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[tumor localization in vivo on the basis of scintigraphic detection of clostridium rods by means of 131j-labeled antibodies and f(ab')2 antibody fragments].the authors report about investigations for localization of tumours in vivo by scintigrafic iddntification of clostridium butyricum jena h8 by 131i-labelled antibodies and by 131i-labelled f(ab')2-fragment antibodies in mouse transplantation-tumour uvt 15264. the application of 131i-labelled anti-clostridial-rod-antibodies in tumour bearing mice demonstrates increase of radioactivity in tumours of animals, pretreated by spores, as well as in animals without pretreatment. these appearently unspec ...1979532240
the enzymes of phospholipid synthesis in clostridium butyricum.we have examined extracts of clostridium butyricum for several enzymes of phospholipid synthesis. membrane particles were shown to catalyze the formation of cdp-diglyceride from [3h]ctp and phosphatidic acid. the reaction was dependent on mg2+ and stimulated by monovalent cations. cdp-diglyceride formed in vitro was found to be a substrate for both phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthetase and phosphatidylserine synthetase. the formation of phosphatidylglycerophosphate from added cdp-diglyceride a ...19806257816
neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis associated with penicillin-resistant, toxigenic clostridium butyricum.the cause of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (nec) is unknown. an association between nec and clostridial infection has been reported from several centers, but the organisms have not been extensively characterized. clostridium butyricum was isolated from the peritoneal fluid and cerebrospinal fluid of a neonate with nec. the organism was resistant to the penicillins, but sensitive to vancomycin. toxin production was demonstrated. although the role of clostridial toxins in the pathogenesis of ...19806905971
[regulation of nitrogenase activity and biosynthesis in clostridium butyricum].the effect of various factors on the activity and biosynthesis of nitrogenase in clostridium butyricum was estimated by the rate of acetylene reduction at different growth phases in the static culture. the activity of nitrogenase was found to be low in vegetative cells; it increased and reached the maximum at the stage of prospore formation and decreased in the course of sporulation. the duration of different stages in the cell growth cycle depended on temperature and the composition of the medi ...19806931281
[application of the serological clostridium assay in tumour diagnostics (author's transl)].the suitability for serologic tumour diagnostics of the non-oncolysing strain clostridium butyricum cnrz 528 has been investigated. by introducing the transplantable brown pearce tumour of the rabbit and spontaneous tumours of the dog as test models the antibody production against clostridial rods--indicating malignant growth as had been proved with the möse strain cl. oncolyticum m55--has been evaluated. it could be established--utilizing the complement fixation test--that one serological metho ...19807222791
[conditions for effective hydrogen photoevolution by chloroplasts in the presence of bacterial hydrogenase].the hydrogen photoevolution was studied to compare the efficiency of chloroplasts or solubilized chlorophyll in the presence of hydrogenase from clostridium butyricum and methylviologen which links the electron transfer from photosystems to the exogenous enzyme. the hydrogen evolution by chloroplasts in the absence of exogeneous electron donors (or in the presence of irreversibly oxidized dithiotreitol or cysteine) is probably limited by cyclic electron flow shot-circuiting the photosystem 1. ef ...19807383027
[investigations on the characterization of a clostridial strain for tumour diagnosis (author's transl)].careful delineation of a clostrial strain for human tumour diagnosis as against oncolytic tissue-active clostridial strains should be obligatory. we investigated the possibility to differentiate clostridium butyricum cnrz 528 (bergère) against three different strains kept in our institute by means of biological, biochemical and by phage typing procedures. in addition, consistency in the control of half-technological spore production is required. it could be confirmed by this study that oncolytic ...19807424236
[reversible effect of light on hydrogen release by clostridium butyricum]. 19807448228
[host range testing of tumour-selective strains of clostridium butyricum by bacteriophage 5 (author's transl)].subcultures of clostridium oncolyticum m55 and in a slightly modified manner of an oncolytic strain of cl. butyricum h8 are differentiated by lysotypic reaction of the bacteriophage 5 from several tumour-selective non-oncolytic strains and subcultures of cl. butyricum.19807447631
[fixation of molecular nitrogen and activity of the microflora in the bottoms of certain lakes in the estonian ssr and the rybinsk reservoir].the rate of molecular nitrogen fixation was determined in bottom grounds of three estonian lakes and the rybinsk water reservoir in the summer of 1977--1978. certain species of nitrogen fixing bacteria were found to be confined to lakes of certain trophic type. ecological niches with the mass growth of clostridium pasteurianum, azomonas agilis and clostridium butyricum were detected in the sediments of eutrophic lakes. ecological niches of az. insignis and cl. acetobutylicum occur in polyhumic l ...19807442573
efficiency of hydrogen photoproduction by chloroplast-bacterial hydrogenase systems.a comparative study of h(2) photoproduction by chloroplasts and solubilized chlorophyll was performed in the presence of hydrogenase preparations of clostridium butyricum. the photoproduction of h(2) by chloroplasts in the absence of exogenous electron donors, and with irreversibly oxidized dithiothreitol and cysteine, is thought to be limited by a cyclic transport of electrons wherein methylviologen short-circuits the electron transport in photosystem i. the efficiency of h(2) photoproduction b ...198016661554
biochemical energy conversion using immobilized whole cells of clostridium butyricum.hydrogen producing bacteria, clostridium butyricum, were immobilized in agar gel (2 per cent). the immobilized whole cells were employed for continuous production of hydrogen from alcohol factory waste waters. the hydrogen production rate became constant above bod 1500 ppm when hydrogen production was performed with a batch system. the immobilized whole cells continuously produced hydrogen over a 20-day period. the amount of hydrogen produced was about 6 ml/min/kg wet gels. hydrogen produced was ...198017941443
biocontrol: bacillus penetrans and related parasites of nematodes.bacillus penetrans mankau, 1975, previously described as duboscqia penetrans thorne 1940, is a candidate agent for biocontrol of nematodes. this review considers the life stages of this bacterium: vegetative growth phase, colony fragmentation, sporogenesis, soil phase, spore attachment, and penetration into larvae of root-knot nematodes. the morphology of the microthallus colonies and the unusual external features of the spore are discussed. taxonomic affinities with the actinomycetes, particula ...198019300701
non-toxigenic clostridia in babies.non-toxigenic clostridia, clostridium butyricum but occasionally c. paraputrificum, were isolated from mainly extra-alimentary sites of 28 babies in maternity hospital over a period of 40 weeks. during that time, c. butyricum was isolated from the blood of two babies who died of necrotising enterocolitis and of two babies without referable symptoms. otherwise these organisms appeared to be of no pathogenic significance.19817229104
phase behavior of ether lipids from clostridium butyricum.ether lipids have been isolated from the phospholipid fraction of clostridium butyricum ifo 3852 cells which had been grown in media devoid of biotin with added elaidic acid or oleic acid. the plasmalogen form of phosphatidylethanolamine (plasmenylethanolamine) from elaidate-grown cells was highly enriched with 18:1 in both the alk-1-enyl and acyl chains. a transition from the gel to liquid-crystalline state, with a peak maximum (tm) at 33 degrees c and enthalpy delta h = 5.7 kcal/mol, was obser ...19817248256
some properties of the clostridium butyricum group beta-lactamase.clostridium strain cb269, belonging to the butyricum group, produces a beta-lactamase. the substrate profile of this enzyme, as characterized by the microiodometric method, was that of a penicillinase: activity was slightly higher on ampicillin than on benzylpenicillin, while carbenicillin and methicillin were hydrolysed at lower rates. there was poor activity with cephalosporins. the enzyme was excreted during growth, and was inducible to a limited extent by cloxacillin or cefoxitin. the isoele ...19816978381
microbiology of wetwood: importance of pectin degradation and clostridium species in living trees.wetwood samples from standing trees of eastern cottonwood (populus deltoides), black poplar (populus nigra), and american elm (ulmus americana) contained high numbers of aerobic and anaerobic pectin-degrading bacteria (10 to 10 cells per g of wood). high activity of polygalacturonate lyase (</=0.5 u/ml) was also detected in the fetid liquid that spurted from wetwood zones in the lower trunk when the trees were bored. a prevalent pectin-degrading obligately anaerobic bacterium isolated from these ...198116345848
measurement of specific multiplication of an oncolytic and a nononcolytic strain of clostridium butyricum inside the tumour uvt 15264 of the mouse.clostridium butyricum was recultivated from tumour material after treatment of tumour-bearing mice with spores and counted by soft agar colony technique. the oncolytic strain cl. butyricum h8 grows inside the tumour uvt 15264 up to 8 x 10(8)/g during 48 h. in this time part of tumour became lysed. multiplication inside of this tumour by the tumour specific but nononcolytic strain cl. butyricum cnrz 528 could not be detected by application counting technique. combination of spore treatment with a ...19817032143
the gradostat: a bidirectional compound chemostat and its application in microbiological research.a multistage continuous culture system is described in which solutes are transferred between vessels in opposite directions simultaneously. the system, called a gradostat, produces opposing solute gradients and is a good laboratory model of many natural microbial ecosystems in which solute gradients are important. theoretical predictions concerning solute transfer were confirmed under steady-state and non steady-state conditions, using a coloured dye. paracoccus denitrificans grew anaerobically ...19817045277
[penicillin resistance due to the production of a beta-lactamase in clostridium butyricum].eight strains of clostridia of the butyricum group, resistant to penicillins were isolated from perinatal infections. mic's of these strains vary from 1,000 to 3,000 micrograms/ml for benzyl-penicillin, and from 5 to 10 micrograms/ml for cefoxitin. the substrate profile of the enzymes is that of a penicillinase.19816781777
[thermostable factor in clostridium butyricum responsible for experimental pathogenesis]. 19816788394
the effect of oxidation-reduction potential on spore germination, outgrowth, and vegetative growth of clostridium tetani, clostridium butyricum, and bacillus subtilis.spores of clostridium tetani germinated in liver broth with +580 mv as the starting eh value, and those of clostridium butyricum germinated in liver broth with an initial eh of +400 mv regardless of the presence or absence of a liquid paraffin covering. spores of bacillus subtilis germinated in liver broth with--100 mv as the starting eh value. also, it was found that there are two ranges of starting eh values for germination and vegetative growth of cl. tetani, cl. butyricum, and b. subtilis. i ...19826818433
clostridia isolated from the feces of infants during the first year of life.clostridia isolated from the feces of ten healthy infants during the first year of life were identified. all infants excreted clostridia during the first week of life; the most common species were clostridium butyricum, c. paraputrificum, and c. difficile. in the formula-fed infants colonization occurred consistently throughout the year, whereas in some breast-fed infants it was inhibited until weaning. the species isolated most frequently throughout the year were c. paraputrificum, c. butyricum ...19827062166
chemotherapy for tumours using clostridial oncolysis, antibiotics and cyclophosphamide: model trial on the uvt 15264 tumour.lysis of the uvt 15264 tumour in mice of the 17/berlin-buch strain as induced by intravenous injection of clostridium butyricum h8 spores is followed by the tumour diameter and survival time. in animals thus treated, tumour regression is incomplete and the mean survival time drops below that of tumour-bearing animals not treated with spores. with concurrent antibiotic treatment survival time is prolonged to exceed that of untreated animals, without affecting ocolysis-provoked tumour regression. ...19827082130
[treatment experiments with glucose-induced hyperglycaemia plus clostridium-spores on the jensen sarcoma of rats].investigations jensen's sarcoma-bearing wistar rats demonstrate the possibility to increase significantly the oncolytic effect of an apathogenic strain of clostridium butyricum (5 x 10(8) spores of cl. oncolyticum m 55 i.v.) by an artificial short time hyperglycaemia (achieved maximum blood level of glucose 28.87 +/- 8.05 mmol/l). the most impressive effect was observed after a repeated application of this combination at a distance of 7 days. both the hyperglycaemia and the application of spores ...19827138239
ether phospholipid asymmetry in clostridium butyricum. 19827181904
isolation and identification of anaerobic contaminants from a machine for producing processed cheese.some bacteria of the genus clostridium can contaminate milk. these bacteria can cause "the late gas" or "late blowing" defect in the cheese if this is made with milk containing such contaminants. in this study, six samples from a processed cheese contaminated in a manufacturing machine were analysed. out of 60 strains studied, 30 were classified as clostridium tyrobutyricum, 20 as clostridium butyricum, and 10 as desulfotomaculum ruminis.19826965246
new technologies to combat malignant tumours of the brain.1. the primary problem in an effective treatment of a glioblastoma is the prevention of a recurrence. 2. for that purpose were the following therapeutical procedures undertaken: (a) temporary implantation of radio cobalt in the brain itself (1957): (b) clostridium butyricum m 55 was used to render the centre of the tumour fluid (1967): (c) podophyllin was used to destroy the border of the tumour (1980); (d) the co2 laser beam (1975); (e) the electromagnetic heat induction deep in the brain (1973 ...19826287907
[analysis of the serodiagnostic reactions of the bacterium clostridium butyricum strain cnrz 528 using passive hemagglutination].for serologic tumour diagnostics a specific proof of antibodies against rods of clostridium butyricum cnrz 528 by passive hemagglutination has been described. we were able to prepare an antigen from the cell extract (crude-antigen) of rods without flagella by gel filtration, that after fixation on the surface of human-erythrocytes, stabilized by tannin or glutaraldehyde, agglutinates specifically with rod-antibodies of rabbit-hyperimmunserum. simultaneously however, there was no cross-reactivity ...19826219561
the role of intestinal bacteria in gallstone formation in animal model. a study on biliary lipid composition and bile acid profiles in bile, small intestinal contents and feces of clostridium butyricum miyairi no. 588 monocontaminated mice.contradictory results in the studies on experimental gallstone formation using conventional and germfree mice have been reported. to study the role of bacteria in gallstone formation in the animal model jcl:icr male germfree mice were monocontaminated with clostridium butyricum miyairi no. 588. gallstone formation, biliary lipid composition and bile acid profiles in the bile, small intestinal contents and feces were analyzed after feeding the diet containing cholesterol and cholic acid. the rate ...19826754522
characteristics of a beta-lactamase produced by clostridium butyricum. 19826980874
survey, purification, and properties of sugar phosphate phosphohydrolase among microorganisms.sugar phosphate phosphohydrolase was purified approximately 500- to 600-fold to apparent homogeneity from escherichia coli b, escherichia coli c, escherichia coli var. communior, escherichia acidilactici, enterobacter aerogenes, neisseria meningitidis, and saccharomyces cereviseae. the molecular weights of the enzyme as estimated by gel filtration ranged from 97 x 10(3) to 101 x 10(3). the enzyme was composed of two subunits with the same molecular weight which ranged from 50 x 10(3) to 52 x 10( ...19836322944
cloning and expression of the hydrogenase gene from clostridium butyricum in escherichia coli.hydrogenase gene from clostridium butyricum was cloned in escherichia coli hk16 (hyd-) using pbr322 and psti. the plasmid, pcbh1, containing hydrogenase gene was 7.3 mda and pcbh1 had 5 psti-dna fragments (3.9, 2.6, 0.7, 0.03-0.04, less than 0.02 mda, respectively). the hydrogenase activity of hk16 (pcbh1) was about 3.1-3.5-times as high as those of the present strains, such as c.butyricum and e.coli c600 (hyd+).19836345200
[isolation and purification of proteolytic enzymes produced by clostridium butyricum m55]. 19836374334
effect of clostridium butyricum on the formation and dissolution of gallstones in experimental cholesterol cholelithiasis.the effect of oral administration of clostridium butyricum miyairi on the formation and dissolution of gallstones was examined in a mouse model of cholesterol cholelithiasis, in comparison with that of chenodeoxycholic acid (cdca). a diet containing cholesterol and sodium cholate was used as a lithogenic diet. the feeding of the lithogenic diet containing 1.0 x 10(8) cells of this bacterium per g for five weeks prevented the formation of gallstones, resulted in lower values of the gallstone inde ...19836823210
cholesterol-lowering effect of clostridium butyricum in cholesterol-fed rats.we examined the effects of oral administration of clostridium butyricum miyairi on the catabolism and excretion of cholesterol in normal rats by using 14c-labeled cholesterol, and on plasma cholesterol levels in the rats and mice fed a high cholesterol diet. this bacterial treatment (about 10(7) cells/day) accelerated the cleavage of cholesterol side chain in normal rats. plasma cholesterol levels of rats fed the high cholesterol diet with the bacterium (about 10(9) cells/day) were significantly ...19836873503
lipid composition in the classification of the butyric acid-producing clostridia.an examination of 20 strains of butyric acid-producing clostridium species for phospholipid class compositions, plasmalogen content, and acyl and alk-l-enyl chains showed that the deoxyribonucleic acid homology groups i (clostridium butyricum) and ii (clostridium beijerinckii) could be distinguished by their lipid compositions. the phospholipids of c. butyricum strains had ethanolamine as the major nitrogenous lipid polar head-group moiety, more octadecenoate plus c19-cyclopropane than hexadecen ...19836886674
isolation of clostridium pseudotetanicum from a patient with gas gangrene.clostridium pseudotetanicum was isolated along with serratia marcescens, proteus mirabilis, and staphylococcus epidermidis from a patient suffering from gas gangrene who had been injured in the right leg by a power cultivator. experimental infection of the hind leg of mice with c. pseudotetanicum and the three kinds of aerobic bacteria did not produce any different macroscopic finding in the infection site, compared with aerobic bacterial injection, except for some enlargement of the involved ti ...19836630439
identification of clostridium butyricum and clostridium beijerinckii by gas-liquid chromatography and sugar fermentation: correlation with dna homologies and electrophoretic patterns.sixty-five strains of clostridia of the butyricum group were studied by dna-dna hybridization, electrophoresis of cell proteins, gas-liquid chromatography, and fermentation of glycerol, inositol and ribose. the dna--dna hybridization results confirmed that strains of this group belong to two main species, clostridium butyricum and c. beijerinckii. five strains did not hybridize with the reference strains of these two species. most of the strains could be identified by quantitative gas-liquid chr ...19836631419
[the macrophage adherence inhibition test in wistar rats bearing jensen tumors. ii. macrophage adherence inhibition test after intravenous administration of spores of the cnrz 528 strain of clostridium butyricum and incubation with clostridial antigens].the tumor-specificity of tumor-clostridia-phenomenon in the model of jensen-sarcoma of the white rat was detected with the help of humoral and cell-mediated immune reactions of the host towards intravenous application of 5 x 10(8) spores of clostridia, which do not dissolve the tumor. contrary to weak responses in widal-agglutination the mai showed characteristic values of inhibition of peritoneal-cell-adherence in tumor-bearing animals after incubation with soluble clostridia antigens.19846703861
biosynthesis of phospholipids in clostridium butyricum: kinetics of synthesis of plasmalogens and the glycerol acetal of ethanolamine plasmalogen.the biosynthesis of the plasmalogen forms of phosphatidylethanolamine (plasmenylethanolamine) and phosphatidylglycerol (plasmenylglycerol) and of the glycerol acetal of plasmenylethanolamine has been studied in cultures of clostridium butyricum ifo 3852. when growing cells were pulsed with [32p]orthophosphate, there was a lag of 5 to 7 min between the rapid incorporation of label into the acylphosphatides and the rapid incorporation of label into the corresponding plasmalogens. the labeling of t ...19846746573
inhibition of the autoxidation of ascorbate and norepinephrine by extracts of clostridium butyricum, megasphaera elsdenii and escherichia coli.the autoxidation of ascorbate and of norepinephrine in krebs ringer phosphate medium, ph 7.4, was studied. the autoxidation of the two substances was determined spectrophotometrically at 265 and 480 nm respectively. the effect of dialyzed extracts (m.w. greater than 12,000) from escherichia coli (aerobe), megasphaera elsdenii, and clostridium butyricum (obligate anaerobes) was examined and compared to similarly prepared extracts from rat serum and cerebral cortex. the assay medium contained cell ...19846384713
selective medium for isolation of clostridium butyricum from human feces.a selective medium, clostridium butyricum isolation medium (bim), is described for the isolation of c. butyricum from human feces. the bim is a synthetic minimal medium and contains trimethoprim (16 micrograms/ml), d-cycloserine (10 micrograms/ml), and polymyxin b sulfate (20 micrograms/ml) as selective inhibitory agents. qualitative tests indicated that c. butyricum and other butyric acid-producing clostridia grew on bim, clostridium sphenoides and bacillus cereus produced small colonies, and o ...19846490827
[modification of selected leukocyte functions in albino rats caused by the transplantable jensen sarcoma and by therapeutic trials of cyclophosphamide and vinblastine, clostridium butyricum m55 and short-term hyperglycemia].a significant increase in leukocyte adhesion and agglomeration was observed in white rats with jensen sarcoma. glucose induced short-term hyperglycemia temporarily stimulated these leukocyte functions in healthy rats. this effect was not notably influenced by administration of tumorlyzing spores. in contrast administration of the cytostatic agents vinblastine and cyclophosphamide demonstrated dose-related inhibition of leukocyte agglomeration and adhesion.19846497582
beta-lactamases in anaerobic bacteria.the known mechanisms of beta-lactam resistance in anaerobic bacteria involve production of beta-lactamases, alteration of penicillin-binding proteins and blocked penetration of beta-lactams through the outer membranes. the most important factor in beta-lactam resistance is production of beta-lactamase. beta-lactamases in various bacteroides, fusobacterium and clostridium species have been described. beta-lactam resistance in bacteroides fragilis is most commonly mediated by beta-lactamase produc ...19853877980
phospholipid aliphatic chain composition modulates lipid class composition, but not lipid asymmetry in clostridium butyricum.the phospholipid composition of the butyric acid-producing clostridia is responsive to the degree of enrichment of the lipids with cis-unsaturated fatty acids. when clostridium butyricum and clostridium beijerinckii are grown on oleic acid in media devoid of biotin, the acyl and alk-1-enyl chains of the phospholipids become highly enriched with 18:1 and c19-cyclopropane. under these conditions there is a marked increase in the glycerol acetals of the major plasmalogens of these organisms. we hav ...19853970912
experimental cecitis in gnotoxenic chickens monoassociated with clostridium butyricum strains isolated from patients with neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.an animal model for clostridium butyricum necrotizing cecitis has been developed in axenic chickens inoculated orally between 2 and 50 days of life. cecitis was obtained with two c. butyricum strains isolated from neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis and not with a clostridium beijerinckii strain from dairy products; the rate of colonization of the intestinal tract by this strain was lower than that obtained with c. butyricum strains. the clinical findings showed a slow gain in body weight. the ce ...19853972448
[the pyrogenicity of spore suspensions of clostridium butyricum]. 19853991790
lesions produced by clostridium butyricum strain cb 1002 in ligated intestinal loops in guinea pigs.heated spores (80 degrees c, 10 min) of clostridium butyricum strain cb 1002 isolated from a fatal case of necrotising enterocolitis in a human neonate were inoculated into ligated intestinal loops prepared in young conventional guinea pigs. necropsy findings 18 h later included congestion, patchy haemorrhage of the intestinal mucosa and bacteraemia. no abnormalities were observed in control loops given inocula of inactivated spores (heated at 100 degrees c for 10 min) or tyg 6 medium. the resul ...19854009690
[superoxide dismutase in clostridium butyricum spores].superoxide dismutase was found for the first time in the spores of the anaerobic bacterium clostridium butyricum. the prosthetic group of the enzyme was shown to contain iron. the enzyme was demonstrated to be highly thermostable.19854010556
phosphatidylserine decarboxylase from clostridium butyricum.phosphatidylserine decarboxylase activity has been characterized in membrane preparations from clostridium butyricum atcc 19398. a particulate fraction was shown to catalyze the formation of phosphatidylethanolamine and plasmenylethanolamine when vesicles containing phosphatidylserine and plasmenylserine were used as substrate. no plasmenylethanolamine was formed when phosphatidylserine alone was used as substrate. the activity with phosphatidylserine was activated by divalent cations and was op ...19854020299
survey of neuraminidase production by clostridium butyricum, clostridium beijerinckii, and clostridium difficile strains from clinical and nonclinical sources.neuraminidase production was investigated in 57 clostridium butyricum strains, 16 clostridium beijerinckii strains, and 25 clostridium difficile strains. neuraminidase activity was found only in c. butyricum strains originating from one human newborn with neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis, two newborns with hemorrhagic colitis, one infected placenta, and one adult with peritonitis, it was concluded that neuraminidase was not a major virulence factor in c. butyricum strains.19854056013
metabolic and energetic aspects of the growth of clostridium butyricum on glucose in chemostat culture.the influence of a number of environmental parameters on the fermentation of glucose, and on the energetics of growth of clostridium butyricum in chemostat culture, have been studied. with cultures that were continuously sparged with nitrogen gas, glucose was fermented primarily to acetate and butyrate with a fixed stoichiometry. thus, irrespective of the growth rate, input glucose concentration, specific nutrient limitation and, within limits, the culture ph value, the acetate/butyrate molar ra ...19854062485
synthesis of pyruvate-1-11c as a radiopharmaceutical for tumor imaging.pyruvate-1-11c was prepared enzymatically by the exchange reaction of 11co2 with the carboxyl group of pyruvic acid using pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase from clostridium butyricum. 11c-labeled pyruvate was purified by sublimation in specially made glassware. the radiochemical yield of pure pyruvate-1-11c was 80% 35 min after the end of bombardment. the distribution of 11c in tumor-bearing rabbits after an i.v. injection of pyruvate-1-11c was observed using a gamma camera. in contrast to norm ...19854076234
identification of restriction fragments from two cryptic clostridium butyricum plasmids that promote the establishment of a replication-defective plasmid in bacillus subtilis.clostridium butyricum ncib 7423 carries two cryptic plasmids, pcb101 (6.05 kbp) and pcb102 (7.8 kbp). sites for the restriction enzymes ecori, ecorv, hindiii, clai and psti have been found in one or both of these plasmids and their relative positions determined. restriction fragments from both plasmids have been inserted into a vector plasmid (pjab1) that is able to replicate in escherichia coli but not in bacillus subtilis and the recombinant plasmids have been established in e. coli. a 3.3 kbp ...19852997368
regeneration of nad(p)h by immobilized whole cells of clostridium butyricum under hydrogen high pressure.immobilized whole cells of clostridium butyricum reduced both nad(+) and nadp(+) in the presence of hydrogen at a pressure of 100 atm. the nad(+) and nadp(+) reduction activities were 4.45 and 4.30 u/g dry cells, respectively [u = nad(p)h regenerated, mu mol/min]. the amount of nadh regenerated by immobilized cells increased with increasing hydrogen pressure above 10 atm. immobilized cells (6 mg dry cells) of cl. butyricum completely converted nad(+) (6.4 mumole) to nadh for 5 h, whereas only 60 ...198518553815
the glioblastoma multiforme: a lifelong challenge to the neurosurgeon.during a period of 34 years 1316 gliomas of the brain have been treated, among them 508 glioblastomas (= 39%). in addition to the operative removal and postoperative x-ray therapy of glioblastomas various attempts have been undertaken to prevent recurrences: intracerebral application of cobalt60 (6 patients); locally applied antimitotic agents (76 patients); bacterial liquefaction induced by intracarotid administration of clostridium butyricum m 55 spores ("oncolysis", 67 patients); circumscribe ...19863008012
characterization of an organism that produces type e botulinal toxin but which resembles clostridium butyricum from the feces of an infant with type e botulism.the apparent causative organism from the only reported case of type e infant botulism was isolated and characterized. except for its ability to produce type e botulinal toxin, this organism (strain 5262) would be unquestionably identified as clostridium butyricum. this is the second time an organism resembling a defined clostridium species other than a member of the c. botulinum group has been implicated in infant botulism.19863517043
mechanisms of beta-lactam resistance in anaerobic bacteria.the known mechanisms of beta-lactam resistance in anaerobic bacteria involve production of beta-lactamases, alteration of penicillin-binding proteins, and blocking of the penetration of beta-lactams through the outer membranes. the most important factor in beta-lactam resistance is the production of beta-lactamase. beta-lactamases in various bacteroides, fusobacterium, and clostridium species have been described. beta-lactam resistance in bacteroides fragilis is most commonly mediated by the pro ...19863541135
[clostridium butyricum and bacteroides distasonis peritonitis in a child treated by peritoneal dialysis. usefulness of anaerobic culture after filtration]. 19862954070
changes in the cell wall of clostridium species following passage in animals.morphological changes in clostridial isolates after animal passage with other flora in mixed infections were studied by utilizing a subcutaneous abscess model in mice. we used 26 isolates of 7 clostridial species, and one isolate each of bacteroides fragilis and klebsiella pneumoniae. abscesses were induced by all 7 clostridium perfringens and 3 clostridium butyricum isolates and by some of the other isolates. a thick granular wall prior to animal inoculation was shown only in c. perfringens, c. ...19862876678
two cases of type e infant botulism caused by neurotoxigenic clostridium butyricum in italy.the first two confirmed cases of type e infant botulism occurred in two 16-week-old girls in rome, italy. the original diagnosis for the first patient was intestinal blockage due to an ileocecal invagination, which was treated surgically. postoperatively, the patient became unresponsive and required ventilatory assistance. a diagnosis of infant botulism was then made. the second infant presented to the same hospital 7 1/2 months later with profound weakness, hypotonicity, mydriasis, and areflexi ...19863722863
[biological activity of a polar lipid of clostridium butyricum spores].a fraction of polar lipids was isolated from spores of the anaerobic bacterium clostridium butyricum 35/11 exerting a noticeable radioprotective effect. the main biological activity of spore extracts was associated with this fraction. the fraction of polar lipids inhibited autolysis of the bacterial cell walls. the fraction was found to contain a phenolic glycolipid and a peptide component. the bacteriostatic and radiotherapeutic properties of the fraction are presumed to be due to its membranot ...19863821590
microbial ecophysiology of whey biomethanation: characterization of bacterial trophic populations and prevalent species in continuous culture.the organization and species composition of bacterial trophic groups associated with lactose biomethanation were investigated in a whey-processing chemostat by enumeration, isolation, and general characterization studies. the bacteria were spatially organized as free-living forms and as self-immobilized forms appearing in flocs. three dominant bacterial trophic group populations were present (in most probable number per milliliter) whose species numbers varied with the substrate consumed: hydrol ...198616346970
bifidobacterium, bacteroides, and clostridium spp. in fecal samples from breast-fed and bottle-fed infants with and without iron supplement.bifidobacterium, bacteroides, and clostridium spp. isolated from the feces of 23 neonates during the first 3 months of life were identified. of the 23 neonates, 10 were breast fed, 6 received an infant formula with iron supplement (5 mg/liter), and 7 received the formula without iron supplement (iron concentration, less than 0.5 mg/liter). the bifidobacterium spp. most frequently isolated from the three groups of infants were b. longum, b. breve, b. adolescentis, and b. bifidum. the bacteroides ...19873818925
2h-nmr studies on ether lipid-rich bacterial membranes: deuterium order profile of clostridium butyricum.palmitic acid specifically deuterated at different carbon atoms, has been incorporated biosynthetically into the membrane lipids of clostridium butyricum. the lipids of this organism are rich in plasmalogens and their glycerol acetals and exhibit an unusual fatty acyl and alkenyl chain distribution with saturated chains mainly at the sn-2 position and unsaturated chains at the sn-1 position. the ordering of the deuterated hydrocarbon chains in whole cells was measured with deuterium nuclear magn ...19873580370
regulation of bilayer stability in clostridium butyricum: studies on the polymorphic phase behavior of the ether lipids.three of the major phospholipids of the cell membrane of clostridium butyricum are phosphatidylethanolamine (pe), plasmenylethanolamine (plae), and the glycerol acetal of plasmenylethanolamine. when cultured in the absence of biotin in media supplemented with a cis-unsaturated fatty acid, the cellular lipids become highly enriched with the fed fatty acid. under these conditions, the ratio of the glycerol acetal of plae to the sum of pe plus plae increases markedly over that seen in cells contain ...19873606994
transphosphatidylation activity in clostridium butyricum. evidence for a secondary pathway by which membrane phospholipids may be synthesized and modified.membrane particles from clostridium butyricum, incubated with triton x-100 and 32p-labeled phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, or phosphatidylserine, resulted in the labeling of three phospholipids. these unknown phospholipids incorporated label from the phosphate and acyl chains of the substrate, but not from the head group. two-dimensional tlc of the intact lipids and their deacylation products showed that these lipids were phosphatidic acid, cardiolipin, and the previously unrepor ...19873611063
lipid shape as a determinant of lipid composition in clostridium butyricum. the effects of incorporation of various fatty acids on the ratios of the major ether lipids.the lipid composition of clostridium butyricum is strongly influenced by the aliphatic chain compositions of the membrane lipids. growth on cis-monounsaturated fatty acids in the absence of biotin was shown to affect the relative proportions of phosphatidylethanolamine, plasmenylethanolamine, and the glycerol acetal of plasmenylethanolamine most strongly, with smaller effects on the acidic lipids, phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin. the ratio of the glycerol acetal of plasmenylethanolamine to ...19873663673
methodological aspects of a serodiagnostic clostridium tumour test--experience with spontaneous canine tumours.the paper describes the development of appropriate antigen and method combinations for the microbiological cancer test using the non-oncolysing strain clostridium butyricum cnrz 528 in dogs with spontaneous tumours. the diagnostic rod antibodies could be determined quantitatively by the complement fixation test if a short-time warm fixation and a long-time cold fixation procedure were combined in separate runs and if two different antigens, a rod corpuscular antigen and a rod surface antigen, we ...19873673339
deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance studies on the plasmalogens and the glycerol acetals of plasmalogens of clostridium butyricum and clostridium beijerinckii.deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance was used to investigate the structure of different lipid fractions isolated from the anaerobic bacteria clostridium butyricum and clostridium beijerinckii. the fractions isolated from c. butyricum were (1) phosphatidylethanolamine/plasmenylethanolamine and (2) the glycerol acetal of plasmenylethanolamine, and from c. beijerinckii similar fractions containing principally (1) phosphatidyl-n-monomethylethanolamine, along with its plasmalogen, and (2) the glycero ...19873676294
[prevention of experimental antibiotic-associated diarrhea by clostridium butyricum]. 19883070066
comparison of toxins of clostridium butyricum and clostridium botulinum type e.the toxin of clostridium butyricum strains isolated from two infants with botulism is neutralized by antitoxin for type e botulinum toxin. this toxin and that of a c. botulinum type e strain were purified by the same protocol. both toxins were mr 145,000 proteins which, when activated with trypsin, were composed of an h subunit of mr 105,000 and an l subunit of mr 50,000. the activated specific toxicity of purified butyricum toxin based on an intravenous assay was 2 x 10(8) mouse 50% lethal dose ...19883126148
cloning of two chloramphenicol acetyltransferase genes from clostridium butyricum and their expression in escherichia coli and bacillus subtilis.two non-homologous chloramphenicol (cm) acetyltransferase (cat) genes, designated cata and catb, were cloned from clostridium butyricum type strains and characterized by restriction mapping. both genes are efficiently expressed in escherichia coli and bacillus subtilis. in contrast to analogous genes from staphylococci and bacilli, gene expression is not dependent on induction by cm. the genes are considered as chromosomal, since no association with endogenous plasmids was detectable. southern h ...19883148853
production of volatile fatty acids as a result of bacterial interactions in the cecum of gnotobiotic rats and chickens fed a lactose-containing diet.volatile fatty acid (vfa) productions from lactose and lactate by a clostridium butyricum and a veillonella alcalescens strain, alone or in combination with a lactobacillus acidophilus strain, were determined both in vitro in culture media and in vivo in the ceca of gnotobiotic animals. gnotobiotic rats, which possess intestinal lactase, and chickens, which are devoid of it, were used. both animal species were fed a diet containing 4% lactose. the in vitro results showed that the c. butyricum st ...19883148988
genetic confirmation of identities of neurotoxigenic clostridium baratii and clostridium butyricum implicated as agents of infant botulism.two unusual neurotoxigenic clostridia isolated from fecal specimens from patients with type f and type e infant botulism were phenotypically identical to the existing species clostridium baratii and c. butyricum, respectively. dna hybridization experiments confirmed that one strain was c. baratii and that the other was c. butyricum. these species therefore do contain neurotoxigenic strains and are possible causes of infant botulism.19883183004
purification and partial characterization of two proteinases from clostridium butyricum m 55.clostridium butyricum m55 proteinases were purified by application of a multistep procedure involving ethanol precipitation, deae cellulose chromatography and molecular sieving. the purified enzymes obtained were called proteinase i and proteinase ii. they appeared to be homogeneous when examined by molecular sieving and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. the highly purified proteinases were studied for their physico-chemical properties. the influences of ph, temperature, ionic strength and ami ...19883293333
isolation and characterization of a novel four-chain ether lipid from clostridium butyricum: the phosphatidylglycerol acetal of plasmenylethanolamine.we describe the isolation and characterization of a novel four-chain ether phospholipid in clostridium butyricum grown on petroselinic acid in the absence of biotin. the results of quantitative analyses of hydrolytic products, selective hydrolysis by mild acid or phospholipase c, 1h-, 13c-, and 31p-nmr, and fast atom bombardment-mass spectroscopy (fabms) have resulted in the determination of the structure of this lipid as a phosphatidylglycerol acetal of plasmenylethanolamine. smaller amounts of ...19883382687
experimental cecitis in gnotobiotic quails monoassociated with clostridium butyricum strains isolated from patients with neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis and from healthy newborns.using axenic quails fed a diet containing lactose, we have investigated the potentially pathogenic roles of six clostridium butyricum strains of human origin. three strains (cb155-3, cb1002, and cb203-1) isolated from neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis patients and two of three strains (cb19-1 and cb25-2) isolated from healthy newborns led to cecal or crop lesions or both similar to those observed in human neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis: thickening of the cecal wall with gas cysts, hemorrhag ...19892917793
ammonia assimilation pathways in nitrogen-fixing clostridium kluyverii and clostridium butyricum.pathways of ammonia assimilation into glutamic acid were investigated in ammonia-grown and n2-fixing clostridium kluyverii and clostridium butyricum by measuring the specific activities of glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase, and glutamate synthase. c. kluyverii had nadph-glutamate dehydrogenase with a km of 12.0 mm for nh4+. the glutamate dehydrogenase pathway played an important role in ammonia assimilation in ammonia-grown cells but was found to play a minor role relative to that of ...19892564848
purification and characterization of a new beta-lactamase from clostridium butyricum.a highly penicillin-resistant beta-lactamase-producing strain of clostridium butyricum, strain nbl 3, was isolated. the specific activity of the unpurified beta-lactamase was 0.29 u/mg of protein. the enzyme was purified 1,130-fold by qae zetaprep, sephacryl s-300, and mono q column passages. the purified enzyme was judged homogeneous by sodium dodecyl sulfate gradient gel electrophoresis and fast protein liquid chromatography. the enzyme hydrolyzed phenoxymethylpenicillin, benzylpenicillin, amp ...19892802556
phosphatidyltransferase of clostridium butyricum: specificity for diacylphosphoglycerides.phosphatidyltransferase from clostridium butyricum, which catalyzes transfer of the phosphatidyl moiety of phosphatidylethanolamine (pe), phosphatidylglycerol (pg) or phosphatidylserine to primary alcohols such as glycerol, serine and ethanolamine, was tested for its ability to catalyze transfer of the plasmenyl moiety from plasmalogen analogs of pe or pg to glycerol or ethanolamine, respectively. the cell membrane of c. butyricum contains high proportions of these plasmalogens. when diacyl and ...19902163683
application of microbiological cancer test to cattle infected with bovine leucosis virus.a microbiological cancer test, previously verified in men and dogs using a clostridium strain (clostridium butyricum cnrz 528), was applied to cattle infected with bovine leucosis virus (blv). an extended period of time was allowed to pass after infection with blv, which had been checked up through specific serological and virological examinations. the cattle belonged to different age groups and stages of infection (with and without haematological alterations [preleukosis], with incipient tumour ...19902167047
[inhibition of enteropathogens by clostridium butyricum miyairi 588].the inhibitory effect of clostridium butyricum miyairi 588 against various enteropathogens was investigated in mixed cultures. it was observed that c. butyricum m588 inhibited the growth of vibrio cholerae o1, v. cholerae non-o1, aeromonas hydrophila, and shigella flexneri. considering that the interaction between c. butyricum and shigella is especially important because of their proliferation site in the lower intestine, further examinations were carried out on shigella in particular. results w ...19902193065
conjugative plasmid transfer from escherichia coli to clostridium acetobutylicum.the conjugation mechanism of incp plasmids may be employed to mobilize small non-conjugative plasmids from escherichia coli to a wide range of different organisms. this strategy has been adapted for use with the gram-positive anaerobe, clostridium acetobutylicum ncib 8052. several shuttle vectors containing replicons from pam beta 1 (enterococcus faecalis), pcb101 (clostridium butyricum) or pwv01 (streptococcus cremoris), together with the cis-acting orit region of rk2, have been constructed, an ...19902199603
[preventive effect of clostridium butyricum m588 against the proliferation of clostridium difficile during antimicrobial therapy].fecal flora of the patients without remarkable gastrointestinal diseases were studied. all patients were treated with antimicrobial drugs with or without miya-bm (the preparation of clostridium butyricum m588). the stools were examined before and after (during) antimicrobial treatment. fecal flora of 69 patients before medication was almost the same with that of healthy adults as has been reported by mitsuoka et al. after giving antimicrobials, most bacterial genus except enterococcus and yeasts ...19902286785
efficiency factors and atp/adp ratios in nitrogen-fixing bacillus polymyxa and bacillus azotofixans.the efficiency factor, the number of moles of atp generated per mole of glucose fermented, was determined in anaerobic, non-carbon-limited n2-fixing cultures of bacillus polymyxa, bacillus macerans, bacillus azotofixans, and clostridium butyricum through identification and quantitation of the fermentation products by 13c nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and measurement of acetate kinase activities. all three bacillus species had acetate kinase activities and produced acetate and ethanol a ...19902318806
enumeration and confirmation of clostridium tyrobutyricum in silages using neutral red, d-cycloserine, and lactate dehydrogenase activity.spores of clostridia in big bale silages, manure, and dairy products were enumerated and distinguished from other spore formers by using reinforced clostridium agar containing .005% neutral red. spores of clostridium tyrobutyricum predominated, but spores of clostridium butyricum, clostridium sporogenes, clostridium bifermentans, clostridium putrificum, and clostridium sphenoides occurred to a lesser extent. in samples with high bacterial spore counts, growth of bacillus spp., but not c. tyrobut ...19902341647
phosphatidylglycerol acetal of plasmenylethanolamine as an intermediate in ether lipid formation in clostridium butyricum.the formation and turnover of the recently discovered phosphatidylglycerol acetal of plasmenylethanolamine was investigated in clostridium butyricum. incorporation of phosphate into the phospholipids was studied by using [32p]orthophosphate in pulse and pulse-chase experiments in growing cells. among the ethanolamine-containing lipids, the diacyl form of phosphatidylethanolamine was labeled most rapidly, followed by the phosphatidylglycerol acetal of plasmenylethanolamine and plasmenylethanolami ...19902350489
resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in anaerobic bacteria.the known mechanisms of beta-lactam resistance in anaerobic bacteria involve production of beta-lactamases, alteration of penicillin-binding proteins, and blocked penetration of beta-lactam antibiotics through bacterial outer membranes. the most important factor in beta-lactam resistance is production of beta-lactamases, which have been found in various bacteroides, fusobacterium, and clostridium species. beta-lactam resistance in bacteroides fragilis is commonly mediated by beta-lactamases that ...19902406875
degradation of galactomannan by a clostridium butyricum strain.an anaerobic, sporeforming, galactomannan-degrading bacterium was isolated from methanogenic granular sludge of an uasb reactor used for treatment of wastewater from a sugar refinery. the isolate degraded the polymer rapidly (doubling time was 55 min) and completely in mineral media. the bacterium was classified as clostridium butyricum; the main products were acetate, butyrate, hydrogen, formate, and presumably co2. the strain produced extracellular endo-mannanase, cell-associated exo-mannanase ...19911666501
effects of solvents and alcohols on the polar lipid composition of clostridium butyricum under conditions of controlled lipid chain composition.clostridium butyricum has been grown in media devoid of biotin, to which long-chain fatty acids have been added to promote growth. we have shown previously that, under these conditions, exogenous fatty acids are extensively incorporated into the cellular phospholipids. cells grown with elaidic acid, trans-9-18:1, have normal ratios of the glycerol acetal of plasmenylethanolamine (gaplae) to phosphatidylethanolamine (pe) plus plasmenylethanolamine (plae) compared with cells grown with biotin. whe ...19911785927
characterization of neurotoxigenic clostridium butyricum strain by dna hybridization test and by in vivo and in vitro germination tests of spores.the germination of spores of a neurotoxigenic clostridium butyricum strain (bl 6340), which was isolated from infant botulism in italy, and that of a nontoxigenic c. butyricum type strain (ncib 7423) were studied. the spores of bl 6340 strain were killed at 80 c for 10 min, and required the mixture of l-alanine, l-lactate, glucose and bicarbonate for their optimal germination. these characteristics are the same as those of clostridium botulinum type e strain, but different from those of ncib 742 ...19911808463
identification of clostridium botulinum, clostridium argentinense, and related organisms by cellular fatty acid analysis.on the basis of 686 analyses of 285 strains of clostridium botulinum, clostridium argentinense (formerly c. botulinum type g), and phenotypically related organisms, 14 cellular fatty acid (cfa) groups of toxic organisms and 6 cfa groups of nontoxic organisms were delineated. the cfa groups of toxic strains included two of type a, three of proteolytic strains of type b, two of proteolytic strains of type f, one each of nonproteolytic strains of types b, e, and f, and one each of types c alpha, c ...19911864927
comparative molecular topography of botulinum neurotoxins from clostridium butyricum and clostridium botulinum type e.production of botulinum-like neurotoxin by a non-clostridium botulinum organism has profound implications in the epidemiology of the disease botulism. molecular topography of the approximately 150 kda neurotoxic protein produced by clostridium butyricum (strain 5839) and its activation kinetics were examined and compared with a serologically related botulinum neurotoxin produced by c. botulinum type e to further characterize the butyricum neurotoxin. botulinum neurotoxin was fully activated with ...19911901221
immunological characterization of clostridium butyricum neurotoxin and its trypsin-induced fragment by use of monoclonal antibodies against clostridium botulinum type e neurotoxin.we examined the reactivities of clostridium butyricum neurotoxin to nine monoclonal antibodies against clostridium botulinum type e neurotoxin which recognize the light chain or the amino-terminal half (h-1 fragment) or the carboxyl-terminal half (h-2 fragment) of the heavy chain of botulinum neurotoxin. butyricum neurotoxin and its derived chains did not react to two of four monoclonal antibodies recognizing the light chain, one of three recognizing the h-1 fragment, and one of two recognizing ...19911987060
cloning of a dna fragment encoding the 5'-terminus of the botulinum type e toxin gene from clostridium butyricum strain bl6340.chromosomal dna was extracted from toxigenic clostridium butyricum strain bl6340 isolated from a case of infant botulism. after digestion by ecori, a dna fragment of about 1 kbp was cloned into escherichia coli using lambda gt11, and was subcloned into puc118. the e. coli cells transformed with this cloned fragment produced a 33 kda protein which reacted with monoclonal antibodies recognizing the light chain (lc) component of botulinum type e toxin. the nucleotide sequence of the cloned fragment ...19912033376
effect of clavulanic acid, sulbactam and tazobactam on three different beta-lactamases from bacteroides uniformis, clostridium butyricum and fusobacterium nucleatum.the effect of three beta-lactamase inhibitors, clavulanic acid, sulbactam and tazobactam used in clinical practice were compared for their activity against purified beta-lactamases from bacteroides uniformis, clostridium butyricum and fusobacterium nucleatum. the enzymes from b. uniformis and c. butyricum were produced in fermenters under controlled growth conditions and the enzyme from f. nucleatum was produced in batch cultures. purification of the beta-lactamases was achieved by anion-exchang ...19921331018
effect of beta-lactamase inhibitors on beta-lactamases from anaerobic bacteria.three beta-lactamase inhibitors in clinical use--clavulanic acid, sulbactam and tazobactam--were investigated for their activity on beta-lactamases from bacteroides uniformis, clostridium butyricum and fusobacterium nucleatum. purification of the beta-lactamases was carried out by anion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration and fplc. the inactivation of beta-lactamase activity was determined spectrophotometrically with nitrocefin as substrate. various concentrations of the inhibitors were prei ...19921338315
comparative sequence analysis of the catb gene from clostridium butyricum.sequence analysis of the clostridium butyricum chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene, catb, showed that it encoded a cat monomer of 219 amino acids with a molecular weight of 26,114. comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the catb monomer to those of sixteen other cats showed that it was most closely related to the catq monomer from clostridium perfringens.19921489203
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