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Acute necrotizing enterocolitis of preterm piglets is characterized by dysbiosis of ileal mucosa-associated bacteria.Investigation of bacteria involved in pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is limited by infant fragility, analysis restricted to feces, use of culture-based methods, and lack of clinically-relevant animal models. This study used a unique preterm piglet model to characterize spontaneous differences in microbiome composition of NEC-predisposed regions of gut.  Preterm piglets (n=23) were cesarean-delivered and nurtured for 30 hours over which time 52% developed NEC. Bacterial DNA from ...201121983069
an improved screening method for microorganisms able to convert crude glycerol to 1,3-propanediol and to tolerate high product concentrations.a new screening method was developed and established to find high-performance bacteria for the conversion of crude glycerol to 1,3-propanediol. three soil samples from palm oil-rich habitats were investigated using crude glycerol of a german biodiesel plant. nine promising 1,3-propanediol producers could be found. because of a special ph buffer system, a fast evaluation on microscale and high 1,3-propanediol concentrations up to 40 g l(-1) could be achieved. three strains demonstrated very high ...201121968654
effects of dietary lipids and clostridium butyricum on serum lipids and lipid-related gene expression in broiler chickens.the effect of dietary lipids and clostridium butyricum supplementation on circulating lipids and the transcription of selected genes involved in lipid metabolism were investigated in broiler chickens. one hundred and sixty-day-old broilers (arbor acres) were divided into four treatment groups in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement and fed four diets with two lipid sources (soybean oil or fish oil) and two levels of c. butyricum (0 or 5 g/kg) for a period of 6 weeks. serum concentrations of total chole ...201122440467
[engineering of escherichia coli for convenient expression of [fefe]-hydrogenase].a new method used to heterologously express [fefe]-hydrogenase in escherichia coli was investigated in our present study.201122260044
oil palm empty fruit bunch as alternative substrate for acetone-butanol-ethanol production by clostridium butyricum eb6.acetone-butanol-ethanol (abe) production from renewable resources has been widely reported. in this study, clostridium butyricum eb6 was employed for abe fermentation using fermentable sugar derived from treated oil palm empty fruit bunch (opefb). a higher amount of abe (2.61 g/l) was produced in a fermentation using treated opefb as the substrate when compared to a glucose based medium that produced 0.24 g/l at ph 5.5. abe production was increased to 3.47 g/l with a yield of 0.24 g/g at ph 6.0. ...201222391689
effect of probiotics on serum bile acids in patients with ulcerative colitis.evaluation of bile acids (ba) is useful for assessing the changes of intestinal flora in patients with ulcerative colitis (uc). during enterohepatic circulation, the intestinal micro flora cause 7 alpha-dehydroxylation of cholic acid (ca) and chenodeoxycholic acid (cdca), yielding deoxycholic acid(dca) and lithocholic acid, respectively. the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of probiotics in patients with uc by examining changes of the serum ba profile.201222369744
gaseous co2 signal initiates growth of butyric-acid-producing clostridium butyricum in both pure culture and mixed cultures with lactobacillus brevis.microbial strains produce numerous volatile substances in the anaerobic conditions of the human intestines. the availability of co(2) is known to be a prerequisite for bacterial growth in general. in experiments with anaerobic lactobacillus brevis and clostridium butyricum bacteria in the portable microbial enrichment unit (pmeu) it was shown that these strains interact; this interaction being mediated by co(2) emission. co(2) promoted clostridial growth in pure cultures and mixed cultures with ...201222697044
an important role of interleukin-10 in counteracting excessive immune response in ht-29 cells exposed to clostridium butyricum.clostridium butyricum has become increasingly important in preventing and treating intestinal inflammation. in the intestine it may increase the resistance of the gut to pathogen invasion via inducing the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines. interleukin 10 (il-10) plays a central role in preventing certain inflammatory diseases by down-regulating inflammatory cascades. in a previous study, we observed that the level of il-10 mrna was modulated by c. butyricum. the aim of this study was to i ...201222681958
sodium (na+) concentration effects on metabolic pathway and estimation of atp use in dark fermentation hydrogen production through stoichiometric analysis.batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of na(+) concentration on hydrogen production with dark fermentation. the na(+) concentration was varied from 0 to 8 g/l in the mixed culture using an anaerobic sludge treated by acid. the maximum hydrogen production was achieved with 1 g-na(+)/l, whereas the hydrogen production was decreased over 2 g-na(+)/l due to the inhibitory of na(+). the mechanisms of na(+) inhibition to the hydrogen production are studied using pure culture of c ...201222634156
[multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial on preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children with pneumonia using the live clostridium butyricum and bifidobacterium combined powder].many previous meta-analysis have shown that the probiotics can lower the incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (aad) in children. however, the function and efficacy of probiotics drugs showed obvious strains specificity and dose dependence. currently, most of the reported meta-analysis regarding probiotics aad prevention have adopted saccharomyces, lactobacilleae, streptococcus and bifidobacterium. this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the live clostridium butyricum and b ...201223302558
adaptation dynamics of clostridium butyricum in high 1,3-propanediol content media.aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of exogenous additions of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-pdo) on microbial growth and metabolites production of clostridium butyricum vpi 1718 strain, during crude glycerol fermentation. preliminary batch cultures in anaerobic duran bottles revealed that early addition of 1,3-pdo caused growth cessation in rather low quantities (15 g/l), while 1,3-pdo additions during the middle exponential growth phase up to 70 g/l resulted in an almost linear decrease ...201222456628
effects of ph and carbon sources on biohydrogen production by co-culture of clostridium butyricum and rhodobacter sphaeroides.to improve the hydrogen yield from biological fermentation of organic wastewater, a co-culture system of dark- and photo-fermentation bacteria was investigated. in a pureculture system of the dark-fermentation bacterium clostridium butyricum, a ph of 6.25 was found to be optimal, resulting in a hydrogen production rate of 18.7 ml-h₂/l/h. on the other hand, the photosynthetic bacterium rhodobacter sphaeroides could produce the most hydrogen at 1.81 mol-h₂/mol-glucose at ph 7.0. the maximum specif ...201222450797
effects of probiotic, clostridium butyricum, on growth performance, immune function, and cecal microflora in broiler chickens.four hundred and fifty 1-d-old male lingnan yellow broiler chickens were used to investigate the effects of clostridium butyricum on growth performance, immune function, and cecal microflora. the birds were randomly assigned to 5 treatments and offered the same antibiotic-free basal diets for 42 d. the treatments were as follows: no addition (control), 1 × 10(7) cfu c. butyricum/kg of diet (cb1), 2 × 10(7) cfu c. butyricum/kg of diet (cb2), 3 × 10(7) cfu c. butyricum/kg of diet (cb3), and 10 mg ...201222912445
1,3-propanediol production by escherichia coli expressing genes of dha operon from clostridium butyricum 2cr371.5.1,3-propanediol is used as a monomer in the production of some polymers e.g. polytrimethylene terephthalate used in the production of carpets and textile fibers and in the thermoplastics engineering. however, the traditional chemical synthesis is expensive, generates some toxic intermediates and requires a reduction step under high hydrogen pressure. biological production of 1,3-propanediol could be an attractive alternative to the traditional chemical methods. moreover, crude glycerol which is ...201222855718
screening of environmental samples for bacteria producing 1,3-propanediol from glycerol.twenty nine environmental samples were screened for the presence of anaerobic microorganisms fermenting glycerol with 1,3-propanediol as a final product. seven samples were then selected for the next step of our research and eight bacteria strains were cultured anaerobically. seven of them produced 1,3-propanediol with a yield of 0.47-0.58. six of the the isolated microorganisms were then classified as clostridium butyricum (four strains), c. lituseburense (one strain), and c. sartagoforme (one ...201222855717
[susceptibility of spore-forming butyric acid bacteria to antimicrobial agents].antimicrobial agents occasionally cause certain adverse effects, such as diarrhea and loose stool, by altering the composition of the intestinal flora. antibiotic-resistant lactic acid bacteria are used to prevent these adverse effects. although these bacteria are not resistant to several recently introduced antimicrobial agents, bacterial preparations are still sometimes prescribed concomitantly with these antimicrobial agents. in this study, we investigated whether the administration of the sp ...201222790032
ability of clostridium butyricum to inhibit escherichia coli-induced apoptosis in chicken embryo intestinal cells.the beneficial effects of clostridium butyricum in the treatment of intestinal inflammatory disorders are well known. however, it is not fully understood how such bacteria inhibit pathogen-induced intestinal diseases. for this purpose, we investigated the effects of c. butyricum and its spent culture supernatants (scs) on escherichia coli (ehec) growth and adherence to chicken embryo intestinal cells (ceics). we also evaluated the potential of c. butyricum to inhibit ehec-induced apoptosis in ce ...201222771207
longitudinal analyses of gut mucosal microbiotas in ulcerative colitis in relation to patient age and disease severity and duration.bacteria belonging to the normal colonic microbiota are associated with the etiology of ulcerative colitis (uc). although several mucosal species have been implicated in the disease process, the organisms and mechanisms involved are unknown. the aim of this investigation was to characterize mucosal biofilm communities over time and to determine the relationship of these bacteria to patient age and disease severity and duration. multiple rectal biopsy specimens were taken from 33 patients with ac ...201223269735
immunological response in egg-sensitive adults challenged with cheese containing or not containing lysozyme.lysozyme is an enzyme that hydrolyzes bacterial peptidoglicans. for this reason, it is used in cheese manufacturing in order to prevent a defect of long-ripened hard cheese called "late blowing" due to the outgrowth of spores of clostridium tyrobutyricum and clostridium butyricum. moreover, germination of listeria monocytogenes spores into vegetative cells is also sensitive to lysozyme. the enzyme can be an allergenic molecule, and for this reason there are concerns about its use in food industr ...201223756581
addition of probiotics to norfloxacin does not improve efficacy in the prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized-controlled trial.spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (sbp) may occur despite antibiotic prophylaxis. we investigated whether the addition of probiotics to norfloxacin enhances its efficacy in the prevention of sbp.201222522141
clostridium butyricum activates tlr2-mediated myd88-independent signaling pathway in ht-29 cells.oral administration of clostridium butyricum as probiotic is increasingly gaining importance in the treatment of diarrhea and the improvement of animal performance. however, the mechanisms of host cell receptor recognition of c. butyricum and the downstream immune signaling pathways leading to these benefits remain unclear. the objective of this study was to analyze the mechanisms involved in c. butyricum induction of the toll-like receptor (tlr) signaling. knockdown of myeloid differentiation p ...201221956671
introducing gut low-density array (gulda): a validated approach for qpcr-based intestinal microbial community analysis.alterations in the human gut microbiota caused, for example, by diet, functional foods, antibiotics, or occurring as a function of age are now known to be of relevance for host health. therefore, there is a strong need for methods to detect such alterations in a rapid and comprehensive manner. in the present study, we developed and validated a high-throughput real-time quantitative pcr-based analysis platform, termed 'gut low-density array' (gulda). the platform was designed for simultaneous ana ...201222967145
[the new microbiological hazards in food].this paper describes the new microbiological hazards in food. for protecting human health, nowadays food safety authorities face with many challenges, that years ago were largely unheard. in 2011 verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli o104:h4 has been isolated in germany. strain came from fenugreek sprouts originated from egypt. it was characterized by unique features such as presence of enteroaggregative escherichia coli genes (aata, aggr, aap, agga, aggc) and resistance to most antibiotics. in pol ...201223631259
lipid diversity among botulinum neurotoxin-producing clostridia.clostridium botulinum has been classified into four groupings (groups i to iv) based on physiological characteristics and 16s rrna sequencing. we have examined the lipid compositions of 11 representative strains of c. botulinum and a strain of clostridium sporogenes by 2d-tlc and by ms. all strains contained phosphatidylglycerol (pg), cardiolipin (cl) and phosphatidylethanolamine (pe) in both the all-acyl and the alk-1'-enyl (plasmalogen) forms. five strains in proteolytic group i, which are rel ...201222837302
clostridium difficile infection associated with antituberculous agents in a patient with tuberculous pericarditis.clostridium difficile can cause pseudomembranous colitis (pmc). antimicrobial agent exposure is a risk factor for clostridium difficile-associated disease, whereas the use of antituberculous (anti-tb) agents is not. we herein report a case of pmc-associated with antituberculous therapy. a 63-year-old woman with tuberculous pericarditis treated with anti-tb agents was admitted for abdominal pain and diarrhea. on colonoscopy, mucoid exudate and yellowish plaque lesions were observed. the anti-tb a ...201323812197
genetic characteristics of toxigenic clostridia and toxin gene evolution.clostridia comprise a heterogenous group of environmental bacteria containing 15 pathogenic species, which produce the most potent toxins. the origin of toxins is still enigmatic. it is hypothesized that toxins exhibiting an enzymatic activity have derived from hydrolytic enzymes, which are abundantly secreted by these bacteria, and that pore-forming toxins have evolved from an ancestor transmembrane protein. the presence of related toxin genes in distinct clostridium species and the variability ...201323707611
evaluation of probiotics in diets with different nutrient densities on growth performance, blood characteristics, relative organ weight and breast meat characteristics in broilers.1. a total of 720 1-d-old broilers were used in a 28 d experiment to determine the effects of probiotic supplementation in diets with different dietary nutrient densities. 2. birds were randomly allotted to one of the 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (12 replicateswith 15 broilers per replicate) with two levels of nutrient density [high nutrient density (metabolisable energy (me) 12.7 mj/kg and crude protein (cp) 230.3 g/kg for 1-7 d; me 13.2 mj/kg and cp 220.3 g/kg for 8-28 d) or l ...201324112072
growth-inhibiting and morphostructural effects of constituents identified in asarum heterotropoides root on human intestinal bacteria.the growth-inhibiting and morphostructural effects of seven constituents identified in asarum heterotropoides root on 14 intestinal bacteria were compared with those of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin.201324083511
effects of antibiotics on bacterial species composition and metabolic activities in chemostats containing defined populations of human gut microorganisms.the composition and metabolic activities of the human colonic microbiota are modulated by a number of external factors, including diet and antibiotic therapy. changes in the structure and metabolism of the gut microbiota may have long-term consequences for host health. the large intestine harbors a complex microbial ecosystem comprising several hundreds of different bacterial species, which complicates investigations on intestinal physiology and ecology. to facilitate such studies, a highly simp ...201323403424
genetic diversity of the flagellin genes of clostridium botulinum groups i and ii.botulinum neurotoxins (bonts) are produced by phenotypically and genetically different clostridium species, including clostridium botulinum and some strains of clostridium baratii (serotype f) and clostridium butyricum (serotype e). bont-producing clostridia responsible for human botulism encompass strains of group i (secreting proteases, producing toxin serotype a, b, or f, and growing optimally at 37°c) and group ii (nonproteolytic, producing toxin serotype e, b, or f, and growing optimally at ...201323603687
pontic morphology as local risk factor in root decay and periodontal disease.in absence of treatment, old single edentulous spaces are subjected to progressively decrease in length due to tilting and rotation of the teeth situated mesial and distal. lately when these spaces are prosthetically restored with a bridge and these teeth are becoming abutments, sanitizing of the prosthetic restoration is achieved with difficulty, the space between the pontic and the gingival surface becoming an area rich in pathogens that can cause various complications on the abutments.201323771082
structure and genetic content of the megaplasmids of neurotoxigenic clostridium butyricum type e strains from italy.we determined the genetic maps of the megaplasmids of six neutoroxigenic clostridium butyricum type e strains from italy using molecular and bioinformatics techniques. the megaplasmids are circular, not linear as we had previously proposed. the differently-sized megaplasmids share a genetic region that includes structural, metabolic and regulatory genes. in addition, we found that a 168 kb genetic region is present only in the larger megaplasmids of two tested strains, whereas it is absent from ...201323967192
a genetic and metabolic approach to redirection of biochemical pathways of clostridium butyricum for enhancing hydrogen production.clostridium butyricum, a well known h(2) producing bacterium, produces lactate, butyrate, acetate, ethanol, and co(2) as its main by-products from glucose. the conversion of pyruvate to lactate, butyrate and ethanol involves oxidation of nadh. it was hypothesized that the nadh could be increased if the formation of these by-products could be eliminated, resulting in enhancing h(2) yield. herein, this study aimed to establish a genetic and metabolic approach for enhancing h(2) yield via redirecti ...201322753004
in vitro protective efficacy of clostridium butyricum against fish pathogen infections.most pathogens in intestine are opportunist, called "opportunistic pathogens" that usually do not cause disease in a healthy host. only when the host's resistance is lowered or the intestinal microecological balance is destroyed, the opportunistic pathogens are capable of causing disease. here, two opportunistic pathogens, salmonella enteritidis and vibrio parahaemolyticus were chosen to test the possible antagonistic effect of the probiotic agent clostridium butyricum on these pathogens infecti ...201324426150
growth limiting ph, water activity, and temperature for neurotoxigenic strains of clostridium butyricum.some rare strains of clostridium butyricum carry the gene encoding the botulinal type e neurotoxin and must be considered as possible hazards in certain types of food. the limiting growth conditions for c. butyricum were determined in peptone yeast glucose starch (pygs) broth incubated anaerobically at 30°c for up to 42 days. the minimum ph values permitting growth depended on the acidulant and strain. organic acids were more effective at inhibiting growth than hcl as expected. the lowest ph val ...201324195005
clostridium butyricum miyairi 588 improves high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats.non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (nafld) has become a common liver disease, as its prevalence has increased markedly in recent decades. the aim of the present study was to examine the improving effect of clostridium butyricum miyairi 588 (cbm588), a probiotic in clinical use for antibiotic-associated diarrhea, against high-fat diet (hfd)-induced fatty liver in rats.201324166662
genome sequence of clostridium butyricum strain dsm 10702, a promising producer of biofuels and biochemicals.clostridium butyricum strains have been considered promising producers of biofuels and biochemicals, such as hydrogen, butanol, butyric acid, and 1,3-propanediol. here, we present a 4.59-mb assembly of the genome sequence of dsm 10702 (vpi 3266), a type strain of c. butyricum.201323908293
biohydrogen production from microalgal biomass: energy requirement, co2 emissions and scale-up scenarios.this paper presents a life cycle inventory of biohydrogen production by clostridium butyricum through the fermentation of the whole scenedesmus obliquus biomass. the main purpose of this work was to determine the energy consumption and co2 emissions during the production of hydrogen. this was accomplished through the fermentation of the microalgal biomass cultivated in an outdoor raceway pond and the preparation of the inoculum and culture media. the scale-up scenarios are discussed aiming for a ...201323867534
antimicrobial susceptibility of enterococcus strains used in clinical practice as probiotics.the aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibilities of probiotic strains that are suggested to be effective for preventing antibiotics-associated diarrhea (aad). the minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) of 17 antibiotics against probiotic strains were tested by the agar plate dilution method or broth microdilution method. in all, eight probiotic strains containing enterococcus faecalis, bifidobacterium spp., clostridium butyricum, and lactobacillus acidophilus were teste ...201323775143
a single strain of clostridium butyricum induces intestinal il-10-producing macrophages to suppress acute experimental colitis in mice.imbalance in gut bacterial composition provokes host proinflammatory responses causing diseases such as colitis. colonization with a mixture of clostridium species from clusters iv and xiva was shown to suppress colitis through the induction of il-10-producing regulatory t (treg) cells. we demonstrate that a distinct clostridium strain from cluster i, clostridium butyricum (cb), prevents acute experimental colitis in mice through induction of il-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine. however, while ...201323768495
enhancement effect of silver nanoparticles on fermentative biohydrogen production using mixed bacteria.silver nanoparticles were added into anaerobic batch reactors to enhance acidogenesis and fermentative hydrogen production simultaneously. the effects of silver nanoparticles concentration (0-200 nmol l(-1)) and inorganic nitrogen concentration (0-4.125 g l(-1)) on cell growth and hydrogen production were investigated using glucose-fed mixed bacteria dominated by clostridium butyricum. the tests with silver nanoparticles exhibited much higher h2 yields than the blank, and the maximum hydrogen yi ...201323743428
effects of clostridium butyricum and enterococcus faecium on growth performance, lipid metabolism, and cecal microbiota of broiler chickens.to investigate the effects of clostridium butyricum and enterococcus faecium on the growth performance, lipid metabolism, and cecal microbiota of broilers, 264 one-day-old male ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly allocated into four treatments with six replicates in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement and fed four diets with two levels of c. butyricum (0 or 1 × 10⁹ cfu/kg) and two levels of e. faecium (0 or 2 × 10⁹ cfu/kg) for 42 days. there was no significant interaction between c. butyricum and e. ...201323666481
short communication: jenny milk as an inhibitor of late blowing in cheese: a preliminary report.late blowing on semihard and hard cheese may have an important economic effect on dairy production. many studies have attempted to prevent this defect by physical treatment, the use of additives, and the use of bacteriocins. in this paper, we look at the effect of jenny milk as an inhibitor of blowing caused by clostridia and coliforms in ewe cheese making. bulk ewe and jenny milk samples were collected in the morning by mechanical milking and were refrigerated at 4°c. on the collected samples, ...201323587377
improving effect of metal and oxide nanoparticles encapsulated in porous silica on fermentative biohydrogen production by clostridium butyricum.this paper investigated the enhancement effect of nanometre-sized metallic (pd, ag and cu) or metallic oxide (fexoy) nanoparticles on fermentative hydrogen production from glucose by a clostridium butyricum strain. these nanoparticles (np) of about 2-3 nm were encapsulated in porous silica (sio2) and were added at very low concentration (10(-6) mol l(-1)) in batch hydrogen production test. the cultures containing iron oxide np produced 38% more hydrogen with a higher maximum h2 production rate ( ...201323428815
clostridium butyricum miyairi 588 shows antitumor effects by enhancing the release of trail from neutrophils through mmp-8.bacillus calmette-guérin (bcg) intravesical therapy against superficial bladder cancer is one of the most successful immunotherapies in cancer, though the precise mechanism has not been clarified. recent studies have demonstrated urinary tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (trail) levels to be higher in bcg-responsive patients than non-responders and shown that polymorphonuclear neutrophils (pmns) migrating to the bladder after bcg instillation release large amounts of trail. ...201323354042
photoheterotrophic growth of chlorella vulgaris esp6 on organic acids from dark hydrogen fermentation effluents.in this work, chlorella vulgaris esp6 was used to assimilate the soluble metabolites in the hydrogen fermentation broth of clostridium butyricum cgs5 to obtain valuable microalgae biomass. the results show that c. vulgaris esp6 could grow on the 4-fold diluted dark fermentation broth. acetate was efficiently utilized during the growth of c. vulgaris esp6, whereas the microalgae growth was inhibited by lactate, butyrate, and hco3(-) when their concentrations were higher than 0.5, 0.1, and 2.72 g/ ...201323305898
a gene-targeted approach to investigate the intestinal butyrate-producing bacterial community.butyrate, which is produced by the human microbiome, is essential for a well-functioning colon. bacteria that produce butyrate are phylogenetically diverse, which hinders their accurate detection based on conventional phylogenetic markers. as a result, reliable information on this important bacterial group is often lacking in microbiome research.201324451334
the potential of bacteria isolated from ruminal contents of seaweed-eating north ronaldsay sheep to hydrolyse seaweed components and produce methane by anaerobic digestion in vitro.the production of methane biofuel from seaweeds is limited by the hydrolysis of polysaccharides. the rumen microbiota of seaweed-eating north ronaldsay sheep was studied for polysaccharidic bacterial isolates degrading brown-seaweed polysaccharides. only nine isolates out of 65 utilized >90% of the polysaccharide they were isolated on. the nine isolates (eight prevotella spp. and one clostridium butyricum) utilized whole laminaria hyperborea extract and a range of seaweed polysaccharides, includ ...201323170956
[prolonged cultivation of an anaerobic bacterial community producing hydrogen].this paper studies various methods of long-term maintenance of the process of hydrogen evolution during the growth of an aerobic bacterial community on a starch-containing environment. when cultured in separable trip fermentation mode for 72 days, from 0.10 to 0.23 h2/l of medium/day was formed. the regime of regular reseeding lasted more than 100 days, forming an average of 0.81 1 h2/l of medium/day. the advantages and disadvantages of different methods of microbial hydrogen production during a ...201322586916
draft genome sequence of clostridium butyricum strain nor 33234, isolated from an elderly patient with diarrhea.clostridium butyricum is one of the species frequently present in patients' stool samples. however, the identification of this species is sometimes difficult. here, we present the draft genome of clostridium butyricum nor 33234, which was isolated from a patient with suspected clostridium difficile infection-associated diarrhea and resembles clostridium clostridioforme in biochemical tests.201425540356
acid tolerance response (atr) of microbial communities during the enhanced biohydrogen process via cascade acid stress.enhanced biohydrogen production via cascade acid stress on microbial communities, structure patterns of the microbial communities revealed by plfas, and the succession of biohydrogen related species against cascade acid stress were all investigated. it was found that hydrogen production could be improved from 48.7 to 79.4ml/gvs after cascade acid stress. in addition, the gram negative (g(-)) bacteria were found to be more tolerant to organic acids than those of the gram positive (g(+)) bacteria, ...201424434699
16s rrna gene sequencing, multilocus sequence analysis, and mass spectrometry identification of the proposed new species "clostridium neonatale".in 2002, an outbreak of necrotizing enterocolitis in a canadian neonatal intensive care unit was associated with a proposed novel species of clostridium, "clostridium neonatale." to date, there are no data about the isolation, identification, or clinical significance of this species. additionally, c. neonatale has not been formally classified as a new species, rendering its identification challenging. indeed, the c. neonatale 16s rrna gene sequence shows high similarity to another clostridium sp ...201425232167
crystal structure of (s)-3-hydroxybutyryl-coa dehydrogenase from clostridium butyricum and its mutations that enhance reaction kinetics.3-hydroxybutyryl-coa dehydrogenase is an enzyme that catalyzes the second step in the biosynthesis of n-butanol from acetyl-coa, in which acetoacetyl-coa is reduced to 3-hydroxybutyryl-coa. to understand the molecular mechanisms of n-butanol biosynthesis, we determined the crystal structure of 3-hydroxybutyryl-coa dehydrogenase from clostridium butyricum (cbhbd). the monomer structure of cbhbd exhibits a two-domain topology, with n- and c-terminal domains, and the dimerization of the enzyme was ...201425112316
biotechnological potential of clostridium butyricum bacteria.in response to demand from industry for microorganisms with auspicious biotechnological potential, a worldwide interest has developed in bacteria and fungi isolation. microorganisms of interesting metabolic properties include non-pathogenic bacteria of the genus clostridium, particularly c. acetobutylicum, c. butyricum and c. pasteurianum. a well-known property of c. butyricum is their ability to produce butyric acid, as well as effectively convert glycerol to 1,3-propanediol (38.2 g/l). a conve ...201425477923
hypothetical glycerol pathways of newly isolated strains capable of 1,3-propanediol production.study presented here demonstrates the ability of three newly isolated strains, obtained from environmental probes (manure, bottom sediment, and food waste) and identified as clostridium bifermentans, clostridium butyricum, and hafnia alvei, to synthesize 1,3-propanediol (1,3-pd), organic acids (such as lactic, acetic, fumaric, succinic, and butyric acids), and ethanol from glycerol. the production of 1,3-pd as well as the glycerol pathways in c. bifermentans and h. alvei cells have not been inve ...201425473655
exploring the genome of a butyric acid producer, clostridium butyricum incqs635.the draft genome sequence of clostridium butyricum incqs635 was obtained by means of ion sequencing. the genome provides further insight into the genetic repertoire involved with metabolic pathways related to the fermentation of different compounds and organic solvents synthesis (i.e., butyric acid) with biofuel applications.201425414496
genome sequence of the neurotoxigenic clostridium butyricum strain 5521.clostridium strains from six phylogenetic groups, c. botulinum groups i to iv, c. baratii, and c. butyricum, display the capacity to produce botulinum neurotoxin. here, we present the genome sequence of a c. butyricum isolate, the neurotoxigenic strain 5521, which encodes the type e botulinum neurotoxin.201424970833
[warfarin effects diminishment by the clostridium butyricum preparation after cardiac surgery; report of a case].a 55-year-old gentleman diagnosed with severe aortic insufficiency and annuloaortic ectasia underwent modified bentall procedure using mechanical valve. anticoagulation therapy with warfarin was introduced after surgery, but sufficient anticoagulation effect was not achieved with a large amount of dosage. after discontinuing the use of the clostridium butyricum preparation on postoperative day 29, sufficient anticoagulationt effect was obtained within several days. clostridium butyricum might ch ...201424917411
clostridium butyricum reduce lipogenesis through bacterial wall components and butyrate.intervention strategies for obesity are global issues that require immediate attention. the objective of this study was to assess the possibility that clostridium butyricum and its potential components could reduce lipogenesis. co-culture experiments of caco-2 cells and 1 × 10(6), 1 × 10(7), and 1 × 10(8) cfu/ml of c. butyricum were set up to monitor the cytotoxicity of c. butyricum and the changes of angiopoietin-like protein 4 (angptl4) mrna expression. it was found that cell viability was not ...201424878750
impact of organic loading rate on biohydrogen production in an up-flow anaerobic packed bed reactor (uanpbr).this study assesses the impact of organic loading rate on biohydrogen production from glucose in an up-flow anaerobic packed bed reactor (uanpbr). two mesophilic uapbrs (uanpbr1 and 2) were tested at organic loading rates (olrs) ranging from 6.5 to 51.4 g cod l(-1)d(-1). to overcome biomass washout, design modifications were made in the uanpbr2 to include a settling zone to capture the detached biomass. the design modifications in uanpbr2 increased the average hydrogen yield from 0.98 to 2.0 mol ...201424865326
antibacterial activity against clostridium genus and antiradical activity of the essential oils from different origin.in the present study, the antimicrobial and antiradical activities of 15 essential oils were investigated. the antimicrobial activities were determined by using agar disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods against clostridium genus and antioxidant properties of essential oils by testing their scavenging effect on dpph radicals activities. we determined the antibacterial activity of clostridium butyricum, clostridium hystoliticum, clostridium intestinale, clostridium perfringens and clostr ...201424813985
effects of a bacteria-based probiotic on ruminal ph, volatile fatty acids and bacterial flora of holstein calves.twelve ruminally cannulated holstein calves (age, 12 ± 3 weeks) were used to identify the effect of a probiotic comprised of lactobacillus plantarum, enterococcus faecium and clostridium butyricum on ruminal components. the calves were adapted to a diet containing a 50% high-concentrate (standard diet) for 1 week, and then, the probiotic was given once daily for 5 days (day 1-5) at 1.5 or 3.0 g/100 kg body weight to groups of four calves each. four additional calves fed the standard diet without ...201424614603
effects of clostridium butyricum on growth performance, immune function, and cecal microflora in broiler chickens challenged with escherichia coli k88.this study was conducted to investigate the effects of clostridium butyricumon growth performance, immune function, and cecal microflora in broiler chickens challenged with escherichia coli k88. three hundred sixty 1-d-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into 4 treatments: negative control (nc) birds were fed a basal diet and not challenged with e. coli k88; positive control (pc) birds were fed a basal diet and challenged with e. coli k88; c. butyricum treatment (cb) birds were fed a diet ...201424570422
direct bioconversion of raw corn stalk to hydrogen by a new strain clostridium sp. fs3.a new strain fs3 which could achieve an efficient bioconversion of raw corn stalk to hydrogen had been isolated from anaerobic acclimated sludge, and identified as clostridium butyricum on the basis of a series of physiological and biochemical experiments and 16s rdna gene sequence. the strain could utilize various carbon sources to produce hydrogen. on the basis of single-factor experiments, the response surface methodology (rsm) was performed to optimize the media for hydrogen production. the ...201424534789
characterization of romboutsia ilealis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from the gastro-intestinal tract of a rat, and proposal for the reclassification of five closely related members of the genus clostridium into the genera romboutsia gen. nov., intestinibacter gen. nov., terrisporobacter gen. nov. and asaccharospora gen. nov.a gram-positive staining, rod-shaped, non-motile, spore-forming obligately anaerobic bacterium, designated cribt, was isolated from the gastro-intestinal tract of a rat and characterized. the major cellular fatty acids of strain cribt were saturated and unsaturated straight-chain c12-c19 fatty acids, with c16:0 being the predominant fatty acid. the polar lipid profile comprised six glycolipids, four phospholipids and one lipid that did not stain with any of the specific spray reagents used. the ...201424480908
prolonged antibiotic use induces intestinal injury in mice that is repaired after removing antibiotic pressure: implications for empiric antibiotic therapy.metabolic profiling of urine and fecal extracts, histological investigation of intestinal ilea, and fecal metagenomics analyses were used to investigate effects of prolonged antibiotic use in mice. the study provides insight into the effects of extended empiric antibiotic therapy in humans. mice were administered a broad-spectrum antibiotic for four consecutive days followed by oral gavage with clostridium butyricum, an opportunistic gram-positive pathogenic bacteria commonly isolated in fecal a ...201426273236
immune-stimulatory effects of a bacteria-based probiotic on peripheral leukocyte subpopulations and cytokine mrna expression levels in scouring holstein calves.subpopulations of peripheral leukocytes and cytokine mrna expression levels were evaluated in scouring and healthy holstein calves (age 10 ± 5 days; n=42) treated with a probiotic consisting of lactobacillus plantarum, enterococcus faecium and clostridium butyricum. the calves were assigned to the scouring or healthy group and then subdivided into pathogen-positive treated (n=8), pathogen-positive control (n=8), pathogen-negative treated (n=6), pathogen-negative control (n=6), healthy treated (n ...201424451928
effects of a bacteria-based probiotic on subpopulations of peripheral leukocytes and their cytokine mrna expression in calves.eight holstein calves (10 ± 3 weeks) were used to examine the interaction between a bacteria-based probiotic agent (probiotic) and the function of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs). the probiotic, consisting of lactobacillus plantarum, enterococcus faecium and clostridium butyricum, was administered orally at 3.0 g/100 kg body weight to calves once daily for 5 consecutive days. calves given the vehicle alone with no probiotic served as the control. in the treatment group, increases in n ...201424131856
batch fermentative hydrogen production by enriched mixed culture: combination strategy and their microbial composition.the effect of individual and combined mixed culture on dark fermentative hydrogen production performance was investigated. mixed cultures from cow dung (c1), sewage sludge (c2), and pig slurry (c3) were enriched under strict anaerobic conditions at 37°c with glucose as the sole carbon source. biochemical hydrogen production test in peptone-yeast-glucose (pyg) and basal medium was performed for individual mixed cultures (c1, c2 and c3) and their combinations (c1-c2, c2-c3, c1-c3 and c1-c2-c3) at ...201424095211
scale-up of anaerobic 1,3-propanediol production by clostridium butyricum dsp1 from crude glycerol.as the production of biofuels from raw materials continuously increases, optimization of production processes is necessary. a very important issue is the development of wasteless methods of biodiesel production. one way of utilization of glycerol generated in biodiesel production is its microbial conversion to 1,3-pd (1,3-propanediol).201424555775
cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and x-ray crystallographic analysis of (s)-3-hydroxybutyryl-coa dehydrogenase from clostridium butyricum.(s)-3-hydroxybutyryl-coa dehydrogenase from clostridium butyricum (cbhbd) is an enzyme that catalyzes the second step in the biosynthesis of n-butanol from acetyl-coa by the reduction of acetoacetyl-coa to 3-hydroxybutyryl-coa. the cbhbd protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of 2 m ammonium sulfate, 0.1 m caps ph 10.5, 0.2 m lithium sulfate at 295 k. x-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 2.3 å on a synchrotron beamline. ...201424699745
biorefinery development through utilization of biodiesel industry by-products as sole fermentation feedstock for 1,3-propanediol production.rapeseed meal (rsm) hydrolysate was evaluated as substitute for commercial nutrient supplements in 1,3-propanediol (pdo) fermentation using the strain clostridium butyricum vpi 1718. rsm was enzymatically converted into a generic fermentation feedstock, enriched in amino acids, peptides and various micro-nutrients, using crude enzyme consortia produced via solid state fermentation by a fungal strain of aspergillus oryzae. initial free amino nitrogen concentration influenced pdo production in bat ...201424650530
reduced catabolic protein expression in clostridium butyricum dsm 10702 correlate with reduced 1,3-propanediol synthesis at high glycerol loading.higher initial glycerol loadings (620 mm) have a negative effect on growth and 1,3-propanediol (1,3-pdo) synthesis in clostridium butyricum dsm 10702 relative to lower initial glycerol concentrations (170 mm). to help understand metabolic shifts associated with elevated glycerol, protein expression levels were quantified by lc/ms/ms analyses. thirty one (31) proteins involved in conversion of glycerol to 1,3-pdo and other by-products were analyzed by multiple reaction monitoring (mrm). the analy ...201425401066
the influence of fat and monoacylglycerols on growth of spore-forming bacteria in processed cheese.highly undesirable microbial contaminants of processed cheese are endospore-forming bacteria of the genera bacillus and clostridium. survival of bacillus subtilis, b. cereus, clostridium butyricum and c. sporogenes was examined in model processed cheese samples supplemented with monoacylglycerols. in processed cheese samples, monoacylglycerols of undecanoic, undecenoic, lauric and adamantane-1-carboxylic acid at concentration of 0.15% w/w prevented the growth and multiplication of both bacillus ...201424859188
effects of multistrain probiotics on growth performance, apparent ileal nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, cecal microbial shedding, and excreta odor contents in broilers.this experiment was conducted to investigate the efficacy of lactobacillus acidophilus, bacillus subtilis, and clostridium butyricum supplementation in broilers. a total of 400 one-day-old mixed sex ross 308 broilers with an initial average bw of 46 ± 0.5 g were randomly allotted into 4 treatments with 5 replicate pens per treatment and 20 broilers in each pen for 35 d. dietary treatments were (1) an antibiotic-free diet (con), (2) con + 5 mg/kg of avilamycin, (3) con + 1 × 10(5) cfu of multistr ...201424570458
unraveling the dha cluster in citrobacter werkmanii: comparative genomic analysis of bacterial 1,3-propanediol biosynthesis clusters.in natural 1,3-propanediol (pdo) producing microorganisms such as klebsiella pneumoniae, citrobacter freundii and clostridium sp., the genes coding for pdo producing enzymes are grouped in a dha cluster. this article describes the dha cluster of a novel candidate for pdo production, citrobacter werkmanii dsm17579 and compares the cluster to the currently known pdo clusters of enterobacteriaceae and clostridiaceae. moreover, we attribute a putative function to two previously unannotated orfs, orf ...201423996279
[traumatic wound botulism].botulism is a rare illness caused by a potent neurotoxin produced by the bacterium of the clostridium family. clostridium botulinum is the most frequent one, but clostridium baratti and clostridium butyricum are also neurotoxins producers. there are seven neurotoxins types, a to g; a, b, e, f and g cause human botulism. every neurotoxin type blocks cholinergic transmission at the myoneural junction. the least frequent syndrome results from clostridium botulinum colonization of a wound and it is ...201424584800
molecular epidemiology of infant botulism in california and elsewhere, 1976-2010.infant botulism (ib), first identified in california in 1976, results from clostridium botulinum spores that germinate, multiply, and produce botulinum neurotoxin (bont) in the immature intestine. from 1976 to 2010 we created an archive of 1090 bont-producing isolates consisting of 1012 ib patient (10 outpatient, 985 hospitalized, 17 sudden death), 25 food, 18 dust/soils, and 35 other strains.201424924163
arrangement of the clostridium baratii f7 toxin gene cluster with identification of a σ factor that recognizes the botulinum toxin gene cluster promoters.botulinum neurotoxin (bont) is the most poisonous substances known and its eight toxin types (a to h) are distinguished by the inability of polyclonal antibodies that neutralize one toxin type to neutralize any of the other seven toxin types. infant botulism, an intestinal toxemia orphan disease, is the most common form of human botulism in the united states. it results from swallowed spores of clostridium botulinum (or rarely, neurotoxigenic clostridium butyricum or clostridium baratii) that ge ...201424853378
probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea.antibiotics are frequently prescribed in children. they alter the microbial balance within the gastrointestinal tract, commonly resulting in antibiotic-associated diarrhea (aad). probiotics may prevent aad via restoration of the gut microflora.201526695080
proposal to restrict the genus clostridium (prazmowski) to clostridium butyricum and related species.the genus clostridium as presently constituted is phylogenetically and phenotypically incoherent. polyphasic taxonomic data indicate that the genus comprises a collection of very heterogeneous species. numerous phylogenetic studies, principally based on sequencing of the 16s rrna gene indicate that the genus clostridium should be restricted to clostridium cluster i as clostridium sensu stricto. despite these findings, authors continue to add new species to the genus clostridium that do not fall ...201526643615
specific immunotherapy in combination with clostridium butyricum inhibits allergic inflammation in the mouse intestine.the current therapy on allergic inflammation is unsatisfactory. probiotics improve the immunity in the body. this study aims to test a hypothesis that administration with clostridium butyricum (c. butyricum) enforces the effect of specific immunotherapy (sit) on intestinal allergic inflammation. in this study, an ovalbumin (ova) specific allergic inflammation mouse model was created. the mice were treated with sit or/and c. butyricum. the results showed that the intestinal allergic inflammation ...201526627845
the functional dlt operon of clostridium butyricum controls the d-alanylation of cell wall components and influences cell septation and vancomycin-induced lysis.clostridium butyricum is a gram-positive bacterium involved in the development of necrotizing enterocolitis (nec) in preterm infants. to colonize the digestive tract, components of the cell wall of c. butyricum must interact with the intestinal mucosa. the d-alanylation of cell wall components such as teichoic acids results in a net positive charge on the cell wall, which is important for many functions of gram-positive bacteria. notably, d-alanylation mediates resistance to antimicrobial peptid ...201526363197
laboratory investigation of the first case of botulism caused by clostridium butyricum type e toxin in the united states.we report here the laboratory investigation of the first known case of botulism in the united states caused by clostridium butyricum type e. this investigation demonstrates the importance of extensive microbiological examination of specimens, which resulted in the isolation of this organism.201526246485
potential protective effects of clostridium butyricum on experimental gastric ulcers in mice.to investigate the effects of clostridium butyricum (c. butyricum) on experimental gastric ulcers (gus) induced by alcohol, restraint cold stress, or pyloric ligation in mice, respectively.201526217085
biohydrogen production by co-fermentation of crude glycerol and apple pomace hydrolysate using co-culture of enterobacter aerogenes and clostridium butyricum.co-substrate utilization of various wastes with complementary characteristics can provide a complete medium for higher hydrogen production. this study evaluated potential of apple pomace hydrolysate (aph) co-fermented with crude glycerol (cg) for increased h2 production and decreased by-products formation. the central composite design (ccd) along with response surface methodology (rsm) was used as tool for optimization and 15 g/l of cg, 5 g/l of aph and 15% (v/v) inoculum were found to be optimu ...201526142996
smad2 and smad3 inversely regulate tgf-β autoinduction in clostridium butyricum-activated dendritic cells.colonization with a mixture of clostridium species has been shown to induce accumulation of induced regulatory t (itreg) cells in the colon. transforming growth factor-β (tgf-β) is an essential factor for itreg cell induction; however, the relationship between clostridium species and tgf-β remains to be clarified. here we demonstrated that a gram-positive probiotic bacterial strain, clostridium butyricum (c. butyricum), promoted itreg cell generation in the intestine through induction of tgf-β1 ...201526141582
effectiveness of probiotic therapy for the prevention of relapse in patients with inactive ulcerative colitis.to evaluate the effectiveness of probiotic therapy for suppressing relapse in patients with inactive ulcerative colitis (uc).201526019464
thrombospondin 1 modulates monocyte properties to suppress intestinal mucosal inflammation.monocytes (mos) play an important role in the pathogenesis of intestinal mucosal inflammation. this study aims to investigate the mechanism by which the intestinal epithelial cell-derived thrombospondin 1 (tsp1) modulates mo properties and regulates intestinal inflammatory responses. in this study, the production of tsp1 by intestinal epithelial cells was evaluated by quantitative real-time pcr and western blotting. the properties of mos were analyzed by flow cytometry. a mouse model of colitis ...201525998580
a breakthrough in probiotics: clostridium butyricum regulates gut homeostasis and anti-inflammatory response in inflammatory bowel disease.intestinal immune homeostasis is regulated by gut microbiota, including beneficial and pathogenic microorganisms. imbalance in gut bacterial constituents provokes host proinflammatory responses causing diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (ibd). the development of next-generation sequencing technology allows the identification of microbiota alterations in ibd. several studies have shown reduced diversity in the gut microbiota of patients with ibd. advances in gnotobiotic technology have m ...201525940150
effects of clostridium butyricum on antioxidant properties, meat quality and fatty acid composition of broiler birds.consumers are becoming increasingly interested in food containing high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (pufa). pufa are considered as functional ingredients to prevent cardiovascular disease. the present study aimed to evaluate the effects of clostridium butyricum on antioxidant properties, meat quality and fatty acid composition of broilers.201525896790
genome sequencing of clostridium butyricum dku-01, isolated from infant feces.clostridium butyricum is a butyric acid-producing anaerobic bacteriuma, and commonly present as gut microbiota in humans. this species has been used as a probiotic for the prevention of diarrhea in humans. in this study, we report the draft genome of c. butyricum dku-01, which was isolated from infant feces, to better understand the characteristics of this strain so that it can later be used in the development of probiotic products.201525861391
clostridium butyricum combined with bifidobacterium infantis probiotic mixture restores fecal microbiota and attenuates systemic inflammation in mice with antibiotic-associated diarrhea.antibiotic-associated diarrhea (aad) is one of the most common complications of most types of antibiotics. our aim was to determine the efficacy of clostridium butyricum, bifidobacterium infantis, and their mixture for aad treatment in mice. aad models were administered with single probiotic strain and probiotic mixture for short term and long term to evaluate the changes of the composition and diversity of intestinal microbiota, histopathology of the colon, and the systemic inflammation. our da ...201525802855
trek1 contributes to maintaining nasal epithelial barrier integrity.epithelial barrier integrity is critical to maintain the homeostasis in the body. the regulatory mechanism of the epithelial barrier function has not been fully understood. this study aims to elucidate the role of the twik-related potassium channel-1 (trek1) in the regulation of the epithelial barrier function of the nasal mucosa. in this study, the levels of trek1 were assessed by real time rt-pcr and western blotting. the epithelial barrier function of the rat nasal epithelia was evaluated by ...201525778785
effects of clostridium butyricum on growth performance, antioxidation, and immune function of broilers.to investigate the effects of clostridium butyricum on growth performance, antioxidation, and immune function of broilers, 320 one-day-old arbor acres commercial male chicks were assigned to one of 5 treatments with 8 replicates in a completely randomized design for 42 d. the 5 treatments were basal diet (control), basal diet supplemented with 2.5×10(8) cfu c. butyricum/kg (cb1), basal diet supplemented with 5×10(8) cfu c. butyricum/kg (cb2), basal diet supplemented with 1×10(9) cfu c. butyricum ...201525717087
neuroprotective effects of clostridium butyricum against vascular dementia in mice via metabolic butyrate.probiotics actively participate in neuropsychiatric disorders. however, the role of gut microbiota in brain disorders and vascular dementia (vad) remains unclear. we used a mouse model of vad induced by a permanent right unilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (ruccao) to investigate the neuroprotective effects and possible underlying mechanisms of clostridium butyricum. following ruccao, c. butyricum was intragastrically administered for 6 successive weeks. cognitive function was estimated ...201526523278
induction of peroxisomes by butyrate-producing probiotics.we previously found that peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11a (pex11a) deficiency is associated with a reduction in peroxisome abundance and impaired fatty acid metabolism in hepatocytes, and results in steatosis. in the present study, we investigated whether butyrate induces pex11a expression and peroxisome proliferation, and studied its effect on lipid metabolism. c57bl/6 mice fed standard chow or a high-fat diet (hfd) were treated with tributyrin, 4-phelybutyrate acid (4-pba), or the butyrate-pr ...201525659146
regulation of trek1 expression in nasal mucosa with allergic rhinitis by specific immunotherapy.epithelial barrier dysfunction is involved in the pathogenesis of allergic disorders, such as nasal allergy. twik-related k(+) 1 (trek1) potassium channels are required in the maintenance of the epithelial barrier function. this study aims to investigate the role of antigen-specific immunotherapy (sit) in the regulation of trek1 expression in the nasal mucosa. in this study, patients with nasal allergy were treated with sit and/or clostridium butyricum. the expression of trek1 and histone demeth ...201525529528
effect of 1,3-propanediol, organic acids, and ethanol on growth and metabolism of clostridium butyricum dsp1.knowledge of tolerance of bacteria to toxic stress is important, especially for processes targeted at high final titers of product. information on environmental limits and stress responses may help during selection of strains or design and control of processes. the influence of the main product and its co-products on the process of 1,3-propanediol (pd) synthesis was determined. adaptation to toxic compounds was noticed as clostridium butyricum dsp1 was less sensitive to the addition of these fac ...201525524700
detection of pathogenic clostridia in biogas plant wastes.as the number of biogas plants has grown rapidly in the last decade, the amount of potentially contaminated wastes with pathogenic clostridium spp. has increased as well. this study reports the results from examining 203 biogas plant wastes (bgws). the following clostridium spp. with different frequencies could be isolated via a new enrichment medium (krüne medium) and detected by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms): clostridium perfringens ...201524984829
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