp)/clostridium butyricum miyairi 588 (miyairi 588) additive (n=23). group b was administered miyairi 588 only (n=23), and group c was the control group (n=22). the challenged groups were administered 100 g of aewp + miyairi 588, or mi ...200818388438
efficacy of clostridium butyricum preparation concomitantly with helicobacter pylori eradication therapy in relation to changes in the intestinal microbiota.antibiotic associated diarrhea due to human intestinal microbiota abnormalities is a side effect of h. pylori eradication therapy. we examined intestinal microbiota changes during h. pylori eradication therapy and the preventive effect of cbm588 as a probiotic agent. nineteen patients with gastro-duodenal ulcer were randomly divided into three groups: group a (without probiotics), group b (with regular doses of cbm588) and group c (with double doses of cbm588). the incidence of diarrhea and soft ...200818402597
an open-label randomized controlled trial of lactulose and probiotics in the treatment of minimal hepatic encephalopathy.minimal hepatic encephalopathy (mhe) is associated with poor quality of life and increased work disability. treatment with lactulose and probiotics has shown some benefit. we compared lactulose with probiotics and a combination of lactulose plus probiotics in the treatment of mhe.200818467909
regeneration of nad(p)h by immobilized whole cells of clostridium butyricum under hydrogen high pressure.immobilized whole cells of clostridium butyricum reduced both nad(+) and nadp(+) in the presence of hydrogen at a pressure of 100 atm. the nad(+) and nadp(+) reduction activities were 4.45 and 4.30 u/g dry cells, respectively [u = nad(p)h regenerated, mu mol/min]. the amount of nadh regenerated by immobilized cells increased with increasing hydrogen pressure above 10 atm. immobilized cells (6 mg dry cells) of cl. butyricum completely converted nad(+) (6.4 mumole) to nadh for 5 h, whereas only 60 ...198518553815
multiple product inhibition and growth modeling of clostridium butyricum and klebsiella pneumoniae in glycerol fermentation.the inhibition potentials of products and substrate on the growth ofclostridium butyricum and klebsiella pneumoniae in the glycerol fermentation are examined from experimental data and with a mathematicalmodel. whereas the inhibition potential of externally added and self-produced 1,3-propanediol is essentially the same, butyric acid produced by the culture is more toxic than that externally added. the same seems to apply for acetic acid. the inhibitory effect of butyric acid is due tothe total ...199418618908
absence of allergic reactions to egg white lysozyme additive in grana padano cheese.the negative effects on cheese quality of milk contaminated by spores of clostridium butyricum and cl.tyrobutyricum is prevented by the use of egg white lysozyme as additive. since the presence of lysozyme in cheese could be possibly risky in allergic subjects, we aimed at investigating its absorption as well as serum ige antibody titers after ingestion of grana padano cheese, an italian dpo, long-ripened hard cheese, in white egg allergic subjects.200818689566
in vitro evaluation on adherence and antimicrobial properties of a candidate probiotic clostridium butyricum cb2 for farmed fish.to characterize the antimicrobial and adhesion ability of candidate probiotic clostridium butyricum cb2 for farmed fish in vitro.200818795975
an overview of type e botulism in china.the geographical distribution of c. botulinum type e and its associated disease, type e botulism in china, is different from that in other areas of the world. cases of type e botulism generally arise in costal regions. in china, however, type e botulism is found primarily in the qinghai-tibet plateau of northwest china far from the ocean, at an altitude of approximately 4-5 km. the foods most commonly associated with the disease are fermented grain and beans as well as raw meat. a suspected outb ...200818837301
microbial electrode bod sensors. biotechnol bioeng. vol. xix, pgs. 1535-47 (1977). 200919090576
functional consortium for hydrogen production from cellobiose: concentration-to-extinction approach.a functional bacterial consortium that can effectively hydrolyze cellobiose and produce bio-hydrogen was isolated by a concentration-to-extinction approach. the sludge from a cattle feedlot manure composting plant was incubated with 2.5-20 g l(-1) cellobiose at 35 degrees c and ph 6.0. the microbial diversity of serially concentrated suspensions significantly decreased following increasing cellobiose concentration, finally leaving only two viable strains, clostridium butyricum strain w4 and ente ...200919138842
microbial conversion of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol by an engineered strain of escherichia coli.in an effort to improve industrial production of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-pd), we engineered a novel polycistronic operon under the control of the temperature-sensitive lambda phage p(l)p(r) promoter regulated by the cits857 repressor and expressed it in escherichia coli k-12 er2925. the genes for the production of 1,3-pd in clostridium butyricum, dhab1 and dhab2, which encode the vitamin b(12)-independent glycerol dehydratase dhab1 and its activating factor, dhab2, respectively, were tandemly array ...200919139229
production of apoptosis-inducing substances from soybean protein by clostridium butyricum: characterization of their toxic effects on human colon carcinoma cells.microbial metabolism of soybean constituents is known to produce novel active substances as a chemopreventive agent during the fermentation, and enterobacteria are expected to produce chemopreventive agents as a consequence of metabolizing soybean constituents in the intestinal tract. then, the conditioned medium was prepared by culturing an enterobacterium clostridium butyricum (c. butyricum) with soybean protein, and its direct effect on human colon carcinoma hct116 cells was examined. the con ...200919147278
process optimization of biological hydrogen production from molasses by a newly isolated clostridium butyricum w5.this work sought to optimize fermentation parameters in a batch process for hydrogen production from molasses by a newly isolated clostridium butyricum w5. hydrogen yield and production rate, bacterial biomass and volatile fatty acids, including acetic, lactic and butyric acids, were measured. key fermentation operation parameters, including concentration of carbon and nitrogen sources, growth temperature and ph, and inoculum size were investigated. the best results in terms of hydrogen yield an ...200919217551
short-chain fatty acids and polyamines in the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis: kinetics aspects in gnotobiotic quails.despite years of investigation, pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (nec) remains elusive. bacterial metabolites were implicated by several authors but their roles remain controversial. the aim of our study was to investigate the role of scfas and polyamines through a kinetic study of histological and macroscopical digestive lesions in monobiotic quails. germ-free quails, inoculated with a clostridium butyricum strain involved in a nec case, were fed or not with a diet including lactose (7 ...200919233303
development of real-time pcr tests for detecting botulinum neurotoxins a, b, e, f producing clostridium botulinum, clostridium baratii and clostridium butyricum.to develop real-time pcr assays for tracking and tracing clostridia responsible for human botulism.200919291235
biocontrol: bacillus penetrans and related parasites of nematodes.bacillus penetrans mankau, 1975, previously described as duboscqia penetrans thorne 1940, is a candidate agent for biocontrol of nematodes. this review considers the life stages of this bacterium: vegetative growth phase, colony fragmentation, sporogenesis, soil phase, spore attachment, and penetration into larvae of root-knot nematodes. the morphology of the microthallus colonies and the unusual external features of the spore are discussed. taxonomic affinities with the actinomycetes, particula ...198019300701
therapeutic effects of clostridium butyricum on experimental colitis induced by oxazolone in rats.to evaluate the therapeutic effects of a probiotic supplement (clostridium butyricum, cgmcc0313) in a chemically-induced rat model of experimental colitis.200919370778
adding value to renewables: a one pot process combining microbial cells and hydrogen transfer catalysis to utilise waste glycerol from biodiesel production.waste glycerol was converted to secondary amines in a one pot reaction, using clostridium butyricum and catalytic hydrogen transfer-mediated amination.200919377668
functions of the clostridium acetobutylicium fabf and fabz proteins in unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis.the original anaerobic unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis pathway proposed by goldfine and bloch was based on in vivo labeling studies in clostridium butyricum atcc 6015 (now c. beijerinckii) but to date no dedicated unsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic enzyme has been identified in clostridia. c. acetobutylicium synthesizes the same species of unsaturated fatty acids as e. coli, but lacks all of the known unsaturated fatty acid synthetic genes identified in e. coli and other bacteria. a possibl ...200919493359
effect of cod/so(4)2- ratio and fe(ii) under the variable hydraulic retention time (hrt) on fermentative hydrogen production.the effect of chemical oxygen demand/sulfate (cod/so(4)(2-)) ratio on fermentative hydrogen production using enriched mixed microflora has been studied. the chemostat system maintained with a substrate (glucose) concentration of 15 g cod l(-1) exhibited stable h(2) production at inlet sulfate concentrations of 0-20 g l(-1) during 282 days. the tested cod/so(4)(2-) ratios ranged from 150 to 0.75 (with control) at ph 5.5 with hydraulic retention time (hrt) of 24, 12 and 6h. the hydrogen production ...200919555990
biohydrogen production from cellulosic hydrolysate produced via temperature-shift-enhanced bacterial cellulose hydrolysis.a "temperature-shift" strategy was developed to improve reducing sugar production from bacterial hydrolysis of cellulosic materials. in this strategy, production of cellulolytic enzymes with cellulomonas uda e3-01 was promoted at a preferable temperature (35 degrees c), while more efficient enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis was achieved under an elevated culture temperature (45 degrees c), at which cell growth was inhibited to avoid consumption of reducing sugar. this temperature-shift strategy was ...200919604692
metabolic modelling of syntrophic-like growth of a 1,3-propanediol producer, clostridium butyricum, and a methanogenic archeon, methanosarcina mazei, under anaerobic conditions.clostridium butyricum can convert glycerol into 1,3-propanediol, thereby generating unfortunately a high amount of acetate, formate and butyrate as inhibiting by-products. we have proposed a novel mixed culture comprising c. butyricum and a methane bacterium, methanosarcina mazei, to relieve the inhibition and to utilise the by-products for energy production. in order to examine the efficiency of such a mixed culture, metabolic modelling of the culture system was performed in this work. the meta ...201019680695
multiplex pcr for detection of botulinum neurotoxin-producing clostridia in clinical, food, and environmental samples.botulinum neurotoxin (bont), the most toxic substance known, is produced by the spore-forming bacterium clostridium botulinum and, in rare cases, also by some strains of clostridium butyricum and clostridium baratii. the standard procedure for definitive detection of bont-producing clostridia is a culture method combined with neurotoxin detection using a standard mouse bioassay (smb). the smb is highly sensitive and specific, but it is expensive and time-consuming and there are ethical concerns ...200919684163
phylogenetic and metabolic diversity of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (rdx)-transforming bacteria in strictly anaerobic mixed cultures enriched on rdx as nitrogen source.five obligate anaerobes that were most closely related to clostridium bifermentans, clostridium celerecrescens, clostridium saccharolyticum, clostridium butyricum and desulfovibrio desulfuricans by their 16s rrna genes sequences were isolated from enrichment cultures using hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (rdx) as a nitrogen source. the above isolates transformed rdx at rates of 24.0, 5.4, 6.2, 2.5, 5.5 mumol h(-1) g (dry weight) of cells(-1), respectively, to nitrite, formaldehyde, metha ...200319719572
[effect of initial substrate concentrations and ph on hydrogen production from xylose with clostridium butyricum t4].we studied the effect of initial ph and substrate concentrations on the conversion of xylose to hydrogen by clostridium butyrium t4 at ph 5.0-8.5 and substrate concentrations 5-40 g/l. the cumulative hydrogen volume and the specific hydrogen production rate increased and then decreased with increasing initial ph or substrate concentrations. at initial ph 6.5 and substrate concentration 20 g/l, the cumulative hydrogen production and the specific hydrogen production rate reached the maximum value ...200919777817
effect of carbohydrate composition in barley and oat cultivars on microbial ecophysiology and proliferation of salmonella enterica in an in vitro model of the porcine gastrointestinal tract.the influence of the carbohydrate (cho) composition of cereal cultivars on microbial ecophysiology was studied using an in vitro model of the porcine gastrointestinal tract. ten hull-less barley cultivars, six barley cultivars with hulls, six oat cultivars, and six oat groats that differed in beta-glucan, nonstarch polysaccharide (nsp), and starch contents and starch type were hydrolyzed enzymatically and incubated for 72 h with pig feces. fermentation kinetics were modeled, and microbial compos ...200919783749
recombination and insertion events involving the botulinum neurotoxin complex genes in clostridium botulinum types a, b, e and f and clostridium butyricum type e strains.clostridium botulinum is a taxonomic designation for at least four diverse species that are defined by the expression of one (monovalent) or two (bivalent) of seven different c. botulinum neurotoxins (bonts, a-g). the four species have been classified as c. botulinum groups i-iv. the presence of bont genes in strains representing the different groups is probably the result of horizontal transfer of the toxin operons between the species.200919804621
sequence analysis of a bacteriocinogenic plasmid of clostridium butyricum and expression of the bacteriocin gene in escherichia coli.a small cryptic plasmid, namely, pcbm588, was obtained from clostridium butyricum miyairi 588 (cbm588)--a bacterium used in probiotics. the complete sequence of pcbm588 was determined. the size of pcbm588 was 8060 bp and the g + c content was 24.3%. nine open reading frames (orfs) were predicted, and orf3 showed significant homologies with a structural bacteriocin gene of clostridium tyrobutyricum. the putative bacteriocin gene was inserted into the pet21d expression vector in frame; it was expr ...201019840859
the effect of hydrogen ion concentration on the production of carbon dioxide by bacillus butyricus and bacillus subtilis.1. the maximum rate of co(2) production of bacillus butyricus was found to be at a ph value of 7; of bacillus subtilis at ph 6.8. if the ph value be raised or lowered there is a progressive decrease in the rate of production of co(2). 2. spontaneous recovery follows the addition of alkali to either organism, while addition of acid is followed by recovery only upon addition of an equivalent amount of alkali, and is not complete except when the amount of acid is very small.192119871925
conductivity as a measure of vitality and death.the conductance of laminaria, saccharomyces, bacillus coli and bacillus butyricus, chlorella, and of red blood cells has been studied by the writer's method, and laminaria by that of osterhout. for the material studied it has been found that: 1. the conductance of living tissue is closely proportionate to, and determined by that of the surrounding fluid with which it is apparently in equilibrium. changes in the conductance of the fluid are quickly followed by compensatory changes in that of the ...192319872003
conversion of glycerol to poly(3-hydroxypropionate) in recombinant escherichia coli.we have developed the conversion of glycerol into thermoplastic poly(3-hydroxypropionate) [poly(3hp)]. for this, the genes for glycerol dehydratase (dhab1) of clostridium butyricum, propionaldehyde dehydrogenase (pdup) of salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium lt2, and polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) synthase (phac1) of ralstonia eutropha were expressed in recombinant escherichia coli. poly(3hp) was accumulated up to 11.98% (wt/wt [cell dry weight]) in a two-step, fed-batch fermentation. the present ...201019933347
multicomponent cellulase production by cellulomonas biazotea ncim-2550 and its applications for cellulosic biohydrogen production.among four cellulolytic microorganisms examined, cellulomonas biazotea ncim-2550 can grow on various cellulosic substrates and produce reducing sugar. the activity of cellulases (endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and cellobiase), xylanase, amylase, and lignin class of enzymes produced by c. biazotea was mainly present extracellularly and the enzyme production was dependent on cellulosic substrates (carboxymethyl cellulose [cmc], sugarcane bagasse [scb], and xylan) used for growth. effects of physicoc ...201019941342
presence of soil-dwelling clostridia in commercial powdered infant formulas.because clostridium botulinum was isolated from powdered infant formula (pif) fed to an infant in the united kingdom who subsequently developed infant botulism and from unopened pif from the same manufacturer, we tested pif manufactured in the united states for the presence of clostridial spores.201020004414
effects of dietary lipids and clostridium butyricum on fat deposition and meat quality of broiler chickens.the effects of dietary lipids and clostridium butyricum on carcass quality, fat deposition, meat quality, and fatty acid contents of breast meat in broiler chickens were investigated. one hundred sixty one-day-old broiler chicks (arbor acres) were divided into 4 treatment groups in a 2x2 factorial arrangement and fed 4 diets with 2 lipid sources (soybean oil or fish oil) and 2 levels of c. butyricum (0 or 5 g/kg of diets) were used. abdominal fat was significantly reduced when chicks were fed th ...201020075277
probiotics have clinical, microbiologic, and immunologic efficacy in acute infectious diarrhea.acute infectious diarrhea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and economic burden for families. we evaluate the clinical, microbiologic, and immunologic effects of probiotics in acute infectious diarrhea.201020135748
selected microbial groups and short-chain fatty acids profile in a simulated chicken cecum supplemented with two strains of lactobacillus.among the bacterial fermentation end products in the chicken cecum, butyrate is of particular importance because of its nutritional properties for the epithelial cell and pathogen inhibitory effects in the gut. an in vitro experiment, operated with batch bioreactor, was conducted to quantify butyric-producing bacteria in a simulated broiler cecum supplemented with lactobacillus salivarius ssp. salicinius jcm 1230 and lactobacillus agilis jcm 1048 during 24 h of incubation. selected bacterial spe ...201020181862
enhanced bio-hydrogen production by the combination of dark- and photo-fermentation in batch culture.in this study, some key factors, for example, diluted ratio of effluents, the ratio of dark-photo bacteria, light intensity and light/dark cycle influencing hydrogen production by combining clostridium butyricum and immobilized rhodopseudomonas faecalis rld-53 in batch culture, were investigated. experimental results showed the photo-hydrogen yield decreased when increasing diluted ratio from 1:0.5 to 1:3, and it reached the maximum value of 4368 ml-h(2)/l-effluents at the ratio of 1:0.5. when t ...201020202826
[effects of probiotics on intestinal bacterial colonization in premature infants].to study the possible roles of probiotics in decreasing intestinal bacterial colonization rate and the incidence of enterogenic infections in premature infants.201020350428
qm/mm (oniom) study of glycerol binding and hydrogen abstraction by the coenzyme b12-independent dehydratase.glycerol binding and the radical-initiated hydrogen transfer by the coenzyme b(12)-independent glycerol dehydratase from clostridium butyricum were investigated by using quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (qm/mm) calculations based on the high-resolution crystal structure (pdb code: 1r9d). our qm/mm calculations of enzyme catalysis considered the electrostatic coupling between the quantum-mechanical and molecular-mechanical subsystems and two alternative mechanisms. in addition to performin ...201020361776
dark fermentative hydrogen production from enzymatic hydrolysate of xylan and pretreated rice straw by clostridium butyricum cgs5.xylan and rice straw were used to produce h(2) via a two-stage approach combining feedstock pretreatment/hydrolysis and dark h(2) fermentation. acinetobacter junii f6-02 was used to produce cellulolytic enzymes (mainly xylanase) to hydrolyze xylan and pretreated rice straw. the hydrolysates were converted to h(2) by clostridium butyricum cgs5 via dark fermentation. investigation of kinetics of xylanase on xylan and naoh-pretreated rice straw shows nu(max) values of 8.6 and 3.6g/l/h, and k(m) val ...201020385486
effect of biodiesel-derived waste glycerol impurities on biomass and 1,3-propanediol production of clostridium butyricum vpi 1718.aim of the present study was to assess and evaluate the impact of various kinds of impurities of biodiesel-derived raw glycerol feedstock, upon microbial growth and 1,3-propanediol (1,3-pdo) production by clostridium butyricum. preliminary trials in 200-ml anaerobic bottles revealed that the presence of nacl at a concentration of 4.5% (w/w of glycerol) in growth medium imposed an evident inhibitory effect, in contrast with phosphoric salts. however, the application of nacl at elevated quantities ...201020506102
influence of probiotics in different energy and nutrient density diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, meat quality, and blood characteristics in growing-finishing pigs.the study was conducted to determine the effects of probiotics (bacillus subtilis endospore and clostridium butyricum endospore complex) supplementation and different energy and nutrient densities on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and meat quality in growing-finishing pigs. a total of 96 pigs with initial bw of 47.50 ± 1.14 kg were used in a 10-wk experiment. pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 levels of energy and n ...201020562363
investigation of mineral water springs of miercurea ciuc (csíkszereda) region (romania) with cultivation-dependent microbiological methods.water samples of ten mineral water springs at miercurea ciuc (csíkszereda) region (romania) were examined during 2005-2006 using cultivation-dependent microbiological methods. the results of standard hygienic bacteriological tests showed that the hargita spring had perfect and five other springs had microbiologically acceptable water quality (zsögöd-, nagy-borvíz-, taploca-, szentegyháza- and lobogó springs). the water of borsáros spring was exceptionable (high germ count, presence of enterococc ...201020587384
preliminary study on the isolation of clostridium butyricum strains from natural sources in the uk and screening the isolates for presence of the type e botulinal toxin gene.clostridia such as clostridium tyrobutyricum, c. pasteurianum and c. butyricum may cause spoilage problems in certain types of food, but they are not normally regarded as dangerous. however some strains of c. butyricum have acquired the type e botulinum neurotoxin gene and have caused both infant and classical botulism in italy (1986), china (1994) and india (1996). this study was carried out to examine a range of samples from fresh vegetables to food and environmental samples in the uk and test ...201020633941
probiotic bio-three induces th1 and anti-inflammatory effects in pbmc and dendritic cells.to investigate the immune response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) and dendritic cells (dcs) that were stimulated by probiotic preparations.201020653061
oral administration of clostridium butyricum for modulating gastrointestinal microflora in mice.this study aimed to evaluate the safety of clostridium butyricum and to investigate the effect of c. butyricum on mice ecosystem in the intestinal tract by way of examining the population of different microorganisms isolated from caecal contents. we firstly evaluated the safety of c. butyricum using acute toxicity test and ames test. then forty male balb/c mice were divided into the following four treatment groups, each consisting of ten mice: normal group, low-dose group, medium-dose group and ...201120711781
antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance determinants of clostridium butyricum isolates from preterm infants.this study reports the antibiotic susceptibility and genetic resistance determinants of 39 clostridium butyricum strains isolated from the faeces of preterm infants as well as one reference strain. results showed that all the strains were susceptible to cefoxitin, imipenem, vancomycin, tigecycline, metronidazole, chloramphenicol and linezolid. resistance was observed to clindamycin (100%), penicillin g, amoxicillin and piperacillin (15%), tetracycline (7.5%) and erythromycin (5%). investigation ...201020822886
effect of molybdenum on nitrogen fixation by clostridium butyricum. 194621001937
comparative study of biological hydrogen production by pure strains and consortia of facultative and strict anaerobic bacteria.in this paper, a simple and rapid method was developed in order to assess in comparative tests the production of binary biogas mixtures containing co(2) and another gaseous compound such as hydrogen or methane. this method was validated and experimented for the characterisation of the biochemical hydrogen potential of different pure strains and mixed cultures of hydrogen-producing bacteria (hpb) growing on glucose. the experimental results compared the hydrogen production yield of 19 different p ...201021185171
long-term effect of inoculum pretreatment on fermentative hydrogen production by repeated batch cultivations: homoacetogenesis and methanogenesis as competitors to hydrogen production.long-term effects of inoculum pretreatments (heat, acid, loading-shock) on hydrogen production from glucose under different temperatures (37 -¦c, 55 -¦c) and initial ph (7 and 5.5) were studied by repeated batch cultivations. results obtained showed that it was necessary to investigate the long-term effect of inoculum pretreatment on hydrogen production since pretreatments may just temporarily inhibit the hydrogen consuming processes. after long-term cultivation, pretreated inocula did not enhan ...201121381001
molecular characterization of the glycerol-oxidative pathway of clostridium butyricum vpi 1718.the glycerol oxidative pathway of clostridium butyricum vpi 1718 plays an important role in glycerol dissimilation. we isolated, sequenced, and characterized the region coding for the glycerol oxidation pathway. five open reading frames (orfs) were identified: dhar, encoding a putative transcriptional regulator; dhad (1,142 bp), encoding a glycerol dehydrogenase; and dhak (995 bp), dhal (629 bp), and dham (386 bp), encoding a phosphoenolpyruvate (pep)-dependent dihydroxyacetone (dha) kinase enzy ...201121478343
production of 1,3-propanediol by clostridium butyricum growing on biodiesel-derived crude glycerol through a non-sterilized fermentation process.the aim of the present study was to investigate the production of 1,3-propanediol (pdo) under non-sterile fermentation conditions by employing the strain clostridium butyricum vpi 1718. a series of batch cultures were performed by utilizing biodiesel-derived crude glycerol feedstocks of different origins as the sole carbon source, in various initial concentrations. the strain presented similarities in terms of pdo production when cultivated on crude glycerol of various origins, with final concen ...201121484206
palladium nanoparticles produced by fermentatively grown bacteria as catalyst for diatrizoate removal with biogenic hydrogen. 201121539227
using a starch-rich mutant of arabidopsis thaliana as feedstock for fermentative hydrogen production.a mutant plant (arabidopsis thaliana), sex1-1 (starch excess 1-1), accumulating high starch content in leaves was created to serve as better biomass feedstock for a h(2)-producing strain clostridium butyricum cgs2, which efficiently utilizes starch for h(2) production but cannot assimilate cellulosic materials. the starch content of the mutant plant increased to 10.67mg/fresh weight, which is four times higher than that of wild type plant. using sex1-1 mutant plant as feedstock, c. butyricum cgs ...201121546247
human intestinal microbiota: characterization of a simplified and stable gnotobiotic rat model.the study of host microbe interactions is hampered by the complexity and inter-individual variability of the human gut microbiota. therefore, a simplified human intestinal microbiota (sihumi) consisting of seven bacterial species was introduced into germfree rats. species selection was based on numerical importance and fermentative abilities in the human gut. association of the rats with the sihumi (anaerostipes caccae, bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, bifidobacterium longum, blautia producta, clos ...201021637015
genetic manipulation of butyrate formation pathways in clostridium butyricum.clostridium butyricum is one of the commonly used species for fermentative hydrogen production. while producing h(2), it can produce acids (lactic, acetic and butyric acids) and co(2), as well as a small amount of ethanol. it has been proposed that elimination of competing pathways, such as the butyrate formation pathway, should increase h(2) yields in clostridium species. however, the application of this strategy has been hindered by the unavailability of genetic tools for these organisms. in t ...201121787814
inhibition of the cytotoxic effect of clostridium difficile in vitro by clostridium butyricum miyairi 588 strain.in contrast to most modern pharmaceuticals, probiotics are used in many parts of the world with little or no research data on the complex system of interactions that each strain may elicit in the human body. research on probiotics has recently become more essential as probiotics have begun to be prescribed by clinicians as an alternative for some gut infections, especially when antibiotics are contraindicated. in this study, we attempt to elucidate the inhibitory interaction between the japanese ...201121700738
identification of novel linear megaplasmids carrying a +ƒ-lactamase gene in neurotoxigenic clostridium butyricum type e strains.since the first isolation of type e botulinum toxin-producing clostridium butyricum from two infant botulism cases in italy in 1984, this peculiar microorganism has been implicated in different forms of botulism worldwide. by applying particular pulsed-field gel electrophoresis run conditions, we were able to show for the first time that ten neurotoxigenic c. butyricum type e strains originated from italy and china have linear megaplasmids in their genomes. at least four different megaplasmid si ...201121738770
growth of bifidobacteria and clostridia on human and cow milk saccharides.for healthy infants, which were born normally and fully breastfed, the dominant component of the intestinal microflora are bifidobacteria. however, infants born by caesarean section possess clostridia as a dominant intestinal bacterial group. the aim of the present study was to determine whether bifidobacteria and clostridia are able to grow on human milk oligosaccharides (hmos) and other carbon sources - lactose, cow milk (cm) and human milk (hm). both bifidobacteria and clostridia grew on lact ...201121839845
fermentation rs3 derived from sago and rice starch with clostridium butyricum bcc b2571 or eubacterium rectale dsm 17629.resistant starch type 3 (rs3) is retrograded starch which is not digested by human starch degrading enzyme, and will thus undergo bacterial degradation in the colon. the main fermentation products are the short chain fatty acid (scfa): acetate, propionate and butyrate. scfa has significant benefit impact on the metabolism of the host. the objectives of this research were to study the scfa profile produced by colonic butyrate producing bacteria grown in medium containing rs3. rs3 was made from sa ...201121979490
high-level production of 1,3-propanediol from crude glycerol by clostridium butyricum akr102a.the aim of this study was to optimize a biotechnological process for the production of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-pd) based on low-quality crude glycerol derived from biodiesel production. clostridium butyricum akr102a was used in fed-batch fermentations in 1-l and 200-l scale. the newly discovered strain is characterized by rapid growth, high product tolerance, and the ability to use crude glycerol at the lowest purity directly gained from a biodiesel plant side stream. using pure glycerol, the strai ...201121972131
clostridium butyricum activates tlr2-mediated myd88-independent signaling pathway in ht-29 cells.oral administration of clostridium butyricum as probiotic is increasingly gaining importance in the treatment of diarrhea and the improvement of animal performance. however, the mechanisms of host cell receptor recognition of c. butyricum and the downstream immune signaling pathways leading to these benefits remain unclear. the objective of this study was to analyze the mechanisms involved in c. butyricum induction of the toll-like receptor (tlr) signaling. knockdown of myeloid differentiation p ...201221956671
effects of dietary lipids and clostridium butyricum on the performance and the digestive tract of broiler chickens.the effects of two sources of dietary lipids and supplementation of clostridium butyricum on performance and intestinal metabolism of broilers were investigated. in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement, 168 one-day-old broiler chicks were divided into four treatment groups, and fed four diets with two lipid sources (soya bean oil or fish oil, at 25 g/kg and 30 g/kg in starter and grower diets respectively), and without or with supplementation of c. butyricum (1 x 10(9) colony forming units per kg diet) ...201121888038
Impact of anaerobiosis strategy and bioreactor geometry on the biochemical response of Clostridium butyricum VPI 1718 during 1,3-propanediol fermentation.The impact of anaerobiosis strategy on 1,3-propanediol production during cultivation of Clostridium butyricum VPI 1718 in different size bioreactors was studied. In batch trials with N2 gas infusion, the fermentation was successfully accomplished, regardless of initial glycerol concentration imposed and bioreactor geometry. However, in the absence of N2 continual sparging, significant variations concerning the biochemical response of the strain were observed. Specifically, at 1-L bioreactor, the ...201121967709
Acute necrotizing enterocolitis of preterm piglets is characterized by dysbiosis of ileal mucosa-associated bacteria.Investigation of bacteria involved in pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is limited by infant fragility, analysis restricted to feces, use of culture-based methods, and lack of clinically-relevant animal models. This study used a unique preterm piglet model to characterize spontaneous differences in microbiome composition of NEC-predisposed regions of gut.  Preterm piglets (n=23) were cesarean-delivered and nurtured for 30 hours over which time 52% developed NEC. Bacterial DNA from ...201121983069
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