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regulation of a ligand-mediated association-dissociation system of anthranilate synthesis in clostridium butyricum.the anthranilate synthetase of clostridium butyricum is composed of two nonidentical subunits of unequal size. an enzyme complex consisting of both subunits is required for glutamine utilization in the formation of anthranilic acid. formation of anthranilate will proceed in the presence of partially pure subunit i provided ammonia is available in place of glutamine. partially pure subunit ii neither catalyzes the formation of anthranilate nor possesses anthranilate-5-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate ...19744813894
involvement of acyl carrier protein in acylation of glycerol 3-phosphate in clostridium butyricum. ii. evidence for the participation of acyl thioesters of acyl carrier protein. 19674863741
[cultivation of clostridium butyricum m 55 strain. 1. cultivation in peptone-containing media]. 19704923792
[structure of clostridia of the butyric group. i. sporulation of clostridium butyricum and clostridium saccharobutyricum]. 19714927234
a study of the effect of carbon dioxide on the germination and outgrowth of spores of spores of clostridium butyricum using a slide culture technique. 19704930564
[cultivation of clostridium butyricum, strain m 55. ii. cultivation in meat extract media]. 19714932521
total counts of bacillus megaterium and clostridium butyricum spore suspensions using a microlitre syringe. 19704995937
[treatment of malignant tumors using spores of clostridium butyricum m 55. i. basic principles and development of the influencing of malignant tumors by microorganisms]. 19725053752
[treatment of malignant tumors with spores of clostridium butyricum m 55. iv. serological studies on tumor-bearing patients]. 19725069161
regulation of the tryptophan synthetic enzymes in clostridium butyricum.experiments concerned with the regulation of the tryptophan synthetic enzymes in anaerobes were carried out with a strain of clostridium butyricum. enzyme activities for four of the five synthetic reactions were readily detected in wild-type cells grown in minimal medium. the enzymes mediating reactions 3, 4, and 5 were derepressed 4- to 20-fold, and the data suggest that these enzymes are coordinately controlled in this anaerobe. the first enzyme of the pathway, anthranilate synthetase, could b ...19725079066
[consumption of molecular oxygen by cell suspensions of clostridium butyricum]. 19715129016
fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein and fatty acyl-coa as acyl donors in the biosynthesis of phosphatidic acid in clostridium butyricum. 19715135502
the amino acid sequence of clostridium butyricum ferredoxin. 19665227671
formation of acyl and alkenyl glycerol derivatives in clostridium butyricum. 19705417192
the effect of oxygen on the germination and outgrowth of spores of clostridium butyricum. 19705516595
phospholipids of clostridium butyricum. iv. analysis of the positional isomers of monounsaturated and cyclopropane fatty acids and alk-1'-enyl ethers by capillary column chromatography.the positional isomers of the cyclopropane fatty acids of clostridium butyricum phospholipids have been analyzed by capillary column gas-liquid chromatography. greater than 95% of the methylenehexadecanoic acids was the 9,10 isomer. on the other hand, 60-70% of the hexadecenoic acid precursors was the delta(7) isomer, and the remainder was the delta(9) isomer. of the methyleneoctadecanoic acids 75-80% was the 11,12 isomer, with the remainder being the 9,10 isomer. there were approximately equal ...19715554109
studies on neutral lipids and a new type of aldehydogenic ethanolamine phospholipid in clostridium butyricum. 19715573235
phospholipids of clostridium butyricum. 3. further studies on the origin of the aldehyde chains of plasmalogens. 19675633398
[study of factors controlling growth and sporulation of clostridium butyricum. ii. factors related to growth]. 19655825526
[study of factors controlling the growth and sporulation of clostridium butyricum. i. composition of the culture medium]. 19655847938
[on the synthesis of alanine and aspartate from acetate and co2 in clostridium butyricum]. 19665961231
[sporulation and germination in clostridium butyricum m 55. electron microscopic studies]. 19665995381
involvement of acyl carrier protein in acylation of glycerol 3-phosphate in clostridium butyricum. i. purification of clostridium butyricum acyl carrier protein and synthesis of long chain acyl derivatives of acyl carrier protein. 19676065089
the amino acid sequence of clostridium butyricum ferredoxin. 19676078085
[analysis of the serodiagnostic reactions of the bacterium clostridium butyricum strain cnrz 528 using passive hemagglutination].for serologic tumour diagnostics a specific proof of antibodies against rods of clostridium butyricum cnrz 528 by passive hemagglutination has been described. we were able to prepare an antigen from the cell extract (crude-antigen) of rods without flagella by gel filtration, that after fixation on the surface of human-erythrocytes, stabilized by tannin or glutaraldehyde, agglutinates specifically with rod-antibodies of rabbit-hyperimmunserum. simultaneously however, there was no cross-reactivity ...19826219561
the enzymes of phospholipid synthesis in clostridium butyricum.we have examined extracts of clostridium butyricum for several enzymes of phospholipid synthesis. membrane particles were shown to catalyze the formation of cdp-diglyceride from [3h]ctp and phosphatidic acid. the reaction was dependent on mg2+ and stimulated by monovalent cations. cdp-diglyceride formed in vitro was found to be a substrate for both phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthetase and phosphatidylserine synthetase. the formation of phosphatidylglycerophosphate from added cdp-diglyceride a ...19806257816
new technologies to combat malignant tumours of the brain.1. the primary problem in an effective treatment of a glioblastoma is the prevention of a recurrence. 2. for that purpose were the following therapeutical procedures undertaken: (a) temporary implantation of radio cobalt in the brain itself (1957): (b) clostridium butyricum m 55 was used to render the centre of the tumour fluid (1967): (c) podophyllin was used to destroy the border of the tumour (1980); (d) the co2 laser beam (1975); (e) the electromagnetic heat induction deep in the brain (1973 ...19826287907
survey, purification, and properties of sugar phosphate phosphohydrolase among microorganisms.sugar phosphate phosphohydrolase was purified approximately 500- to 600-fold to apparent homogeneity from escherichia coli b, escherichia coli c, escherichia coli var. communior, escherichia acidilactici, enterobacter aerogenes, neisseria meningitidis, and saccharomyces cereviseae. the molecular weights of the enzyme as estimated by gel filtration ranged from 97 x 10(3) to 101 x 10(3). the enzyme was composed of two subunits with the same molecular weight which ranged from 50 x 10(3) to 52 x 10( ...19836322944
cloning and expression of the hydrogenase gene from clostridium butyricum in escherichia coli.hydrogenase gene from clostridium butyricum was cloned in escherichia coli hk16 (hyd-) using pbr322 and psti. the plasmid, pcbh1, containing hydrogenase gene was 7.3 mda and pcbh1 had 5 psti-dna fragments (3.9, 2.6, 0.7, 0.03-0.04, less than 0.02 mda, respectively). the hydrogenase activity of hk16 (pcbh1) was about 3.1-3.5-times as high as those of the present strains, such as c.butyricum and e.coli c600 (hyd+).19836345200
[isolation and purification of proteolytic enzymes produced by clostridium butyricum m55]. 19836374334
inhibition of the autoxidation of ascorbate and norepinephrine by extracts of clostridium butyricum, megasphaera elsdenii and escherichia coli.the autoxidation of ascorbate and of norepinephrine in krebs ringer phosphate medium, ph 7.4, was studied. the autoxidation of the two substances was determined spectrophotometrically at 265 and 480 nm respectively. the effect of dialyzed extracts (m.w. greater than 12,000) from escherichia coli (aerobe), megasphaera elsdenii, and clostridium butyricum (obligate anaerobes) was examined and compared to similarly prepared extracts from rat serum and cerebral cortex. the assay medium contained cell ...19846384713
selective medium for isolation of clostridium butyricum from human feces.a selective medium, clostridium butyricum isolation medium (bim), is described for the isolation of c. butyricum from human feces. the bim is a synthetic minimal medium and contains trimethoprim (16 micrograms/ml), d-cycloserine (10 micrograms/ml), and polymyxin b sulfate (20 micrograms/ml) as selective inhibitory agents. qualitative tests indicated that c. butyricum and other butyric acid-producing clostridia grew on bim, clostridium sphenoides and bacillus cereus produced small colonies, and o ...19846490827
[modification of selected leukocyte functions in albino rats caused by the transplantable jensen sarcoma and by therapeutic trials of cyclophosphamide and vinblastine, clostridium butyricum m55 and short-term hyperglycemia].a significant increase in leukocyte adhesion and agglomeration was observed in white rats with jensen sarcoma. glucose induced short-term hyperglycemia temporarily stimulated these leukocyte functions in healthy rats. this effect was not notably influenced by administration of tumorlyzing spores. in contrast administration of the cytostatic agents vinblastine and cyclophosphamide demonstrated dose-related inhibition of leukocyte agglomeration and adhesion.19846497582
isolation of clostridium pseudotetanicum from a patient with gas gangrene.clostridium pseudotetanicum was isolated along with serratia marcescens, proteus mirabilis, and staphylococcus epidermidis from a patient suffering from gas gangrene who had been injured in the right leg by a power cultivator. experimental infection of the hind leg of mice with c. pseudotetanicum and the three kinds of aerobic bacteria did not produce any different macroscopic finding in the infection site, compared with aerobic bacterial injection, except for some enlargement of the involved ti ...19836630439
identification of clostridium butyricum and clostridium beijerinckii by gas-liquid chromatography and sugar fermentation: correlation with dna homologies and electrophoretic patterns.sixty-five strains of clostridia of the butyricum group were studied by dna-dna hybridization, electrophoresis of cell proteins, gas-liquid chromatography, and fermentation of glycerol, inositol and ribose. the dna--dna hybridization results confirmed that strains of this group belong to two main species, clostridium butyricum and c. beijerinckii. five strains did not hybridize with the reference strains of these two species. most of the strains could be identified by quantitative gas-liquid chr ...19836631419
[the macrophage adherence inhibition test in wistar rats bearing jensen tumors. ii. macrophage adherence inhibition test after intravenous administration of spores of the cnrz 528 strain of clostridium butyricum and incubation with clostridial antigens].the tumor-specificity of tumor-clostridia-phenomenon in the model of jensen-sarcoma of the white rat was detected with the help of humoral and cell-mediated immune reactions of the host towards intravenous application of 5 x 10(8) spores of clostridia, which do not dissolve the tumor. contrary to weak responses in widal-agglutination the mai showed characteristic values of inhibition of peritoneal-cell-adherence in tumor-bearing animals after incubation with soluble clostridia antigens.19846703861
biosynthesis of phospholipids in clostridium butyricum: kinetics of synthesis of plasmalogens and the glycerol acetal of ethanolamine plasmalogen.the biosynthesis of the plasmalogen forms of phosphatidylethanolamine (plasmenylethanolamine) and phosphatidylglycerol (plasmenylglycerol) and of the glycerol acetal of plasmenylethanolamine has been studied in cultures of clostridium butyricum ifo 3852. when growing cells were pulsed with [32p]orthophosphate, there was a lag of 5 to 7 min between the rapid incorporation of label into the acylphosphatides and the rapid incorporation of label into the corresponding plasmalogens. the labeling of t ...19846746573
the role of intestinal bacteria in gallstone formation in animal model. a study on biliary lipid composition and bile acid profiles in bile, small intestinal contents and feces of clostridium butyricum miyairi no. 588 monocontaminated mice.contradictory results in the studies on experimental gallstone formation using conventional and germfree mice have been reported. to study the role of bacteria in gallstone formation in the animal model jcl:icr male germfree mice were monocontaminated with clostridium butyricum miyairi no. 588. gallstone formation, biliary lipid composition and bile acid profiles in the bile, small intestinal contents and feces were analyzed after feeding the diet containing cholesterol and cholic acid. the rate ...19826754522
[penicillin resistance due to the production of a beta-lactamase in clostridium butyricum].eight strains of clostridia of the butyricum group, resistant to penicillins were isolated from perinatal infections. mic's of these strains vary from 1,000 to 3,000 micrograms/ml for benzyl-penicillin, and from 5 to 10 micrograms/ml for cefoxitin. the substrate profile of the enzymes is that of a penicillinase.19816781777
[thermostable factor in clostridium butyricum responsible for experimental pathogenesis]. 19816788394
the effect of oxidation-reduction potential on spore germination, outgrowth, and vegetative growth of clostridium tetani, clostridium butyricum, and bacillus subtilis.spores of clostridium tetani germinated in liver broth with +580 mv as the starting eh value, and those of clostridium butyricum germinated in liver broth with an initial eh of +400 mv regardless of the presence or absence of a liquid paraffin covering. spores of bacillus subtilis germinated in liver broth with--100 mv as the starting eh value. also, it was found that there are two ranges of starting eh values for germination and vegetative growth of cl. tetani, cl. butyricum, and b. subtilis. i ...19826818433
effect of clostridium butyricum on the formation and dissolution of gallstones in experimental cholesterol cholelithiasis.the effect of oral administration of clostridium butyricum miyairi on the formation and dissolution of gallstones was examined in a mouse model of cholesterol cholelithiasis, in comparison with that of chenodeoxycholic acid (cdca). a diet containing cholesterol and sodium cholate was used as a lithogenic diet. the feeding of the lithogenic diet containing 1.0 x 10(8) cells of this bacterium per g for five weeks prevented the formation of gallstones, resulted in lower values of the gallstone inde ...19836823210
cholesterol-lowering effect of clostridium butyricum in cholesterol-fed rats.we examined the effects of oral administration of clostridium butyricum miyairi on the catabolism and excretion of cholesterol in normal rats by using 14c-labeled cholesterol, and on plasma cholesterol levels in the rats and mice fed a high cholesterol diet. this bacterial treatment (about 10(7) cells/day) accelerated the cleavage of cholesterol side chain in normal rats. plasma cholesterol levels of rats fed the high cholesterol diet with the bacterium (about 10(9) cells/day) were significantly ...19836873503
lipid composition in the classification of the butyric acid-producing clostridia.an examination of 20 strains of butyric acid-producing clostridium species for phospholipid class compositions, plasmalogen content, and acyl and alk-l-enyl chains showed that the deoxyribonucleic acid homology groups i (clostridium butyricum) and ii (clostridium beijerinckii) could be distinguished by their lipid compositions. the phospholipids of c. butyricum strains had ethanolamine as the major nitrogenous lipid polar head-group moiety, more octadecenoate plus c19-cyclopropane than hexadecen ...19836886674
neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis associated with penicillin-resistant, toxigenic clostridium butyricum.the cause of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (nec) is unknown. an association between nec and clostridial infection has been reported from several centers, but the organisms have not been extensively characterized. clostridium butyricum was isolated from the peritoneal fluid and cerebrospinal fluid of a neonate with nec. the organism was resistant to the penicillins, but sensitive to vancomycin. toxin production was demonstrated. although the role of clostridial toxins in the pathogenesis of ...19806905971
[regulation of nitrogenase activity and biosynthesis in clostridium butyricum].the effect of various factors on the activity and biosynthesis of nitrogenase in clostridium butyricum was estimated by the rate of acetylene reduction at different growth phases in the static culture. the activity of nitrogenase was found to be low in vegetative cells; it increased and reached the maximum at the stage of prospore formation and decreased in the course of sporulation. the duration of different stages in the cell growth cycle depended on temperature and the composition of the medi ...19806931281
isolation and identification of anaerobic contaminants from a machine for producing processed cheese.some bacteria of the genus clostridium can contaminate milk. these bacteria can cause "the late gas" or "late blowing" defect in the cheese if this is made with milk containing such contaminants. in this study, six samples from a processed cheese contaminated in a manufacturing machine were analysed. out of 60 strains studied, 30 were classified as clostridium tyrobutyricum, 20 as clostridium butyricum, and 10 as desulfotomaculum ruminis.19826965246
some properties of the clostridium butyricum group beta-lactamase.clostridium strain cb269, belonging to the butyricum group, produces a beta-lactamase. the substrate profile of this enzyme, as characterized by the microiodometric method, was that of a penicillinase: activity was slightly higher on ampicillin than on benzylpenicillin, while carbenicillin and methicillin were hydrolysed at lower rates. there was poor activity with cephalosporins. the enzyme was excreted during growth, and was inducible to a limited extent by cloxacillin or cefoxitin. the isoele ...19816978381
characteristics of a beta-lactamase produced by clostridium butyricum. 19826980874
measurement of specific multiplication of an oncolytic and a nononcolytic strain of clostridium butyricum inside the tumour uvt 15264 of the mouse.clostridium butyricum was recultivated from tumour material after treatment of tumour-bearing mice with spores and counted by soft agar colony technique. the oncolytic strain cl. butyricum h8 grows inside the tumour uvt 15264 up to 8 x 10(8)/g during 48 h. in this time part of tumour became lysed. multiplication inside of this tumour by the tumour specific but nononcolytic strain cl. butyricum cnrz 528 could not be detected by application counting technique. combination of spore treatment with a ...19817032143
the gradostat: a bidirectional compound chemostat and its application in microbiological research.a multistage continuous culture system is described in which solutes are transferred between vessels in opposite directions simultaneously. the system, called a gradostat, produces opposing solute gradients and is a good laboratory model of many natural microbial ecosystems in which solute gradients are important. theoretical predictions concerning solute transfer were confirmed under steady-state and non steady-state conditions, using a coloured dye. paracoccus denitrificans grew anaerobically ...19817045277
clostridia isolated from the feces of infants during the first year of life.clostridia isolated from the feces of ten healthy infants during the first year of life were identified. all infants excreted clostridia during the first week of life; the most common species were clostridium butyricum, c. paraputrificum, and c. difficile. in the formula-fed infants colonization occurred consistently throughout the year, whereas in some breast-fed infants it was inhibited until weaning. the species isolated most frequently throughout the year were c. paraputrificum, c. butyricum ...19827062166
chemotherapy for tumours using clostridial oncolysis, antibiotics and cyclophosphamide: model trial on the uvt 15264 tumour.lysis of the uvt 15264 tumour in mice of the 17/berlin-buch strain as induced by intravenous injection of clostridium butyricum h8 spores is followed by the tumour diameter and survival time. in animals thus treated, tumour regression is incomplete and the mean survival time drops below that of tumour-bearing animals not treated with spores. with concurrent antibiotic treatment survival time is prolonged to exceed that of untreated animals, without affecting ocolysis-provoked tumour regression. ...19827082130
[treatment experiments with glucose-induced hyperglycaemia plus clostridium-spores on the jensen sarcoma of rats].investigations jensen's sarcoma-bearing wistar rats demonstrate the possibility to increase significantly the oncolytic effect of an apathogenic strain of clostridium butyricum (5 x 10(8) spores of cl. oncolyticum m 55 i.v.) by an artificial short time hyperglycaemia (achieved maximum blood level of glucose 28.87 +/- 8.05 mmol/l). the most impressive effect was observed after a repeated application of this combination at a distance of 7 days. both the hyperglycaemia and the application of spores ...19827138239
ether phospholipid asymmetry in clostridium butyricum. 19827181904
[application of the serological clostridium assay in tumour diagnostics (author's transl)].the suitability for serologic tumour diagnostics of the non-oncolysing strain clostridium butyricum cnrz 528 has been investigated. by introducing the transplantable brown pearce tumour of the rabbit and spontaneous tumours of the dog as test models the antibody production against clostridial rods--indicating malignant growth as had been proved with the möse strain cl. oncolyticum m55--has been evaluated. it could be established--utilizing the complement fixation test--that one serological metho ...19807222791
non-toxigenic clostridia in babies.non-toxigenic clostridia, clostridium butyricum but occasionally c. paraputrificum, were isolated from mainly extra-alimentary sites of 28 babies in maternity hospital over a period of 40 weeks. during that time, c. butyricum was isolated from the blood of two babies who died of necrotising enterocolitis and of two babies without referable symptoms. otherwise these organisms appeared to be of no pathogenic significance.19817229104
phase behavior of ether lipids from clostridium butyricum.ether lipids have been isolated from the phospholipid fraction of clostridium butyricum ifo 3852 cells which had been grown in media devoid of biotin with added elaidic acid or oleic acid. the plasmalogen form of phosphatidylethanolamine (plasmenylethanolamine) from elaidate-grown cells was highly enriched with 18:1 in both the alk-1-enyl and acyl chains. a transition from the gel to liquid-crystalline state, with a peak maximum (tm) at 33 degrees c and enthalpy delta h = 5.7 kcal/mol, was obser ...19817248256
[conditions for effective hydrogen photoevolution by chloroplasts in the presence of bacterial hydrogenase].the hydrogen photoevolution was studied to compare the efficiency of chloroplasts or solubilized chlorophyll in the presence of hydrogenase from clostridium butyricum and methylviologen which links the electron transfer from photosystems to the exogenous enzyme. the hydrogen evolution by chloroplasts in the absence of exogeneous electron donors (or in the presence of irreversibly oxidized dithiotreitol or cysteine) is probably limited by cyclic electron flow shot-circuiting the photosystem 1. ef ...19807383027
[investigations on the characterization of a clostridial strain for tumour diagnosis (author's transl)].careful delineation of a clostrial strain for human tumour diagnosis as against oncolytic tissue-active clostridial strains should be obligatory. we investigated the possibility to differentiate clostridium butyricum cnrz 528 (bergère) against three different strains kept in our institute by means of biological, biochemical and by phage typing procedures. in addition, consistency in the control of half-technological spore production is required. it could be confirmed by this study that oncolytic ...19807424236
[fixation of molecular nitrogen and activity of the microflora in the bottoms of certain lakes in the estonian ssr and the rybinsk reservoir].the rate of molecular nitrogen fixation was determined in bottom grounds of three estonian lakes and the rybinsk water reservoir in the summer of 1977--1978. certain species of nitrogen fixing bacteria were found to be confined to lakes of certain trophic type. ecological niches with the mass growth of clostridium pasteurianum, azomonas agilis and clostridium butyricum were detected in the sediments of eutrophic lakes. ecological niches of az. insignis and cl. acetobutylicum occur in polyhumic l ...19807442573
[host range testing of tumour-selective strains of clostridium butyricum by bacteriophage 5 (author's transl)].subcultures of clostridium oncolyticum m55 and in a slightly modified manner of an oncolytic strain of cl. butyricum h8 are differentiated by lysotypic reaction of the bacteriophage 5 from several tumour-selective non-oncolytic strains and subcultures of cl. butyricum.19807447631
[reversible effect of light on hydrogen release by clostridium butyricum]. 19807448228
degradation and fermentation of alpha-gluco-oligosaccharides by bacterial strains from human colon: in vitro and in vivo studies in gnotobiotic rats.the ability of several human gut bacteria to break down alpha-1,2 and alpha-1,6 glycosidic linkages in alpha-gluco-oligosaccharides (gos) was investigated in vitro in substrate utilization tests. bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, bifidobacterium breve and clostridium butyricum, which are usually found in the infant gut and have been associated with both beneficial and deleterious effects on health, were studied. alpha-gluco-oligosaccharide degradation was compared in vitro and in vivo in gnotobiotic ...19957592106
induction of beta-lactamase by cefoxitin in anaerobic intestinal microflora.beta-lactamases produced by two anaerobic bacterial strains, bacteroides ovatus ax34:1 and clostridium butyricum nbl3, were shown to be significantly inducible under anaerobic conditions in subinhibitory concentrations of cefoxitin. the induction ratio of beta-lactamase production for bacteroides ovatus was 2.6 and for clostridium butyricum 1.6. incubation of faecal samples with different concentrations of cefoxitin did not result in any induction of beta-lactamase production. when adding a high ...19957729448
comparison of the energetic efficiencies of hydrogen and oxychemicals formation in klebsiella pneumoniae and clostridium butyricum during anaerobic growth on glycerol.data for the anaerobic growth of klebsiella pneumoniae dsm 2026 and clostridium butyricum dsm 5431 on glycerol have been analyzed using the concept of material and available electron balances with consideration for hydrogen production. models for the kinetics of energetic efficiencies of product formation under low residual glycerol are presented. for klebsiella pneumoniae, the specific rates of electron transfer to the products were mainly significantly dependent on specific growth rate with th ...19957755965
conserved structure of genes encoding components of botulinum neurotoxin complex m and the sequence of the gene coding for the nontoxic component in nonproteolytic clostridium botulinum type f.for investigation of the genes of proteins associated in vivo with botulinum neurotoxin (bont), polymerase chain reaction (pcr) experiments were carried out with oligonucleotide primers designed to regions of the nontoxic-nonhemagglutinin (ntnh) gene of clostridium botulinum type c. the primers were used to amplify a dna fragment from genomic dna of c. botulinum types a, b, e, f, g and toxigenic strains of clostridium barati and clostridium butyricum. the amplified product from all of these stra ...19947764998
clostridium butyricum neurotoxin: partial amino acid sequence of major proteolytic fragments and intracellular activity in pc12 cells.the approximately 150 kda single-chain neurotoxin produced by clostridium butyricum, reported to be similar to c. botulinum neurotoxin serotype e (giménez and sugiyama, infect. immun. 54, 926-929, 1988), was probed with trypsin and endoproteinase lys-c. the two proteases cleaved the butyricum neurotoxin between residues arg 421-lys 422 and lys 418-gly 419, respectively. cleavage at this region, highly susceptible to proteolysis, generated approximately 50 kda light and approximately 100 kda heav ...19947801349
quantitative investigations into the elimination of in vitro-obtained spores of the non-pathogenic clostridium butyricum strain cnrz 528, and their persistence in organs of different species following intravenous spore administration.before the clostridium tumour assay can be applied to the diagnosis of cancer, we sought to investigate--within the framework of a biopharmaceutical safety test--the organ persistence of test spores of clostridium butyricum cnrz 528. we found that non-pathogenic spores obtained in vitro, like pathogenic native spores, escape phagocytosis in various organs up until about 2 years, as tested by anaerobic cultures. the elimination of spores depended on the species of animal, the spore dose and the o ...19938191000
transfer of neurotoxigenicity from clostridium butyricum to a nontoxigenic clostridium botulinum type e-like strain.two clostridium butyricum strains from infant botulism cases produce a toxic molecule very similar to c. botulinum type e neurotoxin. chromosomal, plasmid, and bacteriophage dnas of toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains of c. butyricum and c. botulinum type e were probed with (i) a synthesized 30-mer oligonucleotide encoding part of the l chain of type e botulinum toxin and (ii) the dna of phages lysogenizing these cultures. the toxin gene probe hybridized to the chromosomal dna of toxigenic strain ...19938285687
nonspecific phospholipase c of listeria monocytogenes: activity on phospholipids in triton x-100-mixed micelles and in biological membranes.listeria monocytogenes secretes a phospholipase c (plc) which has 39% amino acid sequence identity with the broad-specificity plc from bacillus cereus. recent work indicates that the l. monocytogenes enzyme plays a role during infections of mammalian cells (j.-a. vazquez-boland, c. kocks, s. dramsi, h. ohayon, c. geoffroy, j. mengaud, and p. cossart, infect. immun. 60:219-230, 1992). the homogeneous enzyme has a specific activity of 230 mumol/min/mg when phosphatidylcholine (pc) is dispersed in ...19938331063
purification and properties of a flavodoxin from the heterocystous cyanobacterium anabaena sphaerica.a flavodoxin was purified to homogeneity from the nitrogen-fixing heterocystous cyanobacterium anabaena sphaerica grown under iron-limited conditions. the protein has a molecular mass of 21 kda, and its spectral properties and amino-acid composition are very close to that of flavodoxins from other cyanobacteria. a. sphaerica flavodoxin supported the activities of a. sphaerica nadp reductase and clostridium butyricum hydrogenase in reconstituted systems with illuminated plant chloroplasts as redu ...19938343530
similarity in nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding nontoxic component of botulinum toxin produced by toxigenic clostridium butyricum strain bl6340 and clostridium botulinum type e strain mashike.the complete nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of the nontoxic component of botulinum type e progenitor toxin is determined in recombinant plasmid pu9buh containing about 6.0 kb hindiii fragment obtained from chromosomal dna of clostridium butyricum strain bl6340. the open reading frame (orf) of this nontoxic component gene is composed of 3,486 nucleotide bases (1,162 amino acid residues). the molecular weight calculated from deduced amino acid residues is estimated 13,6810.1. the prese ...19938355622
colony immunoblot assay of botulinal toxin.botulinal neurotoxin in and around colonies of clostridium botulinum types a, b, and e and of toxigenic clostridium butyricum was detected by an enzyme-linked immunoassay procedure whereby the toxin was transferred from the agar medium to a nitrocellulose support and the immobilized toxin was probed with type-specific antibodies. the method identified the toxin types of the colonies grown from a mixed inoculum of c. botulinum serotypes. the specificity of the antitoxins for type a and b toxins w ...19938357267
gene probes for identification of the botulinal neurotoxin gene and specific identification of neurotoxin types b, e, and f.a polymerase chain reaction method was developed for the specific detection of the botulinum neurotoxin (bont) gene of clostridium botulinum. degenerate oligonucleotide primers, designed from the nucleotide sequence of the heavy chain of the bont gene, amplified a specific fragment of approximately 1.1 kb from strains of c. botulinum toxin types a, b, e, f, and g and neurotoxin-producing strains of clostridium barati and clostridium butyricum, but no fragment was obtained from nontoxigenic strai ...19938408542
antimetastatic activity induced by clostridium butyricum and characterization of effector cells.the effects of a bacterial vaccine, heat-killed clostridium butyricum mii 588 cells, on the metastasis of b16-f10 melanoma in bdf1 mice was investigated. the vaccine stimulated natural killer (nk) cell cytotoxic activity against yac-1 target cells, which peaked at 72 hr after the pretreatment, whereas maximum macrophage cytotoxic activity was obtained on days 9 to 11. these stimulated cytotoxic activities were also observed in b16-f10 tumor-bearing bdf1 mice. the important role of stimulated nk ...19938476200
a new balance equation of reducing equivalents for data consistency check and bioprocess calculation.the reducing equivalent (re) balance is a basic equation for data consistency check and calculations of bioprocesses. the macroscopic approach is often used because it does not require detailed knowledge of metabolic pathways. in this work, the conventional minkevich-eroshin balance equation is examined with data of anaerobic glycerol conversion by klebsiella pneumoniae and clostridium butyricum as examples. it is shown that the minkevich-eroshin equation is very insensitive to measurement error ...19958562017
effects of orally administered clostridium butyricum miyairi 588 on mucosal immunity in mice.the activation of local mucosal immunity by clostridium butyricum miyairi 588 (cbm588) was investigated in germ-free mice. an increase of polyclonal iga production in the small intestine or secretion into the intestinal lumen was observed in mice mono-associated with cbm588 and fed a diet containing killed vegetative cells of cbm588 (vcbm). however, fecal iga of anti-cbm588 was rarely formed in mice administered cbm588 during 6 weeks from administration. cholera toxin was administered orally to ...19958578691
production and characterization of enterocin 900, a bacteriocin produced by enterococcus faecium bfe 900 from black olives.enterococcus faecium bfe 900 isolated from black olives produced a bacteriocin termed enterocin 900, which was antagonistic towards lactobacillus sake, clostridium butyricum, enterococci as well as listeria spp. including listeria monocytogenes. enterocin 900 was inactivated by pepsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, proteinase k and trypsin but not by catalase, alpha-amylase, or other non-proteolytic enzymes tested. the bacteriocin was heat stable, retaining activity after heating at 121 degrees c for 15 m ...19968796427
immunopotentiating activity of clostridium butyricum in mice.bacterial vaccine, as generated by heat-inactivated clostridium butyricum cells, displayed antitumor activity against sarcoma 180 in ddy mice and antimetastatic activity against b16-f10 melanoma in bdf1 mice. according to our results, the vaccine has no direct growth inhibitory effect toward the tumor cell lines tested in this study. the vaccine increased gamma-interferon production, elicited delayed type hypersensitivity reaction, and enhanced igm antibody formation and mitogenicity. the phagoc ...19969050255
[effects of administration of clostridium butyricum to patients receiving long-term tube feeding].in patients who require total parenteral or enteral nutrition the intestinal lining may atrophy and the ability to absorb nutrients may be lost. to prevent atrophy of the small intestine, we administered a suspension of clostridium butyricum to elderly patients receiving tube feeding, and then measured the activation of serum diamine oxidase and the number, form, water content, and bacteria content of stools, indicators of intestinal structure. we found a significant increase in diamine oxidase ...19979212685
characterization of a neurotoxigenic clostridium butyricum strain isolated from the food implicated in an outbreak of food-borne type e botulism.neurotoxigenic clostridium butyricum was isolated from the food implicated in an outbreak of clinically diagnosed type e botulism in china. pcr assay showed that the isolate (lcl 155) contained the type e botulinum toxin gene. this appears to be the first report of neurotoxigenic c. butyricum causing food-borne botulism.19979230405
recalcitrance of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (dde) to cometabolic degradation by pure cultures of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.pure cultures of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria capable of oxidation and reductive dehalogenation of chloroethylenes, and aerobic bacteria involved in biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) were screened for their ability to cometabolize the persistent pollutant 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (dde). bacterial cultures expressing methane monooxygenase (methylosinus trichosporium), propane monooxygenase (mycobacterium vaccae) and biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase enzymes (pseudomo ...19979294241
intestinal distribution and intraluminal localization of orally administered clostridium butyricum in rats.clostridium butyricum has been used as a probiotic in animals and humans for years, however, its fate in the intestine has not been clarified yet. we investigated the intestinal fate of c. butyricum using a selective medium and a monoclonal antibody after orally administering c. butyricum spores to rats. the number of c. butyricum, both viable and dead cells, in the intestinal contents were counted by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) at various times after a single oral administration. ...19979343816
molecular analysis of a clostridium butyricum ncimb 7423 gene encoding 4-alpha-glucanotransferase and characterization of the recombinant enzyme produced in escherichia coli.an escherichia coli clone was detected in a clostridium butyricum ncimb 7423 plasmid library capable of degrading soluble amylose. deletion subcloning of its recombinant plasmid indicated that the gene(s) responsible for amylose degradation was localized on a 1.8 kb nsphi-scal fragment. this region was sequenced in its entirety and shown to encompass a large orf capable of encoding a protein with a calculated molecular mass of 57,184 da. although the deduced amino acid sequence showed only weak ...19979353929
purification and characterization of konjac glucomannan degrading enzyme from anaerobic human intestinal bacterium, clostridium butyricum-clostridium beijerinckii group.konjac glucomannan degrading enzyme was purified to homogeneity from the culture broth of an anaerobic human intestinal bacterium, clostridium butyricum-clostridium beijerinckii group. the enzyme was composed of a single polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of 50,000-53,000. the enzyme was an endo-beta-mannanase that acted specifically on the polysaccharides such as konjac glucomannan and coffee mannan, producing exclusively their smaller oligosaccharides and the monosaccharides. the optima ...19979362121
a gene (plsd) from clostridium butyricum that functionally substitutes for the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase gene (plsb) of escherichia coli.the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (plsb) of escherichia coli is a key regulatory enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step in phospholipid biosynthesis. we report the initial characterization of a novel gene (termed plsd) from clostridium butyricum, cloned based on its ability to complement the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate auxotrophic phenotype of a plsb mutant strain of e. coli. unlike the 83-kda plsb acyltransferase from e. coli, the predicted plsd open reading frame encoded a protei ...19979393688
gene arrangement in the upstream region of clostridium botulinum type e and clostridium butyricum bl6340 progenitor toxin genes is different from that of other types.the cluster of genes encoding the botulinum progenitor toxin and the upstream region including p21 and p47 were divided into three different gene arrangements (class i-iii). to determine the gene similarity of the type e neurotoxin (bont/e) complex to other types, the gene organization in the upstream region of the nontoxic-nonhemagglutinin gene (ntnh) was investigated in chromosomal dna from clostridium botulinum type e strain iwanai and c. butyricum strain bl6340. the gene cluster of type e pr ...19989465394
effect of glucose on glycerol metabolism by clostridium butyricum dsm 5431.the levels of 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase and of the glycerol dehydrogenase in clostridium butyricum grown on glucose-glycerol mixtures were similar to those found in extracts of cells grown on glycerol alone, which can explain the simultaneous glucose-glycerol consumption. on glycerol, 43% of glycerol was oxidized to organic acids to obtain energy for growth and 57% to produce 1,3-propanediol. with glucose-glycerol mixtures, glucose catabolism was used by the cells to produce energy through t ...19989633649
the glycyl radical enzyme tdce can replace pyruvate formate-lyase in glucose fermentation.mutants of escherichia coli unable to synthesize a functional pyruvate formate-lyase (pfl) are severely impaired in their capacity to grow by glucose fermentation. in a functional complementation assay designed to isolate the pfl gene from clostridium butyricum, we fortuitously identified a gene that did not encode a pfl but nonetheless was able to complement the phenotypic defects caused by an e. coli pfl mutation. the clostridial gene encoded a basic 14. 5-kda protein (tcbc) which, based on am ...19989657990
molecular analysis of the malr gene of clostridium butyricum ncimb 7423, a member of the laci-galr family of repressor proteins.deletion of a region of dna 5' to a previously characterised malq gene of clostridium butyricum resulted in increased production of the enzyme activity encoded by malq, 4-alpha-glucanotransferase. nucleotide sequence analysis revealed the presence of an open reading frame capable of encoding a protein of 335 amino acids. this protein was found to share 33% amino acid sequence identity with the bacillus subtilis ccpa (catabolite control protein) repressor, 28% identity with the streptomyces coeli ...19989711857
outbreak of suspected clostridium butyricum botulism in india. 19989716988
synthesis of 2-hydroxy acid from 2-amino acid by clostridium butyricum.cultures of clostridium butyricum type strain in synthetic medium supplemented with various l-2-amino acids revealed the presence of the corresponding 2-hydroxy acid. this metabolite is able to produce the polyester poly(2-hydroxyalkanoic acid). the bioconversion is not stereoselective since d-2-amino acids were also converted. chiral gc analysis demonstrated that only d-enantiomer is formed from l-leucine.19989873747
clostridial pathogenicity in experimental necrotising enterocolitis in gnotobiotic quails and protective role of bifidobacteria.the pathogenesis of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis (nec) remains unclear. gnotobiotic quails fed a lactose diet have been used to investigate the role of clostridial strains originating from faecal specimens of neonates through the intestinal lesions, the changes in microflora balance and the production of bacterial metabolites, i.e., short-chain fatty acids and hydrogen. bifidobacteria are thought to exert various beneficial effects on host health, including interaction with the colonic mic ...19989879939
[estimation of probiotics by infection model of infant rabbit with enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7].we examined the preventative effect against enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7 (ehec) infection in rabbits on administration of probiotics contained in streptococcus faecalis, clostridium butyricum and bacillus mesentericus. the probiotics were administered to 5 days old japanese white rabbits throughout the experiment. inoculation of 10(6) colony forming units (cfus) of ehec per rabbit was tried 8 days after birth. three days after ehec inoculation, in the control group (not administere ...19989916417
increased growth of bifidobacterium and eubacterium by germinated barley foodstuff, accompanied by enhanced butyrate production in healthy volunteers.germinated barley foodstuff (gbf) derived from the aleurone and scutellum fractions of germinated barley mainly consists of low-lignified hemicellulose and glutamine-rich protein. gbf improves the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells and defecation, through the bacterial production of short chain fatty acids (scfa), especially butyrate. in this study we investigated the mechanism of production of butyrate by microflora in humans and in vitro. daily administration of 9 g gbf for 14 succes ...19999917526
isolation and characterisation of neurotoxigenic clostridium butyricum from soil in china.soil specimens collected from a site around the home of patients with food-borne type e. botulism probably caused by neurotoxigenic clostridium butyricum in guanyun, jiangsu province, china, were examined for the presence of neurotoxigenic c. butyricum. five lakeside sites of weishan lake, in an area near to the sites where the type e. botulism outbreaks caused by neurotoxigenic c. butyricum occurred were also surveyed. type e toxin-producing c. butyricum was isolated from soil from four sites i ...19999989640
cleavage of l-leucine-containing dipeptides by clostridium butyricum.the ability of clostridium butyricum cultures to hydrolyze three l-leucine-containing dipeptides (leu-leu, leu-gly and gly-leu) in a synthetic minimal medium is demonstrated by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. the 13c nuclear magnetic resonance and a labeled dipeptide l-[1-13c]leu-gly were used to confirm this activity.19999990466
does probiotics administration decrease serum endotoxin levels in infants?the aim of this study was to examine whether administration of probiotics to infants can change the ratio of intestinal flora and thereby decrease serum endotoxin produced by potentially pathogenic microorganisms.199910052803
[antagonistic interaction between clostridium butyricum and enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7].antagonistic interaction between clostridium butyricum strain miyairi 588 and enterohemorrhagic esherichia coli (ehec) strain o157:h7 006 was examined using streptomycin-treated spf mice and germ free mice. all spf mice pretreated with streptomycin were colonized with ehec o157:h7. on the other hand, only 20% of the spf mice pretreated with streptomycin and c. butyricum were colonized with ehec o157:h7. in addition, germ free mice died within 4-7 days after infection with ehec o157:h7. in contra ...199910077896
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