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identification of the major steps in botulinum toxin action.botulinum toxin is a uniquely potent substance synthesized by the organisms clostridium botulinum, clostridium baratii, and clostridium butyricum. this toxin, which acts preferentially on peripheral cholinergic nerve endings to block acetylcholine release, is both an agent that causes disease (i.e., botulism) as well as an agent that can be used to treat disease (e.g., dystonia). the ability of botulinum toxin to produce its effects is largely dependent on its ability to penetrate cellular and i ...200414744243
effects of high amylose maize starch and clostridium butyricum on metabolism in colonic microbiota and formation of azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci in the rat colon.high amylose maize starch (has) is not digested in the small intestine and most of it reaches the large intestine. in the large intestine, has is fermented by intestinal bacteria, resulting in production of short-chain fatty acids (scfa), particularly butyrate. clostridium butyricum can utilize has and produce butyrate and acetate. it has been proposed that butyrate inhibits carcinogenesis in the colon. in this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of has and c. butyricum strain miyairi588 ( ...200314695445
[nitrogen metabolism in a new species of clostridium butyricum prazhmowsky producing butyl alcohol]. 195914417427
phospholipids of clostridium butyricum. studies on plasmalogen composition and biosynthesis. 196514285491
composition of the aldehydes of clostridium butyricum plasmalogens. cyclopropane aldehydes. 196414209938
[a possibility of cultivation of clostridium butyricum on synthetic media]. 196414195418
oncolysis by clostridia. i. activity of clostridium butyricum (m-55) and other nonpathogenic clostridia against the ehrlich carcinoma. 196414115686
n-methyl groups in bacterial lipids.goldfine, howard (harvard medical school, boston, mass.), and martha e. ellis. n-methyl groups in bacterial lipids. j. bacteriol. 87:8-15. 1964.-the ability of bacteria to synthesize lecithin was examined by measuring the incorporation of the methyl group of methionine into the water-soluble moieties obtained on acid hydrolysis of bacterial lipids. of 21 species examined, mostly of the order eubacteriales, only 2, agrobacterium radiobacter and a. rhizogenes, incorporated the methyl group of meth ...196414102879
[on the mechanism of killing ascites cancer cells by clostridium butyricum]. 196314085705
spheroidal and polyhedral forms of clostridium butyricum induced by penicillin. 196314051814
[on the measurement of oxygen pressure in the spores of germinating clostridium butyricum]. 196214042127
the characterization and biosynthesis of an n-methylethanolamine phospholipid from clostridium butyricum. 196213899760
[the effect of nisin on clostridium butyricum prazm]. 196013739416
[on spore formation by clostridium butyricum prazm]. 196013739415
reversal of pyruvate oxidation in clostridium butyricum. 195913672939
carbon dioxide activation in the pyruvate clastic system of clostridium butyricum. 195913672938
influence of media on the counts of clostridium butyricum in soils. 195813541402
[research on the effect of ascorbic acid, metabolic poisons and other factors on metabolism of clostridium butyricum prazm]. 195613340833
cofactors of the carbon dioxide exchange reaction of clostridium butyricum. 195513242561
[phosphorylating action of glucose by enzymatic extract of clostridium butyricum. iv. coupled reactions between triosephosphate dehydrogenase and certain enzymes of lynen's fatty acid cycle]. 195413199988
[phosphorylating action of glucose by enzymatic extract of clostridium butyricum. iii. coupled reaction between triosephosphate dehydrogenase and certain enzymes of lynen's fatty acid cycle]. 195413199951
[not available]. 195413161237
cofactors of the phosphoroclastic reaction of clostridium butyricum. 195313129255
amylases of clostridium butyricum and a streptococcus isolated from the rumen of the sheep. 195213018299
[phosphorylation of glucose by an enzyme extract of clostridium butyricum]. 195212979303
[a polysaccharide isolated from clostridium butyricum]. 195212976749
the long-term oral administration of a product derived from a probiotic, clostridium butyricum induced no pathological effects in rats.recent studies have suggested that short chain fatty acids (scfas) exert a therapeutic effect on some human and experimental animal diseases. in our previous study, we showed that clostridium butyricum produces high levels of scfas in the culture system used. in addition, an additive based on yogurt was effective in eliminating and masking the odor derived from these scfas in the product. recently, we reported that the oral administration of a high concentration (50% w/w) of this product derived ...200312964036
molecular characterization of the 1,3-propanediol (1,3-pd) operon of clostridium butyricum.the genes encoding the 1,3-propanediol (1,3-pd) operon of clostridium butyricum vpi1718 were characterized from a molecular and a biochemical point of view. this operon is composed of three genes, dhab1, dhab2, and dhat. when grown in a vitamin b12-free mineral medium with glycerol as carbon source, escherichia coli expressing dhab1, dhab2, and dhat produces 1,3-pd and high glycerol dehydratase and 1,3-pd dehydrogenase activities. dhab1 and dhab2 encode, respectively, a new type of glycerol dehy ...200312704244
comparative genomic analysis of dha regulon and related genes for anaerobic glycerol metabolism in bacteria.the dihydroxyacetone (dha) regulon of bacteria encodes genes for the anaerobic metabolism of glycerol. in this work, genomic data are used to analyze and compare the dha regulon and related genes in different organisms in silico with respect to gene organization, sequence similarity, and possible functions. database searches showed that among the organisms, the genomes of which have been sequenced so far, only two, i.e., klebsiella pneumoniae mgh 78578 and clostridium perfringens contain a compl ...200312675558
probiotic mixture decreases dna adduct formation in colonic epithelium induced by the food mutagen 2-amino-9h-pyrido[2,3-b]indole in a human-flora associated mouse model.consumption of probiotic bacteria such as bifidobacteria has been shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer in animal models. however, the composition and metabolic activities of the intestinal flora of experimental animals are significantly different from those of humans. the aim of the study was to examine whether the probiotic mixture, which consisted of streptococcus faecalis, clostridium butyricum and bacillus mesentericus, could decrease dna adduct formation induced by 2-amino-9h-pyrido[2,3 ...200312671533
clostridium colicanis sp. nov., from canine faeces.morphological, biochemical and molecular genetic studies were performed on an unknown, anaerobic, rod-shaped organism isolated from faeces of a canine. the organism was tentatively identified as a member of the genus clostridium based on its cellular morphology and ability to form endospores but, biochemically, it did not appear to correspond to any recognized species of this genus. comparative 16s rrna gene sequence analysis showed that the bacterium represents a previously unrecognized subline ...200312656182
prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children by clostridium butyricum miyairi.clostridium butyricum miyairi (cbm) is a probiotic bacteria used for anti-diarrheal medicine in japan. the preventive effect of cbm was investigated for antibiotic-associated diarrhea (aad) in children.200312654076
glucose but not polypeptone reduces the effect of probiotic preparations to stimulate carbohydrate breakdown and reduce net ammonia production by pig cecal bacteria in vitro.probiotic preparations are used to prevent or treat diarrhea. probiotic preparations increase the in vitro breakdown of carbohydrates and decrease that of protein by mixed cecal bacteria in the absence of readily fermentable materials. diarrhea can increase the influx of readily digestible materials into the large intestine. therefore, we compared production of organic acids and ammonia in batch cultures using pig cecal contents with or without probiotic preparations (clostridium butyricum, lact ...200112639405
modification of intestinal flora in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.because the intestinal microflora play an important role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (ibd), there is currently some interest in the manipulation of the composition of the microflora towards a potentially more remedial community. this review summarizes the clinical and experimental efficacy of the manipulation of microflora by the use of prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, and antibiotics in ibd. prebiotics, defined as nondigestible food ingredients that beneficially affect t ...200312570821
cytokine production in response to endodontic infection in germ-free mice.this study evaluated the cytokine profiles (type 1 or type 2) that are triggered by and modulate endodontic periapical infections in the root canal system of germ-free mice. microorganisms isolated from two patients with pulpal necrosis were inoculated into two groups of experimental animals: group i (gemella morbillorum) and group ii (bifidobacterium adolescentis, fusobacterium nucleatum and clostridium butyricum). in vitro, g. morbillorum induced type 1 cytokine synthesis, while the modulation ...200212485325
a case if infant botulism due to neurotoxigenic clostridium butyricum type e associated with clostridium difficile colitis.reported here is the sixth case of intestinal toxemia botulism caused by clostridium butyricum type e in italy since 1984. in this case, the patient was concomitantly affected with colitis due to clostridium difficile toxin. a review of previously reported cases revealed that some of these patients may also have had intestinal toxemia botulism associated with clostridium difficile colitis, based on the reported symptoms. given that this association has been shown to exist not only in italy but a ...200212479171
botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins: structure, function and therapeutic utility.the toxic products of the anaerobic bacteria clostridium botulinum, clostridium butyricum, clostridium barati and clostridium tetani are the causative agents of botulism and tetanus. the ability of botulinum neurotoxins to disrupt neurotransmission, often for prolonged periods, has been exploited for use in several medical applications and the toxins, as licensed pharmaceutical products, now represent the therapeutics of choice for the treatment for several neuromuscular conditions. research int ...200212417130
characterization of clostridium butyricum neurotoxin associated with food-borne botulism.the neurotoxin of clostridium butyricum strain lcl155 (bunt/lcl155) associated with type e food-borne botulism showed antigenic and biological properties different from those of c. botulinum type e (bont/e) andc. butyricum strain bl5262 (bunt/bl5262). the specific toxicity of bunt/lcl155 was found to be about 10% those of bont/e and bunt/bl5262. immunological analysis with monoclonal antibodies against bont/e showed that the heavy chain of bunt/lcl155 differs partially from those of bont/e and b ...200212385745
[combination use of kampo-medicines and drugs affecting intestinal bacterial flora].the intestinal bacteria, eubacterium sp. and bifidobacterium sp., participate in the metabolism of active kampo-ingredients, glycyrrhizin (gl), sennoside (sen) and baicalin (bl). since antibiotics and bacterial preparations, bifidobacterium longum (lac-b), clostridium butyricum (miya-bm), and streptococcus faecalis (biofermin), affect the bacterial population in intestinal bacterial flora, metabolism of the active kampo-ingredients in the bacterial flora may be altered by their combined administ ...200212235860
taxonomic identity of type e botulinum toxin-producing clostridium butyricum strains by sequencing of a short 16s rdna region.several micro-organisms capable of producing botulinum neurotoxin type e, though phenotypically similar to clostridium butyricum (a normally non-neurotoxigenic organism), have recently been isolated in italy and china. some of these micro-organisms had been implicated in food-borne botulism, a serious neuroparalytic disease. the taxonomic identity of the type e botulinum toxin-producing strains is confirmed here, through sequencing of a genus- and species-specific segment of the 16s rrna gene. c ...200212204382
influence of ph and temperature on the growth of and toxin production by neurotoxigenic strains of clostridium butyricum type e.strains of clostridium butyricum that produce botulinal toxin type e have been implicated in outbreaks of foodborne botulism in china, india, and italy, yet the conditions that are favorable for the growth and toxinogenesis of these strains remain to be established. we attempted to determine the temperatures and ph levels that are most conducive to the growth of and toxin production by the six strains of neurotoxigenic c. butyricum that have been implicated in outbreaks of infective and foodborn ...200212182478
dietary-fiber-degrading enzymes from a human intestinal clostridium and their application to oligosaccharide production from nonstarchy polysaccharides using immobilized cells.the secretion of nonstarchy polysaccharide-degrading enzymes from an anaerobic human intestinal bacterium, clostridium butyricum- beijerinckii (isolated from human feces), was investigated. growth of the bacterium was found when laminarin, konjac glucomannan, and pectic acid were added separately to the culture media as sole carbon source. the corresponding degrading enzymes for these dietary fibers, laminarinase (endo-1,3- beta-glucanase), endo-1,4-beta-mannanase, endo- and exo-pectate lyases, ...200212111144
inactivation of the pyruvate formate lyase of clostridium butyricum. 197211946805
comparative aspects of fatty acid activation in escherichia coli and clostridium butyricum. 196911946314
short-term oral administration of a product derived from a probiotic, clostridium butyricum induced no pathological effects in rats.recent studies have suggested that short chain fatty acids (scfas) exert a therapeutic effect on some human and experimental animal diseases. in a previous study, we showed that clostridium butyricum produces high levels of scfas in the culture system used. in addition, an additive based on yogurt was effective in eliminating and masking the odor derived from scfas in the product. the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects for oral administration of the product, which was derive ...200211786929
new solvent-producing clostridium sp. strains, hydrolyzing a wide range of polysaccharides, are closely related to clostridium butyricum.thirteen new clostridium strains, previously isolated from soil and found to produce high amounts of solvents from glucose, hydrolyzed a great variety of alpha- and beta-glycans, including raw starch, xylan, pectin, inulin and cellulose. the sequences of the pcr-amplified dna fragments containing the variable 3' part of one of the 16s rrna genes were 99.5% identical. the macrorestriction pattern of two endonucleolytic digests of chromosomal dna in the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) conf ...200111781809
prebiotic treatment of experimental colitis with germinated barley foodstuff: a comparison with probiotic or antibiotic treatment.there is increasing evidence that intestinal microflora play an important role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. therefore, modification of the microflora by prebiotics, probiotics, and antibiotics may be a rational approach for controlling intestinal inflammation. germinated barley food-stuff (gbf) is an insoluble mixture of glutamine-rich protein and hemicellulose-rich dietary fiber. gbf is utilized efficiently by bifidobacterium, lactobacillus, and eubacterium and converted by them i ...200211744999
oral administration of a product derived from clostridium butyricum in rats.recent studies have suggested that short chain fatty acids (scfas) exert a therapeutic effect on some human and experimental animal diseases. clostridium butyricum produces high levels of scfas in the gut lumen. the aim of the present study was to analyze the product derived from clostridium butyricum in a culture system, and to develop methods to eliminate the odor derived from scfas in the product. clostridium butyricum was incubated in cs medium for 24 h and subsequently in cs broth for 24 h. ...200211744996
both ph and carbon flux influence the level of rubredoxin in clostridium butyricum.the rubredoxin expression level in clostridium butyricum dsm 5431 grown in continuous culture was monitored using primer extension analyses of the rub gene and a specific enzymatic assay of the iron-sulfur protein. in this way, we showed that variations in rubredoxin content and in rub mrna level were influenced by the ph of the culture and were directly dependent on the carbon flux. the maximum rubredoxin level reached 1227.3 pmol (mg of proteins)(-1) (i.e. 0.7% of the total protein content) un ...200111685512
effects of acetate and butyrate during glycerol fermentation by clostridium butyricum.the effects of acetate and butyrate during glycerol fermentation to 1,3-propanediol at ph 7.0 by clostridium butyricum cncm 1211 were studied. at ph 7.0, the calculated quantities of undissociated acetic and butyric acids were insufficient to inhibit bacterial growth. the initial addition of acetate or butyrate at concentrations of 2.5 to 15 gl(-1) had distinct effects on the metabolism and growth of clostridium butyricum. acetate increased the biomass and butyrate production, reducing the lag t ...200111683356
implantation of bacteria from human pulpal necrosis and translocation from root canals in gnotobiotic mice.the aim of this study was to determine whether microorganisms recovered from infected human root canals were able to survive and translocate to a local lymph node when experimentally inoculated into the root canal system of germ-free mice. the microorganisms isolated from two patients with pulpal necrosis were inoculated in two groups of experimental animals; group i (gemella morbillorum) and group ii (bifidobacterium adolescentis, fusobacterium nucleatum, and clostridium butyricum). g. morbillo ...200111592487
[evaluation of the bacterial flora in natural corn silage].silage is the best method for forage conservation, keeping it in a fresh condition and with high nutrient content. in order to study the natural evolution of maize silage without additives during 50 days after sealed, ph, temperature changes, number and type of the indigenous bacteria were studied every 5 days. the initial ph decreased from 6.40 to 4.10 and temperature stabilized at 26 degrees c. the mesophilic aerobic bacteria were quickly reduced across time. enterococci were descended gradual ...200111494759
separation and characterization of the 1,3-propanediol and glycerol dehydrogenase activities from clostridium butyricum e5 wild-type and mutant d.clostridium butyricum e5 wild-type and mutant e5-md were cultivated in chemostat culture on glycerol in order to compare the properties of two key enzymes of glycerol catabolism, i.e. propanediol and glycerol dehydrogenase.200111412332
influence of glucose on glycerol metabolism by wild-type and mutant strains of clostridium butyricum e5 grown in chemostat culture.in order to improve the yield of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-ppd) in clostridium butyricum e5, we carried out cofermentation experiments on glucose/glycerol mixtures in chemostat culture. the results showed the influence of the ratio of the two carbon substrates on the production of the required diol. the progressive increase of glucose in culture medium containing a given concentration of glycerol made it possible to highlight the deviation of carbon flow from the oxidative towards the reducing pathwa ...200111330719
a novel mechanism controls anaerobic and catabolite regulation of the escherichia coli tdc operon.the tdc operon is subject to crp-controlled catabolite repression. expression of the operon is also induced anaerobically, although this regulation does not rely on direct control by either fnr or arca. recently, the anaerobic expression of the tdc operon was found to be fortuitously induced in the presence of glucose by a heterologous gene isolated from the gram-positive anaerobe clostridium butyricum. the gene, termed tcbc, encoded a histone-like protein of 14.5 kda. using tdc-lacz fusions, it ...200111251844
regulation of carbon and electron flow in clostridium butyricum vpi 3266 grown on glucose-glycerol mixtures.the metabolism of clostridium butyricum was manipulated at ph 6.5 and in phosphate-limited chemostat culture by changing the overall degree of reduction of the substrate using mixtures of glucose and glycerol. cultures grown on glucose alone produced only acids (acetate, butyrate, and lactate) and a high level of hydrogen. in contrast, when glycerol was metabolized, 1,3-propanediol became the major product, the specific rate of acid formation decreased, and a low level of hydrogen was observed. ...200111160107
gene transfer to clostridium cellulolyticum atcc 35319.although much is known about the bacterial cellulosome and its various protein components, their contributions to bacterial growth on cellulose and the process of cellulolysis in vivo cannot currently be assessed. to remedy this, the authors have developed gene transfer techniques for clostridium cellulolyticum atcc 35319. firstly, transfer of tn1545 has been obtained using an enterococcus faecalis donor. secondly, incp-mediated conjugative mobilization of plasmids from escherichia coli donors h ...200011101665
the dietary combination of germinated barley foodstuff plus clostridium butyricum suppresses the dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in rats.recent studies have suggested that dietary fiber exerts a therapeutic effect on ibd patients. the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a dietary combination of germinated barley foodstuff (gbf), derived from the aleurone and scutellum fraction of germinated barley, plus clostridium butyricum against dextran sulfate sodium (dss)-induced experimental colitis in rats.200011099059
genetic analysis of type e botulinum toxin-producing clostridium butyricum strains.type e botulinum toxin (bont/e)-producing clostridium butyricum strains isolated from botulism cases or soil specimens in italy and china were analyzed by using nucleotide sequencing of the bont/e gene, random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) assay, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge), and southern blot hybridization for the bont/e gene. nucleotide sequences of the bont/e genes of 11 chinese isolates and of the italian strain bl 6340 were determined. the nucleotide sequences of the bont/e ge ...200011055954
inhibition of clostridium butyricum by 1,3-propanediol and diols during glycerol fermentation.1,3-propanediol inhibition during glycerol fermentation to 1,3-propanediol by clostridium butyricum cncm 1211 has been studied. the initial concentration of the 1,3-propanediol affected the growth of the bacterium more than the glycerol fermentation. mu(max) was inversely proportional to the initial concentration of 1,3-propanediol (0-65 g l(-1)). for glycerol at 20 g l(-1), the growth and fermentation were completely stopped at an initial 1,3-propanediol concentration of 65 g l(-1). however, fo ...200010968633
purification and characterization of the 1-3-propanediol dehydrogenase of clostridium butyricum e5.1-3 ppd dehydrogenase (ec 1.1.1.202) was purified to homogeneity from clostridium butyricum e5 grown anaerobically on glycerol in continuous culture. the native enzyme was estimated by gel filtration to have a molecular weight of 384 200 +/- 31 100 da; it is predicted to exist as an octamer or a decamer of identical molecular weight subunits. when tested as a dehydrogenase, the enzyme was most active with 1-3 propane diol. in the physiological direction, 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde was the preferre ...200010938419
studies of the effect of clostridium butyricum on helicobacter pylori in several test models including gnotobiotic mice.the interaction between clostridium butyricum and helicobacter pylori was examined in vitro and in vivo. the culture supernate of c. butyricum miyairi 588 inhibited the growth of h. pylori even when its ph was adjusted to 7.4. the bactericidal effect of butyric acid on h. pylori was stronger than that of lactic, acetic or hydrochloric acids. flow cytometric analysis showed that pre-incubation of gastric epithelial (mkn45) cells with h. pylori and c. butyricum inhibited the adhesion of h. pylori ...200010882089
development of a modified three-stage methane production process using food wastes.a modified three-stage system was developed for the rapid production of methane from food wastes. the primary stage was a semianaerobic hydrolysis/acidogenic system, in which approx 4100 mg/l of volatile fatty acids (vfas) was produced at a hydraulic retention time (hrt) of 2 d. the operation temperature and ph were 30 degrees c and 5.0-5.5, respectively. the non-degraded materials were removed through a hole at the bottom of the reactor. the secondary stage was an anaerobic acidogenic system eq ...200010849831
preventive efficacy of butyrate enemas and oral administration of clostridium butyricum m588 in dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in rats.butyrate enemas have been reported to be effective in ulcerative colitis. however, long-term use is difficult because of the troublesome procedure and the unpleasant smell. we therefore investigated the effects of the oral administration of clostridium butyricum m588 (cbm588), an enterobacterium producing butyrate, in dextran sodium sulfate (dss)-induced colitis in rats. first, we confirmed the effects of pre-treatment with a butyrate enema on dss colitis. we then studied the efficacy of oral ad ...200010832668
detection, cloning, and sequence analysis of an indigenous plasmid from cellulolytic clostridial strain mcf1.nucleotide sequence analysis of a 2451-bp plasmid (pmcf1) from a cellulolytic clostridium revealed that the protein specified by the largest open reading frame (orf1) was homologous to repb of clostridium butyricum plasmid pcb101. the data suggest that pmcf1 belongs to the pc194 family of rolling-circle replicating plasmids and the orf1 protein functions as its replication protein.200010686135
high production of 1,3-propanediol from industrial glycerol by a newly isolated clostridium butyricum strain.batch and continuous cultures of a newly isolated clostridium butyricum strain were carried out on industrial glycerol, the major by-product of the bio-diesel production process. for both types of cultures, the conversion yield obtained was around 0.55 g of 1,3-propanediol formed per 1 g of glycerol consumed whereas the highest 1,3-propanediol concentration, achieved during the single-stage continuous cultures was 35-48 g l-1. moreover, the strain presented a strong tolerance at the inhibitory e ...200010682279
occurrence of nisin z production in lactococcus lactis bfe 1500 isolated from wara, a traditional nigerian cheese product.screening for bacteriocin production of 500 strains of lactic acid bacteria (lab) from various african fermented foods resulted in the detection of a bacteriocin producing lactococcus lactis (bfe 1500) isolated from a dairy product called wara. the bacteriocin inhibited not only the closely related lab, but also strains of listeria monocytogenes, listeria innocua, clostridium butyricum, clostridium perfringens, bacillis cereus and staphylococcus aureus. it was heat stable even at autoclaving tem ...199910634705
commentary: where marco polo meets meckel: type e botulism from clostridium butyricum. 199910585783
intestinal toxemia botulism in two young people, caused by clostridium butyricum type e.two unconnected cases of type e botulism involving a 19-year-old woman and a 9-year-old child are described. the hospital courses of their illness were similar and included initial acute abdominal pain accompanied by progressive neurological impairment. both patients were suspected of having appendicitis and underwent laparotomy, during which voluminous meckel's diverticula were resected. unusual neurotoxigenic clostridium butyricum strains that produced botulinum-like toxin type e were isolated ...199910585782
probiotic bacteria stimulate gut epithelial cell proliferation in rat.probiotics are used for various intestinal diseases. however, their effects on gut epithelial cell proliferation have not been investigated. we administered 10(7) colony-forming units of lactobacillus casei or clostridium butyricum, or no probiotics (control) by gastric intubation once a day for seven days to rats fed an elemental diet. we estimated the crypt cell production rate of the jejunum, ileum, cecum, and distal colon. we also quantified cecal bacteria. both probiotics increased the cryp ...199910548366
in vitro utilization of amylopectin and high-amylose maize (amylomaize) starch granules by human colonic bacteria.it has been well established that a certain amount of ingested starch can escape digestion in the human small intestine and consequently enters the large intestine, where it may serve as a carbon source for bacterial fermentation. thirty-eight types of human colonic bacteria were screened for their capacity to utilize soluble starch, gelatinized amylopectin maize starch, and high-amylose maize starch granules by measuring the clear zones on starch agar plates. the six cultures which produced cle ...199910543795
effects of intestinal bacteria on the development of colonic neoplasm: an experimental study.effects of intestinal microflora on the development of colonic neoplasm induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (dmh) were observed using conventionalized and gnotobiotic mouse models. the incidence of colonic adenoma in germ-free mice (iqi/jic) (gf), mice conventionalized after dmh injection (cvz-post-dmh) and conventionalized mice (cvz, conventionalized before dmh injection) was 74%, 69% and 58%, respectively. the mean number of adenomas per mouse in the three groups was 2.6, 2.0 and 1.4, respectivel ...199910443953
distribution of the rubredoxin gene among the clostridium butyricum species.with pcr methods, the rubredoxin gene was systematically identified among 11 strains of clostridium butyricum; this ubiquity means major functions in the metabolism of the clostridia. the 11 pcr products allowed deduction of a sequence of 26 amino acids corresponding to positions 11-36 of the rubredoxin. they all contained the tyrosines at positions 11 and 13 and the phenylalanine at position 30 characteristic of the rubredoxin, but differed at positions 14-17, 20, 25, 29, and 31, allowing deter ...199910355113
[antagonistic interaction between clostridium butyricum and enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7].antagonistic interaction between clostridium butyricum strain miyairi 588 and enterohemorrhagic esherichia coli (ehec) strain o157:h7 006 was examined using streptomycin-treated spf mice and germ free mice. all spf mice pretreated with streptomycin were colonized with ehec o157:h7. on the other hand, only 20% of the spf mice pretreated with streptomycin and c. butyricum were colonized with ehec o157:h7. in addition, germ free mice died within 4-7 days after infection with ehec o157:h7. in contra ...199910077896
does probiotics administration decrease serum endotoxin levels in infants?the aim of this study was to examine whether administration of probiotics to infants can change the ratio of intestinal flora and thereby decrease serum endotoxin produced by potentially pathogenic microorganisms.199910052803
cleavage of l-leucine-containing dipeptides by clostridium butyricum.the ability of clostridium butyricum cultures to hydrolyze three l-leucine-containing dipeptides (leu-leu, leu-gly and gly-leu) in a synthetic minimal medium is demonstrated by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. the 13c nuclear magnetic resonance and a labeled dipeptide l-[1-13c]leu-gly were used to confirm this activity.19999990466
isolation and characterisation of neurotoxigenic clostridium butyricum from soil in china.soil specimens collected from a site around the home of patients with food-borne type e. botulism probably caused by neurotoxigenic clostridium butyricum in guanyun, jiangsu province, china, were examined for the presence of neurotoxigenic c. butyricum. five lakeside sites of weishan lake, in an area near to the sites where the type e. botulism outbreaks caused by neurotoxigenic c. butyricum occurred were also surveyed. type e toxin-producing c. butyricum was isolated from soil from four sites i ...19999989640
increased growth of bifidobacterium and eubacterium by germinated barley foodstuff, accompanied by enhanced butyrate production in healthy volunteers.germinated barley foodstuff (gbf) derived from the aleurone and scutellum fractions of germinated barley mainly consists of low-lignified hemicellulose and glutamine-rich protein. gbf improves the proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells and defecation, through the bacterial production of short chain fatty acids (scfa), especially butyrate. in this study we investigated the mechanism of production of butyrate by microflora in humans and in vitro. daily administration of 9 g gbf for 14 succes ...19999917526
[estimation of probiotics by infection model of infant rabbit with enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7].we examined the preventative effect against enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7 (ehec) infection in rabbits on administration of probiotics contained in streptococcus faecalis, clostridium butyricum and bacillus mesentericus. the probiotics were administered to 5 days old japanese white rabbits throughout the experiment. inoculation of 10(6) colony forming units (cfus) of ehec per rabbit was tried 8 days after birth. three days after ehec inoculation, in the control group (not administere ...19989916417
clostridial pathogenicity in experimental necrotising enterocolitis in gnotobiotic quails and protective role of bifidobacteria.the pathogenesis of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis (nec) remains unclear. gnotobiotic quails fed a lactose diet have been used to investigate the role of clostridial strains originating from faecal specimens of neonates through the intestinal lesions, the changes in microflora balance and the production of bacterial metabolites, i.e., short-chain fatty acids and hydrogen. bifidobacteria are thought to exert various beneficial effects on host health, including interaction with the colonic mic ...19989879939
synthesis of 2-hydroxy acid from 2-amino acid by clostridium butyricum.cultures of clostridium butyricum type strain in synthetic medium supplemented with various l-2-amino acids revealed the presence of the corresponding 2-hydroxy acid. this metabolite is able to produce the polyester poly(2-hydroxyalkanoic acid). the bioconversion is not stereoselective since d-2-amino acids were also converted. chiral gc analysis demonstrated that only d-enantiomer is formed from l-leucine.19989873747
outbreak of suspected clostridium butyricum botulism in india. 19989716988
molecular analysis of the malr gene of clostridium butyricum ncimb 7423, a member of the laci-galr family of repressor proteins.deletion of a region of dna 5' to a previously characterised malq gene of clostridium butyricum resulted in increased production of the enzyme activity encoded by malq, 4-alpha-glucanotransferase. nucleotide sequence analysis revealed the presence of an open reading frame capable of encoding a protein of 335 amino acids. this protein was found to share 33% amino acid sequence identity with the bacillus subtilis ccpa (catabolite control protein) repressor, 28% identity with the streptomyces coeli ...19989711857
the glycyl radical enzyme tdce can replace pyruvate formate-lyase in glucose fermentation.mutants of escherichia coli unable to synthesize a functional pyruvate formate-lyase (pfl) are severely impaired in their capacity to grow by glucose fermentation. in a functional complementation assay designed to isolate the pfl gene from clostridium butyricum, we fortuitously identified a gene that did not encode a pfl but nonetheless was able to complement the phenotypic defects caused by an e. coli pfl mutation. the clostridial gene encoded a basic 14. 5-kda protein (tcbc) which, based on am ...19989657990
effect of glucose on glycerol metabolism by clostridium butyricum dsm 5431.the levels of 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase and of the glycerol dehydrogenase in clostridium butyricum grown on glucose-glycerol mixtures were similar to those found in extracts of cells grown on glycerol alone, which can explain the simultaneous glucose-glycerol consumption. on glycerol, 43% of glycerol was oxidized to organic acids to obtain energy for growth and 57% to produce 1,3-propanediol. with glucose-glycerol mixtures, glucose catabolism was used by the cells to produce energy through t ...19989633649
gene arrangement in the upstream region of clostridium botulinum type e and clostridium butyricum bl6340 progenitor toxin genes is different from that of other types.the cluster of genes encoding the botulinum progenitor toxin and the upstream region including p21 and p47 were divided into three different gene arrangements (class i-iii). to determine the gene similarity of the type e neurotoxin (bont/e) complex to other types, the gene organization in the upstream region of the nontoxic-nonhemagglutinin gene (ntnh) was investigated in chromosomal dna from clostridium botulinum type e strain iwanai and c. butyricum strain bl6340. the gene cluster of type e pr ...19989465394
a gene (plsd) from clostridium butyricum that functionally substitutes for the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase gene (plsb) of escherichia coli.the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (plsb) of escherichia coli is a key regulatory enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step in phospholipid biosynthesis. we report the initial characterization of a novel gene (termed plsd) from clostridium butyricum, cloned based on its ability to complement the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate auxotrophic phenotype of a plsb mutant strain of e. coli. unlike the 83-kda plsb acyltransferase from e. coli, the predicted plsd open reading frame encoded a protei ...19979393688
purification and characterization of konjac glucomannan degrading enzyme from anaerobic human intestinal bacterium, clostridium butyricum-clostridium beijerinckii group.konjac glucomannan degrading enzyme was purified to homogeneity from the culture broth of an anaerobic human intestinal bacterium, clostridium butyricum-clostridium beijerinckii group. the enzyme was composed of a single polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of 50,000-53,000. the enzyme was an endo-beta-mannanase that acted specifically on the polysaccharides such as konjac glucomannan and coffee mannan, producing exclusively their smaller oligosaccharides and the monosaccharides. the optima ...19979362121
molecular analysis of a clostridium butyricum ncimb 7423 gene encoding 4-alpha-glucanotransferase and characterization of the recombinant enzyme produced in escherichia coli.an escherichia coli clone was detected in a clostridium butyricum ncimb 7423 plasmid library capable of degrading soluble amylose. deletion subcloning of its recombinant plasmid indicated that the gene(s) responsible for amylose degradation was localized on a 1.8 kb nsphi-scal fragment. this region was sequenced in its entirety and shown to encompass a large orf capable of encoding a protein with a calculated molecular mass of 57,184 da. although the deduced amino acid sequence showed only weak ...19979353929
intestinal distribution and intraluminal localization of orally administered clostridium butyricum in rats.clostridium butyricum has been used as a probiotic in animals and humans for years, however, its fate in the intestine has not been clarified yet. we investigated the intestinal fate of c. butyricum using a selective medium and a monoclonal antibody after orally administering c. butyricum spores to rats. the number of c. butyricum, both viable and dead cells, in the intestinal contents were counted by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) at various times after a single oral administration. ...19979343816
recalcitrance of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (dde) to cometabolic degradation by pure cultures of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.pure cultures of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria capable of oxidation and reductive dehalogenation of chloroethylenes, and aerobic bacteria involved in biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) were screened for their ability to cometabolize the persistent pollutant 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (dde). bacterial cultures expressing methane monooxygenase (methylosinus trichosporium), propane monooxygenase (mycobacterium vaccae) and biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase enzymes (pseudomo ...19979294241
characterization of a neurotoxigenic clostridium butyricum strain isolated from the food implicated in an outbreak of food-borne type e botulism.neurotoxigenic clostridium butyricum was isolated from the food implicated in an outbreak of clinically diagnosed type e botulism in china. pcr assay showed that the isolate (lcl 155) contained the type e botulinum toxin gene. this appears to be the first report of neurotoxigenic c. butyricum causing food-borne botulism.19979230405
[effects of administration of clostridium butyricum to patients receiving long-term tube feeding].in patients who require total parenteral or enteral nutrition the intestinal lining may atrophy and the ability to absorb nutrients may be lost. to prevent atrophy of the small intestine, we administered a suspension of clostridium butyricum to elderly patients receiving tube feeding, and then measured the activation of serum diamine oxidase and the number, form, water content, and bacteria content of stools, indicators of intestinal structure. we found a significant increase in diamine oxidase ...19979212685
immunopotentiating activity of clostridium butyricum in mice.bacterial vaccine, as generated by heat-inactivated clostridium butyricum cells, displayed antitumor activity against sarcoma 180 in ddy mice and antimetastatic activity against b16-f10 melanoma in bdf1 mice. according to our results, the vaccine has no direct growth inhibitory effect toward the tumor cell lines tested in this study. the vaccine increased gamma-interferon production, elicited delayed type hypersensitivity reaction, and enhanced igm antibody formation and mitogenicity. the phagoc ...19969050255
production and characterization of enterocin 900, a bacteriocin produced by enterococcus faecium bfe 900 from black olives.enterococcus faecium bfe 900 isolated from black olives produced a bacteriocin termed enterocin 900, which was antagonistic towards lactobacillus sake, clostridium butyricum, enterococci as well as listeria spp. including listeria monocytogenes. enterocin 900 was inactivated by pepsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, proteinase k and trypsin but not by catalase, alpha-amylase, or other non-proteolytic enzymes tested. the bacteriocin was heat stable, retaining activity after heating at 121 degrees c for 15 m ...19968796427
effects of orally administered clostridium butyricum miyairi 588 on mucosal immunity in mice.the activation of local mucosal immunity by clostridium butyricum miyairi 588 (cbm588) was investigated in germ-free mice. an increase of polyclonal iga production in the small intestine or secretion into the intestinal lumen was observed in mice mono-associated with cbm588 and fed a diet containing killed vegetative cells of cbm588 (vcbm). however, fecal iga of anti-cbm588 was rarely formed in mice administered cbm588 during 6 weeks from administration. cholera toxin was administered orally to ...19958578691
a new balance equation of reducing equivalents for data consistency check and bioprocess calculation.the reducing equivalent (re) balance is a basic equation for data consistency check and calculations of bioprocesses. the macroscopic approach is often used because it does not require detailed knowledge of metabolic pathways. in this work, the conventional minkevich-eroshin balance equation is examined with data of anaerobic glycerol conversion by klebsiella pneumoniae and clostridium butyricum as examples. it is shown that the minkevich-eroshin equation is very insensitive to measurement error ...19958562017
antimetastatic activity induced by clostridium butyricum and characterization of effector cells.the effects of a bacterial vaccine, heat-killed clostridium butyricum mii 588 cells, on the metastasis of b16-f10 melanoma in bdf1 mice was investigated. the vaccine stimulated natural killer (nk) cell cytotoxic activity against yac-1 target cells, which peaked at 72 hr after the pretreatment, whereas maximum macrophage cytotoxic activity was obtained on days 9 to 11. these stimulated cytotoxic activities were also observed in b16-f10 tumor-bearing bdf1 mice. the important role of stimulated nk ...19938476200
gene probes for identification of the botulinal neurotoxin gene and specific identification of neurotoxin types b, e, and f.a polymerase chain reaction method was developed for the specific detection of the botulinum neurotoxin (bont) gene of clostridium botulinum. degenerate oligonucleotide primers, designed from the nucleotide sequence of the heavy chain of the bont gene, amplified a specific fragment of approximately 1.1 kb from strains of c. botulinum toxin types a, b, e, f, and g and neurotoxin-producing strains of clostridium barati and clostridium butyricum, but no fragment was obtained from nontoxigenic strai ...19938408542
colony immunoblot assay of botulinal toxin.botulinal neurotoxin in and around colonies of clostridium botulinum types a, b, and e and of toxigenic clostridium butyricum was detected by an enzyme-linked immunoassay procedure whereby the toxin was transferred from the agar medium to a nitrocellulose support and the immobilized toxin was probed with type-specific antibodies. the method identified the toxin types of the colonies grown from a mixed inoculum of c. botulinum serotypes. the specificity of the antitoxins for type a and b toxins w ...19938357267
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