PMID(sorted descending)
protection mechanism of clostridium butyricum against salmonella enteritidis infection in broilers.this study was designed to evaluate the protection mechanism of oral administration of clostridium butyricum against salmonella enteritidis (se) colonization in broilers. in the current study, 180 one-day-old healthy arbor acres (aa) broilers were meanly grouped into three, with three replicates of 20 birds each. an negative control group was fed basal diet without se challenge and a positive control (pc) group was fed the basal diet and challenged with se [10(6) colony forming unit (cfu)/0.2 ml ...201728848530
exploring the microbial origins of p-cresol and its co-occurrence pattern in the chinese liquor-making process.the compound p-cresol is the major off-odor and toxic component of strong aroma-type chinese liquor. to trace its origin, the p-cresol contents in the liquor-making process were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. the prokaryotic communities involved in the process were revealed by 16s rrna gene miseq sequencing. the results showed that the microbial diversity and concentration of p-cresol in pit mud significantly increased with increased pit depth. canonical correspondence analysi ...201728843121
effects of polysaccharide from physalis alkekengi var. francheti on liver injury and intestinal microflora in type-2 diabetic mice.diabetic liver injury is a serious diabetic complication. the alterations of intestinal microbiota play an important role in induction and promotion of liver injury progression. physalis alkekengi l. var. francheti (mast.) makino (solanaceae) has been used as a water decoction for treating diabetes.201728832229
anti-diabetic effects of clostridium butyricum cgmcc0313.1 through promoting the growth of gut butyrate-producing bacteria in type 2 diabetic mice.patients with type 2 diabetes (t2d) have decreased butyrate-producing bacteria. we hypothesized that supplementation with butyrate-producing bacteria may exert beneficial effects on t2d. the current study investigated the effects of well-characterized butyrate-producing bacteria clostridium butyricum cgmcc0313.1 (cb0313.1) on hyperglycemia and associated metabolic dysfunction in two diabetic mouse models. cb0313.1 was administered daily by oral gavage to leptin (db/db) mice for 5 weeks starting ...201728765642
administration of lactobacillus salivarius li01 or pediococcus pentosaceus li05 prevents ccl4-induced liver cirrhosis by protecting the intestinal barrier in rats.alterations in the gut microbiome have been reported in liver cirrhosis, and probiotic interventions are considered a potential treatment strategy. this study aimed to evaluate the effects and mechanisms of lactobacillus salivarius li01, pediococcus pentosaceus li05, lactobacillus rhamnosus gg, clostridium butyricum miyairi and bacillus licheniformis zhengchangsheng on ccl4-induced cirrhotic rats. only administration of li01 or li05 prevented liver fibrosis and down-regulated the hepatic express ...201728761060
description of absiella argi gen. nov., sp. nov., and transfer of eubacterium dolichum and eubacterium tortuosum to the genus absiella as absiella dolichum comb. nov. and absiella tortuosum comb. nov.gram-positive, straight or slightly curved rod-shaped bacteria, designated as strains n6h1-5(t) and n6h1-3, were isolated from fecal samples of old dog. the analysis of 16s rrna gene sequences indicated that the isolates belonged to the clostridium cluster xvi and were closely related to eubacterium dolichum kctc 5832(t), eubacterium tortuosum dsm 3987(t), clostridium innocuum kctc 5183(t), allobaculum stecoricanis dsm 13633(t), eubacterium limosum kctc 3266(t), and clostridium butyricum kctc 18 ...201728754474
comparative phenotypic analysis of "clostridium neonatale" and clostridium butyricum isolates from neonates."clostridium neonatale" was recently described as a new species within the cluster i of the clostridium genus sensu stricto. in this study, we characterized "c. neonatale" isolates (n = 42) and compared their phenotypic properties with those of clostridium butyricum (n = 26), a close related species. strains isolated from fecal samples of healthy neonates were tested for different phenotypic characteristics. compared to c. butyricum, "c. neonatale" showed a significant higher surface hydrophobic ...201728739338
finished whole-genome sequences of clostridium butyricum toxin subtype e4 and clostridium baratii toxin subtype f7 strains.clostridium butyricum and clostridium baratii species have been known to produce botulinum toxin types e and f, respectively, which can cause botulism, a rare but serious neuroparalytic disease. here, we present finished genome sequences for two of these clinically relevant strains.201728729254
efficacy and safety of probiotic-supplemented triple therapy for eradication of helicobacter pylori in children: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.the aim of this study was to identify the best probiotic supplementation in triple therapy for pediatric population with helicobacter pylori infection.201728681177
clostridium butyricum maximizes growth while minimizing enzyme usage and atp production: metabolic flux distribution of a strain cultured in glycerol.the increase in glycerol obtained as a byproduct of biodiesel has encouraged the production of new industrial products, such as 1,3-propanediol (pdo), using biotechnological transformation via bacteria like clostridium butyricum. however, despite the increasing role of clostridium butyricum as a bio-production platform, its metabolism remains poorly modeled.201728571567
[effects of clostridium butyricum on serum uric acid and inflammatory mediators in rats with hyperuricemia].to investigate the effects of intragastric administration of clostridium butyricum in regulating serum uric acid, lipopolysaccharides (lps), interleukin-6 (il-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (tnf-α) in rats with hyperuricemia rats.201728539294
mixed-culture h2 fermentation performance and the relation between microbial community composition and hydraulic retention times for a fixed bed reactor fed with galactose/glucose mixtures.this study examined the mesophilic continuous biohydrogen fermentation from galactose and glucose mixture with an initial substrate concentration of 15 g/l (galactose 12 g/l and glucose 3 g/l) as a resembling carbon source of pretreated red algal hydrolyzate. a fixed bed reactor was fed with the sugar mixture at various hydraulic retention times (hrts) ranging 12 to 1.5 h. the maximum hydrogen production rate of 52.6 l/l-d was found at 2 h hrt, while the maximum hydrogen yield of 2.3±0.1 mol/mol ...201728528789
selection and characterization of an anaerobic microbial consortium with high adaptation to crude glycerol for 1,3-propanediol production.crude glycerol is an ideal feedstock for bioproduction of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-pdo) while pure culture always shows low substrate tolerance and limited productivity. in this study, an anaerobic microbial consortium for conversion of crude glycerol was selected and its 1,3-pdo production capacity was evaluated. the consortium was obtained from anaerobic activated sludge by 19 serial transfers and mainly consisted of 94.64% clostridiaceae and 4.47% peptostreptococcaceae. the consortium adapted wel ...201728512675
clostridium butyricum partially regulates the development of colitis-associated cancer through mir-200c.colitis-associated cancer (cac), one form of colorectal cancer (crc),is an increasing concern worldwide. both diagnosis and current therapy are challenging and bottlenecked. the aim of this study is to investigate novel mechanisms by which the therapeutic c. butyricum regulates colitis-induced oncogenesis. mouse models of cac were established with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (tnbs)and azoxymethane (aom), following by biochemical, clinical and histological analysis. the integrity of epithe ...201728478805
effect of the dietary probiotic clostridium butyricum on growth, intestine antioxidant capacity and resistance to high temperature stress in kuruma shrimp marsupenaeus japonicus.a 56-day feeding trial followed by an acute high temperature stress test were performed to evaluate the effect of dietary probiotic clostridium butyricum (cb) on growth performance and intestine antioxidant capacity of kuruma shrimp marsupenaeus japonicus. shrimp were randomly allocated in 9 tanks (30 shrimp per tank) and triplicate tanks were fed with diets containing different levels of c. butyricum (1×10(9) cfu/g): 0mgg(-1) feed (control), 100mgg(-1) feed (cb-100), 200mgg(-1) feed (cb-200) as ...201728477915
galleria mellonella as an in vivo model for assessing the protective activity of probiotics against gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens.the antagonistic activity against gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens is an important property of probiotic bacteria and a desirable feature for pre-selection of novel strains with probiotic potential. pre-screening of candidate probiotics for antibacterial activity should be based on in vitro and in vivo tests. this study investigated whether the protective activity of probiotic bacteria against gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens can be evaluated using galleria mellonella larvae as an in viv ...201728369512
effect of dietary clostridium butyricum on growth, intestine health status and resistance to ammonia stress in pacific white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei.the present study evaluated the effect of dietary clostridium butyricum (cb) on growth, intestine microstructure, intestine digestive and immune function, intestine short-chain fatty acids (scfa) content and body composition of pacific white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei. the shrimp was fed for 56 d with diets containing different levels of c. butyricum (1 × 10(9) cfu/g): 0% (control), 0.25% (cb1), 0.5% (cb2) and 1.0% (cb3) as treatment groups, followed by an acute ammonia stress test for 72 h. th ...201728359948
decolorization and biodegradation of remazol reactive dyes by clostridium species.decolorisation and biodegradation efficacy of potential strains isolated from dyeing effluent collected from tirupur region, tamil nadu, india were studied in remazol reactive dyes. two potential strains clostridium butyricum (ei05) and clostridium acetobutylicum (ei25) identified by biochemical tests in our previous study were studied for their decolorising efficiency on various remazol reactive dyes (remazol blue rgb, remazol blue rr, remazol navy rgb and remazol orange rr). the synthetic dyes ...201628330087
iron reduction and gley formation by nitrogen-fixing clostridia.studies on iron reduction and the mechanism of gley formation by nitrogen-fixing clostridia are reported. up to 10(6) cells/g soil of anaerobic, nitrogen-fixing clostridia, capable of reducing iron (iii)-oxide, were counted in samples taken from various top soils. in a gleyed subsoil as many as 10(5) bacteria per g soil, capable of reducing and fixing nitrogen, were enumerated using the most probable number technique. in general, the ratio of the auxotrophic iron reducing clostridia (glucose+yea ...197128310760
preeminent productivity of 1,3-propanediol by clostridium butyricum jkt37 and the role of using calcium carbonate as ph neutraliser in glycerol fermentation.calcium carbonate was evaluated as a replacement for the base during the fermentation of glycerol by a highly productive strain of 1,3-propanediol (pdo), viz., clostridium butyricum jkt37. due to its high specific growth rate (µmax=0.53h(-1)), 40g/l of glycerol was completely converted into 19.6g/l of pdo in merely 7h of batch fermentation, leaving only acetate and butyrate as the by-products. the accumulation of these volatile fatty acids was circumvented with the addition of calcium carbonate ...201728285221
oral administration of clostridium butyricum cgmcc0313-1 inhibits β-lactoglobulin-induced intestinal anaphylaxis in a mouse model of food allergy.probiotic bacteria can induce immune regulation or immune tolerance in patients with allergic diseases, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. there has been a growing interest in the use of beneficial bacteria for allergic diseases recently. this study aimed at exploring whether clostridium butyricum cgmcc0313-1 (c. butyricum) can reduce β-lactoglobulin(blg)-induced intestinal anaphylaxis in a murine model of food allergy.201728250847
oral administration of clostridium butyricum cgmcc0313-1 reduces ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation in mice.probiotic bacteria can induce immune regulation or immune tolerance in patients with allergic diseases, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. there has been a growing interest in the use of beneficial bacteria for allergic diseases recently. this study aimed at exploring whether clostridium butyricum cgmcc0313-1 (c. butyricum) can reduce ovalbumin (ova)-induced allergic airway inflammation in a mouse model.201728122397
effects of the dietary protein and carbohydrate ratio on gut microbiomes in dogs of different body conditions.obesity has become a health epidemic in both humans and pets. a dysbiotic gut microbiota has been associated with obesity and other metabolic disorders. high-protein, low-carbohydrate (hplc) diets have been recommended for body weight loss, but little is known about their effects on the canine gut microbiome. sixty-three obese and lean labrador retrievers and beagles (mean age, 5.72 years) were fed a common baseline diet for 4 weeks in phase 1, followed by 4 weeks of a treatment diet, specifical ...201728119466
effects of synbiotic supplementation on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and muscular antioxidant capacity and mineral contents in broilers.the present study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary synbiotic supplementation on growth performance, carcass composition, meat quality and muscular antioxidant capacity, and mineral contents in broilers. accordingly, 96 day-old male broiler chicks (arbor acres plus; aviagen, huntsville, al, usa) were randomly allocated to two groups, and each group consisted of six replicates with eight chicks each. birds were fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet supplemented with either 0 or 1.5 g kg(-1 ...201728111775
clostridium butyricum b1 alleviates high-fat diet-induced steatohepatitis in mice via enterohepatic immunoregulation.enterohepatic immunologic derangement is associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (nash). here, we investigated whether clostridium butyricum b1 (cb) would be an effective immune-targeted substance to attenuate steatohepatitis in mice.201728109017
probiotics enhance the effect of allergy immunotherapy on regulating antigen specific b cell activity in asthma patients.immune regulatory system dysfunction plays a role in the pathogenesis of asthma. the therapeutic effect of allergic asthma is to be improved. the immune regulatory function of probiotics has been recognized. this study tests a hypothesis that clostridium butyricum (cb) enhances the effect of allergen specific immunotherapy (ait) on asthma. in this study patients with allergic asthma were treated with ait or/and cb for six months. the therapeutic effect and ige production of the patients were obs ...201628078000
bacteria associated with piezodorus guildinii (hemiptera: pentatomidae), with special reference to those transmitted by feeding.the redbanded stink bug, piezodorus guildinii (westwood) (hemiptera: heteroptera: pentatomidae), is a rapidly growing pest damaging southern us agriculture. pentatomid stink bugs are known to vector bacterial, fungal, and viral plant diseases. however, bacteria associated with redbanded stink bugs and their vector potential have not yet been assessed. in this study, we 1) cultured and identified bacteria transmitted by feeding of redbanded stink bug and 2) described bacteria from guts of redband ...201728025221
multi-spacer typing as an effective method to distinguish the clonal lineage of clostridium butyricum strains isolated from stool samples during a series of necrotizing enterocolitis cases.necrotizing enterocolitis (nec) is a devastating gastrointestinal disease with high morbidity and mortality that predominantly affects preterm neonates during outbreaks. in a previous study, the present authors identified 15 clostridium butyricum isolates from stool samples during a series of nec cases involving four neonatal intensive care units. a clonal lineage of these strains was observed by in-silico multi-locus sequence typing.201727988045
normal human gingival fibroblasts undergo cytostasis and apoptosis after long-term exposure to butyric acid.the causes of periodontal disease are complex. butyric acid, a metabolite of periodontopathic bacteria such as porphyromonas gingivalis, acts as a histone deacetylase inhibitor that has a direct effect on mrna expression. butyric acid produced by clostridium butyricum in the intestinal tract induces differentiation of regulatory t cells, thereby suppressing inflammation in the gut. mice lacking clostridium butyricum in the intestinal tract suffer from colitis. by contrast, butyric acid in the or ...201727914813
inhibited growth of clostridium butyricum in efficient h2-producing co-culture with rhodobacter sphaeroides.cell number of clostridium butyricum and rhodobacter sphaeroides in co-culture was measured using q-pcr approach. during efficient h2 photoproduction from starch (6.2 mol h2/mol glucose), clostridia growth and starch-hydrolyzing activity was partly suppressed. apparently, the effect of r. sphaeroides towards c. butyricum was not attributed to altered eh or ph values in the presence of purple bacteria. further, disk-diffusion test proved that r. sphaeroides was capable of producing inhibitors aga ...201627838838
vitamin a deficiency impacts the structural segregation of gut microbiota in children with persistent investigate whether gut microbiota is associated with vitamin a nutritional levels in children with persistent diarrhea, a total of 59 pediatric patients with persistent diarrhea aged 1-12 months were selected from the department of gastroenterology at the children's hospital of chongqing medical university, china. subjects were hospitalized and divided into va-deficient (n = 30) and va-normal (n = 29) groups according to their venous serum retinol levels. fecal samples from all 59 subjects w ...201627698538
probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea.goldenberg jz, lytvyn l, steurich j, parkin p, mahant s, johnston bc. probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea.cochrane database syst rev2015, issue 12. art. no.: cd004827.
efficacy and role of inulin in mitigation of enteric sulfur-containing odor in pigs.the efficacy and role of inulin in the mitigation of enteric sulfur-containing odor gases hydrogen sulfide (h2 s) and methyl mercaptan (ch3 sh) in pigs were examined in this study. twelve duroc × landrace × yorkshire male finisher pigs (60.7 ± 1.9 kg), housed individually in open-circuit respiration chambers, were randomly assigned to two dietary groups, namely basal diet (control) and basal diet supplemented with 1% (w/w) inulin. at the end of the 45 day experiment, pigs were slaughtered and vo ...201627664398
effects of clostridium butyricum and bifidobacterium on btla expression on cd4(+) t cells and lymphocyte differentiation in late preterm infants.probiotics is recognized to promote growth performance and immune function via balancing the intestinal microflora. live clostridium butyricum and bifidobacterium combined powder (lcbbcp) has been widely to treat intestinal dysbacteriosis in newborns in china. this study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the combined probiotics on the expression of b and t lymphocyte attenuator (btla) on cd4(+) t cells and the differentiation of lymphocyte subsets in late preterm infants.201627622346
molecular characterization and expression analysis of toll-like receptor 2 in response to bacteria in silvery pomfret intestinal epithelial cells.toll-like receptor 2 (tlr2) has been shown to play a crucial role in the host defense of pathogenic microbes in innate immunity. in this study, the full-length cdna of tlr2 in silvery pomfret (pampus argenteus) was cloned by homology cloning and the rapid amplification of cdna ends (race) technique. the complete cdna sequence of tlr2 was 2932 bp, containing an open reading frame (orf) of 2469 bp encoding 822 amino acids. a multiple alignment analysis of the silvery pomfret tlr2 protein-coding se ...201627574826
specific immunotherapy ameliorates ulcerative colitis.hypersensitivity reaction to certain allergens plays a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (ibd). this study aims to observe the effect of specific immunotherapy in a group of ibd patients.201627499766
priority of the genus name clostridium prazmowski 1880 (approved lists 1980) vs sarcina goodsir 1842 (approved lists 1980) and the creation of the illegitimate combinations clostridium maximum (lindner 1888) lawson and rainey 2016 and clostridium ventriculi (goodsir 1842) lawson and rainey 2016 that may not be a recent publication that attempts to deal with the growing problem of taxa being added to the genus clostridium that are outside of clostridium (16s rrna) group i, a solution is proposed that seeks to limit the genus clostridium prazmowski 1880 (approved lists 1980) to a small number of species 'related' to the type species, clostridium butyricum prazmowski 1880 (approved lists 1980). it has been proposed that this genus should also include members of the genus sarcina goodsir 1842 (approved ...201627488356
combination of specific allergen and probiotics induces specific regulatory b cells and enhances specific immunotherapy effect on allergic rhinitis.the therapeutic efficacy of allergen specific immunotherapy (sit) on allergic diseases is to be improved. probiotics can regulate immune response. this study aims to promote the effect of sit on allergic rhinitis (ar) by co-administration with clostridium butyricum (cb). in this study, patients with ar sensitized to mite allergens were enrolled to this study, and treated with sit or/and cb. the therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by the total nasal symptom scores (nss), medication scores, serum s ...201627486985
first report of clostridium lavalense isolated in human blood 88-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with worsening malaise, fever, and weakness. anaerobic blood culture bottles revealed the presence of an anaerobic, gram-positive sporulated bacillus. empirical antibiotherapy with intravenous piperacillin-tazobactam was initiated. the patient defervesced after four days and was switched to oral amoxicillin on his 6th day of antibiotic therapy and later discharged from the hospital. four months later, he had recovered. the bacterium was initially i ...201627478446
genomic approach to studying nutritional requirements of clostridium tyrobutyricum and other clostridia causing late blowing defects.clostridium tyrobutyricum is the main microorganism responsible for the late blowing defect in hard and semi-hard cheeses, causing considerable economic losses to the cheese industry. deeper knowledge of the metabolic requirements of this microorganism can lead to the development of more effective control approaches. in this work, the amino acids and b vitamins essential for sustaining the growth of c. tyrobutyricum were investigated using a genomic approach. as the first step, the genomes of fo ...201627375262
reclassification of clostridium difficile as clostridioides difficile (hall and o'toole 1935) prévot 1938.the recent proposal by lawson and rainey (2015) to restrict the genus clostridium to clostridium butyricum and related species has ramifications for the members of the genera that fall outside this clade that should not be considered as clostridium sensu stricto. one such organism of profound medical importance is clostridioides difficile that is a major cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea and mortality in individuals. based on 16s rrna gene sequence analysis, the closest relative of clostridium ...201627370902
effects of probiotic supplementation in different nutrient density diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microflora and noxious gas emission in weaning pig.probiotics can serve as alternatives to antibiotics to increase the performance of weaning pigs, and the intake of probiotics is affected by dietary nutrient density. the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a probiotic complex in different nutrient density diets on growth performance, digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microflora and noxious gas emission in weaning pigs.201727342952
1,2-propanediol dehydration in roseburia inulinivorans: structural basis for substrate and enantiomer selectivity.glycyl radical enzymes (gres) represent a diverse superfamily of enzymes that utilize a radical mechanism to catalyze difficult, but often essential, chemical reactions. in this work we present the first biochemical and structural data for a gre-type diol dehydratase from the organism roseburia inulinivorans (ridd). despite high sequence (48% identity) and structural similarity to the gre-type glycerol dehydratase from clostridium butyricum, we demonstrate that the ridd is in fact a diol dehydra ...201627252380
biohydrogen production from hydrolysates of selected tropical biomass wastes with clostridium butyricum.biohydrogen production has received widespread attention from researchers in industry and academic fields. response surface methodology (rsm) was applied to evaluate the effects of several key variables in anaerobic fermentation of glucose with clostridium butyrium, and achieved the highest production rate and yield of hydrogen. highest h2 yield of 2.02 mol h2/mol-glucose was achieved from 24 h bottle fermentation of glucose at 35 °c, while the composition of medium was (g/l): 15.66 glucose, 6.0 ...201627251222
effect of cassava pulp supplement on 1,3-propanediol production by clostridium improve its 1,3-propanediol (1,3-pd) production, clostridium butyricum was cultivated on glycerol medium supplemented with cassava pulp (cp). at small concentrations, the cp improved the 1,3-pd productivity of c. butyricum from (0.25±0.01)g/l/h (glycerol alone) to (0.43±0.02)g/l/h (glycerol+2g/l cp) after 24h fermentation.201627184427
specific immunotherapy plus clostridium butyricum alleviates ulcerative colitis in patients with food allergy.the aberrant t cell activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation, such as ulcerative colitis (uc). c. butyricum (cb) is a probiotic and has been employed in the treatment of immune diseases. this study tests a hypothesis that specific immunotherapy (sit) plus oral cb (an over-the-counter probiotic) alleviates the uc symptoms. in this study, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, clinical study at our hospital. a total of 80 patients with relapsing-remitting ...201627167186
clostridium butyricum cgmcc0313.1 modulates lipid profile, insulin resistance and colon homeostasis in obese mice.obesity is associated with a cluster of metabolic disorders and systemic low-grade inflammation involving multiple organs. recent findings have suggested that intestine is a key organ altered in response to high fat diet (hfd) feeding. probiotics mainly lactobacillus strains have earlier been implicated in alleviating metabolic disorders. here we aimed to examine the effects of a naturally occurring butyrate-producing probiotic clostridium butyricum cgmcc0313.1 (cb0313.1) in limiting the develop ...201627123997
effects of culture conditions on the kinetic behavior of 1,3-propanediol fermentation by clostridium butyricum with a kinetic model.the effects of culture conditions on the kinetic behavior of 1,3-propanediol (pd) fermentation were investigated with a kinetic model. first, with initial glycerol concentration (s0) increasing, μmax and pd inhibition increased. glycerol assimilation was harder and a little glycerol was consumed on cell maintenance at high s0. second, with yeast extract concentration increasing, pd inhibition decreased. however, μmax decreased and glycerol assimilation became harder. it seems that the stimulus e ...201627089428
clostridium butyricum attenuates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in diabetic mice via modulation of gut microbiota.diabetes is known to exacerbate cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (i/r) injury. here, we investigated the effects of clostridium butyricum on cerebral i/r injury in the diabetic mice subjected to 30min of bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (bccao). the cognitive impairment, the blood glucose level, neuronal injury, apoptosis, and expressions of akt, phospho-akt (p-akt), and caspase-3 level were assessed. meanwhile, the changes of gut microbiota in composition and diversity in the colonic fe ...201627037183
glycerol dehydratases: biochemical structures, catalytic mechanisms, and industrial applications in 1,3-propanediol production by naturally occurring and genetically engineered bacterial date, two types of glycerol dehydratases have been reported: coenzyme b12-dependent and coenzyme b12-independent glycerol dehydratases. the three-dimensional structure of the former is a dimer of αβγ heterotrimer, while that of the latter is a homodimer. their mechanisms of reaction are typically enzymatic radical catalysis. functional radical in both the glycerol dehydratases is the adenosyl radical. however, the adenosyl radical in the former originates from coenzyme b12 by homolytic cleava ...201627033090
c. butyricum lipoteichoic acid inhibits the inflammatory response and apoptosis in ht-29 cells induced by s. aureus lipoteichoic acid.lipoteichoic acid (lta) is one of microbe-associated molecular pattern (mamp) molecules of gram-positive bacteria. in this study, we demonstrated that clostridium butyricum lta (blta) significantly inhibited the inflammatory response and apoptosis induced by staphylococcus aureus lta (alta) in ht-29 cells. alta stimulated the inflammatory responses by activating a strong signal transduction cascade through nf-κb and erk, but blta did not activate the signaling pathway. blta pretreatment inhibite ...201627020942
dietary administration of probiotics to sows and/or their neonates improves the reproductive performance, incidence of post-weaning diarrhea and histopathological parameters in the intestine of weaned piglets.probiotics have gained considerable attention with respect to their beneficial effects on livestock performance and health. the most significant effects of probiotics on the gut microbiota and the host animals take place when they are included in diets during particularly stressful periods such as weaning and/or at the beginning of the lactation period. the probiotics bacillus mesentericus strain to-a at 1 × 10(8)  colony forming units (cfu)/g, clostridium butyricum strain to-a at 1 × 10(8)  cfu ...201627018090
different effects of lipoteichoic acid from c. butyricum and s. aureus on inflammatory responses of ht-29 cells.lipoteichoic acid (lta) is an important cell wall component of gram-positive bacteria and represents one of the most critical microbe-associated molecular pattern (mamp) molecules. in this study, we isolated and purified lta from clostridium butyricum (blta) and compared its effects on the inflammatory responses of ht-29 cells with those of lta from staphylococcus aureus (alta). we also compared the effects of blta and alta on cell growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. the results showed that th ...201626968924
effects of megaplasmid loss on growth of neurotoxigenic clostridium butyricum strains and botulinum neurotoxin type e expression.clostridium butyricum strains that atypically produce the botulinum neurotoxin type e (bont/e) possess a megaplasmid of unknown functions in their genome. in this study, we cured two botulinum neurotoxigenic c. butyricum type e strains of their megaplasmids, and compared the obtained megaplasmid-cured strains to their respective wild-type parental strains. our results showed that the megaplasmids do not confer beta-lactam resistance on the neurotoxigenic c. butyricum type e strains, although the ...201626941734
seasonal occurrence and molecular diversity of clostridia species spores along cheesemaking streams of 5 commercial dairy plants.five commercial dairy plants were monitored over a 17-mo period to determine the seasonal occurrence of clostridium spores in streams from the cheesemaking process. every 2 mo, samples of raw milk (rm), separated cream (sc), pasteurized and standardized vat milk (psvm), psvm + lysozyme (psvm+l), and manufactured cheese aged for 60 to 90 d were processed for analysis. molecular diversity of the main species identified was determined using repetitive element palindromic pcr. the mean anaerobic spo ...201626923043
clostridium butyricum in combination with specific immunotherapy converts antigen-specific b cells to regulatory b cells in asthmatic patients.the effect of antigen specific immunotherapy (sit) on asthma is supposed to be improved. published data indicate that administration of probiotics alleviates allergic diseases. b cells play important roles in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. this study aims to modulate antigen specific b cell property by the administration of clostridium butyrate (cb) in combination with sit. the results showed that after a 3-month treatment, the total asthma clinical score and serum specific ige were impr ...201626857726
effects of dietary supplementation of probiotic, clostridium butyricum, on growth performance, immune response, intestinal barrier function, and digestive enzyme activity in broiler chickens challenged with escherichia coli k88.colibacillosis caused by enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (e. coli) results in economic losses in the poultry industry. antibiotics are usually used to control colibacillosis, however, e. coli has varying degrees of resistance to different antibiotics. therefore the use of probiotics is becoming accepted as an alternative to antibiotics. in this study, we evaluated the effects of clostridium butyricum (c. butyricum) on growth performance, immune response, intestinal barrier function, and digesti ...201626819705
complete genome sequence of clostridium butyricum jky6d1 isolated from the pit mud of a chinese flavor liquor-making factory.clostridium butyricum is an important fragrance-producing bacterium in the traditional chinese flavor liquor-making industry. here the complete genome sequence of c. butyricum jky6d1 isolated from the pit mud of a chinese flavor liquor-making factory is presented. the genome is 4,618,327bp with the gc content of 28.74% and a plasmid of 8060bp. this is the first complete genome sequence of c. butyricum strains available so far.201626795689
isolation and characterization of mimosine, 3, 4 dhp and 2, 3 dhp degrading bacteria from a commercial rumen inoculum.the presence of the toxic amino acid mimosine in leucaena leucocephala restricts its use as a protein source for ruminants. rumen bacteria degrade mimosine to 3,4- and 2,3-dihydroxypyridine (dhp), which remain toxic. synergistes jonesii is believed to be the main bacterium responsible for degradation of these toxic compounds but other bacteria may also be involved. in this study, a commercial inoculum provided by the queensland's department of agriculture, fisheries, and forestry was screened fo ...201626773324
clostridium butyricum pretreatment attenuates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice via anti-oxidation and anti-apoptosis.probiotics participate actively in the neuropsychiatric disorders. however, their roles on ischemic stroke remain unclear. this study aims to determine whether clostridium butyricum (c. butyricum) could attenuate cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (i/r) injury and its possible mechanisms. male icr mice were intragastrically pretreated with c. butyricum for 2 successive weeks, and then subjected to cerebral i/r injury induced by the bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (bccao) for 20min. after 24 ...201626733300
probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea.antibiotics are frequently prescribed in children. they alter the microbial balance within the gastrointestinal tract, commonly resulting in antibiotic-associated diarrhea (aad). probiotics may prevent aad via restoration of the gut microflora.201526695080
proposal to restrict the genus clostridium (prazmowski) to clostridium butyricum and related species.the genus clostridium as presently constituted is phylogenetically and phenotypically incoherent. polyphasic taxonomic data indicate that the genus comprises a collection of very heterogeneous species. numerous phylogenetic studies, principally based on sequencing of the 16s rrna gene indicate that the genus clostridium should be restricted to clostridium cluster i as clostridium sensu stricto. despite these findings, authors continue to add new species to the genus clostridium that do not fall ...201526643615
metabolic engineering of acinetobacter baylyi adp1 for removal of clostridium butyricum growth inhibitors produced from lignocellulosic hydrolysates.pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass can produce inhibitory compounds that are harmful for microorganisms used in the production of biofuels and other chemicals from lignocellulosic sugars. selective inhibitor removal can be achieved with biodetoxification where microorganisms catabolize the inhibitors without consuming the sugars. we engineered the strictly aerobic acinetobacter baylyi adp1 for detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates by removing the gene for glucose dehydrogenase, gcd ...201526628912
specific immunotherapy in combination with clostridium butyricum inhibits allergic inflammation in the mouse intestine.the current therapy on allergic inflammation is unsatisfactory. probiotics improve the immunity in the body. this study aims to test a hypothesis that administration with clostridium butyricum (c. butyricum) enforces the effect of specific immunotherapy (sit) on intestinal allergic inflammation. in this study, an ovalbumin (ova) specific allergic inflammation mouse model was created. the mice were treated with sit or/and c. butyricum. the results showed that the intestinal allergic inflammation ...201526627845
insights from genome of clostridium butyricum incqs635 reveal mechanisms to convert complex sugars for biofuel production.clostridium butyricum is widely used to produce organic solvents such as ethanol, butanol and acetone. we sequenced the entire genome of c. butyricum incqs635 by using ion torrent technology. we found a high contribution of sequences assigned for carbohydrate subsystems (15-20 % of known sequences). annotation based on protein-conserved domains revealed a higher diversity of glycoside hydrolases than previously found in c. acetobutylicum atcc824 strain. more than 30 glycoside hydrolases (gh) fam ...201626525220
neuroprotective effects of clostridium butyricum against vascular dementia in mice via metabolic butyrate.probiotics actively participate in neuropsychiatric disorders. however, the role of gut microbiota in brain disorders and vascular dementia (vad) remains unclear. we used a mouse model of vad induced by a permanent right unilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (ruccao) to investigate the neuroprotective effects and possible underlying mechanisms of clostridium butyricum. following ruccao, c. butyricum was intragastrically administered for 6 successive weeks. cognitive function was estimated ...201526523278
the effect of clostridium butyricum miyairi on the prevention of pouchitis and alteration of the microbiota profile in patients with ulcerative colitis.ulcerative colitis (uc) is a chronic, relapsing, and refractory disorder of the intestine. total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis (ipaa) is the preferred and standard surgical procedure for patients' refractory to medical therapy. pouchitis is one of the most common long-term complications after ipaa. in the present study, the safety and efficacy of clostridium butyricum miyairi (cbm) as a probiotic were examined.201626510664
effect of probiotics on postoperative quality of gastric bypass surgeries: a prospective randomized trial.gastric bypass surgery is the recommended treatment for severely obese patients. however, postoperative symptomatic gastrointestinal (gi) episodes are common complaints.201626499352
clostridium butyricum: from beneficial to a new emerging pathogen.clostridium butyricum, a strictly anaerobic spore-forming bacillus, is a common human and animal gut commensal bacterium, and is also frequently found in the environment. whereas non-toxigenic strains are currently used as probiotics in asia, other strains have been implicated in pathological conditions, such as botulism in infants or necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates. in terms of the latter, within the same species, different strains have antagonist effects on the intestinal mucosa. ...201626493849
safety assessment of the clostridium butyricum miyairi 588® probiotic strain including evaluation of antimicrobial sensitivity and presence of clostridium toxin genes in vitro and teratogenicity in vivo.probiotics are live microorganisms ingested for the purpose of conferring a health benefit on the host. development of new probiotics includes the need for safety evaluations that should consider factors such as pathogenicity, infectivity, virulence factors, toxicity, and metabolic activity. clostridium butyricum miyairi 588(®) (cbm 588(®)), an anaerobic spore-forming bacterium, has been developed as a probiotic for use by humans and food animals. safety studies of this probiotic strain have bee ...201626437792
the functional dlt operon of clostridium butyricum controls the d-alanylation of cell wall components and influences cell septation and vancomycin-induced lysis.clostridium butyricum is a gram-positive bacterium involved in the development of necrotizing enterocolitis (nec) in preterm infants. to colonize the digestive tract, components of the cell wall of c. butyricum must interact with the intestinal mucosa. the d-alanylation of cell wall components such as teichoic acids results in a net positive charge on the cell wall, which is important for many functions of gram-positive bacteria. notably, d-alanylation mediates resistance to antimicrobial peptid ...201526363197
probiotics clostridium butyricum and bacillus subtilis ameliorate intestinal investigate the antitumor effects of probiotics clostridium butyricum and bacillus subtilis on colorectal cancer (crc) progression.201526346930
prolonged antibiotic use induces intestinal injury in mice that is repaired after removing antibiotic pressure: implications for empiric antibiotic therapy.metabolic profiling of urine and fecal extracts, histological investigation of intestinal ilea, and fecal metagenomics analyses were used to investigate effects of prolonged antibiotic use in mice. the study provides insight into the effects of extended empiric antibiotic therapy in humans. mice were administered a broad-spectrum antibiotic for four consecutive days followed by oral gavage with clostridium butyricum, an opportunistic gram-positive pathogenic bacteria commonly isolated in fecal a ...201426273236
laboratory investigation of the first case of botulism caused by clostridium butyricum type e toxin in the united states.we report here the laboratory investigation of the first known case of botulism in the united states caused by clostridium butyricum type e. this investigation demonstrates the importance of extensive microbiological examination of specimens, which resulted in the isolation of this organism.201526246485
potential protective effects of clostridium butyricum on experimental gastric ulcers in investigate the effects of clostridium butyricum (c. butyricum) on experimental gastric ulcers (gus) induced by alcohol, restraint cold stress, or pyloric ligation in mice, respectively.201526217085
biohydrogen production by co-fermentation of crude glycerol and apple pomace hydrolysate using co-culture of enterobacter aerogenes and clostridium utilization of various wastes with complementary characteristics can provide a complete medium for higher hydrogen production. this study evaluated potential of apple pomace hydrolysate (aph) co-fermented with crude glycerol (cg) for increased h2 production and decreased by-products formation. the central composite design (ccd) along with response surface methodology (rsm) was used as tool for optimization and 15 g/l of cg, 5 g/l of aph and 15% (v/v) inoculum were found to be optimu ...201526142996
smad2 and smad3 inversely regulate tgf-β autoinduction in clostridium butyricum-activated dendritic cells.colonization with a mixture of clostridium species has been shown to induce accumulation of induced regulatory t (itreg) cells in the colon. transforming growth factor-β (tgf-β) is an essential factor for itreg cell induction; however, the relationship between clostridium species and tgf-β remains to be clarified. here we demonstrated that a gram-positive probiotic bacterial strain, clostridium butyricum (c. butyricum), promoted itreg cell generation in the intestine through induction of tgf-β1 ...201526141582
clostridium butyricum strains and dysbiosis linked to necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates.necrotizing enterocolitis (nec) is the most common and serious gastrointestinal disorder among preterm neonates. we aimed to assess a specific gut microbiota profile associated with nec.201526084844
effectiveness of probiotic therapy for the prevention of relapse in patients with inactive ulcerative evaluate the effectiveness of probiotic therapy for suppressing relapse in patients with inactive ulcerative colitis (uc).201526019464
thrombospondin 1 modulates monocyte properties to suppress intestinal mucosal inflammation.monocytes (mos) play an important role in the pathogenesis of intestinal mucosal inflammation. this study aims to investigate the mechanism by which the intestinal epithelial cell-derived thrombospondin 1 (tsp1) modulates mo properties and regulates intestinal inflammatory responses. in this study, the production of tsp1 by intestinal epithelial cells was evaluated by quantitative real-time pcr and western blotting. the properties of mos were analyzed by flow cytometry. a mouse model of colitis ...201525998580
a breakthrough in probiotics: clostridium butyricum regulates gut homeostasis and anti-inflammatory response in inflammatory bowel disease.intestinal immune homeostasis is regulated by gut microbiota, including beneficial and pathogenic microorganisms. imbalance in gut bacterial constituents provokes host proinflammatory responses causing diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (ibd). the development of next-generation sequencing technology allows the identification of microbiota alterations in ibd. several studies have shown reduced diversity in the gut microbiota of patients with ibd. advances in gnotobiotic technology have m ...201525940150
effects of clostridium butyricum on antioxidant properties, meat quality and fatty acid composition of broiler birds.consumers are becoming increasingly interested in food containing high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (pufa). pufa are considered as functional ingredients to prevent cardiovascular disease. the present study aimed to evaluate the effects of clostridium butyricum on antioxidant properties, meat quality and fatty acid composition of broilers.201525896790
genome sequencing of clostridium butyricum dku-01, isolated from infant feces.clostridium butyricum is a butyric acid-producing anaerobic bacteriuma, and commonly present as gut microbiota in humans. this species has been used as a probiotic for the prevention of diarrhea in humans. in this study, we report the draft genome of c. butyricum dku-01, which was isolated from infant feces, to better understand the characteristics of this strain so that it can later be used in the development of probiotic products.201525861391
clostridium butyricum combined with bifidobacterium infantis probiotic mixture restores fecal microbiota and attenuates systemic inflammation in mice with antibiotic-associated diarrhea.antibiotic-associated diarrhea (aad) is one of the most common complications of most types of antibiotics. our aim was to determine the efficacy of clostridium butyricum, bifidobacterium infantis, and their mixture for aad treatment in mice. aad models were administered with single probiotic strain and probiotic mixture for short term and long term to evaluate the changes of the composition and diversity of intestinal microbiota, histopathology of the colon, and the systemic inflammation. our da ...201525802855
trek1 contributes to maintaining nasal epithelial barrier integrity.epithelial barrier integrity is critical to maintain the homeostasis in the body. the regulatory mechanism of the epithelial barrier function has not been fully understood. this study aims to elucidate the role of the twik-related potassium channel-1 (trek1) in the regulation of the epithelial barrier function of the nasal mucosa. in this study, the levels of trek1 were assessed by real time rt-pcr and western blotting. the epithelial barrier function of the rat nasal epithelia was evaluated by ...201525778785
genome-wide transcriptional analysis suggests hydrogenase- and nitrogenase-mediated hydrogen production in clostridium butyricum cwbi 1009.molecular hydrogen, given its pollution-free combustion, has great potential to replace fossil fuels in future transportation and energy production. however, current industrial hydrogen production processes, such as steam reforming of methane, contribute significantly to the greenhouse effect. therefore alternative methods, in particular the use of fermentative microorganisms, have attracted scientific interest in recent years. however the low overall yield obtained is a major challenge in biolo ...201525722742
effects of clostridium butyricum on growth performance, antioxidation, and immune function of investigate the effects of clostridium butyricum on growth performance, antioxidation, and immune function of broilers, 320 one-day-old arbor acres commercial male chicks were assigned to one of 5 treatments with 8 replicates in a completely randomized design for 42 d. the 5 treatments were basal diet (control), basal diet supplemented with 2.5×10(8) cfu c. butyricum/kg (cb1), basal diet supplemented with 5×10(8) cfu c. butyricum/kg (cb2), basal diet supplemented with 1×10(9) cfu c. butyricum ...201525717087
regulation of twik-related potassium channel-1 (trek1) restitutes intestinal epithelial barrier function.the disruption of epithelial barrier integrity is an important factor in the pathogenesis of various immune disorders. however, the restitution of the compromised barrier functions is difficult. this study investigates the regulation of twik-related potassium channel-1 (trek1) in the restitution of intestinal epithelial barrier functions. the human colon epithelial cell line t84 was cultured in monolayers and used to observe epithelial barrier functions in vitro. an intestinal allergy mouse mode ...201625683610
induction of peroxisomes by butyrate-producing probiotics.we previously found that peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11a (pex11a) deficiency is associated with a reduction in peroxisome abundance and impaired fatty acid metabolism in hepatocytes, and results in steatosis. in the present study, we investigated whether butyrate induces pex11a expression and peroxisome proliferation, and studied its effect on lipid metabolism. c57bl/6 mice fed standard chow or a high-fat diet (hfd) were treated with tributyrin, 4-phelybutyrate acid (4-pba), or the butyrate-pr ...201525659146
in vitro fermentation of fructooligosaccharides with human gut bacteria.fructooligosaccharides (fos) are one of the most studied prebiotics, selectively stimulating the growth of health-promoting bacteria in the host. however, there is increasing evidence that commensal gut bacteria, such as bacteroides fragilis, clostridium butyricum, enterobacter cloacae, and even the pathogenic escherichia coli ben2908, are also able to metabolize fos in vitro, and in some cases, fos displayed adverse effects. therefore, it is necessary to identify fos-metabolizing species that a ...201525653214
draft genome sequence of clostridium butyricum strain nor 33234, isolated from an elderly patient with diarrhea.clostridium butyricum is one of the species frequently present in patients' stool samples. however, the identification of this species is sometimes difficult. here, we present the draft genome of clostridium butyricum nor 33234, which was isolated from a patient with suspected clostridium difficile infection-associated diarrhea and resembles clostridium clostridioforme in biochemical tests.201425540356
regulation of trek1 expression in nasal mucosa with allergic rhinitis by specific immunotherapy.epithelial barrier dysfunction is involved in the pathogenesis of allergic disorders, such as nasal allergy. twik-related k(+) 1 (trek1) potassium channels are required in the maintenance of the epithelial barrier function. this study aims to investigate the role of antigen-specific immunotherapy (sit) in the regulation of trek1 expression in the nasal mucosa. in this study, patients with nasal allergy were treated with sit and/or clostridium butyricum. the expression of trek1 and histone demeth ...201525529528
effect of 1,3-propanediol, organic acids, and ethanol on growth and metabolism of clostridium butyricum dsp1.knowledge of tolerance of bacteria to toxic stress is important, especially for processes targeted at high final titers of product. information on environmental limits and stress responses may help during selection of strains or design and control of processes. the influence of the main product and its co-products on the process of 1,3-propanediol (pd) synthesis was determined. adaptation to toxic compounds was noticed as clostridium butyricum dsp1 was less sensitive to the addition of these fac ...201525524700
biotechnological potential of clostridium butyricum response to demand from industry for microorganisms with auspicious biotechnological potential, a worldwide interest has developed in bacteria and fungi isolation. microorganisms of interesting metabolic properties include non-pathogenic bacteria of the genus clostridium, particularly c. acetobutylicum, c. butyricum and c. pasteurianum. a well-known property of c. butyricum is their ability to produce butyric acid, as well as effectively convert glycerol to 1,3-propanediol (38.2 g/l). a conve ...201425477923
hypothetical glycerol pathways of newly isolated strains capable of 1,3-propanediol presented here demonstrates the ability of three newly isolated strains, obtained from environmental probes (manure, bottom sediment, and food waste) and identified as clostridium bifermentans, clostridium butyricum, and hafnia alvei, to synthesize 1,3-propanediol (1,3-pd), organic acids (such as lactic, acetic, fumaric, succinic, and butyric acids), and ethanol from glycerol. the production of 1,3-pd as well as the glycerol pathways in c. bifermentans and h. alvei cells have not been inve ...201425473655
flux balance analysis of different carbon source fermentation with hydrogen producing clostridium butyricum using cell net analyzer.a metabolic network model for clostridium butyricum was developed using six different carbon sources (sucrose, fructose, galactose, mannose, trehalose and ribose) to study the fermentative h2 production. the model was used for investigation of h2 production and the ability of growth on different substrates to predict the maximum abilities for fermentative h2 production that each substrate can support. nadh fluxes were calculated by the model as an important cofactor affecting on h2 production. b ...201525453441
exploring the genome of a butyric acid producer, clostridium butyricum incqs635.the draft genome sequence of clostridium butyricum incqs635 was obtained by means of ion sequencing. the genome provides further insight into the genetic repertoire involved with metabolic pathways related to the fermentation of different compounds and organic solvents synthesis (i.e., butyric acid) with biofuel applications.201425414496
reduced catabolic protein expression in clostridium butyricum dsm 10702 correlate with reduced 1,3-propanediol synthesis at high glycerol loading.higher initial glycerol loadings (620 mm) have a negative effect on growth and 1,3-propanediol (1,3-pdo) synthesis in clostridium butyricum dsm 10702 relative to lower initial glycerol concentrations (170 mm). to help understand metabolic shifts associated with elevated glycerol, protein expression levels were quantified by lc/ms/ms analyses. thirty one (31) proteins involved in conversion of glycerol to 1,3-pdo and other by-products were analyzed by multiple reaction monitoring (mrm). the analy ...201425401066
infant botulism due to c. butyricum type e toxin: a novel environmental association with pet terrapins.we describe two cases of infant botulism due to clostridium butyricum producing botulinum type e neurotoxin (bont/e) and a previously unreported environmental source. the infants presented at age 11 days with poor feeding and lethargy, hypotonia, dilated pupils and absent reflexes. faecal samples were positive for c. butyricum bont/e. the infants recovered after treatment including botulism immune globulin intravenous (big-iv). c. butyricum bont/e was isolated from water from tanks housing pet ' ...201525306863
16s rrna gene sequencing, multilocus sequence analysis, and mass spectrometry identification of the proposed new species "clostridium neonatale".in 2002, an outbreak of necrotizing enterocolitis in a canadian neonatal intensive care unit was associated with a proposed novel species of clostridium, "clostridium neonatale." to date, there are no data about the isolation, identification, or clinical significance of this species. additionally, c. neonatale has not been formally classified as a new species, rendering its identification challenging. indeed, the c. neonatale 16s rrna gene sequence shows high similarity to another clostridium sp ...201425232167
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