functional consortium for hydrogen production from cellobiose: concentration-to-extinction approach.a functional bacterial consortium that can effectively hydrolyze cellobiose and produce bio-hydrogen was isolated by a concentration-to-extinction approach. the sludge from a cattle feedlot manure composting plant was incubated with 2.5-20 g l(-1) cellobiose at 35 degrees c and ph 6.0. the microbial diversity of serially concentrated suspensions significantly decreased following increasing cellobiose concentration, finally leaving only two viable strains, clostridium butyricum strain w4 and ente ...200919138842
process optimization of biological hydrogen production from molasses by a newly isolated clostridium butyricum w5.this work sought to optimize fermentation parameters in a batch process for hydrogen production from molasses by a newly isolated clostridium butyricum w5. hydrogen yield and production rate, bacterial biomass and volatile fatty acids, including acetic, lactic and butyric acids, were measured. key fermentation operation parameters, including concentration of carbon and nitrogen sources, growth temperature and ph, and inoculum size were investigated. the best results in terms of hydrogen yield an ...200919217551
short-chain fatty acids and polyamines in the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis: kinetics aspects in gnotobiotic quails.despite years of investigation, pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (nec) remains elusive. bacterial metabolites were implicated by several authors but their roles remain controversial. the aim of our study was to investigate the role of scfas and polyamines through a kinetic study of histological and macroscopical digestive lesions in monobiotic quails. germ-free quails, inoculated with a clostridium butyricum strain involved in a nec case, were fed or not with a diet including lactose (7 ...200919233303
biohydrogen production from cellulosic hydrolysate produced via temperature-shift-enhanced bacterial cellulose hydrolysis.a "temperature-shift" strategy was developed to improve reducing sugar production from bacterial hydrolysis of cellulosic materials. in this strategy, production of cellulolytic enzymes with cellulomonas uda e3-01 was promoted at a preferable temperature (35 degrees c), while more efficient enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis was achieved under an elevated culture temperature (45 degrees c), at which cell growth was inhibited to avoid consumption of reducing sugar. this temperature-shift strategy was ...200919604692
effect of carbohydrate composition in barley and oat cultivars on microbial ecophysiology and proliferation of salmonella enterica in an in vitro model of the porcine gastrointestinal tract.the influence of the carbohydrate (cho) composition of cereal cultivars on microbial ecophysiology was studied using an in vitro model of the porcine gastrointestinal tract. ten hull-less barley cultivars, six barley cultivars with hulls, six oat cultivars, and six oat groats that differed in beta-glucan, nonstarch polysaccharide (nsp), and starch contents and starch type were hydrolyzed enzymatically and incubated for 72 h with pig feces. fermentation kinetics were modeled, and microbial compos ...200919783749
recombination and insertion events involving the botulinum neurotoxin complex genes in clostridium botulinum types a, b, e and f and clostridium butyricum type e strains.clostridium botulinum is a taxonomic designation for at least four diverse species that are defined by the expression of one (monovalent) or two (bivalent) of seven different c. botulinum neurotoxins (bonts, a-g). the four species have been classified as c. botulinum groups i-iv. the presence of bont genes in strains representing the different groups is probably the result of horizontal transfer of the toxin operons between the species.200919804621
conductivity as a measure of vitality and death.the conductance of laminaria, saccharomyces, bacillus coli and bacillus butyricus, chlorella, and of red blood cells has been studied by the writer's method, and laminaria by that of osterhout. for the material studied it has been found that: 1. the conductance of living tissue is closely proportionate to, and determined by that of the surrounding fluid with which it is apparently in equilibrium. changes in the conductance of the fluid are quickly followed by compensatory changes in that of the ...192319872003
qm/mm (oniom) study of glycerol binding and hydrogen abstraction by the coenzyme b12-independent dehydratase.glycerol binding and the radical-initiated hydrogen transfer by the coenzyme b(12)-independent glycerol dehydratase from clostridium butyricum were investigated by using quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (qm/mm) calculations based on the high-resolution crystal structure (pdb code: 1r9d). our qm/mm calculations of enzyme catalysis considered the electrostatic coupling between the quantum-mechanical and molecular-mechanical subsystems and two alternative mechanisms. in addition to performin ...201020361776
inhibition of the cytotoxic effect of clostridium difficile in vitro by clostridium butyricum miyairi 588 contrast to most modern pharmaceuticals, probiotics are used in many parts of the world with little or no research data on the complex system of interactions that each strain may elicit in the human body. research on probiotics has recently become more essential as probiotics have begun to be prescribed by clinicians as an alternative for some gut infections, especially when antibiotics are contraindicated. in this study, we attempt to elucidate the inhibitory interaction between the japanese ...201121700738
high-level production of 1,3-propanediol from crude glycerol by clostridium butyricum akr102a.the aim of this study was to optimize a biotechnological process for the production of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-pd) based on low-quality crude glycerol derived from biodiesel production. clostridium butyricum akr102a was used in fed-batch fermentations in 1-l and 200-l scale. the newly discovered strain is characterized by rapid growth, high product tolerance, and the ability to use crude glycerol at the lowest purity directly gained from a biodiesel plant side stream. using pure glycerol, the strai ...201121972131
Acute necrotizing enterocolitis of preterm piglets is characterized by dysbiosis of ileal mucosa-associated bacteria.Investigation of bacteria involved in pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is limited by infant fragility, analysis restricted to feces, use of culture-based methods, and lack of clinically-relevant animal models. This study used a unique preterm piglet model to characterize spontaneous differences in microbiome composition of NEC-predisposed regions of gut.  Preterm piglets (n=23) were cesarean-delivered and nurtured for 30 hours over which time 52% developed NEC. Bacterial DNA from ...201121983069
biorefinery development through utilization of biodiesel industry by-products as sole fermentation feedstock for 1,3-propanediol production.rapeseed meal (rsm) hydrolysate was evaluated as substitute for commercial nutrient supplements in 1,3-propanediol (pdo) fermentation using the strain clostridium butyricum vpi 1718. rsm was enzymatically converted into a generic fermentation feedstock, enriched in amino acids, peptides and various micro-nutrients, using crude enzyme consortia produced via solid state fermentation by a fungal strain of aspergillus oryzae. initial free amino nitrogen concentration influenced pdo production in bat ...201424650530
effects of probiotic supplementation in different nutrient density diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microflora and noxious gas emission in weaning pig.probiotics can serve as alternatives to antibiotics to increase the performance of weaning pigs, and the intake of probiotics is affected by dietary nutrient density. the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a probiotic complex in different nutrient density diets on growth performance, digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microflora and noxious gas emission in weaning pigs.201727342952
addition of probiotics to norfloxacin does not improve efficacy in the prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized-controlled trial.spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (sbp) may occur despite antibiotic prophylaxis. we investigated whether the addition of probiotics to norfloxacin enhances its efficacy in the prevention of sbp.201222522141
effects of synbiotic supplementation on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and muscular antioxidant capacity and mineral contents in broilers.the present study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary synbiotic supplementation on growth performance, carcass composition, meat quality and muscular antioxidant capacity, and mineral contents in broilers. accordingly, 96 day-old male broiler chicks (arbor acres plus; aviagen, huntsville, al, usa) were randomly allocated to two groups, and each group consisted of six replicates with eight chicks each. birds were fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet supplemented with either 0 or 1.5 g kg(-1 ...201728111775
probiotics clostridium butyricum and bacillus subtilis ameliorate intestinal investigate the antitumor effects of probiotics clostridium butyricum and bacillus subtilis on colorectal cancer (crc) progression.201526346930
the influence of fat and monoacylglycerols on growth of spore-forming bacteria in processed cheese.highly undesirable microbial contaminants of processed cheese are endospore-forming bacteria of the genera bacillus and clostridium. survival of bacillus subtilis, b. cereus, clostridium butyricum and c. sporogenes was examined in model processed cheese samples supplemented with monoacylglycerols. in processed cheese samples, monoacylglycerols of undecanoic, undecenoic, lauric and adamantane-1-carboxylic acid at concentration of 0.15% w/w prevented the growth and multiplication of both bacillus ...201424859188
effects of multistrain probiotics on growth performance, apparent ileal nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, cecal microbial shedding, and excreta odor contents in broilers.this experiment was conducted to investigate the efficacy of lactobacillus acidophilus, bacillus subtilis, and clostridium butyricum supplementation in broilers. a total of 400 one-day-old mixed sex ross 308 broilers with an initial average bw of 46 ± 0.5 g were randomly allotted into 4 treatments with 5 replicate pens per treatment and 20 broilers in each pen for 35 d. dietary treatments were (1) an antibiotic-free diet (con), (2) con + 5 mg/kg of avilamycin, (3) con + 1 × 10(5) cfu of multistr ...201424570458
evaluation of probiotics in diets with different nutrient densities on growth performance, blood characteristics, relative organ weight and breast meat characteristics in broilers.1. a total of 720 1-d-old broilers were used in a 28 d experiment to determine the effects of probiotic supplementation in diets with different dietary nutrient densities. 2. birds were randomly allotted to one of the 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (12 replicateswith 15 broilers per replicate) with two levels of nutrient density [high nutrient density (metabolisable energy (me) 12.7 mj/kg and crude protein (cp) 230.3 g/kg for 1-7 d; me 13.2 mj/kg and cp 220.3 g/kg for 8-28 d) or l ...201324112072
in vitro fermentation of fructooligosaccharides with human gut bacteria.fructooligosaccharides (fos) are one of the most studied prebiotics, selectively stimulating the growth of health-promoting bacteria in the host. however, there is increasing evidence that commensal gut bacteria, such as bacteroides fragilis, clostridium butyricum, enterobacter cloacae, and even the pathogenic escherichia coli ben2908, are also able to metabolize fos in vitro, and in some cases, fos displayed adverse effects. therefore, it is necessary to identify fos-metabolizing species that a ...201525653214
growth-inhibiting and morphostructural effects of constituents identified in asarum heterotropoides root on human intestinal bacteria.the growth-inhibiting and morphostructural effects of seven constituents identified in asarum heterotropoides root on 14 intestinal bacteria were compared with those of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin.201324083511
effects of antibiotics on bacterial species composition and metabolic activities in chemostats containing defined populations of human gut microorganisms.the composition and metabolic activities of the human colonic microbiota are modulated by a number of external factors, including diet and antibiotic therapy. changes in the structure and metabolism of the gut microbiota may have long-term consequences for host health. the large intestine harbors a complex microbial ecosystem comprising several hundreds of different bacterial species, which complicates investigations on intestinal physiology and ecology. to facilitate such studies, a highly simp ...201323403424
effects of the dietary protein and carbohydrate ratio on gut microbiomes in dogs of different body conditions.obesity has become a health epidemic in both humans and pets. a dysbiotic gut microbiota has been associated with obesity and other metabolic disorders. high-protein, low-carbohydrate (hplc) diets have been recommended for body weight loss, but little is known about their effects on the canine gut microbiome. sixty-three obese and lean labrador retrievers and beagles (mean age, 5.72 years) were fed a common baseline diet for 4 weeks in phase 1, followed by 4 weeks of a treatment diet, specifical ...201728119466
introducing gut low-density array (gulda): a validated approach for qpcr-based intestinal microbial community analysis.alterations in the human gut microbiota caused, for example, by diet, functional foods, antibiotics, or occurring as a function of age are now known to be of relevance for host health. therefore, there is a strong need for methods to detect such alterations in a rapid and comprehensive manner. in the present study, we developed and validated a high-throughput real-time quantitative pcr-based analysis platform, termed 'gut low-density array' (gulda). the platform was designed for simultaneous ana ...201222967145
effect of probiotics on postoperative quality of gastric bypass surgeries: a prospective randomized trial.gastric bypass surgery is the recommended treatment for severely obese patients. however, postoperative symptomatic gastrointestinal (gi) episodes are common complaints.201626499352
clostridium butyricum strains and dysbiosis linked to necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates.necrotizing enterocolitis (nec) is the most common and serious gastrointestinal disorder among preterm neonates. we aimed to assess a specific gut microbiota profile associated with nec.201526084844
isolation and characterization of mimosine, 3, 4 dhp and 2, 3 dhp degrading bacteria from a commercial rumen inoculum.the presence of the toxic amino acid mimosine in leucaena leucocephala restricts its use as a protein source for ruminants. rumen bacteria degrade mimosine to 3,4- and 2,3-dihydroxypyridine (dhp), which remain toxic. synergistes jonesii is believed to be the main bacterium responsible for degradation of these toxic compounds but other bacteria may also be involved. in this study, a commercial inoculum provided by the queensland's department of agriculture, fisheries, and forestry was screened fo ...201626773324
bacteria associated with piezodorus guildinii (hemiptera: pentatomidae), with special reference to those transmitted by feeding.the redbanded stink bug, piezodorus guildinii (westwood) (hemiptera: heteroptera: pentatomidae), is a rapidly growing pest damaging southern us agriculture. pentatomid stink bugs are known to vector bacterial, fungal, and viral plant diseases. however, bacteria associated with redbanded stink bugs and their vector potential have not yet been assessed. in this study, we 1) cultured and identified bacteria transmitted by feeding of redbanded stink bug and 2) described bacteria from guts of redband ...201728025221
unraveling the dha cluster in citrobacter werkmanii: comparative genomic analysis of bacterial 1,3-propanediol biosynthesis natural 1,3-propanediol (pdo) producing microorganisms such as klebsiella pneumoniae, citrobacter freundii and clostridium sp., the genes coding for pdo producing enzymes are grouped in a dha cluster. this article describes the dha cluster of a novel candidate for pdo production, citrobacter werkmanii dsm17579 and compares the cluster to the currently known pdo clusters of enterobacteriaceae and clostridiaceae. moreover, we attribute a putative function to two previously unannotated orfs, orf ...201423996279
reclassification of clostridium difficile as clostridioides difficile (hall and o'toole 1935) prévot 1938.the recent proposal by lawson and rainey (2015) to restrict the genus clostridium to clostridium butyricum and related species has ramifications for the members of the genera that fall outside this clade that should not be considered as clostridium sensu stricto. one such organism of profound medical importance is clostridioides difficile that is a major cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea and mortality in individuals. based on 16s rrna gene sequence analysis, the closest relative of clostridium ...201627370902
draft genome sequence of clostridium butyricum strain nor 33234, isolated from an elderly patient with diarrhea.clostridium butyricum is one of the species frequently present in patients' stool samples. however, the identification of this species is sometimes difficult. here, we present the draft genome of clostridium butyricum nor 33234, which was isolated from a patient with suspected clostridium difficile infection-associated diarrhea and resembles clostridium clostridioforme in biochemical tests.201425540356
clostridium difficile infection associated with antituberculous agents in a patient with tuberculous pericarditis.clostridium difficile can cause pseudomembranous colitis (pmc). antimicrobial agent exposure is a risk factor for clostridium difficile-associated disease, whereas the use of antituberculous (anti-tb) agents is not. we herein report a case of pmc-associated with antituberculous therapy. a 63-year-old woman with tuberculous pericarditis treated with anti-tb agents was admitted for abdominal pain and diarrhea. on colonoscopy, mucoid exudate and yellowish plaque lesions were observed. the anti-tb a ...201323812197
genetic characteristics of toxigenic clostridia and toxin gene evolution.clostridia comprise a heterogenous group of environmental bacteria containing 15 pathogenic species, which produce the most potent toxins. the origin of toxins is still enigmatic. it is hypothesized that toxins exhibiting an enzymatic activity have derived from hydrolytic enzymes, which are abundantly secreted by these bacteria, and that pore-forming toxins have evolved from an ancestor transmembrane protein. the presence of related toxin genes in distinct clostridium species and the variability ...201323707611
detection of pathogenic clostridia in biogas plant the number of biogas plants has grown rapidly in the last decade, the amount of potentially contaminated wastes with pathogenic clostridium spp. has increased as well. this study reports the results from examining 203 biogas plant wastes (bgws). the following clostridium spp. with different frequencies could be isolated via a new enrichment medium (krüne medium) and detected by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms): clostridium perfringens ...201524984829
molecular epidemiology of infant botulism in california and elsewhere, 1976-2010.infant botulism (ib), first identified in california in 1976, results from clostridium botulinum spores that germinate, multiply, and produce botulinum neurotoxin (bont) in the immature intestine. from 1976 to 2010 we created an archive of 1090 bont-producing isolates consisting of 1012 ib patient (10 outpatient, 985 hospitalized, 17 sudden death), 25 food, 18 dust/soils, and 35 other strains.201424924163
arrangement of the clostridium baratii f7 toxin gene cluster with identification of a σ factor that recognizes the botulinum toxin gene cluster promoters.botulinum neurotoxin (bont) is the most poisonous substances known and its eight toxin types (a to h) are distinguished by the inability of polyclonal antibodies that neutralize one toxin type to neutralize any of the other seven toxin types. infant botulism, an intestinal toxemia orphan disease, is the most common form of human botulism in the united states. it results from swallowed spores of clostridium botulinum (or rarely, neurotoxigenic clostridium butyricum or clostridium baratii) that ge ...201424853378
[the new microbiological hazards in food].this paper describes the new microbiological hazards in food. for protecting human health, nowadays food safety authorities face with many challenges, that years ago were largely unheard. in 2011 verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli o104:h4 has been isolated in germany. strain came from fenugreek sprouts originated from egypt. it was characterized by unique features such as presence of enteroaggregative escherichia coli genes (aata, aggr, aap, agga, aggc) and resistance to most antibiotics. in pol ...201223631259
[traumatic wound botulism].botulism is a rare illness caused by a potent neurotoxin produced by the bacterium of the clostridium family. clostridium botulinum is the most frequent one, but clostridium baratti and clostridium butyricum are also neurotoxins producers. there are seven neurotoxins types, a to g; a, b, e, f and g cause human botulism. every neurotoxin type blocks cholinergic transmission at the myoneural junction. the least frequent syndrome results from clostridium botulinum colonization of a wound and it is ...201424584800
lipid diversity among botulinum neurotoxin-producing clostridia.clostridium botulinum has been classified into four groupings (groups i to iv) based on physiological characteristics and 16s rrna sequencing. we have examined the lipid compositions of 11 representative strains of c. botulinum and a strain of clostridium sporogenes by 2d-tlc and by ms. all strains contained phosphatidylglycerol (pg), cardiolipin (cl) and phosphatidylethanolamine (pe) in both the all-acyl and the alk-1'-enyl (plasmalogen) forms. five strains in proteolytic group i, which are rel ...201222837302
galleria mellonella as an in vivo model for assessing the protective activity of probiotics against gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens.the antagonistic activity against gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens is an important property of probiotic bacteria and a desirable feature for pre-selection of novel strains with probiotic potential. pre-screening of candidate probiotics for antibacterial activity should be based on in vitro and in vivo tests. this study investigated whether the protective activity of probiotic bacteria against gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens can be evaluated using galleria mellonella larvae as an in viv ...201728369512
effect of dietary clostridium butyricum on growth, intestine health status and resistance to ammonia stress in pacific white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei.the present study evaluated the effect of dietary clostridium butyricum (cb) on growth, intestine microstructure, intestine digestive and immune function, intestine short-chain fatty acids (scfa) content and body composition of pacific white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei. the shrimp was fed for 56 d with diets containing different levels of c. butyricum (1 × 10(9) cfu/g): 0% (control), 0.25% (cb1), 0.5% (cb2) and 1.0% (cb3) as treatment groups, followed by an acute ammonia stress test for 72 h. th ...201728359948
preeminent productivity of 1,3-propanediol by clostridium butyricum jkt37 and the role of using calcium carbonate as ph neutraliser in glycerol fermentation.calcium carbonate was evaluated as a replacement for the base during the fermentation of glycerol by a highly productive strain of 1,3-propanediol (pdo), viz., clostridium butyricum jkt37. due to its high specific growth rate (µmax=0.53h(-1)), 40g/l of glycerol was completely converted into 19.6g/l of pdo in merely 7h of batch fermentation, leaving only acetate and butyrate as the by-products. the accumulation of these volatile fatty acids was circumvented with the addition of calcium carbonate ...201728285221
oral administration of clostridium butyricum cgmcc0313-1 inhibits β-lactoglobulin-induced intestinal anaphylaxis in a mouse model of food allergy.probiotic bacteria can induce immune regulation or immune tolerance in patients with allergic diseases, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. there has been a growing interest in the use of beneficial bacteria for allergic diseases recently. this study aimed at exploring whether clostridium butyricum cgmcc0313-1 (c. butyricum) can reduce β-lactoglobulin(blg)-induced intestinal anaphylaxis in a murine model of food allergy.201728250847
oral administration of clostridium butyricum cgmcc0313-1 reduces ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation in mice.probiotic bacteria can induce immune regulation or immune tolerance in patients with allergic diseases, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. there has been a growing interest in the use of beneficial bacteria for allergic diseases recently. this study aimed at exploring whether clostridium butyricum cgmcc0313-1 (c. butyricum) can reduce ovalbumin (ova)-induced allergic airway inflammation in a mouse model.201728122397
clostridium butyricum b1 alleviates high-fat diet-induced steatohepatitis in mice via enterohepatic immunoregulation.enterohepatic immunologic derangement is associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (nash). here, we investigated whether clostridium butyricum b1 (cb) would be an effective immune-targeted substance to attenuate steatohepatitis in mice.201728109017
probiotics enhance the effect of allergy immunotherapy on regulating antigen specific b cell activity in asthma patients.immune regulatory system dysfunction plays a role in the pathogenesis of asthma. the therapeutic effect of allergic asthma is to be improved. the immune regulatory function of probiotics has been recognized. this study tests a hypothesis that clostridium butyricum (cb) enhances the effect of allergen specific immunotherapy (ait) on asthma. in this study patients with allergic asthma were treated with ait or/and cb for six months. the therapeutic effect and ige production of the patients were obs ...201628078000
multi-spacer typing as an effective method to distinguish the clonal lineage of clostridium butyricum strains isolated from stool samples during a series of necrotizing enterocolitis cases.necrotizing enterocolitis (nec) is a devastating gastrointestinal disease with high morbidity and mortality that predominantly affects preterm neonates during outbreaks. in a previous study, the present authors identified 15 clostridium butyricum isolates from stool samples during a series of nec cases involving four neonatal intensive care units. a clonal lineage of these strains was observed by in-silico multi-locus sequence typing.201727988045
normal human gingival fibroblasts undergo cytostasis and apoptosis after long-term exposure to butyric acid.the causes of periodontal disease are complex. butyric acid, a metabolite of periodontopathic bacteria such as porphyromonas gingivalis, acts as a histone deacetylase inhibitor that has a direct effect on mrna expression. butyric acid produced by clostridium butyricum in the intestinal tract induces differentiation of regulatory t cells, thereby suppressing inflammation in the gut. mice lacking clostridium butyricum in the intestinal tract suffer from colitis. by contrast, butyric acid in the or ...201727914813
inhibited growth of clostridium butyricum in efficient h2-producing co-culture with rhodobacter sphaeroides.cell number of clostridium butyricum and rhodobacter sphaeroides in co-culture was measured using q-pcr approach. during efficient h2 photoproduction from starch (6.2 mol h2/mol glucose), clostridia growth and starch-hydrolyzing activity was partly suppressed. apparently, the effect of r. sphaeroides towards c. butyricum was not attributed to altered eh or ph values in the presence of purple bacteria. further, disk-diffusion test proved that r. sphaeroides was capable of producing inhibitors aga ...201627838838
effects of clostridium butyricum and bifidobacterium on btla expression on cd4(+) t cells and lymphocyte differentiation in late preterm infants.probiotics is recognized to promote growth performance and immune function via balancing the intestinal microflora. live clostridium butyricum and bifidobacterium combined powder (lcbbcp) has been widely to treat intestinal dysbacteriosis in newborns in china. this study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the combined probiotics on the expression of b and t lymphocyte attenuator (btla) on cd4(+) t cells and the differentiation of lymphocyte subsets in late preterm infants.201627622346
molecular characterization and expression analysis of toll-like receptor 2 in response to bacteria in silvery pomfret intestinal epithelial cells.toll-like receptor 2 (tlr2) has been shown to play a crucial role in the host defense of pathogenic microbes in innate immunity. in this study, the full-length cdna of tlr2 in silvery pomfret (pampus argenteus) was cloned by homology cloning and the rapid amplification of cdna ends (race) technique. the complete cdna sequence of tlr2 was 2932 bp, containing an open reading frame (orf) of 2469 bp encoding 822 amino acids. a multiple alignment analysis of the silvery pomfret tlr2 protein-coding se ...201627574826
efficacy and role of inulin in mitigation of enteric sulfur-containing odor in pigs.the efficacy and role of inulin in the mitigation of enteric sulfur-containing odor gases hydrogen sulfide (h2 s) and methyl mercaptan (ch3 sh) in pigs were examined in this study. twelve duroc × landrace × yorkshire male finisher pigs (60.7 ± 1.9 kg), housed individually in open-circuit respiration chambers, were randomly assigned to two dietary groups, namely basal diet (control) and basal diet supplemented with 1% (w/w) inulin. at the end of the 45 day experiment, pigs were slaughtered and vo ...201627664398
vitamin a deficiency impacts the structural segregation of gut microbiota in children with persistent investigate whether gut microbiota is associated with vitamin a nutritional levels in children with persistent diarrhea, a total of 59 pediatric patients with persistent diarrhea aged 1-12 months were selected from the department of gastroenterology at the children's hospital of chongqing medical university, china. subjects were hospitalized and divided into va-deficient (n = 30) and va-normal (n = 29) groups according to their venous serum retinol levels. fecal samples from all 59 subjects w ...201627698538
probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea.goldenberg jz, lytvyn l, steurich j, parkin p, mahant s, johnston bc. probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea.cochrane database syst rev2015, issue 12. art. no.: cd004827.
specific immunotherapy ameliorates ulcerative colitis.hypersensitivity reaction to certain allergens plays a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (ibd). this study aims to observe the effect of specific immunotherapy in a group of ibd patients.201627499766
priority of the genus name clostridium prazmowski 1880 (approved lists 1980) vs sarcina goodsir 1842 (approved lists 1980) and the creation of the illegitimate combinations clostridium maximum (lindner 1888) lawson and rainey 2016 and clostridium ventriculi (goodsir 1842) lawson and rainey 2016 that may not be a recent publication that attempts to deal with the growing problem of taxa being added to the genus clostridium that are outside of clostridium (16s rrna) group i, a solution is proposed that seeks to limit the genus clostridium prazmowski 1880 (approved lists 1980) to a small number of species 'related' to the type species, clostridium butyricum prazmowski 1880 (approved lists 1980). it has been proposed that this genus should also include members of the genus sarcina goodsir 1842 (approved ...201627488356
combination of specific allergen and probiotics induces specific regulatory b cells and enhances specific immunotherapy effect on allergic rhinitis.the therapeutic efficacy of allergen specific immunotherapy (sit) on allergic diseases is to be improved. probiotics can regulate immune response. this study aims to promote the effect of sit on allergic rhinitis (ar) by co-administration with clostridium butyricum (cb). in this study, patients with ar sensitized to mite allergens were enrolled to this study, and treated with sit or/and cb. the therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by the total nasal symptom scores (nss), medication scores, serum s ...201627486985
first report of clostridium lavalense isolated in human blood 88-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with worsening malaise, fever, and weakness. anaerobic blood culture bottles revealed the presence of an anaerobic, gram-positive sporulated bacillus. empirical antibiotherapy with intravenous piperacillin-tazobactam was initiated. the patient defervesced after four days and was switched to oral amoxicillin on his 6th day of antibiotic therapy and later discharged from the hospital. four months later, he had recovered. the bacterium was initially i ...201627478446
genomic approach to studying nutritional requirements of clostridium tyrobutyricum and other clostridia causing late blowing defects.clostridium tyrobutyricum is the main microorganism responsible for the late blowing defect in hard and semi-hard cheeses, causing considerable economic losses to the cheese industry. deeper knowledge of the metabolic requirements of this microorganism can lead to the development of more effective control approaches. in this work, the amino acids and b vitamins essential for sustaining the growth of c. tyrobutyricum were investigated using a genomic approach. as the first step, the genomes of fo ...201627375262
1,2-propanediol dehydration in roseburia inulinivorans: structural basis for substrate and enantiomer selectivity.glycyl radical enzymes (gres) represent a diverse superfamily of enzymes that utilize a radical mechanism to catalyze difficult, but often essential, chemical reactions. in this work we present the first biochemical and structural data for a gre-type diol dehydratase from the organism roseburia inulinivorans (ridd). despite high sequence (48% identity) and structural similarity to the gre-type glycerol dehydratase from clostridium butyricum, we demonstrate that the ridd is in fact a diol dehydra ...201627252380
biohydrogen production from hydrolysates of selected tropical biomass wastes with clostridium butyricum.biohydrogen production has received widespread attention from researchers in industry and academic fields. response surface methodology (rsm) was applied to evaluate the effects of several key variables in anaerobic fermentation of glucose with clostridium butyrium, and achieved the highest production rate and yield of hydrogen. highest h2 yield of 2.02 mol h2/mol-glucose was achieved from 24 h bottle fermentation of glucose at 35 °c, while the composition of medium was (g/l): 15.66 glucose, 6.0 ...201627251222
effect of cassava pulp supplement on 1,3-propanediol production by clostridium improve its 1,3-propanediol (1,3-pd) production, clostridium butyricum was cultivated on glycerol medium supplemented with cassava pulp (cp). at small concentrations, the cp improved the 1,3-pd productivity of c. butyricum from (0.25±0.01)g/l/h (glycerol alone) to (0.43±0.02)g/l/h (glycerol+2g/l cp) after 24h fermentation.201627184427
specific immunotherapy plus clostridium butyricum alleviates ulcerative colitis in patients with food allergy.the aberrant t cell activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation, such as ulcerative colitis (uc). c. butyricum (cb) is a probiotic and has been employed in the treatment of immune diseases. this study tests a hypothesis that specific immunotherapy (sit) plus oral cb (an over-the-counter probiotic) alleviates the uc symptoms. in this study, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, clinical study at our hospital. a total of 80 patients with relapsing-remitting ...201627167186
clostridium butyricum cgmcc0313.1 modulates lipid profile, insulin resistance and colon homeostasis in obese mice.obesity is associated with a cluster of metabolic disorders and systemic low-grade inflammation involving multiple organs. recent findings have suggested that intestine is a key organ altered in response to high fat diet (hfd) feeding. probiotics mainly lactobacillus strains have earlier been implicated in alleviating metabolic disorders. here we aimed to examine the effects of a naturally occurring butyrate-producing probiotic clostridium butyricum cgmcc0313.1 (cb0313.1) in limiting the develop ...201627123997
effects of culture conditions on the kinetic behavior of 1,3-propanediol fermentation by clostridium butyricum with a kinetic model.the effects of culture conditions on the kinetic behavior of 1,3-propanediol (pd) fermentation were investigated with a kinetic model. first, with initial glycerol concentration (s0) increasing, μmax and pd inhibition increased. glycerol assimilation was harder and a little glycerol was consumed on cell maintenance at high s0. second, with yeast extract concentration increasing, pd inhibition decreased. however, μmax decreased and glycerol assimilation became harder. it seems that the stimulus e ...201627089428
clostridium butyricum attenuates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in diabetic mice via modulation of gut microbiota.diabetes is known to exacerbate cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (i/r) injury. here, we investigated the effects of clostridium butyricum on cerebral i/r injury in the diabetic mice subjected to 30min of bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (bccao). the cognitive impairment, the blood glucose level, neuronal injury, apoptosis, and expressions of akt, phospho-akt (p-akt), and caspase-3 level were assessed. meanwhile, the changes of gut microbiota in composition and diversity in the colonic fe ...201627037183
glycerol dehydratases: biochemical structures, catalytic mechanisms, and industrial applications in 1,3-propanediol production by naturally occurring and genetically engineered bacterial date, two types of glycerol dehydratases have been reported: coenzyme b12-dependent and coenzyme b12-independent glycerol dehydratases. the three-dimensional structure of the former is a dimer of αβγ heterotrimer, while that of the latter is a homodimer. their mechanisms of reaction are typically enzymatic radical catalysis. functional radical in both the glycerol dehydratases is the adenosyl radical. however, the adenosyl radical in the former originates from coenzyme b12 by homolytic cleava ...201627033090
c. butyricum lipoteichoic acid inhibits the inflammatory response and apoptosis in ht-29 cells induced by s. aureus lipoteichoic acid.lipoteichoic acid (lta) is one of microbe-associated molecular pattern (mamp) molecules of gram-positive bacteria. in this study, we demonstrated that clostridium butyricum lta (blta) significantly inhibited the inflammatory response and apoptosis induced by staphylococcus aureus lta (alta) in ht-29 cells. alta stimulated the inflammatory responses by activating a strong signal transduction cascade through nf-κb and erk, but blta did not activate the signaling pathway. blta pretreatment inhibite ...201627020942
dietary administration of probiotics to sows and/or their neonates improves the reproductive performance, incidence of post-weaning diarrhea and histopathological parameters in the intestine of weaned piglets.probiotics have gained considerable attention with respect to their beneficial effects on livestock performance and health. the most significant effects of probiotics on the gut microbiota and the host animals take place when they are included in diets during particularly stressful periods such as weaning and/or at the beginning of the lactation period. the probiotics bacillus mesentericus strain to-a at 1 × 10(8)  colony forming units (cfu)/g, clostridium butyricum strain to-a at 1 × 10(8)  cfu ...201627018090
different effects of lipoteichoic acid from c. butyricum and s. aureus on inflammatory responses of ht-29 cells.lipoteichoic acid (lta) is an important cell wall component of gram-positive bacteria and represents one of the most critical microbe-associated molecular pattern (mamp) molecules. in this study, we isolated and purified lta from clostridium butyricum (blta) and compared its effects on the inflammatory responses of ht-29 cells with those of lta from staphylococcus aureus (alta). we also compared the effects of blta and alta on cell growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. the results showed that th ...201626968924
effects of megaplasmid loss on growth of neurotoxigenic clostridium butyricum strains and botulinum neurotoxin type e expression.clostridium butyricum strains that atypically produce the botulinum neurotoxin type e (bont/e) possess a megaplasmid of unknown functions in their genome. in this study, we cured two botulinum neurotoxigenic c. butyricum type e strains of their megaplasmids, and compared the obtained megaplasmid-cured strains to their respective wild-type parental strains. our results showed that the megaplasmids do not confer beta-lactam resistance on the neurotoxigenic c. butyricum type e strains, although the ...201626941734
seasonal occurrence and molecular diversity of clostridia species spores along cheesemaking streams of 5 commercial dairy plants.five commercial dairy plants were monitored over a 17-mo period to determine the seasonal occurrence of clostridium spores in streams from the cheesemaking process. every 2 mo, samples of raw milk (rm), separated cream (sc), pasteurized and standardized vat milk (psvm), psvm + lysozyme (psvm+l), and manufactured cheese aged for 60 to 90 d were processed for analysis. molecular diversity of the main species identified was determined using repetitive element palindromic pcr. the mean anaerobic spo ...201626923043
clostridium butyricum in combination with specific immunotherapy converts antigen-specific b cells to regulatory b cells in asthmatic patients.the effect of antigen specific immunotherapy (sit) on asthma is supposed to be improved. published data indicate that administration of probiotics alleviates allergic diseases. b cells play important roles in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. this study aims to modulate antigen specific b cell property by the administration of clostridium butyrate (cb) in combination with sit. the results showed that after a 3-month treatment, the total asthma clinical score and serum specific ige were impr ...201626857726
effects of dietary supplementation of probiotic, clostridium butyricum, on growth performance, immune response, intestinal barrier function, and digestive enzyme activity in broiler chickens challenged with escherichia coli k88.colibacillosis caused by enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (e. coli) results in economic losses in the poultry industry. antibiotics are usually used to control colibacillosis, however, e. coli has varying degrees of resistance to different antibiotics. therefore the use of probiotics is becoming accepted as an alternative to antibiotics. in this study, we evaluated the effects of clostridium butyricum (c. butyricum) on growth performance, immune response, intestinal barrier function, and digesti ...201626819705
complete genome sequence of clostridium butyricum jky6d1 isolated from the pit mud of a chinese flavor liquor-making factory.clostridium butyricum is an important fragrance-producing bacterium in the traditional chinese flavor liquor-making industry. here the complete genome sequence of c. butyricum jky6d1 isolated from the pit mud of a chinese flavor liquor-making factory is presented. the genome is 4,618,327bp with the gc content of 28.74% and a plasmid of 8060bp. this is the first complete genome sequence of c. butyricum strains available so far.201626795689
clostridium butyricum pretreatment attenuates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice via anti-oxidation and anti-apoptosis.probiotics participate actively in the neuropsychiatric disorders. however, their roles on ischemic stroke remain unclear. this study aims to determine whether clostridium butyricum (c. butyricum) could attenuate cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (i/r) injury and its possible mechanisms. male icr mice were intragastrically pretreated with c. butyricum for 2 successive weeks, and then subjected to cerebral i/r injury induced by the bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (bccao) for 20min. after 24 ...201626733300
decolorization and biodegradation of remazol reactive dyes by clostridium species.decolorisation and biodegradation efficacy of potential strains isolated from dyeing effluent collected from tirupur region, tamil nadu, india were studied in remazol reactive dyes. two potential strains clostridium butyricum (ei05) and clostridium acetobutylicum (ei25) identified by biochemical tests in our previous study were studied for their decolorising efficiency on various remazol reactive dyes (remazol blue rgb, remazol blue rr, remazol navy rgb and remazol orange rr). the synthetic dyes ...201628330087
probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea.antibiotics are frequently prescribed in children. they alter the microbial balance within the gastrointestinal tract, commonly resulting in antibiotic-associated diarrhea (aad). probiotics may prevent aad via restoration of the gut microflora.201526695080
proposal to restrict the genus clostridium (prazmowski) to clostridium butyricum and related species.the genus clostridium as presently constituted is phylogenetically and phenotypically incoherent. polyphasic taxonomic data indicate that the genus comprises a collection of very heterogeneous species. numerous phylogenetic studies, principally based on sequencing of the 16s rrna gene indicate that the genus clostridium should be restricted to clostridium cluster i as clostridium sensu stricto. despite these findings, authors continue to add new species to the genus clostridium that do not fall ...201526643615
specific immunotherapy in combination with clostridium butyricum inhibits allergic inflammation in the mouse intestine.the current therapy on allergic inflammation is unsatisfactory. probiotics improve the immunity in the body. this study aims to test a hypothesis that administration with clostridium butyricum (c. butyricum) enforces the effect of specific immunotherapy (sit) on intestinal allergic inflammation. in this study, an ovalbumin (ova) specific allergic inflammation mouse model was created. the mice were treated with sit or/and c. butyricum. the results showed that the intestinal allergic inflammation ...201526627845
insights from genome of clostridium butyricum incqs635 reveal mechanisms to convert complex sugars for biofuel production.clostridium butyricum is widely used to produce organic solvents such as ethanol, butanol and acetone. we sequenced the entire genome of c. butyricum incqs635 by using ion torrent technology. we found a high contribution of sequences assigned for carbohydrate subsystems (15-20 % of known sequences). annotation based on protein-conserved domains revealed a higher diversity of glycoside hydrolases than previously found in c. acetobutylicum atcc824 strain. more than 30 glycoside hydrolases (gh) fam ...201626525220
neuroprotective effects of clostridium butyricum against vascular dementia in mice via metabolic butyrate.probiotics actively participate in neuropsychiatric disorders. however, the role of gut microbiota in brain disorders and vascular dementia (vad) remains unclear. we used a mouse model of vad induced by a permanent right unilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (ruccao) to investigate the neuroprotective effects and possible underlying mechanisms of clostridium butyricum. following ruccao, c. butyricum was intragastrically administered for 6 successive weeks. cognitive function was estimated ...201526523278
the effect of clostridium butyricum miyairi on the prevention of pouchitis and alteration of the microbiota profile in patients with ulcerative colitis.ulcerative colitis (uc) is a chronic, relapsing, and refractory disorder of the intestine. total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis (ipaa) is the preferred and standard surgical procedure for patients' refractory to medical therapy. pouchitis is one of the most common long-term complications after ipaa. in the present study, the safety and efficacy of clostridium butyricum miyairi (cbm) as a probiotic were examined.201626510664
clostridium butyricum: from beneficial to a new emerging pathogen.clostridium butyricum, a strictly anaerobic spore-forming bacillus, is a common human and animal gut commensal bacterium, and is also frequently found in the environment. whereas non-toxigenic strains are currently used as probiotics in asia, other strains have been implicated in pathological conditions, such as botulism in infants or necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates. in terms of the latter, within the same species, different strains have antagonist effects on the intestinal mucosa. ...201626493849
safety assessment of the clostridium butyricum miyairi 588® probiotic strain including evaluation of antimicrobial sensitivity and presence of clostridium toxin genes in vitro and teratogenicity in vivo.probiotics are live microorganisms ingested for the purpose of conferring a health benefit on the host. development of new probiotics includes the need for safety evaluations that should consider factors such as pathogenicity, infectivity, virulence factors, toxicity, and metabolic activity. clostridium butyricum miyairi 588(®) (cbm 588(®)), an anaerobic spore-forming bacterium, has been developed as a probiotic for use by humans and food animals. safety studies of this probiotic strain have bee ...201626437792
the functional dlt operon of clostridium butyricum controls the d-alanylation of cell wall components and influences cell septation and vancomycin-induced lysis.clostridium butyricum is a gram-positive bacterium involved in the development of necrotizing enterocolitis (nec) in preterm infants. to colonize the digestive tract, components of the cell wall of c. butyricum must interact with the intestinal mucosa. the d-alanylation of cell wall components such as teichoic acids results in a net positive charge on the cell wall, which is important for many functions of gram-positive bacteria. notably, d-alanylation mediates resistance to antimicrobial peptid ...201526363197
laboratory investigation of the first case of botulism caused by clostridium butyricum type e toxin in the united states.we report here the laboratory investigation of the first known case of botulism in the united states caused by clostridium butyricum type e. this investigation demonstrates the importance of extensive microbiological examination of specimens, which resulted in the isolation of this organism.201526246485
potential protective effects of clostridium butyricum on experimental gastric ulcers in investigate the effects of clostridium butyricum (c. butyricum) on experimental gastric ulcers (gus) induced by alcohol, restraint cold stress, or pyloric ligation in mice, respectively.201526217085
biohydrogen production by co-fermentation of crude glycerol and apple pomace hydrolysate using co-culture of enterobacter aerogenes and clostridium utilization of various wastes with complementary characteristics can provide a complete medium for higher hydrogen production. this study evaluated potential of apple pomace hydrolysate (aph) co-fermented with crude glycerol (cg) for increased h2 production and decreased by-products formation. the central composite design (ccd) along with response surface methodology (rsm) was used as tool for optimization and 15 g/l of cg, 5 g/l of aph and 15% (v/v) inoculum were found to be optimu ...201526142996
smad2 and smad3 inversely regulate tgf-β autoinduction in clostridium butyricum-activated dendritic cells.colonization with a mixture of clostridium species has been shown to induce accumulation of induced regulatory t (itreg) cells in the colon. transforming growth factor-β (tgf-β) is an essential factor for itreg cell induction; however, the relationship between clostridium species and tgf-β remains to be clarified. here we demonstrated that a gram-positive probiotic bacterial strain, clostridium butyricum (c. butyricum), promoted itreg cell generation in the intestine through induction of tgf-β1 ...201526141582
effectiveness of probiotic therapy for the prevention of relapse in patients with inactive ulcerative evaluate the effectiveness of probiotic therapy for suppressing relapse in patients with inactive ulcerative colitis (uc).201526019464
thrombospondin 1 modulates monocyte properties to suppress intestinal mucosal inflammation.monocytes (mos) play an important role in the pathogenesis of intestinal mucosal inflammation. this study aims to investigate the mechanism by which the intestinal epithelial cell-derived thrombospondin 1 (tsp1) modulates mo properties and regulates intestinal inflammatory responses. in this study, the production of tsp1 by intestinal epithelial cells was evaluated by quantitative real-time pcr and western blotting. the properties of mos were analyzed by flow cytometry. a mouse model of colitis ...201525998580
a breakthrough in probiotics: clostridium butyricum regulates gut homeostasis and anti-inflammatory response in inflammatory bowel disease.intestinal immune homeostasis is regulated by gut microbiota, including beneficial and pathogenic microorganisms. imbalance in gut bacterial constituents provokes host proinflammatory responses causing diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (ibd). the development of next-generation sequencing technology allows the identification of microbiota alterations in ibd. several studies have shown reduced diversity in the gut microbiota of patients with ibd. advances in gnotobiotic technology have m ...201525940150
effects of clostridium butyricum on antioxidant properties, meat quality and fatty acid composition of broiler birds.consumers are becoming increasingly interested in food containing high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (pufa). pufa are considered as functional ingredients to prevent cardiovascular disease. the present study aimed to evaluate the effects of clostridium butyricum on antioxidant properties, meat quality and fatty acid composition of broilers.201525896790
genome sequencing of clostridium butyricum dku-01, isolated from infant feces.clostridium butyricum is a butyric acid-producing anaerobic bacteriuma, and commonly present as gut microbiota in humans. this species has been used as a probiotic for the prevention of diarrhea in humans. in this study, we report the draft genome of c. butyricum dku-01, which was isolated from infant feces, to better understand the characteristics of this strain so that it can later be used in the development of probiotic products.201525861391
clostridium butyricum combined with bifidobacterium infantis probiotic mixture restores fecal microbiota and attenuates systemic inflammation in mice with antibiotic-associated diarrhea.antibiotic-associated diarrhea (aad) is one of the most common complications of most types of antibiotics. our aim was to determine the efficacy of clostridium butyricum, bifidobacterium infantis, and their mixture for aad treatment in mice. aad models were administered with single probiotic strain and probiotic mixture for short term and long term to evaluate the changes of the composition and diversity of intestinal microbiota, histopathology of the colon, and the systemic inflammation. our da ...201525802855
trek1 contributes to maintaining nasal epithelial barrier integrity.epithelial barrier integrity is critical to maintain the homeostasis in the body. the regulatory mechanism of the epithelial barrier function has not been fully understood. this study aims to elucidate the role of the twik-related potassium channel-1 (trek1) in the regulation of the epithelial barrier function of the nasal mucosa. in this study, the levels of trek1 were assessed by real time rt-pcr and western blotting. the epithelial barrier function of the rat nasal epithelia was evaluated by ...201525778785
effects of clostridium butyricum on growth performance, antioxidation, and immune function of investigate the effects of clostridium butyricum on growth performance, antioxidation, and immune function of broilers, 320 one-day-old arbor acres commercial male chicks were assigned to one of 5 treatments with 8 replicates in a completely randomized design for 42 d. the 5 treatments were basal diet (control), basal diet supplemented with 2.5×10(8) cfu c. butyricum/kg (cb1), basal diet supplemented with 5×10(8) cfu c. butyricum/kg (cb2), basal diet supplemented with 1×10(9) cfu c. butyricum ...201525717087
regulation of twik-related potassium channel-1 (trek1) restitutes intestinal epithelial barrier function.the disruption of epithelial barrier integrity is an important factor in the pathogenesis of various immune disorders. however, the restitution of the compromised barrier functions is difficult. this study investigates the regulation of twik-related potassium channel-1 (trek1) in the restitution of intestinal epithelial barrier functions. the human colon epithelial cell line t84 was cultured in monolayers and used to observe epithelial barrier functions in vitro. an intestinal allergy mouse mode ...201625683610
induction of peroxisomes by butyrate-producing probiotics.we previously found that peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11a (pex11a) deficiency is associated with a reduction in peroxisome abundance and impaired fatty acid metabolism in hepatocytes, and results in steatosis. in the present study, we investigated whether butyrate induces pex11a expression and peroxisome proliferation, and studied its effect on lipid metabolism. c57bl/6 mice fed standard chow or a high-fat diet (hfd) were treated with tributyrin, 4-phelybutyrate acid (4-pba), or the butyrate-pr ...201525659146
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