PMID(sorted descending)
[effects of probiotics on intestinal bacterial colonization in premature infants].to study the possible roles of probiotics in decreasing intestinal bacterial colonization rate and the incidence of enterogenic infections in premature infants.201020350428
enhanced bio-hydrogen production by the combination of dark- and photo-fermentation in batch this study, some key factors, for example, diluted ratio of effluents, the ratio of dark-photo bacteria, light intensity and light/dark cycle influencing hydrogen production by combining clostridium butyricum and immobilized rhodopseudomonas faecalis rld-53 in batch culture, were investigated. experimental results showed the photo-hydrogen yield decreased when increasing diluted ratio from 1:0.5 to 1:3, and it reached the maximum value of 4368 ml-h(2)/l-effluents at the ratio of 1:0.5. when t ...201020202826
selected microbial groups and short-chain fatty acids profile in a simulated chicken cecum supplemented with two strains of lactobacillus.among the bacterial fermentation end products in the chicken cecum, butyrate is of particular importance because of its nutritional properties for the epithelial cell and pathogen inhibitory effects in the gut. an in vitro experiment, operated with batch bioreactor, was conducted to quantify butyric-producing bacteria in a simulated broiler cecum supplemented with lactobacillus salivarius ssp. salicinius jcm 1230 and lactobacillus agilis jcm 1048 during 24 h of incubation. selected bacterial spe ...201020181862
probiotics have clinical, microbiologic, and immunologic efficacy in acute infectious diarrhea.acute infectious diarrhea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and economic burden for families. we evaluate the clinical, microbiologic, and immunologic effects of probiotics in acute infectious diarrhea.201020135748
effects of dietary lipids and clostridium butyricum on fat deposition and meat quality of broiler chickens.the effects of dietary lipids and clostridium butyricum on carcass quality, fat deposition, meat quality, and fatty acid contents of breast meat in broiler chickens were investigated. one hundred sixty one-day-old broiler chicks (arbor acres) were divided into 4 treatment groups in a 2x2 factorial arrangement and fed 4 diets with 2 lipid sources (soybean oil or fish oil) and 2 levels of c. butyricum (0 or 5 g/kg of diets) were used. abdominal fat was significantly reduced when chicks were fed th ...201020075277
presence of soil-dwelling clostridia in commercial powdered infant formulas.because clostridium botulinum was isolated from powdered infant formula (pif) fed to an infant in the united kingdom who subsequently developed infant botulism and from unopened pif from the same manufacturer, we tested pif manufactured in the united states for the presence of clostridial spores.201020004414
multicomponent cellulase production by cellulomonas biazotea ncim-2550 and its applications for cellulosic biohydrogen production.among four cellulolytic microorganisms examined, cellulomonas biazotea ncim-2550 can grow on various cellulosic substrates and produce reducing sugar. the activity of cellulases (endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and cellobiase), xylanase, amylase, and lignin class of enzymes produced by c. biazotea was mainly present extracellularly and the enzyme production was dependent on cellulosic substrates (carboxymethyl cellulose [cmc], sugarcane bagasse [scb], and xylan) used for growth. effects of physicoc ...201019941342
conversion of glycerol to poly(3-hydroxypropionate) in recombinant escherichia coli.we have developed the conversion of glycerol into thermoplastic poly(3-hydroxypropionate) [poly(3hp)]. for this, the genes for glycerol dehydratase (dhab1) of clostridium butyricum, propionaldehyde dehydrogenase (pdup) of salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium lt2, and polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) synthase (phac1) of ralstonia eutropha were expressed in recombinant escherichia coli. poly(3hp) was accumulated up to 11.98% (wt/wt [cell dry weight]) in a two-step, fed-batch fermentation. the present ...201019933347
conductivity as a measure of vitality and death.the conductance of laminaria, saccharomyces, bacillus coli and bacillus butyricus, chlorella, and of red blood cells has been studied by the writer's method, and laminaria by that of osterhout. for the material studied it has been found that: 1. the conductance of living tissue is closely proportionate to, and determined by that of the surrounding fluid with which it is apparently in equilibrium. changes in the conductance of the fluid are quickly followed by compensatory changes in that of the ...192319872003
the effect of hydrogen ion concentration on the production of carbon dioxide by bacillus butyricus and bacillus subtilis.1. the maximum rate of co(2) production of bacillus butyricus was found to be at a ph value of 7; of bacillus subtilis at ph 6.8. if the ph value be raised or lowered there is a progressive decrease in the rate of production of co(2). 2. spontaneous recovery follows the addition of alkali to either organism, while addition of acid is followed by recovery only upon addition of an equivalent amount of alkali, and is not complete except when the amount of acid is very small.192119871925
sequence analysis of a bacteriocinogenic plasmid of clostridium butyricum and expression of the bacteriocin gene in escherichia coli.a small cryptic plasmid, namely, pcbm588, was obtained from clostridium butyricum miyairi 588 (cbm588)--a bacterium used in probiotics. the complete sequence of pcbm588 was determined. the size of pcbm588 was 8060 bp and the g + c content was 24.3%. nine open reading frames (orfs) were predicted, and orf3 showed significant homologies with a structural bacteriocin gene of clostridium tyrobutyricum. the putative bacteriocin gene was inserted into the pet21d expression vector in frame; it was expr ...201019840859
recombination and insertion events involving the botulinum neurotoxin complex genes in clostridium botulinum types a, b, e and f and clostridium butyricum type e strains.clostridium botulinum is a taxonomic designation for at least four diverse species that are defined by the expression of one (monovalent) or two (bivalent) of seven different c. botulinum neurotoxins (bonts, a-g). the four species have been classified as c. botulinum groups i-iv. the presence of bont genes in strains representing the different groups is probably the result of horizontal transfer of the toxin operons between the species.200919804621
effect of carbohydrate composition in barley and oat cultivars on microbial ecophysiology and proliferation of salmonella enterica in an in vitro model of the porcine gastrointestinal tract.the influence of the carbohydrate (cho) composition of cereal cultivars on microbial ecophysiology was studied using an in vitro model of the porcine gastrointestinal tract. ten hull-less barley cultivars, six barley cultivars with hulls, six oat cultivars, and six oat groats that differed in beta-glucan, nonstarch polysaccharide (nsp), and starch contents and starch type were hydrolyzed enzymatically and incubated for 72 h with pig feces. fermentation kinetics were modeled, and microbial compos ...200919783749
[effect of initial substrate concentrations and ph on hydrogen production from xylose with clostridium butyricum t4].we studied the effect of initial ph and substrate concentrations on the conversion of xylose to hydrogen by clostridium butyrium t4 at ph 5.0-8.5 and substrate concentrations 5-40 g/l. the cumulative hydrogen volume and the specific hydrogen production rate increased and then decreased with increasing initial ph or substrate concentrations. at initial ph 6.5 and substrate concentration 20 g/l, the cumulative hydrogen production and the specific hydrogen production rate reached the maximum value ...200919777817
phylogenetic and metabolic diversity of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (rdx)-transforming bacteria in strictly anaerobic mixed cultures enriched on rdx as nitrogen source.five obligate anaerobes that were most closely related to clostridium bifermentans, clostridium celerecrescens, clostridium saccharolyticum, clostridium butyricum and desulfovibrio desulfuricans by their 16s rrna genes sequences were isolated from enrichment cultures using hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (rdx) as a nitrogen source. the above isolates transformed rdx at rates of 24.0, 5.4, 6.2, 2.5, 5.5 mumol h(-1) g (dry weight) of cells(-1), respectively, to nitrite, formaldehyde, metha ...200319719572
multiplex pcr for detection of botulinum neurotoxin-producing clostridia in clinical, food, and environmental samples.botulinum neurotoxin (bont), the most toxic substance known, is produced by the spore-forming bacterium clostridium botulinum and, in rare cases, also by some strains of clostridium butyricum and clostridium baratii. the standard procedure for definitive detection of bont-producing clostridia is a culture method combined with neurotoxin detection using a standard mouse bioassay (smb). the smb is highly sensitive and specific, but it is expensive and time-consuming and there are ethical concerns ...200919684163
metabolic modelling of syntrophic-like growth of a 1,3-propanediol producer, clostridium butyricum, and a methanogenic archeon, methanosarcina mazei, under anaerobic conditions.clostridium butyricum can convert glycerol into 1,3-propanediol, thereby generating unfortunately a high amount of acetate, formate and butyrate as inhibiting by-products. we have proposed a novel mixed culture comprising c. butyricum and a methane bacterium, methanosarcina mazei, to relieve the inhibition and to utilise the by-products for energy production. in order to examine the efficiency of such a mixed culture, metabolic modelling of the culture system was performed in this work. the meta ...201019680695
biohydrogen production from cellulosic hydrolysate produced via temperature-shift-enhanced bacterial cellulose hydrolysis.a "temperature-shift" strategy was developed to improve reducing sugar production from bacterial hydrolysis of cellulosic materials. in this strategy, production of cellulolytic enzymes with cellulomonas uda e3-01 was promoted at a preferable temperature (35 degrees c), while more efficient enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis was achieved under an elevated culture temperature (45 degrees c), at which cell growth was inhibited to avoid consumption of reducing sugar. this temperature-shift strategy was ...200919604692
effect of cod/so(4)2- ratio and fe(ii) under the variable hydraulic retention time (hrt) on fermentative hydrogen production.the effect of chemical oxygen demand/sulfate (cod/so(4)(2-)) ratio on fermentative hydrogen production using enriched mixed microflora has been studied. the chemostat system maintained with a substrate (glucose) concentration of 15 g cod l(-1) exhibited stable h(2) production at inlet sulfate concentrations of 0-20 g l(-1) during 282 days. the tested cod/so(4)(2-) ratios ranged from 150 to 0.75 (with control) at ph 5.5 with hydraulic retention time (hrt) of 24, 12 and 6h. the hydrogen production ...200919555990
functions of the clostridium acetobutylicium fabf and fabz proteins in unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis.the original anaerobic unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis pathway proposed by goldfine and bloch was based on in vivo labeling studies in clostridium butyricum atcc 6015 (now c. beijerinckii) but to date no dedicated unsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic enzyme has been identified in clostridia. c. acetobutylicium synthesizes the same species of unsaturated fatty acids as e. coli, but lacks all of the known unsaturated fatty acid synthetic genes identified in e. coli and other bacteria. a possibl ...200919493359
adding value to renewables: a one pot process combining microbial cells and hydrogen transfer catalysis to utilise waste glycerol from biodiesel production.waste glycerol was converted to secondary amines in a one pot reaction, using clostridium butyricum and catalytic hydrogen transfer-mediated amination.200919377668
therapeutic effects of clostridium butyricum on experimental colitis induced by oxazolone in evaluate the therapeutic effects of a probiotic supplement (clostridium butyricum, cgmcc0313) in a chemically-induced rat model of experimental colitis.200919370778
biocontrol: bacillus penetrans and related parasites of nematodes.bacillus penetrans mankau, 1975, previously described as duboscqia penetrans thorne 1940, is a candidate agent for biocontrol of nematodes. this review considers the life stages of this bacterium: vegetative growth phase, colony fragmentation, sporogenesis, soil phase, spore attachment, and penetration into larvae of root-knot nematodes. the morphology of the microthallus colonies and the unusual external features of the spore are discussed. taxonomic affinities with the actinomycetes, particula ...198019300701
development of real-time pcr tests for detecting botulinum neurotoxins a, b, e, f producing clostridium botulinum, clostridium baratii and clostridium develop real-time pcr assays for tracking and tracing clostridia responsible for human botulism.200919291235
short-chain fatty acids and polyamines in the pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis: kinetics aspects in gnotobiotic quails.despite years of investigation, pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (nec) remains elusive. bacterial metabolites were implicated by several authors but their roles remain controversial. the aim of our study was to investigate the role of scfas and polyamines through a kinetic study of histological and macroscopical digestive lesions in monobiotic quails. germ-free quails, inoculated with a clostridium butyricum strain involved in a nec case, were fed or not with a diet including lactose (7 ...200919233303
process optimization of biological hydrogen production from molasses by a newly isolated clostridium butyricum w5.this work sought to optimize fermentation parameters in a batch process for hydrogen production from molasses by a newly isolated clostridium butyricum w5. hydrogen yield and production rate, bacterial biomass and volatile fatty acids, including acetic, lactic and butyric acids, were measured. key fermentation operation parameters, including concentration of carbon and nitrogen sources, growth temperature and ph, and inoculum size were investigated. the best results in terms of hydrogen yield an ...200919217551
production of apoptosis-inducing substances from soybean protein by clostridium butyricum: characterization of their toxic effects on human colon carcinoma cells.microbial metabolism of soybean constituents is known to produce novel active substances as a chemopreventive agent during the fermentation, and enterobacteria are expected to produce chemopreventive agents as a consequence of metabolizing soybean constituents in the intestinal tract. then, the conditioned medium was prepared by culturing an enterobacterium clostridium butyricum (c. butyricum) with soybean protein, and its direct effect on human colon carcinoma hct116 cells was examined. the con ...200919147278
microbial conversion of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol by an engineered strain of escherichia an effort to improve industrial production of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-pd), we engineered a novel polycistronic operon under the control of the temperature-sensitive lambda phage p(l)p(r) promoter regulated by the cits857 repressor and expressed it in escherichia coli k-12 er2925. the genes for the production of 1,3-pd in clostridium butyricum, dhab1 and dhab2, which encode the vitamin b(12)-independent glycerol dehydratase dhab1 and its activating factor, dhab2, respectively, were tandemly array ...200919139229
functional consortium for hydrogen production from cellobiose: concentration-to-extinction approach.a functional bacterial consortium that can effectively hydrolyze cellobiose and produce bio-hydrogen was isolated by a concentration-to-extinction approach. the sludge from a cattle feedlot manure composting plant was incubated with 2.5-20 g l(-1) cellobiose at 35 degrees c and ph 6.0. the microbial diversity of serially concentrated suspensions significantly decreased following increasing cellobiose concentration, finally leaving only two viable strains, clostridium butyricum strain w4 and ente ...200919138842
microbial electrode bod sensors. biotechnol bioeng. vol. xix, pgs. 1535-47 (1977). 200919090576
an overview of type e botulism in china.the geographical distribution of c. botulinum type e and its associated disease, type e botulism in china, is different from that in other areas of the world. cases of type e botulism generally arise in costal regions. in china, however, type e botulism is found primarily in the qinghai-tibet plateau of northwest china far from the ocean, at an altitude of approximately 4-5 km. the foods most commonly associated with the disease are fermented grain and beans as well as raw meat. a suspected outb ...200818837301
in vitro evaluation on adherence and antimicrobial properties of a candidate probiotic clostridium butyricum cb2 for farmed characterize the antimicrobial and adhesion ability of candidate probiotic clostridium butyricum cb2 for farmed fish in vitro.200818795975
absence of allergic reactions to egg white lysozyme additive in grana padano cheese.the negative effects on cheese quality of milk contaminated by spores of clostridium butyricum and cl.tyrobutyricum is prevented by the use of egg white lysozyme as additive. since the presence of lysozyme in cheese could be possibly risky in allergic subjects, we aimed at investigating its absorption as well as serum ige antibody titers after ingestion of grana padano cheese, an italian dpo, long-ripened hard cheese, in white egg allergic subjects.200818689566
multiple product inhibition and growth modeling of clostridium butyricum and klebsiella pneumoniae in glycerol fermentation.the inhibition potentials of products and substrate on the growth ofclostridium butyricum and klebsiella pneumoniae in the glycerol fermentation are examined from experimental data and with a mathematicalmodel. whereas the inhibition potential of externally added and self-produced 1,3-propanediol is essentially the same, butyric acid produced by the culture is more toxic than that externally added. the same seems to apply for acetic acid. the inhibitory effect of butyric acid is due tothe total ...199418618908
regeneration of nad(p)h by immobilized whole cells of clostridium butyricum under hydrogen high pressure.immobilized whole cells of clostridium butyricum reduced both nad(+) and nadp(+) in the presence of hydrogen at a pressure of 100 atm. the nad(+) and nadp(+) reduction activities were 4.45 and 4.30 u/g dry cells, respectively [u = nad(p)h regenerated, mu mol/min]. the amount of nadh regenerated by immobilized cells increased with increasing hydrogen pressure above 10 atm. immobilized cells (6 mg dry cells) of cl. butyricum completely converted nad(+) (6.4 mumole) to nadh for 5 h, whereas only 60 ...198518553815
an open-label randomized controlled trial of lactulose and probiotics in the treatment of minimal hepatic encephalopathy.minimal hepatic encephalopathy (mhe) is associated with poor quality of life and increased work disability. treatment with lactulose and probiotics has shown some benefit. we compared lactulose with probiotics and a combination of lactulose plus probiotics in the treatment of mhe.200818467909
efficacy of clostridium butyricum preparation concomitantly with helicobacter pylori eradication therapy in relation to changes in the intestinal microbiota.antibiotic associated diarrhea due to human intestinal microbiota abnormalities is a side effect of h. pylori eradication therapy. we examined intestinal microbiota changes during h. pylori eradication therapy and the preventive effect of cbm588 as a probiotic agent. nineteen patients with gastro-duodenal ulcer were randomly divided into three groups: group a (without probiotics), group b (with regular doses of cbm588) and group c (with double doses of cbm588). the incidence of diarrhea and soft ...200818402597
effects of active egg white product/ clostridium butyricum miyairi 588 additive on peripheral leukocyte populations in periparturient dairy cows.the leukocyte populations of periparturient dairy cows were analyzed after administration of active egg white/clostridium butyricum miyairi additive. sixty-eight holstein milking cows were divided into 3 groups. group a was administered active egg white product (aewp)/clostridium butyricum miyairi 588 (miyairi 588) additive (n=23). group b was administered miyairi 588 only (n=23), and group c was the control group (n=22). the challenged groups were administered 100 g of aewp + miyairi 588, or mi ...200818388438
ability of lactobacillus fermentum to overcome host alpha-galactosidase deficiency, as evidenced by reduction of hydrogen excretion in rats consuming soya alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides.soya and its derivatives represent nutritionally high quality food products whose major drawback is their high content of alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides. these are not digested in the small intestine due to the natural absence of tissular alpha-galactosidase in mammals. the passage of these carbohydrates to the large intestine makes them available for fermentation by gas-producing bacteria leading to intestinal flatulence. the aim of the work reported here was to assess the ability of alpha-gala ...200818230145
clostridium butyricum sepsis in an injection drug user with an indwelling central venous catheter.clostridium novyi has been associated with a large outbreak of severe infections in injection drug users. a case of bacteraemia with clostridium butyricum in an injection drug user is reported. during treatment for staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis, the patient used an indwelling central venous catheter to inject cocaine. he was admitted with c. butyricum sepsis that responded to broad spectrum antibiotics, including vancomycin. local investigation for other cases was unrevealing; however, gro ...200818201992
relationship among growth parameters for clostridium butyricum, hyda gene expression, and biohydrogen production in a sucrose-supplemented batch reactor.this study was undertaken to identify the relationship between the performance of dark h2 fermentation and expression of the key functional gene (i.e., hydrogenase gene) involved in the bioh2 production process. clostridium butyricum cgs5 isolated from anaerobic sewage sludge was used as the model strain for this study. copy number of the hydrogenase gene (hyda) and mrna transcripts (cdna hyda) (after amplification) and the total dna and rna (before amplification) were measured over the course o ...200818193215
infantile botulism caused by clostridium butyricum type e toxin.the case of a 9-month-old boy with infantile botulism caused by clostridium butyricum type e toxin is reported. because infantile botulism is rare in japan, it was difficult to diagnose it at an early stage. electrophysiologic findings were useful for the diagnosis, and were characterized by incremental responses (waxing) to short intervals and rapid repetitive nerve stimulation. a bioassay for botulism in mice indicated that the patient had botulism due to type e or f botulinum toxin. c. butyri ...200818054696
real-time pcr detection of the nontoxic nonhemagglutinin gene as a rapid screening method for bacterial isolates harboring the botulinum neurotoxin (a-g) gene complex.botulinum neurotoxin (bont) producing clostridia contain genes encoding a specific neurotoxin serotype (a-g) and nontoxic associated proteins that form the toxin complex. the nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (ntnh) is a conserved component of the toxin complex in all seven toxin types. a real-time pcr assay that utilizes a locked nucleic acid hydrolysis probe to target the ntnh gene was developed to detect bacterial strains harboring the botulinum neurotoxin gene cluster. the specificity of the assay f ...200717961766
quality of silages from italian farms as attested by number and identity of microbial indicators.this study evaluated the quality and possible hygiene risks related to farm-made silages by analysing the presence and number of micro-organisms that influence the preservation and safety in samples from four italian regions.200717953581
the isolation and microbial community analysis of hydrogen producing bacteria from activated profile the fractions of bacteria in heat-treated activated sludge capable of producing hydrogen and subsequently to isolate those organisms and confirm their ability to produce hydrogen.200717953552
biochemical energy conversion using immobilized whole cells of clostridium butyricum.hydrogen producing bacteria, clostridium butyricum, were immobilized in agar gel (2 per cent). the immobilized whole cells were employed for continuous production of hydrogen from alcohol factory waste waters. the hydrogen production rate became constant above bod 1500 ppm when hydrogen production was performed with a batch system. the immobilized whole cells continuously produced hydrogen over a 20-day period. the amount of hydrogen produced was about 6 ml/min/kg wet gels. hydrogen produced was ...198017941443
dark hydrogen fermentation from hydrolyzed starch treated with recombinant amylase originating from caldimonas taiwanensis on1.starch is one of the most abundant resources on earth and is suited to serve as a cost-effective feedstock for biological hydrogen production. however, producing hydrogen from direct fermentation of starch is usually inefficient, as the starch hydrolysis is often the rate-limiting step. therefore, in the present work, enzymatic starch hydrolysis was conducted to enhance the feasibility of using starch feedstock for h2 production. the amylase (with a molecular weight of ca. 112 kda) used for star ...200717924646
improving pcr and qpcr detection of hydrogenase a (hyda) associated with clostridia in pure cultures and environmental sludges using bovine serum albumin.detection of hyda genes of clostridia spp. using degenerative and species specific primers for c. butyricum were optimized by the addition of bovine serum albumin (bsa) to polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and quantitative pcr (qpcr) reactions. bsa concentrations ranging from 100 to 400 ng/microl were examined using pure cultures and a variety of environmental samples as test targets. a bsa concentration of 100 ng/microl, which is lower than previously reported in the literature, was found to be m ...200717909787
dark h2 fermentation from sucrose and xylose using h2-producing indigenous bacteria: feasibility and kinetic studies.cellulosic materials are the major components in biomass feedstock used for bioenergy production. hydrolytic products of cellulosic substances consist primarily of hexose (e.g., glucose) and pentose (e.g., xylose). in this study, the efficiency of fermentative conversion of sucrose (representing hexose) and xylose into h2 was examined with seven h2-producing pure strains isolated from a high-rate h2-producing system in our recent work. the isolates were identified as clostridium butyricum (strai ...200817889245
description of the bacteriocins produced by two strains of enterococcus faecium isolated from italian goat this study two strains of enterococcus faecium, m241 and m249, isolated from goat milk, were studied for their capability to produce antibacterial compounds. it was determined that the bacteriocins produced by both strains were active towards listeria monocytogenes and clostridium butyricum, and they did not have any activity with respect to other species of lactic acid bacteria. enterocins a and b were targeted by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and sequenced, after cloning, in both strains. ...200717613373
probiotics reduce infectious complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy.postoperative morbidity is a significant problem associated with pancreaticoduodenectomy. the clinical value of probiotics in surgical patients remains unclear. this study investigated the effect of probiotics on surgical outcome after pancreaticoduodenectomy.200717591036
[helicobacter pylori infection and probiotics]. 200717575794
clostridium aestuarii sp. nov., from tidal flat sediment.a strictly anaerobic, halophilic, motile, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain hy-45-18(t), was isolated from a sediment sample of a tidal flat in korea. the isolate produced butyric acid, propionic acid, glycerol and h(2) as fermentation end products from glucose. strain hy-45-18(t) is halophilic as it was unable to grow in the absence of sea salts. a 16s rrna gene sequence analysis clearly indicated that the tidal flat isolate is a member of cluster i of the order clostri ...200717551049
intestinal toxemia botulism in italy, 1984-2005.botulism in humans is caused by botulinum neurotoxins, produced in most cases by clostridium botulinum, although other clostridia species are implicated as well. of the five forms of botulism in humans, three are referred to as "infective": wound botulism, infant botulism, and adult intestinal botulism; the latter two forms are also referred to as "intestinal toxemia botulism" because the organism colonizes the lumen of the intestinal tract and produces botulinum neurotoxin in vivo. twenty-three ...200717516104
clostridium butyricum to-a culture supernatant downregulates tlr4 in human colonic epithelial cells.the present study was performed to examine whether probiotics affect toll-like receptor 4 (tlr4) expression in human colonic epithelial cells. culture supernatants or heat-killed bacteria of bacillus mesentericus to-a, clostridium butyricum to-a, and streptococcus faecalis t-110 were applied to human colonic epithelial cells. treatment with c. butyricum to-a culture supernatant significantly reduced tlr4 mrna level (x0.16), even in the presence of interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma; x0.21) as compared ...200717404865
sybr green real-time pcr method to detect clostridium botulinum type a.botulinum toxins (bonts) are classically produced by clostridium botulinum but rarely also from neurotoxigenic strains of clostridium baratii and clostridium butyricum. bont type a (bont/a), bont/b, bont/e, and very rarely bont/f are mainly responsible for human botulism. standard microbiological methods take into consideration only the detection of c. botulinum. the presumptive identification of the toxigenic strains together with the typing of bont has to be performed by mouse bioassay. the de ...200717369349
flow-fish analysis and isolation of clostridial strains in an anaerobic semi-solid bio-hydrogen producing system by hydrogenase gene using hydrogenase gene-targeted polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and reverse transcriptase pcr (rt-pcr), the predominant clostridial hydrogenase that may have contributed to biohydrogen production in an anaerobic semi-solid fermentation system has been monitored. the results revealed that a clostridium pasteurianum-like hydrogenase gene sequence can be detected by both pcr and rt-pcr and suggested that the bacterial strain possessing this specific hydrogenase gene was dominant in hydrogenase a ...200717277963
botulism: the challenge of diagnosis and treatment.botulism is a rare paralytic disease caused by a neurotoxin produced from the spore-forming bacterium clostridium botulinum and in rare cases clostridium butyricum and clostridium baratii. botulism has 4 naturally occurring syndromes: foodborne, wound, infant botulism, and adult intestinal toxemia. inhalational botulism could result from aerosolization of botulinum toxin, and iatrogenic botulism can result from injection of toxin. all of these produce the same clinical syndrome of symmetrical cr ...200617224901
clostridium saccharogumia sp. nov. and lactonifactor longoviformis gen. nov., sp. nov., two novel human faecal bacteria involved in the conversion of the dietary phytoestrogen secoisolariciresinol diglucoside.two anaerobic bacteria involved in the conversion of the plant lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside were isolated from faeces of a healthy male adult. the first isolate, strain sdg-mt85-3db, was a mesophilic strictly anaerobic gram-positive helically coiled rod. based on 16s r rna gene sequence analysis, its nearest relatives were clostridium cocleatum (96.7% similarity) and clostridium ramosum (96.6%). in contrast to these species, the isolate was devoid of alpha-galactosidase and -glucosida ...200717196483
the relationship between instability of h2 production and compositions of bacterial communities within a dark fermentation fluidized-bed bioreactor.microbial community composition dynamics was studied during h(2) fermentation from glucose in a fluidized-bed bioreactor (fbr) aiming at obtaining insight into the h(2) fermentation microbiology and factors resulting in the instability of biofilm processes. fbr h(2) production performance was characterised by an instable pattern of prompt onset of h(2) production followed by rapid decrease. gradual enrichment of organisms increased the diversity of fbr attached and suspended-growth phase bacteri ...200717163514
antimicrobial activity of different proteins and their fragments from bacillus thuringiensis parasporal crystals against clostridia and archaea.proteins of parasporal crystals (cry proteins) from entomopathogenic bacterium bacillus thuringiensis (subspecies kurstaki, galleriae, tenebrionis) as well as some fragments of these proteins, obtained by limited proteolysis, are capable of antimicrobial action against anaerobic bacteria and archaea-clostridium butyricum, clostridium acetobutylicum and methanosarcina barkeri. the mics are 45-150 microg/ml. electron microscopy showed that lysis of m. barkeri cells in the presence of 49kda fragmen ...200717126041
[investigation for proper use of probiotics in nagasaki university hospital of medicine and dentistry].antimicrobial agents sometimes cause the adverse effects of diarrhea and loose stool. antibiotic-resistant lactic acid bacteria are used to prevent these adverse effects. the bacteria are not resistant to several antimicrobial agents, although the bacterium preparations are sometimes prescribed the antimicrobial agents concomitantly. therefore this paper reports that the minimal inhibitory concentration of three new antimicrobial agents against antibiotic-resistant lactic acid bacteria were dete ...200617077616
classification of clostridium butyricum based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.eleven strains of clostridium butyricum collected from different sources were analysed by both sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge). the strains could be classified into four groups based on their banding profiles of the proteins extracted from the cells on sds-page. group i consisted of seven strains, and these strains were further divided into five subgroups by pfge. the strains belonging to groups ii, iii, and iv on s ...199816887639
degradation of 2-nitrodiphenylamine, a component of otto fuel ii, by clostridium spp.otto fuel ii, a propellant in torpedoes, is composed of 76% 1,2 propanediol dinitrate (pgdn), 22.5% di-n-butyl sebacate, and 1.5% 2-nitrodiphenylamine (ndpa), and is largely recalcitrant to aerobic microbial degradation. anaerobic microbial degradation of otto fuel ii was tested by inoculating anaerobic enrichment media, containing either 2% (vol:vol) complete otto fuel ii or 2% of a 0.02% solution of otto fuel ii in methanol, with soil and water from sites contaminated with munitions or with la ...199816887628
studies on a kinetic model for butyric acid bioproduction by clostridium butyricum.this paper discusses the establishment of a kinetic model for cell growth, butyric acid production and substrate consumption of clostridium butyricum zjucb in batch cultivation.200616834724
effects of dietary supplementation with clostridium butyricum on the growth performance and humoral immune response in miichthys miiuy.the effects of dietary supplementation with clostridium butyricum on growth performance and humoral immune response in miichthys miiuy were evaluated. one hundred and fifty miichthys miiuy weighing approximately 200-260 g were divided into five groups and reared in 15 tanks with closed circuiting culture system. the animals were fed 5 diets: basal diet only (control) or supplemented of the basal diet with c. butyricum at doses of 10(3) (cb1), 10(5) (cb2), 10(7) (cb3) or 10(9) (cb4) cfu/g. compar ...200616773736
efficiency of hydrogen photoproduction by chloroplast-bacterial hydrogenase systems.a comparative study of h(2) photoproduction by chloroplasts and solubilized chlorophyll was performed in the presence of hydrogenase preparations of clostridium butyricum. the photoproduction of h(2) by chloroplasts in the absence of exogenous electron donors, and with irreversibly oxidized dithiothreitol and cysteine, is thought to be limited by a cyclic transport of electrons wherein methylviologen short-circuits the electron transport in photosystem i. the efficiency of h(2) photoproduction b ...198016661554
laboratory diagnostics of botulism.botulism is a potentially lethal paralytic disease caused by botulinum neurotoxin. human pathogenic neurotoxins of types a, b, e, and f are produced by a diverse group of anaerobic spore-forming bacteria, including clostridium botulinum groups i and ii, clostridium butyricum, and clostridium baratii. the routine laboratory diagnostics of botulism is based on the detection of botulinum neurotoxin in the patient. detection of toxin-producing clostridia in the patient and/or the vehicle confirms th ...200616614251
degradation of pyruvate by micrococcus lactilyticus ii. : studies of cofactors in the formate-exchange reaction.mccormick, n. g. (university of washington, seattle), e. j. ordal, and h. r. whiteley. degradation of pyruvate by micrococcus lactilyticus. ii. studies of cofactors in the formate-exchange reaction. j. bacteriol. 83:899-906. 1962.-enzyme preparations from micrococcus lactilyticus(2) are rendered inactive with respect to formate exchange by treatment with charcoal or dowex-50, by dialysis, or by fractionation with ammonium sulfate. the activity may be completely restored by a "kochsaft" preparati ...196216561937
properties of allyl alcohol-resistant mutants of clostridium butyricum grown on glycerol.mutants of clostridium butyricum e5 exhibiting resistance to allyl alcohol which produced the same quantities of 1,3-propanediol as the wild-type strain but more acetate than butyrate were isolated. the acetate-butyrate formation plays a major function in the regulation of the internal redox balance. allyl alcohol resistance can be attributed not to the loss of 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase but to a shift in the reductive properties of the enzyme. the data support the view that cellular regulati ...199616535411
isolation and characterization of clostridium butyricum dsm 5431 mutants with increased resistance to 1,3-propanediol and altered production of acids.clostridium butyricum mutants were isolated from the parent strain dsm 5431 after mutagenesis with n-methyl-n(prm1)-nitro-n-nitrosoguanidine and two selection procedures: osmotic pressure and the proton suicide method. isolated mutants were more resistant to glycerol and to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-pd) than was the wild type, and they produced more biomass. in batch culture on 62 g of glycerol per liter, the wild type produced more acetic acid than butyrate, with an acetate/butyrate ratio of 5.0, wh ...199516535195
effect of clostridium butyricum on fecal flora in helicobacter pylori eradication investigate the effect of probiotic bacterium, clostridium butyricum miyairi 588 strain (cbm) on the changes of the fecal flora in helicobacter pylori (h. pylori) treatment.200516437727
microbial conversion of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol: physiological comparison of a natural producer, clostridium butyricum vpi 3266, and an engineered strain, clostridium acetobutylicum dg1(pspd5).clostridium acetobutylicum is not able to grow on glycerol as the sole carbon source since it cannot reoxidize the excess of nadh generated by glycerol catabolism. nevertheless, when the pspd5 plasmid, carrying the nadh-consuming 1,3-propanediol pathway from c. butyricum vpi 3266, was introduced into c. acetobutylicum dg1, growth on glycerol was achieved, and 1,3-propanediol was produced. in order to compare the physiological behavior of the recombinant c. acetobutylicum dg1(pspd5) strain with t ...200616391030
microbial ecophysiology of whey biomethanation: characterization of bacterial trophic populations and prevalent species in continuous culture.the organization and species composition of bacterial trophic groups associated with lactose biomethanation were investigated in a whey-processing chemostat by enumeration, isolation, and general characterization studies. the bacteria were spatially organized as free-living forms and as self-immobilized forms appearing in flocs. three dominant bacterial trophic group populations were present (in most probable number per milliliter) whose species numbers varied with the substrate consumed: hydrol ...198616346970
microbiology of wetwood: importance of pectin degradation and clostridium species in living trees.wetwood samples from standing trees of eastern cottonwood (populus deltoides), black poplar (populus nigra), and american elm (ulmus americana) contained high numbers of aerobic and anaerobic pectin-degrading bacteria (10 to 10 cells per g of wood). high activity of polygalacturonate lyase (</=0.5 u/ml) was also detected in the fetid liquid that spurted from wetwood zones in the lower trunk when the trees were bored. a prevalent pectin-degrading obligately anaerobic bacterium isolated from these ...198116345848
hydrogen production from glucose by anaerobes.various anaerobes were cultivated in media containing glucose. when 100 ml of thioglycollate medium containing 2.0% (w/v) glucose was used, clostridium butyricum atcc 859, nbrc 3315, and nbrc 13949 evolved 227-243 ml of biogas containing about 180 ml of hydrogen in 1 day. although some strains had some resistance against oxygen, c. butyricum atcc 859 and 860 did not have it. c. butyricum nbrc 3315 and enterobacter aerogenes nbrc 13534 produced hydrogen in the presence of glucose or pyruvic acid, ...200516321068
batch and fed-batch production of butyric acid by clostridium butyricum zjucb.the production of butyric acid by clostridium butyricum zjucb at various ph values was investigated. in order to study the effect of ph on cell growth, butyric acid biosynthesis and reducing sugar consumption, different cultivation ph values ranging from 6.0 to 7.5 were evaluated in 5-l bioreactor. in controlled ph batch fermentation, the optimum ph for cell growth and butyric acid production was 6.5 with a cell yield of 3.65 g/l and butyric acid yield of 12.25 g/l. based on these results, this ...200516252341
microbial hydrogen production from sweet potato starch residue.clostridium butyricum could produce hydrogen from a sweet potato starch residue upon supplementation of nitrogen sources. a repeated batch culture using a mixed culture of c. butyricum and enterobacter aerogenes produced hydrogen with a yield of 2.4 mol h2/mol glucose under a controlled culture ph of 5.25 in a medium consisting of the sweet potato starch residue and 0.1% polypepton without addition of any reducing agents. rhodobacter sp. m-19 produced hydrogen from the supernatant of the culture ...200116232947
degradation of pectic substances by two pectate lyases from a human intestinal bacterium, clostridium butyricum-beijerinckii group.clostridium butyricum-beijerinckii group, an anaerobic human intestinal bacterium, produced exo-pectate lyase, endo-pectate lyase, and pectin methylesterase, but not polygalacturonase. the production of the two pectate lyases was strongly influenced by the composition of the carbon sources added to the medium. the enzymes secreted by the bacterium into the human large intestine cooperatively digested pectic substances, producing mainly 4,5-unsaturated digalacturonic acid with the participation o ...199916232622
evidence for clostridial implication in necrotizing enterocolitis through bacterial fermentation in a gnotobiotic quail model.despite extensive research, the pathogenesis of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (nec) remains elusive. the aim of our work was to investigate the role of bacterial strains involved in nec in gnotobiotic quails as experimental model. six groups of germ-free quails that were fed a lactose diet were associated with klebsiella pneumoniae, clostridium perfringens, c. difficile, c. paraputrificum, or c. butyricum (two strains). implantation level, incidence of cecal lesions, production of short-cha ...200516189185
characterization of culturable anaerobic bacteria from the forestomach of an eastern grey kangaroo, macropus determine the culturable biodiversity of anaerobic bacteria isolated from the forestomach contents of an eastern grey kangaroo, macropus giganteus, using phenotypic characterization and 16s rdna sequence analysis.200516162139
metabolic engineering of clostridium acetobutylicum for the industrial production of 1,3-propanediol from glycerol.clostridium butyricum is to our knowledge the best natural 1,3-propanediol producer from glycerol and the only microorganism identified so far to use a coenzyme b12-independent glycerol dehydratase. however, to develop an economical process of 1,3-propanediol production, it would be necessary to improve the strain by a metabolic engineering approach. unfortunately, no genetic tools are currently available for c. butyricum and all our efforts to develop them have been so far unsuccessful. to obta ...200516095939
production of 1,3-propanediol by clostridium butyricum vpi 3266 in continuous cultures with high yield and productivity.the effects of dilution rate and substrate feed concentration on continuous glycerol fermentation by clostridium butyricum vpi 3266, a natural 1,3-propanediol producer, were evaluated in this work. a high and constant 1,3-propanediol yield (around 0.65 mol/mol), close to the theoretical value, was obtained irrespective of substrate feed concentration or dilution rate. improvement of 1,3-propanediol volumetric productivity was achieved by increasing the dilution rate, at a fixed feed substrate co ...200516044292
rapid species identification and partial strain differentiation of clostridium butyricum by pcr using 16s-23s rdna intergenic spacer regions.some clostridium butyricum strains have been used as probiotics for both humans and animals. strain-specific identification is necessary for the manufacturing process of probiotics. the aim of this study was to determine whether there are sufficient genetic variations in 16s-23s intergenic spacer regions (isrs) to discriminate c. butyricum at the biovar level. we amplified isrs from five reference strains, a probiotic strain (miyairi 588) and 22 isolates, and we classified them into four groups ...200516034204
[butyric acid bacteria of the genus clostridium in the bottom sediments of inland basins of different types].the cell numbers and ecological characteristics of the distribution of certain species of butyric acid bacteria (bab) of the genus clostridium in the bottom sediments of inland basins of different types were studied using the optimal nutrient media. the seasonal dynamics of clostridial vegetative cells and spores in sediments with different ecological conditions were revealed. the cell numbers of the dominant bab species were shown to depend on the redox potential of the sediments, the amount an ...200515835788
the beneficial effects of microflora, especially obligate anaerobes, and their products on the colonic environment in inflammatory bowel disease.because intestinal microflora play a pivotal role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (ibd), there is currently some interest in alternating the composition of the microflora toward a potentially more remedial community. this paper summarizes the clinical and experimental efficacy of the manipulation of microflora by the use of antibiotics, probiotics, and prebiotics in ibd. germinated barley foodstuff (gbf) is a prebiotic whose unique characteristics make it highly suitable for app ...200515777254
bacteria recovered from dental pulp induce apoptosis of lymph node cells.apoptosis is critical in the pathogenesis of several infectious diseases. the induction of apoptosis was assessed in mouse lymph node cells by four bacteria recovered from infected human dental pulp: gemella morbillorum, clostridium butyricum, fusobacterium nucleatum and bifidobacterium adolescentis. smaller lymph nodes and smaller numbers of cells were observed after experimental dental pulp infection with c. butyricum, suggesting that this bacterium induces cell death. apoptosis was evaluated ...200515770029
recent advances in infant botulism.since infant botulism was first identified three decades ago, our understanding of botulinum toxins and the organisms that produce them has grown. a newer classification system now recognizes clostridium baratii and clostridium butyricum along with clostridium botulinum as causative agents. recently, increasing therapeutic use of botulinum toxins has sparked substantial new research into their mechanisms of action. this research, and some case reports from infants sickened by unusual botulinum t ...200515730893
target selection in designing pasteurization processes for shelf-stable high-acid fruit products.this study is focused on the search for targets and criteria for the design of pasteurization processes for high-acid shelf-stable fruit products, such as juices, nectars, pastes, purees, concentrates, jams, jellies, etc. first, an overview of pasteurization is presented and then, frequently used targets for pasteurization processes are reviewed enzymes naturally present in fruits, in decreasing order of heat resistance, were pectinesterase, peroxidase, and polyphenoloxidase, and they may be use ...200415540648
[observation on intestinal flora in patients of irritable bowel syndrome after treatment of chinese integrative medicine].to observe the clinical efficacy of the combination of traditional chinese medicine and western medicine in treating irritable bowel syndrome (ibs) and the result of intestinal flora regulation. methods: sixty ibs patients, 36 males and 24 females, were divided into two groups, with 30 patients in each group. herbal formula of tongxieyaofang and clostridium butyricum (cb) were used in the first group for four weeks, while only cb was used for four weeks in the second group. we observed the chang ...200415383254
production of 1,3-propanediol by clostridium butyricum vpi 3266 using a synthetic medium and raw glycerol.growth inhibition of clostridium butyricum vpi 3266 by raw glycerol, obtained from the biodiesel production process, was evaluated. c. butyricum presents the same tolerance to raw and to commercial glycerol, when both are of similar grade, i.e. above 87% (w/v). a 39% increase of growth inhibition was observed in the presence of 100 g l(-1) of a lower grade raw glycerol (65% w/v). furthermore, 1,3-propanediol production from two raw glycerol types (65% w/v and 92% w/v), without any prior purifica ...200415378388
response surface methodology for optimizing the fermentation medium of clostridium butyricum.strains of clostridium butyricum have been increasingly used as probiotics for both animals and humans. the aim of this study was to develop a growth medium for cultivating c. butyricum zjucb using a statistical methodology.200415355540
the effect of probiotic treatment with clostridium butyricum on enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli o157:h7 infection in mice.enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli (ehec) o157:h7 has been considered as an agent responsible for outbreak of hemorrhagic colitis and the hemolytic uremic syndrome. we examined the effect of the probiotic agent clostridium butyricum miyairi strain 588 on ehec o157:h7 infections in vitro and in vivo using gnotobiotic mice. the growth of ehec o157:h7 and the production of shiga-like toxins in broth cultures were inhibited by co-incubation with c. butyricum. the antibacterial effects of butyric and ...200415196571
insight into the mechanism of the b12-independent glycerol dehydratase from clostridium butyricum: preliminary biochemical and structural characterization.the molecular characterization of a b12-independent glycerol dehydratase from clostridium butyricum has recently been reported [raynaud, c., et al. (2003) proc. natl. acad. sci. u.s.a. 100, 5010-5015]. in this work, we have further characterized this system by biochemical and crystallographic methods. both the glycerol dehydratase (gd) and the gd-activating enzyme (gd-ae) could be purified to homogeneity under aerobic conditions. in this form, both the gd and gd-ae were inactive. a reconstitutio ...200415096031
clostridium butyricum, a probiotic derivative, suppresses dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in rats.recent studies have suggested that probiotics or short chain fatty acids (scfas) exert a therapeutic effect on inflammatory bowel disease (ibd) patients. in a previous study, we demonstrated that clostridium butyricum produces high levels of scfas in culture. in addition, a yogurt-based additive effectively masked, completely eliminating the unpleasant odor derived from the scfas. we recently reported that the oral administration of both high and low dose diets (50% w/w for 17 days and 5% w/w fo ...200415010859
[effect of oxidation-reduction of the culture medium on fixation of mellucular nitrogen in clostridium pasteurianum]. 195114860042
the amylase of clostridium butyricum. 195114838859
the utilization of nitrogen in various compounds by clostridium pasteurianum. 195114832186
[physiological research on endosporus azotophagus (tchan and pochon 1950) nitrogen fixator]. 195014799967
considering the antimicrobial sensitivity of the intestinal botulism agent clostridium butyricum when treating concomitant italy, neurotoxigenic clostridium butyricum has been reported as a new agent of intestinal toxemia botulism, and most of the cases have been associated with enterocolitis. although infections concomitant with botulism must be treated with antibiotics, this can increase the severity of botulism. we discuss the sensitivity of this agent to certain antibiotics, compared to findings on the sensitivity of c. botulinum.200314758873
Displaying items 201 - 300 of 573