fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein and fatty acyl-coa as acyl donors in the biosynthesis of phosphatidic acid in clostridium butyricum. 19715135502
the enzymes of phospholipid synthesis in clostridium butyricum.we have examined extracts of clostridium butyricum for several enzymes of phospholipid synthesis. membrane particles were shown to catalyze the formation of cdp-diglyceride from [3h]ctp and phosphatidic acid. the reaction was dependent on mg2+ and stimulated by monovalent cations. cdp-diglyceride formed in vitro was found to be a substrate for both phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthetase and phosphatidylserine synthetase. the formation of phosphatidylglycerophosphate from added cdp-diglyceride a ...19806257816
[treatment of malignant tumors using spores of clostridium butyricum m 55. i. basic principles and development of the influencing of malignant tumors by microorganisms]. 19725053752
survey, purification, and properties of sugar phosphate phosphohydrolase among microorganisms.sugar phosphate phosphohydrolase was purified approximately 500- to 600-fold to apparent homogeneity from escherichia coli b, escherichia coli c, escherichia coli var. communior, escherichia acidilactici, enterobacter aerogenes, neisseria meningitidis, and saccharomyces cereviseae. the molecular weights of the enzyme as estimated by gel filtration ranged from 97 x 10(3) to 101 x 10(3). the enzyme was composed of two subunits with the same molecular weight which ranged from 50 x 10(3) to 52 x 10( ...19836322944
cloning and expression of the hydrogenase gene from clostridium butyricum in escherichia coli.hydrogenase gene from clostridium butyricum was cloned in escherichia coli hk16 (hyd-) using pbr322 and psti. the plasmid, pcbh1, containing hydrogenase gene was 7.3 mda and pcbh1 had 5 psti-dna fragments (3.9, 2.6, 0.7, 0.03-0.04, less than 0.02 mda, respectively). the hydrogenase activity of hk16 (pcbh1) was about 3.1-3.5-times as high as those of the present strains, such as c.butyricum and e.coli c600 (hyd+).19836345200
[isolation and purification of proteolytic enzymes produced by clostridium butyricum m55]. 19836374334
regulation of the tryptophan synthetic enzymes in clostridium butyricum.experiments concerned with the regulation of the tryptophan synthetic enzymes in anaerobes were carried out with a strain of clostridium butyricum. enzyme activities for four of the five synthetic reactions were readily detected in wild-type cells grown in minimal medium. the enzymes mediating reactions 3, 4, and 5 were derepressed 4- to 20-fold, and the data suggest that these enzymes are coordinately controlled in this anaerobe. the first enzyme of the pathway, anthranilate synthetase, could b ...19725079066
phosphatidylserine decarboxylase from clostridium butyricum.phosphatidylserine decarboxylase activity has been characterized in membrane preparations from clostridium butyricum atcc 19398. a particulate fraction was shown to catalyze the formation of phosphatidylethanolamine and plasmenylethanolamine when vesicles containing phosphatidylserine and plasmenylserine were used as substrate. no plasmenylethanolamine was formed when phosphatidylserine alone was used as substrate. the activity with phosphatidylserine was activated by divalent cations and was op ...19854020299
[the pyrogenicity of spore suspensions of clostridium butyricum]. 19853991790
isolation of clostridium pseudotetanicum from a patient with gas gangrene.clostridium pseudotetanicum was isolated along with serratia marcescens, proteus mirabilis, and staphylococcus epidermidis from a patient suffering from gas gangrene who had been injured in the right leg by a power cultivator. experimental infection of the hind leg of mice with c. pseudotetanicum and the three kinds of aerobic bacteria did not produce any different macroscopic finding in the infection site, compared with aerobic bacterial injection, except for some enlargement of the involved ti ...19836630439
identification of clostridium butyricum and clostridium beijerinckii by gas-liquid chromatography and sugar fermentation: correlation with dna homologies and electrophoretic patterns.sixty-five strains of clostridia of the butyricum group were studied by dna-dna hybridization, electrophoresis of cell proteins, gas-liquid chromatography, and fermentation of glycerol, inositol and ribose. the dna--dna hybridization results confirmed that strains of this group belong to two main species, clostridium butyricum and c. beijerinckii. five strains did not hybridize with the reference strains of these two species. most of the strains could be identified by quantitative gas-liquid chr ...19836631419
isolation and characterization of a novel four-chain ether lipid from clostridium butyricum: the phosphatidylglycerol acetal of plasmenylethanolamine.we describe the isolation and characterization of a novel four-chain ether phospholipid in clostridium butyricum grown on petroselinic acid in the absence of biotin. the results of quantitative analyses of hydrolytic products, selective hydrolysis by mild acid or phospholipase c, 1h-, 13c-, and 31p-nmr, and fast atom bombardment-mass spectroscopy (fabms) have resulted in the determination of the structure of this lipid as a phosphatidylglycerol acetal of plasmenylethanolamine. smaller amounts of ...19883382687
the glioblastoma multiforme: a lifelong challenge to the neurosurgeon.during a period of 34 years 1316 gliomas of the brain have been treated, among them 508 glioblastomas (= 39%). in addition to the operative removal and postoperative x-ray therapy of glioblastomas various attempts have been undertaken to prevent recurrences: intracerebral application of cobalt60 (6 patients); locally applied antimitotic agents (76 patients); bacterial liquefaction induced by intracarotid administration of clostridium butyricum m 55 spores ("oncolysis", 67 patients); circumscribe ...19863008012
the role of intestinal bacteria in gallstone formation in animal model. a study on biliary lipid composition and bile acid profiles in bile, small intestinal contents and feces of clostridium butyricum miyairi no. 588 monocontaminated mice.contradictory results in the studies on experimental gallstone formation using conventional and germfree mice have been reported. to study the role of bacteria in gallstone formation in the animal model jcl:icr male germfree mice were monocontaminated with clostridium butyricum miyairi no. 588. gallstone formation, biliary lipid composition and bile acid profiles in the bile, small intestinal contents and feces were analyzed after feeding the diet containing cholesterol and cholic acid. the rate ...19826754522
purification and characterization of a new beta-lactamase from clostridium butyricum.a highly penicillin-resistant beta-lactamase-producing strain of clostridium butyricum, strain nbl 3, was isolated. the specific activity of the unpurified beta-lactamase was 0.29 u/mg of protein. the enzyme was purified 1,130-fold by qae zetaprep, sephacryl s-300, and mono q column passages. the purified enzyme was judged homogeneous by sodium dodecyl sulfate gradient gel electrophoresis and fast protein liquid chromatography. the enzyme hydrolyzed phenoxymethylpenicillin, benzylpenicillin, amp ...19892802556
efficiency factors and atp/adp ratios in nitrogen-fixing bacillus polymyxa and bacillus azotofixans.the efficiency factor, the number of moles of atp generated per mole of glucose fermented, was determined in anaerobic, non-carbon-limited n2-fixing cultures of bacillus polymyxa, bacillus macerans, bacillus azotofixans, and clostridium butyricum through identification and quantitation of the fermentation products by 13c nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and measurement of acetate kinase activities. all three bacillus species had acetate kinase activities and produced acetate and ethanol a ...19902318806
the effect of oxidation-reduction potential on spore germination, outgrowth, and vegetative growth of clostridium tetani, clostridium butyricum, and bacillus subtilis.spores of clostridium tetani germinated in liver broth with +580 mv as the starting eh value, and those of clostridium butyricum germinated in liver broth with an initial eh of +400 mv regardless of the presence or absence of a liquid paraffin covering. spores of bacillus subtilis germinated in liver broth with--100 mv as the starting eh value. also, it was found that there are two ranges of starting eh values for germination and vegetative growth of cl. tetani, cl. butyricum, and b. subtilis. i ...19826818433
[studies on human sera for antibodies against clostridium butyricum strain jean h 8].in 235 human sera, antibodies against clostridium butyricum strain jena h8 could be demonstrated in 33 patients (15%); only 189 sera (80%) reacted negatively, and in 5% (13 sera) a questionable reaction was obtained. the results are discussed, pointing out the necessity of preliminary titer determination if the clostridia-tumor phenomenon is to be utilized for early diagnosis of cancer.19751221742
cholesterol-lowering effect of clostridium butyricum in cholesterol-fed rats.we examined the effects of oral administration of clostridium butyricum miyairi on the catabolism and excretion of cholesterol in normal rats by using 14c-labeled cholesterol, and on plasma cholesterol levels in the rats and mice fed a high cholesterol diet. this bacterial treatment (about 10(7) cells/day) accelerated the cleavage of cholesterol side chain in normal rats. plasma cholesterol levels of rats fed the high cholesterol diet with the bacterium (about 10(9) cells/day) were significantly ...19836873503
the liquefaction (oncolysis) of malignant gliomas by a non pathogenic clostridium.vascular glioblastomas become liquefied when contaminated with spores of the non-pathogenic clostridium butyricum m 55. the spores are administered by intracarotid injection. the oncolysis is complete one week after injection. the glioblastoma is converted into a brain abscess which is then operated on appropriately. forty nine patients have been treated in this manner. the rate of recurrence, however, remained uninfluenced.1978696441
neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis associated with penicillin-resistant, toxigenic clostridium butyricum.the cause of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (nec) is unknown. an association between nec and clostridial infection has been reported from several centers, but the organisms have not been extensively characterized. clostridium butyricum was isolated from the peritoneal fluid and cerebrospinal fluid of a neonate with nec. the organism was resistant to the penicillins, but sensitive to vancomycin. toxin production was demonstrated. although the role of clostridial toxins in the pathogenesis of ...19806905971
effects of small amounts of pentadecan-2-one on the growth of clostridium butyricum.primary alcohols occur as trace lipids and are the only long-chain alcohol species present in clostridium butyricum. secondary alcohols do not occur physiologically in this microorganism. exposure of these cells to the methyl ketone, pentadecan-2-one, results in a marked decrease in the primary alcohol content with the secondary alcohol, pentadadecan-2-ol, becoming the major alcohol present. this change in lipid composition is associated with a significant decrease in growth rate that is proport ...1978690515
isolation and identification of anaerobic contaminants from a machine for producing processed cheese.some bacteria of the genus clostridium can contaminate milk. these bacteria can cause "the late gas" or "late blowing" defect in the cheese if this is made with milk containing such contaminants. in this study, six samples from a processed cheese contaminated in a manufacturing machine were analysed. out of 60 strains studied, 30 were classified as clostridium tyrobutyricum, 20 as clostridium butyricum, and 10 as desulfotomaculum ruminis.19826965246
new technologies to combat malignant tumours of the brain.1. the primary problem in an effective treatment of a glioblastoma is the prevention of a recurrence. 2. for that purpose were the following therapeutical procedures undertaken: (a) temporary implantation of radio cobalt in the brain itself (1957): (b) clostridium butyricum m 55 was used to render the centre of the tumour fluid (1967): (c) podophyllin was used to destroy the border of the tumour (1980); (d) the co2 laser beam (1975); (e) the electromagnetic heat induction deep in the brain (1973 ...19826287907
[analysis of the serodiagnostic reactions of the bacterium clostridium butyricum strain cnrz 528 using passive hemagglutination].for serologic tumour diagnostics a specific proof of antibodies against rods of clostridium butyricum cnrz 528 by passive hemagglutination has been described. we were able to prepare an antigen from the cell extract (crude-antigen) of rods without flagella by gel filtration, that after fixation on the surface of human-erythrocytes, stabilized by tannin or glutaraldehyde, agglutinates specifically with rod-antibodies of rabbit-hyperimmunserum. simultaneously however, there was no cross-reactivity ...19826219561
measurement of specific multiplication of an oncolytic and a nononcolytic strain of clostridium butyricum inside the tumour uvt 15264 of the mouse.clostridium butyricum was recultivated from tumour material after treatment of tumour-bearing mice with spores and counted by soft agar colony technique. the oncolytic strain cl. butyricum h8 grows inside the tumour uvt 15264 up to 8 x 10(8)/g during 48 h. in this time part of tumour became lysed. multiplication inside of this tumour by the tumour specific but nononcolytic strain cl. butyricum cnrz 528 could not be detected by application counting technique. combination of spore treatment with a ...19817032143
the gradostat: a bidirectional compound chemostat and its application in microbiological research.a multistage continuous culture system is described in which solutes are transferred between vessels in opposite directions simultaneously. the system, called a gradostat, produces opposing solute gradients and is a good laboratory model of many natural microbial ecosystems in which solute gradients are important. theoretical predictions concerning solute transfer were confirmed under steady-state and non steady-state conditions, using a coloured dye. paracoccus denitrificans grew anaerobically ...19817045277
clostridia isolated from the feces of infants during the first year of life.clostridia isolated from the feces of ten healthy infants during the first year of life were identified. all infants excreted clostridia during the first week of life; the most common species were clostridium butyricum, c. paraputrificum, and c. difficile. in the formula-fed infants colonization occurred consistently throughout the year, whereas in some breast-fed infants it was inhibited until weaning. the species isolated most frequently throughout the year were c. paraputrificum, c. butyricum ...19827062166
synthesis of pyruvate-1-11c as a radiopharmaceutical for tumor imaging.pyruvate-1-11c was prepared enzymatically by the exchange reaction of 11co2 with the carboxyl group of pyruvic acid using pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase from clostridium butyricum. 11c-labeled pyruvate was purified by sublimation in specially made glassware. the radiochemical yield of pure pyruvate-1-11c was 80% 35 min after the end of bombardment. the distribution of 11c in tumor-bearing rabbits after an i.v. injection of pyruvate-1-11c was observed using a gamma camera. in contrast to norm ...19854076234
[treatment experiments with glucose-induced hyperglycaemia plus clostridium-spores on the jensen sarcoma of rats].investigations jensen's sarcoma-bearing wistar rats demonstrate the possibility to increase significantly the oncolytic effect of an apathogenic strain of clostridium butyricum (5 x 10(8) spores of cl. oncolyticum m 55 i.v.) by an artificial short time hyperglycaemia (achieved maximum blood level of glucose 28.87 +/- 8.05 mmol/l). the most impressive effect was observed after a repeated application of this combination at a distance of 7 days. both the hyperglycaemia and the application of spores ...19827138239
[the macrophage adherence inhibition test in wistar rats bearing jensen tumors. ii. macrophage adherence inhibition test after intravenous administration of spores of the cnrz 528 strain of clostridium butyricum and incubation with clostridial antigens].the tumor-specificity of tumor-clostridia-phenomenon in the model of jensen-sarcoma of the white rat was detected with the help of humoral and cell-mediated immune reactions of the host towards intravenous application of 5 x 10(8) spores of clostridia, which do not dissolve the tumor. contrary to weak responses in widal-agglutination the mai showed characteristic values of inhibition of peritoneal-cell-adherence in tumor-bearing animals after incubation with soluble clostridia antigens.19846703861
[biological activity of a polar lipid of clostridium butyricum spores].a fraction of polar lipids was isolated from spores of the anaerobic bacterium clostridium butyricum 35/11 exerting a noticeable radioprotective effect. the main biological activity of spore extracts was associated with this fraction. the fraction of polar lipids inhibited autolysis of the bacterial cell walls. the fraction was found to contain a phenolic glycolipid and a peptide component. the bacteriostatic and radiotherapeutic properties of the fraction are presumed to be due to its membranot ...19863821590
non-toxigenic clostridia in babies.non-toxigenic clostridia, clostridium butyricum but occasionally c. paraputrificum, were isolated from mainly extra-alimentary sites of 28 babies in maternity hospital over a period of 40 weeks. during that time, c. butyricum was isolated from the blood of two babies who died of necrotising enterocolitis and of two babies without referable symptoms. otherwise these organisms appeared to be of no pathogenic significance.19817229104
deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance studies on the plasmalogens and the glycerol acetals of plasmalogens of clostridium butyricum and clostridium beijerinckii.deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance was used to investigate the structure of different lipid fractions isolated from the anaerobic bacteria clostridium butyricum and clostridium beijerinckii. the fractions isolated from c. butyricum were (1) phosphatidylethanolamine/plasmenylethanolamine and (2) the glycerol acetal of plasmenylethanolamine, and from c. beijerinckii similar fractions containing principally (1) phosphatidyl-n-monomethylethanolamine, along with its plasmalogen, and (2) the glycero ...19873676294
transphosphatidylation activity in clostridium butyricum. evidence for a secondary pathway by which membrane phospholipids may be synthesized and modified.membrane particles from clostridium butyricum, incubated with triton x-100 and 32p-labeled phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, or phosphatidylserine, resulted in the labeling of three phospholipids. these unknown phospholipids incorporated label from the phosphate and acyl chains of the substrate, but not from the head group. two-dimensional tlc of the intact lipids and their deacylation products showed that these lipids were phosphatidic acid, cardiolipin, and the previously unrepor ...19873611063
regulation of bilayer stability in clostridium butyricum: studies on the polymorphic phase behavior of the ether lipids.three of the major phospholipids of the cell membrane of clostridium butyricum are phosphatidylethanolamine (pe), plasmenylethanolamine (plae), and the glycerol acetal of plasmenylethanolamine. when cultured in the absence of biotin in media supplemented with a cis-unsaturated fatty acid, the cellular lipids become highly enriched with the fed fatty acid. under these conditions, the ratio of the glycerol acetal of plae to the sum of pe plus plae increases markedly over that seen in cells contain ...19873606994
biosynthesis of phospholipids in clostridium butyricum: kinetics of synthesis of plasmalogens and the glycerol acetal of ethanolamine plasmalogen.the biosynthesis of the plasmalogen forms of phosphatidylethanolamine (plasmenylethanolamine) and phosphatidylglycerol (plasmenylglycerol) and of the glycerol acetal of plasmenylethanolamine has been studied in cultures of clostridium butyricum ifo 3852. when growing cells were pulsed with [32p]orthophosphate, there was a lag of 5 to 7 min between the rapid incorporation of label into the acylphosphatides and the rapid incorporation of label into the corresponding plasmalogens. the labeling of t ...19846746573
purification and partial characterization of two proteinases from clostridium butyricum m 55.clostridium butyricum m55 proteinases were purified by application of a multistep procedure involving ethanol precipitation, deae cellulose chromatography and molecular sieving. the purified enzymes obtained were called proteinase i and proteinase ii. they appeared to be homogeneous when examined by molecular sieving and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the highly purified proteinases were studied for their physico-chemical properties. the influences of ph, temperature, ionic strength and ami ...19883293333
[penicillin resistance due to the production of a beta-lactamase in clostridium butyricum].eight strains of clostridia of the butyricum group, resistant to penicillins were isolated from perinatal infections. mic's of these strains vary from 1,000 to 3,000 micrograms/ml for benzyl-penicillin, and from 5 to 10 micrograms/ml for cefoxitin. the substrate profile of the enzymes is that of a penicillinase.19816781777
degradation and fermentation of alpha-gluco-oligosaccharides by bacterial strains from human colon: in vitro and in vivo studies in gnotobiotic rats.the ability of several human gut bacteria to break down alpha-1,2 and alpha-1,6 glycosidic linkages in alpha-gluco-oligosaccharides (gos) was investigated in vitro in substrate utilization tests. bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, bifidobacterium breve and clostridium butyricum, which are usually found in the infant gut and have been associated with both beneficial and deleterious effects on health, were studied. alpha-gluco-oligosaccharide degradation was compared in vitro and in vivo in gnotobiotic ...19957592106
induction of beta-lactamase by cefoxitin in anaerobic intestinal microflora.beta-lactamases produced by two anaerobic bacterial strains, bacteroides ovatus ax34:1 and clostridium butyricum nbl3, were shown to be significantly inducible under anaerobic conditions in subinhibitory concentrations of cefoxitin. the induction ratio of beta-lactamase production for bacteroides ovatus was 2.6 and for clostridium butyricum 1.6. incubation of faecal samples with different concentrations of cefoxitin did not result in any induction of beta-lactamase production. when adding a high ...19957729448
ammonia assimilation pathways in nitrogen-fixing clostridium kluyverii and clostridium butyricum.pathways of ammonia assimilation into glutamic acid were investigated in ammonia-grown and n2-fixing clostridium kluyverii and clostridium butyricum by measuring the specific activities of glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase, and glutamate synthase. c. kluyverii had nadph-glutamate dehydrogenase with a km of 12.0 mm for nh4+. the glutamate dehydrogenase pathway played an important role in ammonia assimilation in ammonia-grown cells but was found to play a minor role relative to that of ...19892564848
conserved structure of genes encoding components of botulinum neurotoxin complex m and the sequence of the gene coding for the nontoxic component in nonproteolytic clostridium botulinum type f.for investigation of the genes of proteins associated in vivo with botulinum neurotoxin (bont), polymerase chain reaction (pcr) experiments were carried out with oligonucleotide primers designed to regions of the nontoxic-nonhemagglutinin (ntnh) gene of clostridium botulinum type c. the primers were used to amplify a dna fragment from genomic dna of c. botulinum types a, b, e, f, g and toxigenic strains of clostridium barati and clostridium butyricum. the amplified product from all of these stra ...19947764998
clostridium butyricum neurotoxin: partial amino acid sequence of major proteolytic fragments and intracellular activity in pc12 cells.the approximately 150 kda single-chain neurotoxin produced by clostridium butyricum, reported to be similar to c. botulinum neurotoxin serotype e (giménez and sugiyama, infect. immun. 54, 926-929, 1988), was probed with trypsin and endoproteinase lys-c. the two proteases cleaved the butyricum neurotoxin between residues arg 421-lys 422 and lys 418-gly 419, respectively. cleavage at this region, highly susceptible to proteolysis, generated approximately 50 kda light and approximately 100 kda heav ...19947801349
quantitative investigations into the elimination of in vitro-obtained spores of the non-pathogenic clostridium butyricum strain cnrz 528, and their persistence in organs of different species following intravenous spore administration.before the clostridium tumour assay can be applied to the diagnosis of cancer, we sought to investigate--within the framework of a biopharmaceutical safety test--the organ persistence of test spores of clostridium butyricum cnrz 528. we found that non-pathogenic spores obtained in vitro, like pathogenic native spores, escape phagocytosis in various organs up until about 2 years, as tested by anaerobic cultures. the elimination of spores depended on the species of animal, the spore dose and the o ...19938191000
transfer of neurotoxigenicity from clostridium butyricum to a nontoxigenic clostridium botulinum type e-like strain.two clostridium butyricum strains from infant botulism cases produce a toxic molecule very similar to c. botulinum type e neurotoxin. chromosomal, plasmid, and bacteriophage dnas of toxigenic and nontoxigenic strains of c. butyricum and c. botulinum type e were probed with (i) a synthesized 30-mer oligonucleotide encoding part of the l chain of type e botulinum toxin and (ii) the dna of phages lysogenizing these cultures. the toxin gene probe hybridized to the chromosomal dna of toxigenic strain ...19938285687
nonspecific phospholipase c of listeria monocytogenes: activity on phospholipids in triton x-100-mixed micelles and in biological membranes.listeria monocytogenes secretes a phospholipase c (plc) which has 39% amino acid sequence identity with the broad-specificity plc from bacillus cereus. recent work indicates that the l. monocytogenes enzyme plays a role during infections of mammalian cells (j.-a. vazquez-boland, c. kocks, s. dramsi, h. ohayon, c. geoffroy, j. mengaud, and p. cossart, infect. immun. 60:219-230, 1992). the homogeneous enzyme has a specific activity of 230 mumol/min/mg when phosphatidylcholine (pc) is dispersed in ...19938331063
purification and properties of a flavodoxin from the heterocystous cyanobacterium anabaena sphaerica.a flavodoxin was purified to homogeneity from the nitrogen-fixing heterocystous cyanobacterium anabaena sphaerica grown under iron-limited conditions. the protein has a molecular mass of 21 kda, and its spectral properties and amino-acid composition are very close to that of flavodoxins from other cyanobacteria. a. sphaerica flavodoxin supported the activities of a. sphaerica nadp reductase and clostridium butyricum hydrogenase in reconstituted systems with illuminated plant chloroplasts as redu ...19938343530
similarity in nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding nontoxic component of botulinum toxin produced by toxigenic clostridium butyricum strain bl6340 and clostridium botulinum type e strain mashike.the complete nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of the nontoxic component of botulinum type e progenitor toxin is determined in recombinant plasmid pu9buh containing about 6.0 kb hindiii fragment obtained from chromosomal dna of clostridium butyricum strain bl6340. the open reading frame (orf) of this nontoxic component gene is composed of 3,486 nucleotide bases (1,162 amino acid residues). the molecular weight calculated from deduced amino acid residues is estimated 13,6810.1. the prese ...19938355622
colony immunoblot assay of botulinal toxin.botulinal neurotoxin in and around colonies of clostridium botulinum types a, b, and e and of toxigenic clostridium butyricum was detected by an enzyme-linked immunoassay procedure whereby the toxin was transferred from the agar medium to a nitrocellulose support and the immobilized toxin was probed with type-specific antibodies. the method identified the toxin types of the colonies grown from a mixed inoculum of c. botulinum serotypes. the specificity of the antitoxins for type a and b toxins w ...19938357267
gene probes for identification of the botulinal neurotoxin gene and specific identification of neurotoxin types b, e, and f.a polymerase chain reaction method was developed for the specific detection of the botulinum neurotoxin (bont) gene of clostridium botulinum. degenerate oligonucleotide primers, designed from the nucleotide sequence of the heavy chain of the bont gene, amplified a specific fragment of approximately 1.1 kb from strains of c. botulinum toxin types a, b, e, f, and g and neurotoxin-producing strains of clostridium barati and clostridium butyricum, but no fragment was obtained from nontoxigenic strai ...19938408542
phosphatidyltransferase of clostridium butyricum: specificity for diacylphosphoglycerides.phosphatidyltransferase from clostridium butyricum, which catalyzes transfer of the phosphatidyl moiety of phosphatidylethanolamine (pe), phosphatidylglycerol (pg) or phosphatidylserine to primary alcohols such as glycerol, serine and ethanolamine, was tested for its ability to catalyze transfer of the plasmenyl moiety from plasmalogen analogs of pe or pg to glycerol or ethanolamine, respectively. the cell membrane of c. butyricum contains high proportions of these plasmalogens. when diacyl and ...19902163683
a new balance equation of reducing equivalents for data consistency check and bioprocess calculation.the reducing equivalent (re) balance is a basic equation for data consistency check and calculations of bioprocesses. the macroscopic approach is often used because it does not require detailed knowledge of metabolic pathways. in this work, the conventional minkevich-eroshin balance equation is examined with data of anaerobic glycerol conversion by klebsiella pneumoniae and clostridium butyricum as examples. it is shown that the minkevich-eroshin equation is very insensitive to measurement error ...19958562017
lipid composition in the classification of the butyric acid-producing examination of 20 strains of butyric acid-producing clostridium species for phospholipid class compositions, plasmalogen content, and acyl and alk-l-enyl chains showed that the deoxyribonucleic acid homology groups i (clostridium butyricum) and ii (clostridium beijerinckii) could be distinguished by their lipid compositions. the phospholipids of c. butyricum strains had ethanolamine as the major nitrogenous lipid polar head-group moiety, more octadecenoate plus c19-cyclopropane than hexadecen ...19836886674
production and characterization of enterocin 900, a bacteriocin produced by enterococcus faecium bfe 900 from black olives.enterococcus faecium bfe 900 isolated from black olives produced a bacteriocin termed enterocin 900, which was antagonistic towards lactobacillus sake, clostridium butyricum, enterococci as well as listeria spp. including listeria monocytogenes. enterocin 900 was inactivated by pepsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, proteinase k and trypsin but not by catalase, alpha-amylase, or other non-proteolytic enzymes tested. the bacteriocin was heat stable, retaining activity after heating at 121 degrees c for 15 m ...19968796427
immunopotentiating activity of clostridium butyricum in mice.bacterial vaccine, as generated by heat-inactivated clostridium butyricum cells, displayed antitumor activity against sarcoma 180 in ddy mice and antimetastatic activity against b16-f10 melanoma in bdf1 mice. according to our results, the vaccine has no direct growth inhibitory effect toward the tumor cell lines tested in this study. the vaccine increased gamma-interferon production, elicited delayed type hypersensitivity reaction, and enhanced igm antibody formation and mitogenicity. the phagoc ...19969050255
replacement of acyl and alk-1-enyl groups in clostridium butyricum phospholipids by exogenous fatty acids.the effect of exogenous unsaturated fatty acids on the acyl and alk-1-enyl group composition of the phospholipids of clostridium butyricum has been examined. unsaturated fatty acids support the growth of this organism in the absence of biotin. when cells were grown at 37 degrees in media containing oleate or linoleate and a casamino acid mixture containing traces of biotin, the exogenous fatty acids were found mainly in the alk-1-enyl chains of the plasmalogens with less pronounced incorporation ...19751164501
characterization of a neurotoxigenic clostridium butyricum strain isolated from the food implicated in an outbreak of food-borne type e botulism.neurotoxigenic clostridium butyricum was isolated from the food implicated in an outbreak of clinically diagnosed type e botulism in china. pcr assay showed that the isolate (lcl 155) contained the type e botulinum toxin gene. this appears to be the first report of neurotoxigenic c. butyricum causing food-borne botulism.19979230405
inhibition of the autoxidation of ascorbate and norepinephrine by extracts of clostridium butyricum, megasphaera elsdenii and escherichia coli.the autoxidation of ascorbate and of norepinephrine in krebs ringer phosphate medium, ph 7.4, was studied. the autoxidation of the two substances was determined spectrophotometrically at 265 and 480 nm respectively. the effect of dialyzed extracts (m.w. greater than 12,000) from escherichia coli (aerobe), megasphaera elsdenii, and clostridium butyricum (obligate anaerobes) was examined and compared to similarly prepared extracts from rat serum and cerebral cortex. the assay medium contained cell ...19846384713
intestinal distribution and intraluminal localization of orally administered clostridium butyricum in rats.clostridium butyricum has been used as a probiotic in animals and humans for years, however, its fate in the intestine has not been clarified yet. we investigated the intestinal fate of c. butyricum using a selective medium and a monoclonal antibody after orally administering c. butyricum spores to rats. the number of c. butyricum, both viable and dead cells, in the intestinal contents were counted by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) at various times after a single oral administration. ...19979343816
molecular analysis of a clostridium butyricum ncimb 7423 gene encoding 4-alpha-glucanotransferase and characterization of the recombinant enzyme produced in escherichia escherichia coli clone was detected in a clostridium butyricum ncimb 7423 plasmid library capable of degrading soluble amylose. deletion subcloning of its recombinant plasmid indicated that the gene(s) responsible for amylose degradation was localized on a 1.8 kb nsphi-scal fragment. this region was sequenced in its entirety and shown to encompass a large orf capable of encoding a protein with a calculated molecular mass of 57,184 da. although the deduced amino acid sequence showed only weak ...19979353929
purification and characterization of konjac glucomannan degrading enzyme from anaerobic human intestinal bacterium, clostridium butyricum-clostridium beijerinckii group.konjac glucomannan degrading enzyme was purified to homogeneity from the culture broth of an anaerobic human intestinal bacterium, clostridium butyricum-clostridium beijerinckii group. the enzyme was composed of a single polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of 50,000-53,000. the enzyme was an endo-beta-mannanase that acted specifically on the polysaccharides such as konjac glucomannan and coffee mannan, producing exclusively their smaller oligosaccharides and the monosaccharides. the optima ...19979362121
[on n2-fixing clostridia and bacilli from soils (author's transl)].in total 30 nitrogen-fixing, saccharolytic clostridia and 4 nitrogen-fixing bacilli, all freshly isolated from gleyed soils, were screened for sensitivity to 20 antibiotics. the isolates were compared in their sensitivity with 5 type cultures representing the species clostridium butyricum, c. saccharobutyricum (2 strains) c. multifermentans and c. sporogenes. generally speaking, both clostridia and bacilli are sensitive to the same antibiotics (table 2). in addition, the nitrogen-fixing bacilli ...1976970026
gene arrangement in the upstream region of clostridium botulinum type e and clostridium butyricum bl6340 progenitor toxin genes is different from that of other types.the cluster of genes encoding the botulinum progenitor toxin and the upstream region including p21 and p47 were divided into three different gene arrangements (class i-iii). to determine the gene similarity of the type e neurotoxin (bont/e) complex to other types, the gene organization in the upstream region of the nontoxic-nonhemagglutinin gene (ntnh) was investigated in chromosomal dna from clostridium botulinum type e strain iwanai and c. butyricum strain bl6340. the gene cluster of type e pr ...19989465394
selective medium for isolation of clostridium butyricum from human feces.a selective medium, clostridium butyricum isolation medium (bim), is described for the isolation of c. butyricum from human feces. the bim is a synthetic minimal medium and contains trimethoprim (16 micrograms/ml), d-cycloserine (10 micrograms/ml), and polymyxin b sulfate (20 micrograms/ml) as selective inhibitory agents. qualitative tests indicated that c. butyricum and other butyric acid-producing clostridia grew on bim, clostridium sphenoides and bacillus cereus produced small colonies, and o ...19846490827
the glycyl radical enzyme tdce can replace pyruvate formate-lyase in glucose fermentation.mutants of escherichia coli unable to synthesize a functional pyruvate formate-lyase (pfl) are severely impaired in their capacity to grow by glucose fermentation. in a functional complementation assay designed to isolate the pfl gene from clostridium butyricum, we fortuitously identified a gene that did not encode a pfl but nonetheless was able to complement the phenotypic defects caused by an e. coli pfl mutation. the clostridial gene encoded a basic 14. 5-kda protein (tcbc) which, based on am ...19989657990
molecular analysis of the malr gene of clostridium butyricum ncimb 7423, a member of the laci-galr family of repressor proteins.deletion of a region of dna 5' to a previously characterised malq gene of clostridium butyricum resulted in increased production of the enzyme activity encoded by malq, 4-alpha-glucanotransferase. nucleotide sequence analysis revealed the presence of an open reading frame capable of encoding a protein of 335 amino acids. this protein was found to share 33% amino acid sequence identity with the bacillus subtilis ccpa (catabolite control protein) repressor, 28% identity with the streptomyces coeli ...19989711857
outbreak of suspected clostridium butyricum botulism in india. 19989716988
characteristics of a beta-lactamase produced by clostridium butyricum. 19826980874
clostridial pathogenicity in experimental necrotising enterocolitis in gnotobiotic quails and protective role of bifidobacteria.the pathogenesis of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis (nec) remains unclear. gnotobiotic quails fed a lactose diet have been used to investigate the role of clostridial strains originating from faecal specimens of neonates through the intestinal lesions, the changes in microflora balance and the production of bacterial metabolites, i.e., short-chain fatty acids and hydrogen. bifidobacteria are thought to exert various beneficial effects on host health, including interaction with the colonic mic ...19989879939
[estimation of probiotics by infection model of infant rabbit with enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7].we examined the preventative effect against enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7 (ehec) infection in rabbits on administration of probiotics contained in streptococcus faecalis, clostridium butyricum and bacillus mesentericus. the probiotics were administered to 5 days old japanese white rabbits throughout the experiment. inoculation of 10(6) colony forming units (cfus) of ehec per rabbit was tried 8 days after birth. three days after ehec inoculation, in the control group (not administere ...19989916417
increased growth of bifidobacterium and eubacterium by germinated barley foodstuff, accompanied by enhanced butyrate production in healthy volunteers.germinated barley foodstuff (gbf) derived from the aleurone and scutellum fractions of germinated barley mainly consists of low-lignified hemicellulose and glutamine-rich protein. gbf improves the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells and defecation, through the bacterial production of short chain fatty acids (scfa), especially butyrate. in this study we investigated the mechanism of production of butyrate by microflora in humans and in vitro. daily administration of 9 g gbf for 14 succes ...19999917526
isolation and characterisation of neurotoxigenic clostridium butyricum from soil in china.soil specimens collected from a site around the home of patients with food-borne type e. botulism probably caused by neurotoxigenic clostridium butyricum in guanyun, jiangsu province, china, were examined for the presence of neurotoxigenic c. butyricum. five lakeside sites of weishan lake, in an area near to the sites where the type e. botulism outbreaks caused by neurotoxigenic c. butyricum occurred were also surveyed. type e toxin-producing c. butyricum was isolated from soil from four sites i ...19999989640
chemotherapy for tumours using clostridial oncolysis, antibiotics and cyclophosphamide: model trial on the uvt 15264 tumour.lysis of the uvt 15264 tumour in mice of the 17/berlin-buch strain as induced by intravenous injection of clostridium butyricum h8 spores is followed by the tumour diameter and survival time. in animals thus treated, tumour regression is incomplete and the mean survival time drops below that of tumour-bearing animals not treated with spores. with concurrent antibiotic treatment survival time is prolonged to exceed that of untreated animals, without affecting ocolysis-provoked tumour regression. ...19827082130
does probiotics administration decrease serum endotoxin levels in infants?the aim of this study was to examine whether administration of probiotics to infants can change the ratio of intestinal flora and thereby decrease serum endotoxin produced by potentially pathogenic microorganisms.199910052803
[antagonistic interaction between clostridium butyricum and enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7].antagonistic interaction between clostridium butyricum strain miyairi 588 and enterohemorrhagic esherichia coli (ehec) strain o157:h7 006 was examined using streptomycin-treated spf mice and germ free mice. all spf mice pretreated with streptomycin were colonized with ehec o157:h7. on the other hand, only 20% of the spf mice pretreated with streptomycin and c. butyricum were colonized with ehec o157:h7. in addition, germ free mice died within 4-7 days after infection with ehec o157:h7. in contra ...199910077896
distribution of the rubredoxin gene among the clostridium butyricum species.with pcr methods, the rubredoxin gene was systematically identified among 11 strains of clostridium butyricum; this ubiquity means major functions in the metabolism of the clostridia. the 11 pcr products allowed deduction of a sequence of 26 amino acids corresponding to positions 11-36 of the rubredoxin. they all contained the tyrosines at positions 11 and 13 and the phenylalanine at position 30 characteristic of the rubredoxin, but differed at positions 14-17, 20, 25, 29, and 31, allowing deter ...199910355113
effects of intestinal bacteria on the development of colonic neoplasm: an experimental study.effects of intestinal microflora on the development of colonic neoplasm induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (dmh) were observed using conventionalized and gnotobiotic mouse models. the incidence of colonic adenoma in germ-free mice (iqi/jic) (gf), mice conventionalized after dmh injection (cvz-post-dmh) and conventionalized mice (cvz, conventionalized before dmh injection) was 74%, 69% and 58%, respectively. the mean number of adenomas per mouse in the three groups was 2.6, 2.0 and 1.4, respectivel ...199910443953
in vitro utilization of amylopectin and high-amylose maize (amylomaize) starch granules by human colonic has been well established that a certain amount of ingested starch can escape digestion in the human small intestine and consequently enters the large intestine, where it may serve as a carbon source for bacterial fermentation. thirty-eight types of human colonic bacteria were screened for their capacity to utilize soluble starch, gelatinized amylopectin maize starch, and high-amylose maize starch granules by measuring the clear zones on starch agar plates. the six cultures which produced cle ...199910543795
ether phospholipid asymmetry in clostridium butyricum. 19827181904
intestinal toxemia botulism in two young people, caused by clostridium butyricum type e.two unconnected cases of type e botulism involving a 19-year-old woman and a 9-year-old child are described. the hospital courses of their illness were similar and included initial acute abdominal pain accompanied by progressive neurological impairment. both patients were suspected of having appendicitis and underwent laparotomy, during which voluminous meckel's diverticula were resected. unusual neurotoxigenic clostridium butyricum strains that produced botulinum-like toxin type e were isolated ...199910585782
commentary: where marco polo meets meckel: type e botulism from clostridium butyricum. 199910585783
occurrence of nisin z production in lactococcus lactis bfe 1500 isolated from wara, a traditional nigerian cheese product.screening for bacteriocin production of 500 strains of lactic acid bacteria (lab) from various african fermented foods resulted in the detection of a bacteriocin producing lactococcus lactis (bfe 1500) isolated from a dairy product called wara. the bacteriocin inhibited not only the closely related lab, but also strains of listeria monocytogenes, listeria innocua, clostridium butyricum, clostridium perfringens, bacillis cereus and staphylococcus aureus. it was heat stable even at autoclaving tem ...199910634705
high production of 1,3-propanediol from industrial glycerol by a newly isolated clostridium butyricum strain.batch and continuous cultures of a newly isolated clostridium butyricum strain were carried out on industrial glycerol, the major by-product of the bio-diesel production process. for both types of cultures, the conversion yield obtained was around 0.55 g of 1,3-propanediol formed per 1 g of glycerol consumed whereas the highest 1,3-propanediol concentration, achieved during the single-stage continuous cultures was 35-48 g l-1. moreover, the strain presented a strong tolerance at the inhibitory e ...200010682279
detection, cloning, and sequence analysis of an indigenous plasmid from cellulolytic clostridial strain mcf1.nucleotide sequence analysis of a 2451-bp plasmid (pmcf1) from a cellulolytic clostridium revealed that the protein specified by the largest open reading frame (orf1) was homologous to repb of clostridium butyricum plasmid pcb101. the data suggest that pmcf1 belongs to the pc194 family of rolling-circle replicating plasmids and the orf1 protein functions as its replication protein.200010686135
preventive efficacy of butyrate enemas and oral administration of clostridium butyricum m588 in dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in rats.butyrate enemas have been reported to be effective in ulcerative colitis. however, long-term use is difficult because of the troublesome procedure and the unpleasant smell. we therefore investigated the effects of the oral administration of clostridium butyricum m588 (cbm588), an enterobacterium producing butyrate, in dextran sodium sulfate (dss)-induced colitis in rats. first, we confirmed the effects of pre-treatment with a butyrate enema on dss colitis. we then studied the efficacy of oral ad ...200010832668
[modification of selected leukocyte functions in albino rats caused by the transplantable jensen sarcoma and by therapeutic trials of cyclophosphamide and vinblastine, clostridium butyricum m55 and short-term hyperglycemia].a significant increase in leukocyte adhesion and agglomeration was observed in white rats with jensen sarcoma. glucose induced short-term hyperglycemia temporarily stimulated these leukocyte functions in healthy rats. this effect was not notably influenced by administration of tumorlyzing spores. in contrast administration of the cytostatic agents vinblastine and cyclophosphamide demonstrated dose-related inhibition of leukocyte agglomeration and adhesion.19846497582
studies of the effect of clostridium butyricum on helicobacter pylori in several test models including gnotobiotic mice.the interaction between clostridium butyricum and helicobacter pylori was examined in vitro and in vivo. the culture supernate of c. butyricum miyairi 588 inhibited the growth of h. pylori even when its ph was adjusted to 7.4. the bactericidal effect of butyric acid on h. pylori was stronger than that of lactic, acetic or hydrochloric acids. flow cytometric analysis showed that pre-incubation of gastric epithelial (mkn45) cells with h. pylori and c. butyricum inhibited the adhesion of h. pylori ...200010882089
purification and characterization of the 1-3-propanediol dehydrogenase of clostridium butyricum e5.1-3 ppd dehydrogenase (ec was purified to homogeneity from clostridium butyricum e5 grown anaerobically on glycerol in continuous culture. the native enzyme was estimated by gel filtration to have a molecular weight of 384 200 +/- 31 100 da; it is predicted to exist as an octamer or a decamer of identical molecular weight subunits. when tested as a dehydrogenase, the enzyme was most active with 1-3 propane diol. in the physiological direction, 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde was the preferre ...200010938419
inhibition of clostridium butyricum by 1,3-propanediol and diols during glycerol fermentation.1,3-propanediol inhibition during glycerol fermentation to 1,3-propanediol by clostridium butyricum cncm 1211 has been studied. the initial concentration of the 1,3-propanediol affected the growth of the bacterium more than the glycerol fermentation. mu(max) was inversely proportional to the initial concentration of 1,3-propanediol (0-65 g l(-1)). for glycerol at 20 g l(-1), the growth and fermentation were completely stopped at an initial 1,3-propanediol concentration of 65 g l(-1). however, fo ...200010968633
genetic analysis of type e botulinum toxin-producing clostridium butyricum strains.type e botulinum toxin (bont/e)-producing clostridium butyricum strains isolated from botulism cases or soil specimens in italy and china were analyzed by using nucleotide sequencing of the bont/e gene, random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) assay, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge), and southern blot hybridization for the bont/e gene. nucleotide sequences of the bont/e genes of 11 chinese isolates and of the italian strain bl 6340 were determined. the nucleotide sequences of the bont/e ge ...200011055954
the dietary combination of germinated barley foodstuff plus clostridium butyricum suppresses the dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in rats.recent studies have suggested that dietary fiber exerts a therapeutic effect on ibd patients. the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a dietary combination of germinated barley foodstuff (gbf), derived from the aleurone and scutellum fraction of germinated barley, plus clostridium butyricum against dextran sulfate sodium (dss)-induced experimental colitis in rats.200011099059
gene transfer to clostridium cellulolyticum atcc 35319.although much is known about the bacterial cellulosome and its various protein components, their contributions to bacterial growth on cellulose and the process of cellulolysis in vivo cannot currently be assessed. to remedy this, the authors have developed gene transfer techniques for clostridium cellulolyticum atcc 35319. firstly, transfer of tn1545 has been obtained using an enterococcus faecalis donor. secondly, incp-mediated conjugative mobilization of plasmids from escherichia coli donors h ...200011101665
regulation of carbon and electron flow in clostridium butyricum vpi 3266 grown on glucose-glycerol mixtures.the metabolism of clostridium butyricum was manipulated at ph 6.5 and in phosphate-limited chemostat culture by changing the overall degree of reduction of the substrate using mixtures of glucose and glycerol. cultures grown on glucose alone produced only acids (acetate, butyrate, and lactate) and a high level of hydrogen. in contrast, when glycerol was metabolized, 1,3-propanediol became the major product, the specific rate of acid formation decreased, and a low level of hydrogen was observed. ...200111160107
a novel mechanism controls anaerobic and catabolite regulation of the escherichia coli tdc operon.the tdc operon is subject to crp-controlled catabolite repression. expression of the operon is also induced anaerobically, although this regulation does not rely on direct control by either fnr or arca. recently, the anaerobic expression of the tdc operon was found to be fortuitously induced in the presence of glucose by a heterologous gene isolated from the gram-positive anaerobe clostridium butyricum. the gene, termed tcbc, encoded a histone-like protein of 14.5 kda. using tdc-lacz fusions, it ...200111251844
[application of the serological clostridium assay in tumour diagnostics (author's transl)].the suitability for serologic tumour diagnostics of the non-oncolysing strain clostridium butyricum cnrz 528 has been investigated. by introducing the transplantable brown pearce tumour of the rabbit and spontaneous tumours of the dog as test models the antibody production against clostridial rods--indicating malignant growth as had been proved with the möse strain cl. oncolyticum m55--has been evaluated. it could be established--utilizing the complement fixation test--that one serological metho ...19807222791
separation and characterization of the 1,3-propanediol and glycerol dehydrogenase activities from clostridium butyricum e5 wild-type and mutant d.clostridium butyricum e5 wild-type and mutant e5-md were cultivated in chemostat culture on glycerol in order to compare the properties of two key enzymes of glycerol catabolism, i.e. propanediol and glycerol dehydrogenase.200111412332
[evaluation of the bacterial flora in natural corn silage].silage is the best method for forage conservation, keeping it in a fresh condition and with high nutrient content. in order to study the natural evolution of maize silage without additives during 50 days after sealed, ph, temperature changes, number and type of the indigenous bacteria were studied every 5 days. the initial ph decreased from 6.40 to 4.10 and temperature stabilized at 26 degrees c. the mesophilic aerobic bacteria were quickly reduced across time. enterococci were descended gradual ...200111494759
implantation of bacteria from human pulpal necrosis and translocation from root canals in gnotobiotic mice.the aim of this study was to determine whether microorganisms recovered from infected human root canals were able to survive and translocate to a local lymph node when experimentally inoculated into the root canal system of germ-free mice. the microorganisms isolated from two patients with pulpal necrosis were inoculated in two groups of experimental animals; group i (gemella morbillorum) and group ii (bifidobacterium adolescentis, fusobacterium nucleatum, and clostridium butyricum). g. morbillo ...200111592487
phospholipid aliphatic chain composition modulates lipid class composition, but not lipid asymmetry in clostridium butyricum.the phospholipid composition of the butyric acid-producing clostridia is responsive to the degree of enrichment of the lipids with cis-unsaturated fatty acids. when clostridium butyricum and clostridium beijerinckii are grown on oleic acid in media devoid of biotin, the acyl and alk-1-enyl chains of the phospholipids become highly enriched with 18:1 and c19-cyclopropane. under these conditions there is a marked increase in the glycerol acetals of the major plasmalogens of these organisms. we hav ...19853970912
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