distribution of the rubredoxin gene among the clostridium butyricum species.with pcr methods, the rubredoxin gene was systematically identified among 11 strains of clostridium butyricum; this ubiquity means major functions in the metabolism of the clostridia. the 11 pcr products allowed deduction of a sequence of 26 amino acids corresponding to positions 11-36 of the rubredoxin. they all contained the tyrosines at positions 11 and 13 and the phenylalanine at position 30 characteristic of the rubredoxin, but differed at positions 14-17, 20, 25, 29, and 31, allowing deter ...199910355113
effects of intestinal bacteria on the development of colonic neoplasm: an experimental study.effects of intestinal microflora on the development of colonic neoplasm induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (dmh) were observed using conventionalized and gnotobiotic mouse models. the incidence of colonic adenoma in germ-free mice (iqi/jic) (gf), mice conventionalized after dmh injection (cvz-post-dmh) and conventionalized mice (cvz, conventionalized before dmh injection) was 74%, 69% and 58%, respectively. the mean number of adenomas per mouse in the three groups was 2.6, 2.0 and 1.4, respectivel ...199910443953
in vitro utilization of amylopectin and high-amylose maize (amylomaize) starch granules by human colonic has been well established that a certain amount of ingested starch can escape digestion in the human small intestine and consequently enters the large intestine, where it may serve as a carbon source for bacterial fermentation. thirty-eight types of human colonic bacteria were screened for their capacity to utilize soluble starch, gelatinized amylopectin maize starch, and high-amylose maize starch granules by measuring the clear zones on starch agar plates. the six cultures which produced cle ...199910543795
probiotic bacteria stimulate gut epithelial cell proliferation in rat.probiotics are used for various intestinal diseases. however, their effects on gut epithelial cell proliferation have not been investigated. we administered 10(7) colony-forming units of lactobacillus casei or clostridium butyricum, or no probiotics (control) by gastric intubation once a day for seven days to rats fed an elemental diet. we estimated the crypt cell production rate of the jejunum, ileum, cecum, and distal colon. we also quantified cecal bacteria. both probiotics increased the cryp ...199910548366
intestinal toxemia botulism in two young people, caused by clostridium butyricum type e.two unconnected cases of type e botulism involving a 19-year-old woman and a 9-year-old child are described. the hospital courses of their illness were similar and included initial acute abdominal pain accompanied by progressive neurological impairment. both patients were suspected of having appendicitis and underwent laparotomy, during which voluminous meckel's diverticula were resected. unusual neurotoxigenic clostridium butyricum strains that produced botulinum-like toxin type e were isolated ...199910585782
commentary: where marco polo meets meckel: type e botulism from clostridium butyricum. 199910585783
occurrence of nisin z production in lactococcus lactis bfe 1500 isolated from wara, a traditional nigerian cheese product.screening for bacteriocin production of 500 strains of lactic acid bacteria (lab) from various african fermented foods resulted in the detection of a bacteriocin producing lactococcus lactis (bfe 1500) isolated from a dairy product called wara. the bacteriocin inhibited not only the closely related lab, but also strains of listeria monocytogenes, listeria innocua, clostridium butyricum, clostridium perfringens, bacillis cereus and staphylococcus aureus. it was heat stable even at autoclaving tem ...199910634705
high production of 1,3-propanediol from industrial glycerol by a newly isolated clostridium butyricum strain.batch and continuous cultures of a newly isolated clostridium butyricum strain were carried out on industrial glycerol, the major by-product of the bio-diesel production process. for both types of cultures, the conversion yield obtained was around 0.55 g of 1,3-propanediol formed per 1 g of glycerol consumed whereas the highest 1,3-propanediol concentration, achieved during the single-stage continuous cultures was 35-48 g l-1. moreover, the strain presented a strong tolerance at the inhibitory e ...200010682279
detection, cloning, and sequence analysis of an indigenous plasmid from cellulolytic clostridial strain mcf1.nucleotide sequence analysis of a 2451-bp plasmid (pmcf1) from a cellulolytic clostridium revealed that the protein specified by the largest open reading frame (orf1) was homologous to repb of clostridium butyricum plasmid pcb101. the data suggest that pmcf1 belongs to the pc194 family of rolling-circle replicating plasmids and the orf1 protein functions as its replication protein.200010686135
preventive efficacy of butyrate enemas and oral administration of clostridium butyricum m588 in dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in rats.butyrate enemas have been reported to be effective in ulcerative colitis. however, long-term use is difficult because of the troublesome procedure and the unpleasant smell. we therefore investigated the effects of the oral administration of clostridium butyricum m588 (cbm588), an enterobacterium producing butyrate, in dextran sodium sulfate (dss)-induced colitis in rats. first, we confirmed the effects of pre-treatment with a butyrate enema on dss colitis. we then studied the efficacy of oral ad ...200010832668
development of a modified three-stage methane production process using food wastes.a modified three-stage system was developed for the rapid production of methane from food wastes. the primary stage was a semianaerobic hydrolysis/acidogenic system, in which approx 4100 mg/l of volatile fatty acids (vfas) was produced at a hydraulic retention time (hrt) of 2 d. the operation temperature and ph were 30 degrees c and 5.0-5.5, respectively. the non-degraded materials were removed through a hole at the bottom of the reactor. the secondary stage was an anaerobic acidogenic system eq ...200010849831
studies of the effect of clostridium butyricum on helicobacter pylori in several test models including gnotobiotic mice.the interaction between clostridium butyricum and helicobacter pylori was examined in vitro and in vivo. the culture supernate of c. butyricum miyairi 588 inhibited the growth of h. pylori even when its ph was adjusted to 7.4. the bactericidal effect of butyric acid on h. pylori was stronger than that of lactic, acetic or hydrochloric acids. flow cytometric analysis showed that pre-incubation of gastric epithelial (mkn45) cells with h. pylori and c. butyricum inhibited the adhesion of h. pylori ...200010882089
purification and characterization of the 1-3-propanediol dehydrogenase of clostridium butyricum e5.1-3 ppd dehydrogenase (ec was purified to homogeneity from clostridium butyricum e5 grown anaerobically on glycerol in continuous culture. the native enzyme was estimated by gel filtration to have a molecular weight of 384 200 +/- 31 100 da; it is predicted to exist as an octamer or a decamer of identical molecular weight subunits. when tested as a dehydrogenase, the enzyme was most active with 1-3 propane diol. in the physiological direction, 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde was the preferre ...200010938419
inhibition of clostridium butyricum by 1,3-propanediol and diols during glycerol fermentation.1,3-propanediol inhibition during glycerol fermentation to 1,3-propanediol by clostridium butyricum cncm 1211 has been studied. the initial concentration of the 1,3-propanediol affected the growth of the bacterium more than the glycerol fermentation. mu(max) was inversely proportional to the initial concentration of 1,3-propanediol (0-65 g l(-1)). for glycerol at 20 g l(-1), the growth and fermentation were completely stopped at an initial 1,3-propanediol concentration of 65 g l(-1). however, fo ...200010968633
genetic analysis of type e botulinum toxin-producing clostridium butyricum strains.type e botulinum toxin (bont/e)-producing clostridium butyricum strains isolated from botulism cases or soil specimens in italy and china were analyzed by using nucleotide sequencing of the bont/e gene, random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) assay, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge), and southern blot hybridization for the bont/e gene. nucleotide sequences of the bont/e genes of 11 chinese isolates and of the italian strain bl 6340 were determined. the nucleotide sequences of the bont/e ge ...200011055954
the dietary combination of germinated barley foodstuff plus clostridium butyricum suppresses the dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in rats.recent studies have suggested that dietary fiber exerts a therapeutic effect on ibd patients. the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a dietary combination of germinated barley foodstuff (gbf), derived from the aleurone and scutellum fraction of germinated barley, plus clostridium butyricum against dextran sulfate sodium (dss)-induced experimental colitis in rats.200011099059
gene transfer to clostridium cellulolyticum atcc 35319.although much is known about the bacterial cellulosome and its various protein components, their contributions to bacterial growth on cellulose and the process of cellulolysis in vivo cannot currently be assessed. to remedy this, the authors have developed gene transfer techniques for clostridium cellulolyticum atcc 35319. firstly, transfer of tn1545 has been obtained using an enterococcus faecalis donor. secondly, incp-mediated conjugative mobilization of plasmids from escherichia coli donors h ...200011101665
regulation of carbon and electron flow in clostridium butyricum vpi 3266 grown on glucose-glycerol mixtures.the metabolism of clostridium butyricum was manipulated at ph 6.5 and in phosphate-limited chemostat culture by changing the overall degree of reduction of the substrate using mixtures of glucose and glycerol. cultures grown on glucose alone produced only acids (acetate, butyrate, and lactate) and a high level of hydrogen. in contrast, when glycerol was metabolized, 1,3-propanediol became the major product, the specific rate of acid formation decreased, and a low level of hydrogen was observed. ...200111160107
a novel mechanism controls anaerobic and catabolite regulation of the escherichia coli tdc operon.the tdc operon is subject to crp-controlled catabolite repression. expression of the operon is also induced anaerobically, although this regulation does not rely on direct control by either fnr or arca. recently, the anaerobic expression of the tdc operon was found to be fortuitously induced in the presence of glucose by a heterologous gene isolated from the gram-positive anaerobe clostridium butyricum. the gene, termed tcbc, encoded a histone-like protein of 14.5 kda. using tdc-lacz fusions, it ...200111251844
influence of glucose on glycerol metabolism by wild-type and mutant strains of clostridium butyricum e5 grown in chemostat order to improve the yield of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-ppd) in clostridium butyricum e5, we carried out cofermentation experiments on glucose/glycerol mixtures in chemostat culture. the results showed the influence of the ratio of the two carbon substrates on the production of the required diol. the progressive increase of glucose in culture medium containing a given concentration of glycerol made it possible to highlight the deviation of carbon flow from the oxidative towards the reducing pathwa ...200111330719
separation and characterization of the 1,3-propanediol and glycerol dehydrogenase activities from clostridium butyricum e5 wild-type and mutant d.clostridium butyricum e5 wild-type and mutant e5-md were cultivated in chemostat culture on glycerol in order to compare the properties of two key enzymes of glycerol catabolism, i.e. propanediol and glycerol dehydrogenase.200111412332
[evaluation of the bacterial flora in natural corn silage].silage is the best method for forage conservation, keeping it in a fresh condition and with high nutrient content. in order to study the natural evolution of maize silage without additives during 50 days after sealed, ph, temperature changes, number and type of the indigenous bacteria were studied every 5 days. the initial ph decreased from 6.40 to 4.10 and temperature stabilized at 26 degrees c. the mesophilic aerobic bacteria were quickly reduced across time. enterococci were descended gradual ...200111494759
implantation of bacteria from human pulpal necrosis and translocation from root canals in gnotobiotic mice.the aim of this study was to determine whether microorganisms recovered from infected human root canals were able to survive and translocate to a local lymph node when experimentally inoculated into the root canal system of germ-free mice. the microorganisms isolated from two patients with pulpal necrosis were inoculated in two groups of experimental animals; group i (gemella morbillorum) and group ii (bifidobacterium adolescentis, fusobacterium nucleatum, and clostridium butyricum). g. morbillo ...200111592487
effects of acetate and butyrate during glycerol fermentation by clostridium butyricum.the effects of acetate and butyrate during glycerol fermentation to 1,3-propanediol at ph 7.0 by clostridium butyricum cncm 1211 were studied. at ph 7.0, the calculated quantities of undissociated acetic and butyric acids were insufficient to inhibit bacterial growth. the initial addition of acetate or butyrate at concentrations of 2.5 to 15 gl(-1) had distinct effects on the metabolism and growth of clostridium butyricum. acetate increased the biomass and butyrate production, reducing the lag t ...200111683356
both ph and carbon flux influence the level of rubredoxin in clostridium butyricum.the rubredoxin expression level in clostridium butyricum dsm 5431 grown in continuous culture was monitored using primer extension analyses of the rub gene and a specific enzymatic assay of the iron-sulfur protein. in this way, we showed that variations in rubredoxin content and in rub mrna level were influenced by the ph of the culture and were directly dependent on the carbon flux. the maximum rubredoxin level reached 1227.3 pmol (mg of proteins)(-1) (i.e. 0.7% of the total protein content) un ...200111685512
oral administration of a product derived from clostridium butyricum in rats.recent studies have suggested that short chain fatty acids (scfas) exert a therapeutic effect on some human and experimental animal diseases. clostridium butyricum produces high levels of scfas in the gut lumen. the aim of the present study was to analyze the product derived from clostridium butyricum in a culture system, and to develop methods to eliminate the odor derived from scfas in the product. clostridium butyricum was incubated in cs medium for 24 h and subsequently in cs broth for 24 h. ...200211744996
prebiotic treatment of experimental colitis with germinated barley foodstuff: a comparison with probiotic or antibiotic treatment.there is increasing evidence that intestinal microflora play an important role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. therefore, modification of the microflora by prebiotics, probiotics, and antibiotics may be a rational approach for controlling intestinal inflammation. germinated barley food-stuff (gbf) is an insoluble mixture of glutamine-rich protein and hemicellulose-rich dietary fiber. gbf is utilized efficiently by bifidobacterium, lactobacillus, and eubacterium and converted by them i ...200211744999
new solvent-producing clostridium sp. strains, hydrolyzing a wide range of polysaccharides, are closely related to clostridium butyricum.thirteen new clostridium strains, previously isolated from soil and found to produce high amounts of solvents from glucose, hydrolyzed a great variety of alpha- and beta-glycans, including raw starch, xylan, pectin, inulin and cellulose. the sequences of the pcr-amplified dna fragments containing the variable 3' part of one of the 16s rrna genes were 99.5% identical. the macrorestriction pattern of two endonucleolytic digests of chromosomal dna in the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) conf ...200111781809
short-term oral administration of a product derived from a probiotic, clostridium butyricum induced no pathological effects in rats.recent studies have suggested that short chain fatty acids (scfas) exert a therapeutic effect on some human and experimental animal diseases. in a previous study, we showed that clostridium butyricum produces high levels of scfas in the culture system used. in addition, an additive based on yogurt was effective in eliminating and masking the odor derived from scfas in the product. the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects for oral administration of the product, which was derive ...200211786929
comparative aspects of fatty acid activation in escherichia coli and clostridium butyricum. 196911946314
inactivation of the pyruvate formate lyase of clostridium butyricum. 197211946805
dietary-fiber-degrading enzymes from a human intestinal clostridium and their application to oligosaccharide production from nonstarchy polysaccharides using immobilized cells.the secretion of nonstarchy polysaccharide-degrading enzymes from an anaerobic human intestinal bacterium, clostridium butyricum- beijerinckii (isolated from human feces), was investigated. growth of the bacterium was found when laminarin, konjac glucomannan, and pectic acid were added separately to the culture media as sole carbon source. the corresponding degrading enzymes for these dietary fibers, laminarinase (endo-1,3- beta-glucanase), endo-1,4-beta-mannanase, endo- and exo-pectate lyases, ...200212111144
influence of ph and temperature on the growth of and toxin production by neurotoxigenic strains of clostridium butyricum type e.strains of clostridium butyricum that produce botulinal toxin type e have been implicated in outbreaks of foodborne botulism in china, india, and italy, yet the conditions that are favorable for the growth and toxinogenesis of these strains remain to be established. we attempted to determine the temperatures and ph levels that are most conducive to the growth of and toxin production by the six strains of neurotoxigenic c. butyricum that have been implicated in outbreaks of infective and foodborn ...200212182478
taxonomic identity of type e botulinum toxin-producing clostridium butyricum strains by sequencing of a short 16s rdna region.several micro-organisms capable of producing botulinum neurotoxin type e, though phenotypically similar to clostridium butyricum (a normally non-neurotoxigenic organism), have recently been isolated in italy and china. some of these micro-organisms had been implicated in food-borne botulism, a serious neuroparalytic disease. the taxonomic identity of the type e botulinum toxin-producing strains is confirmed here, through sequencing of a genus- and species-specific segment of the 16s rrna gene. c ...200212204382
[combination use of kampo-medicines and drugs affecting intestinal bacterial flora].the intestinal bacteria, eubacterium sp. and bifidobacterium sp., participate in the metabolism of active kampo-ingredients, glycyrrhizin (gl), sennoside (sen) and baicalin (bl). since antibiotics and bacterial preparations, bifidobacterium longum (lac-b), clostridium butyricum (miya-bm), and streptococcus faecalis (biofermin), affect the bacterial population in intestinal bacterial flora, metabolism of the active kampo-ingredients in the bacterial flora may be altered by their combined administ ...200212235860
characterization of clostridium butyricum neurotoxin associated with food-borne botulism.the neurotoxin of clostridium butyricum strain lcl155 (bunt/lcl155) associated with type e food-borne botulism showed antigenic and biological properties different from those of c. botulinum type e (bont/e) andc. butyricum strain bl5262 (bunt/bl5262). the specific toxicity of bunt/lcl155 was found to be about 10% those of bont/e and bunt/bl5262. immunological analysis with monoclonal antibodies against bont/e showed that the heavy chain of bunt/lcl155 differs partially from those of bont/e and b ...200212385745
botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins: structure, function and therapeutic utility.the toxic products of the anaerobic bacteria clostridium botulinum, clostridium butyricum, clostridium barati and clostridium tetani are the causative agents of botulism and tetanus. the ability of botulinum neurotoxins to disrupt neurotransmission, often for prolonged periods, has been exploited for use in several medical applications and the toxins, as licensed pharmaceutical products, now represent the therapeutics of choice for the treatment for several neuromuscular conditions. research int ...200212417130
a case if infant botulism due to neurotoxigenic clostridium butyricum type e associated with clostridium difficile colitis.reported here is the sixth case of intestinal toxemia botulism caused by clostridium butyricum type e in italy since 1984. in this case, the patient was concomitantly affected with colitis due to clostridium difficile toxin. a review of previously reported cases revealed that some of these patients may also have had intestinal toxemia botulism associated with clostridium difficile colitis, based on the reported symptoms. given that this association has been shown to exist not only in italy but a ...200212479171
cytokine production in response to endodontic infection in germ-free mice.this study evaluated the cytokine profiles (type 1 or type 2) that are triggered by and modulate endodontic periapical infections in the root canal system of germ-free mice. microorganisms isolated from two patients with pulpal necrosis were inoculated into two groups of experimental animals: group i (gemella morbillorum) and group ii (bifidobacterium adolescentis, fusobacterium nucleatum and clostridium butyricum). in vitro, g. morbillorum induced type 1 cytokine synthesis, while the modulation ...200212485325
modification of intestinal flora in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.because the intestinal microflora play an important role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (ibd), there is currently some interest in the manipulation of the composition of the microflora towards a potentially more remedial community. this review summarizes the clinical and experimental efficacy of the manipulation of microflora by the use of prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, and antibiotics in ibd. prebiotics, defined as nondigestible food ingredients that beneficially affect t ...200312570821
glucose but not polypeptone reduces the effect of probiotic preparations to stimulate carbohydrate breakdown and reduce net ammonia production by pig cecal bacteria in vitro.probiotic preparations are used to prevent or treat diarrhea. probiotic preparations increase the in vitro breakdown of carbohydrates and decrease that of protein by mixed cecal bacteria in the absence of readily fermentable materials. diarrhea can increase the influx of readily digestible materials into the large intestine. therefore, we compared production of organic acids and ammonia in batch cultures using pig cecal contents with or without probiotic preparations (clostridium butyricum, lact ...200112639405
prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children by clostridium butyricum miyairi.clostridium butyricum miyairi (cbm) is a probiotic bacteria used for anti-diarrheal medicine in japan. the preventive effect of cbm was investigated for antibiotic-associated diarrhea (aad) in children.200312654076
clostridium colicanis sp. nov., from canine faeces.morphological, biochemical and molecular genetic studies were performed on an unknown, anaerobic, rod-shaped organism isolated from faeces of a canine. the organism was tentatively identified as a member of the genus clostridium based on its cellular morphology and ability to form endospores but, biochemically, it did not appear to correspond to any recognized species of this genus. comparative 16s rrna gene sequence analysis showed that the bacterium represents a previously unrecognized subline ...200312656182
probiotic mixture decreases dna adduct formation in colonic epithelium induced by the food mutagen 2-amino-9h-pyrido[2,3-b]indole in a human-flora associated mouse model.consumption of probiotic bacteria such as bifidobacteria has been shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer in animal models. however, the composition and metabolic activities of the intestinal flora of experimental animals are significantly different from those of humans. the aim of the study was to examine whether the probiotic mixture, which consisted of streptococcus faecalis, clostridium butyricum and bacillus mesentericus, could decrease dna adduct formation induced by 2-amino-9h-pyrido[2,3 ...200312671533
comparative genomic analysis of dha regulon and related genes for anaerobic glycerol metabolism in bacteria.the dihydroxyacetone (dha) regulon of bacteria encodes genes for the anaerobic metabolism of glycerol. in this work, genomic data are used to analyze and compare the dha regulon and related genes in different organisms in silico with respect to gene organization, sequence similarity, and possible functions. database searches showed that among the organisms, the genomes of which have been sequenced so far, only two, i.e., klebsiella pneumoniae mgh 78578 and clostridium perfringens contain a compl ...200312675558
molecular characterization of the 1,3-propanediol (1,3-pd) operon of clostridium butyricum.the genes encoding the 1,3-propanediol (1,3-pd) operon of clostridium butyricum vpi1718 were characterized from a molecular and a biochemical point of view. this operon is composed of three genes, dhab1, dhab2, and dhat. when grown in a vitamin b12-free mineral medium with glycerol as carbon source, escherichia coli expressing dhab1, dhab2, and dhat produces 1,3-pd and high glycerol dehydratase and 1,3-pd dehydrogenase activities. dhab1 and dhab2 encode, respectively, a new type of glycerol dehy ...200312704244
the long-term oral administration of a product derived from a probiotic, clostridium butyricum induced no pathological effects in rats.recent studies have suggested that short chain fatty acids (scfas) exert a therapeutic effect on some human and experimental animal diseases. in our previous study, we showed that clostridium butyricum produces high levels of scfas in the culture system used. in addition, an additive based on yogurt was effective in eliminating and masking the odor derived from these scfas in the product. recently, we reported that the oral administration of a high concentration (50% w/w) of this product derived ...200312964036
[a polysaccharide isolated from clostridium butyricum]. 195212976749
[phosphorylation of glucose by an enzyme extract of clostridium butyricum]. 195212979303
amylases of clostridium butyricum and a streptococcus isolated from the rumen of the sheep. 195213018299
cofactors of the phosphoroclastic reaction of clostridium butyricum. 195313129255
[not available]. 195413161237
[phosphorylating action of glucose by enzymatic extract of clostridium butyricum. iii. coupled reaction between triosephosphate dehydrogenase and certain enzymes of lynen's fatty acid cycle]. 195413199951
[phosphorylating action of glucose by enzymatic extract of clostridium butyricum. iv. coupled reactions between triosephosphate dehydrogenase and certain enzymes of lynen's fatty acid cycle]. 195413199988
cofactors of the carbon dioxide exchange reaction of clostridium butyricum. 195513242561
[research on the effect of ascorbic acid, metabolic poisons and other factors on metabolism of clostridium butyricum prazm]. 195613340833
influence of media on the counts of clostridium butyricum in soils. 195813541402
carbon dioxide activation in the pyruvate clastic system of clostridium butyricum. 195913672938
reversal of pyruvate oxidation in clostridium butyricum. 195913672939
[on spore formation by clostridium butyricum prazm]. 196013739415
[the effect of nisin on clostridium butyricum prazm]. 196013739416
the characterization and biosynthesis of an n-methylethanolamine phospholipid from clostridium butyricum. 196213899760
[on the measurement of oxygen pressure in the spores of germinating clostridium butyricum]. 196214042127
spheroidal and polyhedral forms of clostridium butyricum induced by penicillin. 196314051814
[on the mechanism of killing ascites cancer cells by clostridium butyricum]. 196314085705
n-methyl groups in bacterial lipids.goldfine, howard (harvard medical school, boston, mass.), and martha e. ellis. n-methyl groups in bacterial lipids. j. bacteriol. 87:8-15. 1964.-the ability of bacteria to synthesize lecithin was examined by measuring the incorporation of the methyl group of methionine into the water-soluble moieties obtained on acid hydrolysis of bacterial lipids. of 21 species examined, mostly of the order eubacteriales, only 2, agrobacterium radiobacter and a. rhizogenes, incorporated the methyl group of meth ...196414102879
oncolysis by clostridia. i. activity of clostridium butyricum (m-55) and other nonpathogenic clostridia against the ehrlich carcinoma. 196414115686
[a possibility of cultivation of clostridium butyricum on synthetic media]. 196414195418
composition of the aldehydes of clostridium butyricum plasmalogens. cyclopropane aldehydes. 196414209938
phospholipids of clostridium butyricum. studies on plasmalogen composition and biosynthesis. 196514285491
[nitrogen metabolism in a new species of clostridium butyricum prazhmowsky producing butyl alcohol]. 195914417427
effects of high amylose maize starch and clostridium butyricum on metabolism in colonic microbiota and formation of azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci in the rat colon.high amylose maize starch (has) is not digested in the small intestine and most of it reaches the large intestine. in the large intestine, has is fermented by intestinal bacteria, resulting in production of short-chain fatty acids (scfa), particularly butyrate. clostridium butyricum can utilize has and produce butyrate and acetate. it has been proposed that butyrate inhibits carcinogenesis in the colon. in this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of has and c. butyricum strain miyairi588 ( ...200314695445
identification of the major steps in botulinum toxin action.botulinum toxin is a uniquely potent substance synthesized by the organisms clostridium botulinum, clostridium baratii, and clostridium butyricum. this toxin, which acts preferentially on peripheral cholinergic nerve endings to block acetylcholine release, is both an agent that causes disease (i.e., botulism) as well as an agent that can be used to treat disease (e.g., dystonia). the ability of botulinum toxin to produce its effects is largely dependent on its ability to penetrate cellular and i ...200414744243
considering the antimicrobial sensitivity of the intestinal botulism agent clostridium butyricum when treating concomitant italy, neurotoxigenic clostridium butyricum has been reported as a new agent of intestinal toxemia botulism, and most of the cases have been associated with enterocolitis. although infections concomitant with botulism must be treated with antibiotics, this can increase the severity of botulism. we discuss the sensitivity of this agent to certain antibiotics, compared to findings on the sensitivity of c. botulinum.200314758873
[physiological research on endosporus azotophagus (tchan and pochon 1950) nitrogen fixator]. 195014799967
the utilization of nitrogen in various compounds by clostridium pasteurianum. 195114832186
the amylase of clostridium butyricum. 195114838859
[effect of oxidation-reduction of the culture medium on fixation of mellucular nitrogen in clostridium pasteurianum]. 195114860042
clostridium butyricum, a probiotic derivative, suppresses dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in rats.recent studies have suggested that probiotics or short chain fatty acids (scfas) exert a therapeutic effect on inflammatory bowel disease (ibd) patients. in a previous study, we demonstrated that clostridium butyricum produces high levels of scfas in culture. in addition, a yogurt-based additive effectively masked, completely eliminating the unpleasant odor derived from the scfas. we recently reported that the oral administration of both high and low dose diets (50% w/w for 17 days and 5% w/w fo ...200415010859
insight into the mechanism of the b12-independent glycerol dehydratase from clostridium butyricum: preliminary biochemical and structural characterization.the molecular characterization of a b12-independent glycerol dehydratase from clostridium butyricum has recently been reported [raynaud, c., et al. (2003) proc. natl. acad. sci. u.s.a. 100, 5010-5015]. in this work, we have further characterized this system by biochemical and crystallographic methods. both the glycerol dehydratase (gd) and the gd-activating enzyme (gd-ae) could be purified to homogeneity under aerobic conditions. in this form, both the gd and gd-ae were inactive. a reconstitutio ...200415096031
the effect of probiotic treatment with clostridium butyricum on enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7 infection in mice.enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli (ehec) o157:h7 has been considered as an agent responsible for outbreak of hemorrhagic colitis and the hemolytic uremic syndrome. we examined the effect of the probiotic agent clostridium butyricum miyairi strain 588 on ehec o157:h7 infections in vitro and in vivo using gnotobiotic mice. the growth of ehec o157:h7 and the production of shiga-like toxins in broth cultures were inhibited by co-incubation with c. butyricum. the antibacterial effects of butyric and ...200415196571
response surface methodology for optimizing the fermentation medium of clostridium butyricum.strains of clostridium butyricum have been increasingly used as probiotics for both animals and humans. the aim of this study was to develop a growth medium for cultivating c. butyricum zjucb using a statistical methodology.200415355540
production of 1,3-propanediol by clostridium butyricum vpi 3266 using a synthetic medium and raw glycerol.growth inhibition of clostridium butyricum vpi 3266 by raw glycerol, obtained from the biodiesel production process, was evaluated. c. butyricum presents the same tolerance to raw and to commercial glycerol, when both are of similar grade, i.e. above 87% (w/v). a 39% increase of growth inhibition was observed in the presence of 100 g l(-1) of a lower grade raw glycerol (65% w/v). furthermore, 1,3-propanediol production from two raw glycerol types (65% w/v and 92% w/v), without any prior purifica ...200415378388
[observation on intestinal flora in patients of irritable bowel syndrome after treatment of chinese integrative medicine].to observe the clinical efficacy of the combination of traditional chinese medicine and western medicine in treating irritable bowel syndrome (ibs) and the result of intestinal flora regulation. methods: sixty ibs patients, 36 males and 24 females, were divided into two groups, with 30 patients in each group. herbal formula of tongxieyaofang and clostridium butyricum (cb) were used in the first group for four weeks, while only cb was used for four weeks in the second group. we observed the chang ...200415383254
target selection in designing pasteurization processes for shelf-stable high-acid fruit products.this study is focused on the search for targets and criteria for the design of pasteurization processes for high-acid shelf-stable fruit products, such as juices, nectars, pastes, purees, concentrates, jams, jellies, etc. first, an overview of pasteurization is presented and then, frequently used targets for pasteurization processes are reviewed enzymes naturally present in fruits, in decreasing order of heat resistance, were pectinesterase, peroxidase, and polyphenoloxidase, and they may be use ...200415540648
recent advances in infant botulism.since infant botulism was first identified three decades ago, our understanding of botulinum toxins and the organisms that produce them has grown. a newer classification system now recognizes clostridium baratii and clostridium butyricum along with clostridium botulinum as causative agents. recently, increasing therapeutic use of botulinum toxins has sparked substantial new research into their mechanisms of action. this research, and some case reports from infants sickened by unusual botulinum t ...200515730893
bacteria recovered from dental pulp induce apoptosis of lymph node cells.apoptosis is critical in the pathogenesis of several infectious diseases. the induction of apoptosis was assessed in mouse lymph node cells by four bacteria recovered from infected human dental pulp: gemella morbillorum, clostridium butyricum, fusobacterium nucleatum and bifidobacterium adolescentis. smaller lymph nodes and smaller numbers of cells were observed after experimental dental pulp infection with c. butyricum, suggesting that this bacterium induces cell death. apoptosis was evaluated ...200515770029
the beneficial effects of microflora, especially obligate anaerobes, and their products on the colonic environment in inflammatory bowel disease.because intestinal microflora play a pivotal role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (ibd), there is currently some interest in alternating the composition of the microflora toward a potentially more remedial community. this paper summarizes the clinical and experimental efficacy of the manipulation of microflora by the use of antibiotics, probiotics, and prebiotics in ibd. germinated barley foodstuff (gbf) is a prebiotic whose unique characteristics make it highly suitable for app ...200515777254
[butyric acid bacteria of the genus clostridium in the bottom sediments of inland basins of different types].the cell numbers and ecological characteristics of the distribution of certain species of butyric acid bacteria (bab) of the genus clostridium in the bottom sediments of inland basins of different types were studied using the optimal nutrient media. the seasonal dynamics of clostridial vegetative cells and spores in sediments with different ecological conditions were revealed. the cell numbers of the dominant bab species were shown to depend on the redox potential of the sediments, the amount an ...200515835788
rapid species identification and partial strain differentiation of clostridium butyricum by pcr using 16s-23s rdna intergenic spacer regions.some clostridium butyricum strains have been used as probiotics for both humans and animals. strain-specific identification is necessary for the manufacturing process of probiotics. the aim of this study was to determine whether there are sufficient genetic variations in 16s-23s intergenic spacer regions (isrs) to discriminate c. butyricum at the biovar level. we amplified isrs from five reference strains, a probiotic strain (miyairi 588) and 22 isolates, and we classified them into four groups ...200516034204
production of 1,3-propanediol by clostridium butyricum vpi 3266 in continuous cultures with high yield and productivity.the effects of dilution rate and substrate feed concentration on continuous glycerol fermentation by clostridium butyricum vpi 3266, a natural 1,3-propanediol producer, were evaluated in this work. a high and constant 1,3-propanediol yield (around 0.65 mol/mol), close to the theoretical value, was obtained irrespective of substrate feed concentration or dilution rate. improvement of 1,3-propanediol volumetric productivity was achieved by increasing the dilution rate, at a fixed feed substrate co ...200516044292
metabolic engineering of clostridium acetobutylicum for the industrial production of 1,3-propanediol from glycerol.clostridium butyricum is to our knowledge the best natural 1,3-propanediol producer from glycerol and the only microorganism identified so far to use a coenzyme b12-independent glycerol dehydratase. however, to develop an economical process of 1,3-propanediol production, it would be necessary to improve the strain by a metabolic engineering approach. unfortunately, no genetic tools are currently available for c. butyricum and all our efforts to develop them have been so far unsuccessful. to obta ...200516095939
characterization of culturable anaerobic bacteria from the forestomach of an eastern grey kangaroo, macropus determine the culturable biodiversity of anaerobic bacteria isolated from the forestomach contents of an eastern grey kangaroo, macropus giganteus, using phenotypic characterization and 16s rdna sequence analysis.200516162139
evidence for clostridial implication in necrotizing enterocolitis through bacterial fermentation in a gnotobiotic quail model.despite extensive research, the pathogenesis of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (nec) remains elusive. the aim of our work was to investigate the role of bacterial strains involved in nec in gnotobiotic quails as experimental model. six groups of germ-free quails that were fed a lactose diet were associated with klebsiella pneumoniae, clostridium perfringens, c. difficile, c. paraputrificum, or c. butyricum (two strains). implantation level, incidence of cecal lesions, production of short-cha ...200516189185
degradation of pectic substances by two pectate lyases from a human intestinal bacterium, clostridium butyricum-beijerinckii group.clostridium butyricum-beijerinckii group, an anaerobic human intestinal bacterium, produced exo-pectate lyase, endo-pectate lyase, and pectin methylesterase, but not polygalacturonase. the production of the two pectate lyases was strongly influenced by the composition of the carbon sources added to the medium. the enzymes secreted by the bacterium into the human large intestine cooperatively digested pectic substances, producing mainly 4,5-unsaturated digalacturonic acid with the participation o ...199916232622
microbial hydrogen production from sweet potato starch residue.clostridium butyricum could produce hydrogen from a sweet potato starch residue upon supplementation of nitrogen sources. a repeated batch culture using a mixed culture of c. butyricum and enterobacter aerogenes produced hydrogen with a yield of 2.4 mol h2/mol glucose under a controlled culture ph of 5.25 in a medium consisting of the sweet potato starch residue and 0.1% polypepton without addition of any reducing agents. rhodobacter sp. m-19 produced hydrogen from the supernatant of the culture ...200116232947
batch and fed-batch production of butyric acid by clostridium butyricum zjucb.the production of butyric acid by clostridium butyricum zjucb at various ph values was investigated. in order to study the effect of ph on cell growth, butyric acid biosynthesis and reducing sugar consumption, different cultivation ph values ranging from 6.0 to 7.5 were evaluated in 5-l bioreactor. in controlled ph batch fermentation, the optimum ph for cell growth and butyric acid production was 6.5 with a cell yield of 3.65 g/l and butyric acid yield of 12.25 g/l. based on these results, this ...200516252341
hydrogen production from glucose by anaerobes.various anaerobes were cultivated in media containing glucose. when 100 ml of thioglycollate medium containing 2.0% (w/v) glucose was used, clostridium butyricum atcc 859, nbrc 3315, and nbrc 13949 evolved 227-243 ml of biogas containing about 180 ml of hydrogen in 1 day. although some strains had some resistance against oxygen, c. butyricum atcc 859 and 860 did not have it. c. butyricum nbrc 3315 and enterobacter aerogenes nbrc 13534 produced hydrogen in the presence of glucose or pyruvic acid, ...200516321068
microbiology of wetwood: importance of pectin degradation and clostridium species in living trees.wetwood samples from standing trees of eastern cottonwood (populus deltoides), black poplar (populus nigra), and american elm (ulmus americana) contained high numbers of aerobic and anaerobic pectin-degrading bacteria (10 to 10 cells per g of wood). high activity of polygalacturonate lyase (</=0.5 u/ml) was also detected in the fetid liquid that spurted from wetwood zones in the lower trunk when the trees were bored. a prevalent pectin-degrading obligately anaerobic bacterium isolated from these ...198116345848
microbial ecophysiology of whey biomethanation: characterization of bacterial trophic populations and prevalent species in continuous culture.the organization and species composition of bacterial trophic groups associated with lactose biomethanation were investigated in a whey-processing chemostat by enumeration, isolation, and general characterization studies. the bacteria were spatially organized as free-living forms and as self-immobilized forms appearing in flocs. three dominant bacterial trophic group populations were present (in most probable number per milliliter) whose species numbers varied with the substrate consumed: hydrol ...198616346970
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