the effect of phospholipase c on human blood platelets.the effect of phospholipase c (ec on human blood platelets has been studied. phospholipase c from bacillus cereus was purified to homogeneity as judged by analytical and sodium dodecyl sulphate disc gel electrophoresis and by immunoelectrophoresis. human platelets isolated from platelet-rich plasma by gel filtration or by centrifugation and washing were incubated with phospholipase c. a loss of 20-45% of the total platelet phospholipid was observed, whereas 88% was hydrolyzed when plate ...1976819457
an outbreak of bacillus cereus food-poisoning in finland associated with boiled rice.a food-poisoning outbreak caused by bacillus cereus occurred in a finnish industrial plant in january 1975. eighteen of the 36 persons who ate a lunch including boiled rice, meat and vegetables became ill. the disease pattern was similar to previously reported short incubation time b. cereus food-poisonings associated with cooked rice. the median incubation time was two hours, the main symptoms being nausea, abdominal pain and vomiting. rice and certain seasonings were the contaminated raw mater ...1976819571
an outbreak of bacillus cereus food poisoning resulting from contaminated vegetable an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness caused by consumption of home-grown raw vegetable sprouts contaminated by bacillus cereus, victims developed symptoms after an incubation period of 6-15 hours. four persons initially experienced nausea and vomiting, and this was followed in 3 cases by abdominal cramps and diarrhea. bacteriologic investigation indicated that b. cereus on unsprouted seeds proliferated during germination in a commercially sold seed sprouting kit and reached levels in exces ...1976820192
[dissociative phases and pathogenicity of different species of the bacillus genus].the previously postulated hypothesis, according to which different species of the genus bacillus show strictly similar morphological and biological properties when the same variants are considered, has been confirmed by the present research. the "s" (smooth) variants of the five studied species (b. anthracis, b. subtilis, b. cereus, b. megaterium, b. mesentericus) are all lethal, at the experimented dose, for mice, whereas the "r" (rough, "star-shaped" colonies) variant of the same strains of th ...1975820277
studies on two isozymes of aconitase from bacillus cereus t. ii. further evidence on two distinct activities. 1976820347
[antibacterial activity and presence of mercury in 12 species of marine algae]. 1975820360
outer membrane of salmonella typhimurium: accessibility of phospholipid head groups to phospholipase c and cyanogen bromide activated dextran in the external medium.whole cells of salmonella typhimurium were treated with bacillus cereus phospholipase c or with cnbr-activated dextran. if phosphatidylethanolamine head groups are exposed and accessible on the outer surface of the outer membrane of these cells, it was expected that these groups would be hydrolyzed by the former agent, and become covalently coupled to the latter agent. with strains producing lipopolysaccharides of s or rc type, results did not indicate the presence of any accessible head groups ...1976820368
bacterial infection in haematological diseases. 1976820503
[3-dimensional reconstruction of the contracted tail of bacillus mycoides bacteriophage h-17]. 1976820530
thermophilic glyceraldehyde-3-p dehydrogenase. 1976820563
purification of cereolysin and the electrophoretic separation of the active (reduced) and inactive (oxidized) forms of the purified toxin.cereolysin was purified to apparent homogeneity by using ammonium sulfate fractionation, hydrophobic chromatography with ah-sepharose, isoelectric focusing, and gel filtration. the active form of the toxin had an isoelectric point of 6.6, and the molecular weight of the protein was about 55,500 as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis, gel filtration, and gel electrophoresis using various concentrations of acrylamide. cereolysin contained two half-cystine residues and was dependen ...1976820638
alteration of serum lipid values and lipoproteins by bacteria as a possible cause of artifacts in the screening of dyslipoproteinemias.the intriguing observation of phospholipid deficiency in serum is described. the most prominent feature of sera was the completely abnormal lipoprotein electrophoretic pattern. the predominant occurrance of the phenomenon in the warm season suggested bacterial growth producing phospholipase c. b. cereus could be isolated from sera. in order to prevent these artifacts it is suggested to add 1 mg of na2-edta to each ml of sample before dispatch.1976820919
[structural and biochemical changes in the spores of bacillus cereus exposed to caustic soda and hypochlorite].the spores of bacillus cereus were treated with 5% naoh at 50 degrees c and 0.25% naocl. as a result, 99% of the spores had lost their viability by the 11th and 19.5th minutes, respectively. kinetics of the process has shown that the rates of elimination of calcium and dipicolinic acid from the spores are different, and intensive loss of rna and dna was registered. progressive degradation of spore envelopes and inner structures has been revealed by electron microscopy. lethal effect of the studi ...1976820941
doxycycline in serum and bronchial secretions.the concentration of doxycycline hydrochloride was measured in serum and bronchial secretions in five patients with chronic bronchitis receiving doxycycline orally in normal therapeutic dosage for seven days (200 mg day 1, 100 mg days 2 to 7). after the loading dose of 200 mg, serum concentrations ranged between 5-40 and 3-45 mug/ml (mean 4-33 mug/ml) at 3 hours, declining to between 2-28 and 1-21 mug/ml (mean 1-71 mug/ml) at 23 hours. the mean serum levels for days 2 to 7 were 2-15, 1-79, and 1 ...1976821169
bacterial mesosomes. real structures or artifacts?the ultrastructural study of membrane organization in gram-positive bacteria related to the oso4 fixation conditions revealed that large, complex mesosomes are observed only when the bacteria are subjected to an initial fixation with 0.1%oso4 in the culture broth, as in the prefixation step of the ryter-kellenberger procedure. evidence was obtained suggesting that the large mesosomes are produced by this prefization. the kinetic study of the membrane morphological alterations occurring during th ...1976821538
letter: infection due to bacillus cereus. 1976821602
antibiotic residues and their recovery from animal tissues. 1976821907
identification of the antibiotic determined by the scp1 plasmid of streptomyces coelicolor a3(2).the antibiotic whose biosynthesis is determined by the scp1 plasmid of streptomyces coelicolor a3(2) has been characterized as the recently described methylenomycin a (2-methylene-cyclopentan-3-one-4,5-epoxy-4,5-dimethyl-1-carboxylic acid).1976822125
facultative wood-digesting bacteria from the hind-gut of the termite reticulitermes hesperus.among the facultative bacteria capable of growth on mesquite wood which were isolated from the asceptically dissected hind-gut of the termite reticulitermes hesperus were two strains of bacillus cereus, one strain each of arthrobacter, alcaligenes and serratia, and a very small gram-negative fermentative rod. the b. cereus strains, the serratia marcescens strain and the arthrobacter sp. grew well on a mineral salts alpha-cellusose agar. one of the bacillus cereus strains and serratia marcescens ...1976822127
[to the ecology of bac. cereus var. mycoides (flügge) in loess black earth in relation to fertilization]. 1976822632
[relationship between the ultrastructure and biochemical composition of spores and their resistance to high temperature exposure and chemical agents].the author used the spores of b. cereus and of its two mutants (10id -- defective by spore coats, and no. 3 -- dpa-deficient). the mentioned microbes were subjected to the action of vapour (99 degrees), 5% sodium hydroxide solution at a temperature of 50 degreec, and of 0.25% sodium hypochlorite solution. on the basis of the survival curves it was revealed that a mutant with defective coats possessed the least resistance to the factors under study. on these grounds a conclusion was drawn on the ...1976822653
[a case of mass food poisoning caused by bac. cereus]. 1976822654
biochemical characterization of a cortexless mutant of a variant of bacillus cereus.previous studies on this cortexless mutant of bacillus cereus var. alesti indicated that the forespore membrane was the site of the biochemical lesion. this hypothesis is supported by the results presented here: fatty acid composition of sporulating cells of themutant is altered, while in vegetative cells it is comparable to the parent; soluble precursors of peptidoglycan synthesis are accumulated in the mutant, at the time of cortex formation; homogenates of the mutant prepared at the time of c ...1976822929
pathology of bacillus cereus mastitis in dairy cows. 1976822939
aucte bacillus cereus mastitis in dairy cattle associated with use of a contaminated antibiotic. 1976822940
an autopsy case of food poisoning associated with bacillus autopsy case of food poisoning probably caused by bacillus cereus is presented. the patient was an 11-year-old boy who died about 15 hours after eating chinese noodles. the main pathological features were acute nonspecific gastroenteritis and fatty degeneration of the heart and liver. bacillus cereus was isolated and identified from the peritoneal exudate and intestinal contents. the cause of death is considered to be heart failure resulting from myocardial fatty degeneration.1976823082
[thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of b.cereus sporal germination]. 1975823535
[an episode of alimentary toxinfection caused by bacillus cereus]. 1976823623
[antibiotic residues in organs and muscle tissues of broilers. i. bacitracin, flavomycin, spiramycin and viriniamycin residues following administration of diets containing low levels of these antibiotics (author's transl)].two groups of broilers were fed two different feed mixtures. a feed containing a mixture of bacitracin, flavomycin, spiramycin and virginiamycin (20 ppm each) was administered to sixity broilers. sixty other broilers were given a similar feed not containing any antibiotics. after slaughter, samples of kidney, liver and breast were examined for the presence of antibiotic residues. all samples were found to be negative for antibiotic residues. four micro-organisms were used in performing the tests ...1976823664
effect of ultrasonic waves on the heat resistance of bacillus spores.the effect of ultrasonic treatment on the heat resistance of bacillus spores differs widely both with the species and the strain tested. ultrasonic waves do not affect the heat resistance of some strains, whereas they greatly reduce that of other strains of the same species. the heat-sensitizing effect of ultrasonic waves is more pronounced when short heating periods are used. ultrasonic treatment does not seem to affect the "z value".1976823864
heat-induced requirements for sucrose or magnesium for expression of heat resistance in bacillus cereus forespores.the addition of 0.6 m sucrose of 0.016 m mg2+ to the enumeration medium was required for early expression of heat resistance (10 min at 70 degrees c) in stage v bacillus cereus forspores. the addition of mg2+ to the sporulation medium did not remove this requirment for sucrose of mg2+. the heat damage did not affect forespore germination or outgrowth, but injured cells in the absence of sucrose or mg2+ were not capable of cell division. the heat-induced sublethal damage apparently affected the f ...1976823870
morphological changes in escherichia coli and bacillus cereus caused by external was found that the externally added histone changes remarkably both the surface and the internal ultrastructure of cells of escherichia coli. the interaction of histone with surface structures results in thickening of the inner layer of the cell wall. cytoplasm becomes condensed, contains extensive electrontransport zones and neither ribosomes nor the nuclear structure are differentiated. the addition of histone to germinating spores of bacillus cereus decelerates germination and postgerminat ...1976824179
identification of a novel enterotoxigenic activity associated with bacillus cereus.a strain of bacillus cereus isolated from a food poisoning outbreak characterized by vomiting has been shown to be capable of causing vomiting when cultures grown on rice, but not other media, were fed to rhesus monkeys. in contrast, a strain isolated from a diarrhoeal outbreak produced diarrhoea, but not vomiting, when grown on various media in similar feeding trials. furthermore, culture filtrates from the diarrhoeal strain caused fluid accumulation in ligated rabbit ileal loops whereas those ...1976824324
studies on the production of enterotoxins by bacillus cereus.evidence is presented for the existence of three distinct enterotoxins detected in concentrated cell-free culture filtrates of selected bacillus cereus strains. the first was a product capable of stimulating the adenylate cyclase-cyclic-amp system in intestinal epithelial cells and, possibly through this, causing fluid accumulation in ligated ileal sections ("loops") of young rabbits. this was elaborated by a strain isolated from an incident of diarrhoea and which caused diarrhoea in 6 of 10 mon ...1976824325
effect of nisin on the germination and proliferation of spores of some aerobic spore-formers in nutrient medium. 1976824886
a rapid method for the purification of beta-lactamase from bacillus cereus by affinity chromatography. 1976824973
food poisoning outbreak attributed to bacillus cereus. 1976825214
the structure of phosphatidyl glycerol prepared by phospholipase d-catalyzed transphosphatidylation from egg lecithin and glycerol. 1976825236
highly sensitive determination of bacillus cereus exo-enterotoxin using the method of aggregate haemagglutination.the possibility has been demonstrated of using the method of aggregate-haemagglutination for the detection of b. cereus exo-enterotoxin in both food products and culture media. it has been established that 0.004 mug/ml of enterotoxin can be detected by this method. the applied antisera to b. cereus enterotoxin did not yield cross reactions with enterotoxins produced by e. coli, cl. perfringens, st. aureus, v. cholerae or sh. dysenteriae.1976825572
protection of rats by phospholipase c from bacillus cereus against the effects of intravenous infusions of purified tissue thromboplastin.infusions of purified tissue thromboplastin in rats cause the accumulation of fibrin and platelets in the lungs and produce marked changes in the platelet count and in the coagulation factors v, vii and viii. tissue thromboplastin in a dose corresponding to less than 2 mug of protein per rat is lethal when given as a bolus injection. simultaneous i.v. administration purified phospholipase c effectively prevents all these changes and protects rats from otherwise lethal doses of tissue thromboplas ...1976825958
the folate-mediated synthesis of ribothymidylate in transfer ribonucleic acid, and evidence for multifunctional enzymes in one-carbon metabolism in eukaryotic sources. 1976826434
biosynthesis of ribothymidine in the transfer rna of streptococcus faecalis and bacillus subtilis. a methylation of rna involving 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate.the methyl moiety of ribothymidine in the trna of streptococcus faecalis, bacillus subtilis, and probably bacillus cereus is dervied from a 1-carbon folate derivative and not s-adenosylmethionine. micrococcus luteus (m. lysodeikticus) trna appears to be almost devoid of ribothymidine. s. faecalis trna lacking ribothymidine can be methylated in vitro with formation of ribothymidine. 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate has been identified as the 1-carbon donor involved in ribothymidine formation in s. ...1976826533
[physicochemical characteristics of dna and the amino acid composition of bacillus phages].from five bacillus phages nucleic acids were isolated and identified as double-stranded dna of the at-type. their melting point was 85-86.5 degrees c, molecular weight 23.4-43.7x10(6) daltons. the content of dna in phage particles was 39.9-44.0%, the content of protein 55.7-56.1%. the examination of the amino acid composition in phages 125/50 and 617 revealed a low level of serine and the lack of methionine, while the remaining amino acid composition of bacillus phages was close to that of e. co ...1976827122
effect of near-ultraviolet radiation on growth and respiration of bacillus cereus t. 1976827494
the total structure of cerexin a (studies on antibiotics from the genus bacillus. xvi.the constituent fatty acid of cerexin a was elucidated to be beta-hydroxy isoundecanoic acid by gas chromatography, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. the asparaginyl asparagine linkage in the amino acid sequence of the antibiotic, which has been previously described, was proved to be a normal alpha-carboxylpeptide bond by dehydration-reduction procedure. the three asparagine residues in the sequence were isolated separately and their chiralities were determined. the structure of ...1976827539
the structure of cerexin b (studies on antibiotics from the genus bacillus. xvii).the structure of cerexin b was examined. the constitutent fatty acids were elucidated by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry to be beta-hydroxy isodecanoic acid, beta-hydroxy decanoic acid, beta-hydroxy isoundecanoic acid and beta-hydroxy anteisoundecanoic acid. the configurations of constituent amino acids were determined as asparagine (2d, 1l), valine (d), phenylalanine (d), allo-threonine (d), tryptophan (d), and allo-isoleucine (d) from their optical activities. treatment with conc. hyd ...1976827540
production and isolation of cerexins c and d studies on antibiotics from the genus bacillus. xvii.from the culture broth of bacillus cereus 60-6, in which antibiotic production was improved a new antibiotic, named cerexin c, was isolated. similarly, a new antibiotic, cerexin d was isolated from the culture broth of bacillus cereus gp-3. cerexins c and d are closely related to cerexins a and b in their physico-chemical and antimicrobial properties. in fact cerexins c and d are peptides essentially identical with cerexins a and b except for the presence of a lysine residue in place of the gamm ...1976827541
highly sensitive determination of bacillus cereus exo - enterotoxin using the method of aggregate haemagglutination.the possibility has been demonstrated of using the method of aggregate-haemagglutination for the detection of b. cereus exo-enterotoxin in both food products and culture media. it has been established that 0.004 mug/ml of enterotoxin can be detected by this method. the applied antisera to b. cereus enterotoxin did not yield cross reactions with enterotoxins produced by e. coli, cl. perfringens, st. aureus, v. cholerae or sh. dysenteriae.1976827583
[the effects of weak magnetic fields on bacteria].a stationary device was constructed for conducting experiments in a weak magnetic field. a ferromagnetic screen was used to produce in the working volume a magnetic-field of 26 nt. the effect of a weak magnetic field on the following bacteria was studied: e. coli communior, b. prodigiosum, staphylococcus aureus 209, and bac. anthracoides. cultivation of the bacteria in these conditions for a long time resulted in changes of their tinctorial, morphological, cultural, and biochemical properties.1976827667
[evaluation of successful chemotherapie of infections of the urinary system by determination of antibacterial activity in the urine (author's transl)].5,589 urin samples from patients with suspected infections of the urinary tract were screened for inhibiting activity against baz. cereus (atcc 6051). in 19% of these urines such inhibitors could be found. in spite of the antibacterial inhibition activity nearly half of the samples had bacteria in high number. by comparison of the various bacterial species in both groups of urin, in those without antibacterial "problem-bacteria": klebsiella-enterobacter- proteus- candida-species is demonstrated. ...1976828144
effect of phospholipase c hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids on acyltransferase systems in rat liver microsomes.three kinds of phospholipase c [ec] were used to selectively hydrolyze phospholipids in rat liver microsomes, and their effects on the acyl-coa: glycerophosphate and acyl-coa: lysophospholipids acyltransferase systems were examined. the glycerophosphate acyltransferase [ec] system was inactivated rapidly by treatment with phospholipase c of ps. aureofaciens or b. cereus and the loss of activity paralleled the degradation of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine. the 1 ...1976828160
filamentous appendages of bacillus cereus spores. 1976828210
studies on megacinogeny in bacillus cereus. i. multiplication of phage wx causing lysogenic conversion to megacin a (phospholipase a) production.phage wx capable of reconverting bacillus cereus strain w derivatives, cured to lose megacin a (phospholipase a) production into megacin a-producing cultures, exhibits unusual kinetics of multiplication; its clear mutant, phage wxc, behaves similarly. the phages are not adsorbed by stationary phase indicator bacteria. as sonicated bacteria fail to inactivate the phages, the absence of adsorption cannot be attributed to an undersurface localization of the receptors. multiplying bacteria exert a s ...1976828440
studies on megacinogeny in bacillus cereus. ii. bacillus cereus isolates characterized by prophage-controlled production of megacin a (phospholipase a).five out of a number of bacillus cereus strains isolated from soil produced high titre specific bacteriocin (megacin a) in mitomycin c-induced cultures. in the course of cultivation with ethidium bromide, the strains gave off segregants not producing bacteriocin (cin-). the lysate of two wild strains formed plaques on the corresponding cin- bacteria. the two phages (wx23 and wx26) were identical in antigenic structure with phage wx was present in the lysate of b. cereus strain w, and converted c ...1976828441
the applications of immobilized enzymes in automated analysis. 1976828702
purification & properties of isozymes of glutamate dehydrogenase form bacillus cereus t. 1976828900
comparison of two methods for detecting antibiotic residues in slaughter animals.a comparison was made of the sensitivity of two methods in current use for the detection of antibiotic residues in slaughter animals. calves previously given therapeutic injections of an antibiotic were used and a variety of samples were tested.1976828970
inhibition of n5-methyltetrahydrofolate - homocysteine transmethylase by a vitamin b12-antimetabolite. 1976829218
membrane properties of aplysia neurones intracellularly injected with phospholipases a and c.1. the effects of phospholipases a from bee venom and from porcine pancreas and of phospholipases c from clostridium welchii and bacillus cereus on active and passive membrane properties of aplysia neurones have been studied. consistent alterations in electrical membrane properties were found following intracellular application of three of these enzymes.2. bee venom phospholipase a produced a rapid decrease of membrane potential and resistance. voltage clamping revealed a marked depression of pe ...1977874892
substrate-induced deactivation of penicillinases. studies of beta-lactamase i by hydrogen exchange.the conformational motility of beta-lactamase i from bacillus cereus was studied by hydrogen exhange. the time course of the isotopic replacement of peptide hydrogen atoms was followed by 'exchange-in' or 'exchange-out' experiments. many of the substrates for this enzyme that have o-substituted aromatic or heterocyclic side chains (e.g. methicillin or cloxacillin) are known to effect a decrease in enzymic activity ('substrate-induced deactivation'). there was a marked discontinuity in the exchan ...1977921750
asymmetry of the phospholipid bilayer of rat liver endoplasmic reticulum.the phospholipids of intact microsomal membranes were hydrolysed 50% by phospholipase c of clostridium welchii, without loss of the secretory protein contents of the vesicle, which are therefore not permeable to the phospholipase. phospholipids extracted from microsomes and dispersed by sonication were hydrolysed rapidly by phospholipase c-cl. welchii with the exception of phosphatidylinositol. assuming that only the phospholipids of the outside of the bilayer of the microsomal membrane are hydr ...1977921959
evidence for two immune inhibitors from bacillus thuringiensis interfering with the humoral defense system of saturniid pupae.mutants of bacillus thuringiensis lacking either beta-exotoxin or gamma-endotoxin were compared for their virulence using pupae of a giant silk moth. known doses of viable log-phase bacteria were injected, and the response was followed as the number of viable bacteria in the hemolymph. the results obtained imply that, in the system used, neither the beta-exotoxin nor the gamma-endotoxin and the sporeforming ability are of importance for virulence. results with sterile culture filtrate from b. th ...1976992874
parenteral administration of phospholipase c in the rat. distribution, elimination, and lethal doses.infusions of tissue thromboplastin induce intravascular coagulation in animals. phospholipase c (plc) (ec from bacillus cereus has a marked protective effect against such infusions and might be of value in the therapy of certain types of intravascular coagulation. we have therefore studied the toxicity, half-life, and effect on lipolysis of purified plc in rats, using parenteral administration of 14c-labelled enzyme. following intravenous injection, the plasma half-life was 5.2-5.4 min, ...19761006144
reactivation of the lipid-depleted pyruvate oxidase system from escherichia coli with cell envelope neutral lipids.the pyruvate oxidase system of escherichia coli is composed of a soluble flavoprotein, pyruvate oxidase (ec, pyruvate:ferricytochrome b1 oxidoreductase), and an electron transport system associated with the cell envelope-membrane fraction. the membrane particles contain 15% lipid by weight. fractionation of the lipids revealed that abut one-third are neutral lipids and two-thirds are phospholipids. the relative ratio of ubiquinone to menaquinone within the neutral lipid fraction is 15:1 ...19751100621
relation between various phospholipase actions on human red cell membranes and the interfacial phospholipid pressure in monolayers.the action of purified phospholipases on monomolecular films of various interfacial pressures is compared with the action on erythrocyte membranes. the phospholipases which cannot hyorolyse phospholipids of the intact erythrocyte membrane, phospholipase c from bacillus cereus, phospholipase a2 from pig pancreas and crotalus adamanteus and phospholipase d from cabbage, can hydrolyse phospholipid monolayers at pressure below 31 dynes/cm only. the phospholipases which can hydrolyse phospholipids of ...19751174576
effect on microorganisms of volatile compounds released from germinating seeds.volatile compounds evolved from germinating seeds of slash pine, bean, cabbage, corn, cucumber, and pea were evaluated for their ability to support growth of microorganisms in liquid mineral salts media lacking a carbon source. growth of eight bacteria was measured turbidimetrically and of six fungi as dry weight of mycelium. volatiles caused increased growth of pseudomonas fluorescens, bacillus cereus, erwinia carotovora, agrobacterium tumefaciens, a. radiobacter, rhizobium japonicum, mucor muc ...19751201509
[possible relationship between bacterial surface structures, immune-adherence, chemotaxis and phagocytosis (author's transl)].in the present study we attempted to determine the relationship between bacterial surface structures, immune adherence, chemotaxis and phagocytosis. as shown in table 1 encapsulated bacteria (klebsiella ozanae, k. pneumoniae, pasteurella multocida, streptococcus pneumoniae), mycoplasma pneumoniae and m. fermentans had a much lower immune adherence-activity than non-encapsulated bacteria (bacillus cereus, brucella abortus, erysipelothrix insidiosa, escherichia coli, listeria monocytogenes, pseudo ...19761258564
phosphatidyl-(n-acyl)-ethanolamine. a lipid component of mammalian epidermis.a lipid present in the granular cells of mammalian epidermis was identified as phosphatidyl-(n-acyl)-ethanolamine. the structure was deduced from the ratio of phosphorus : nitrogen : glycerol : fatty acid esters : total fatty acid (1 : 0.94 : 0.97 : 2.1 : 2.9), from analyses of the products of alkaline and acid hydrolyses and from its infrared spectrum. conclusive evidence was obtained by a direct comparison of the chromatographic properties, degradation products and infrared spectrum of the iso ...19761268235
bacteriophage and bacteriophage-like structures carried by bacillus medusa and their effect on sporulation.bacillus medusa was found to carry three phages or phagelike structures named phi med-1, phi med-2, and phi med-3. phi med-1 is a minute, 25-nm-diameter particle without a tail. it was extracted from the sporulation lysate of a phi med-2-minus strain of b. medusa and purified by differential centrifugation. the nucleic acid from this structure was shown to be orcinol positive, alkali sensitive, rnase sensitive, and dnase resistant. an rnase-resistant core of nucleic acid was not found, indicatin ...19761271529
studies on kinetic model of vitamin c two-step fermentation process.this paper aims at analyzing the bioconversion process from l-sorbose to 2-keto-l-gulonic acid with the aid of the growth factor assumption. fermentation mechanism is discussed after making necessary simplifications. a model is established for this second step fermentation process. nonlinear optimization together with runge-kutta method, are used to obtain model parameters. results of computer simulation agree with experimental data to show the reliability of the kinetic model.19921295600
nucleotide sequence of the lecithinase operon of listeria monocytogenes and possible role of lecithinase in cell-to-cell spread.the lecithinase gene of the intracellular pathogen listeria monocytogenes, plcb, was identified in a 5,648-bp dna fragment which expressed lecithinase activity when cloned into escherichia coli. this fragment is located immediately downstream of the previously identified gene mpl (prta). it contains five open reading frames, named acta, plcb, and orfx, -y, and -z, which, together with mpl, form an operon, since a 5.7-kb-long transcript originates from a promoter located upstream of mpl (j. menga ...19921309513
phospholipase c-mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine is a target of transforming growth factor beta 1 inhibitory signals.cell growth and tumor transformation can be restrained in certain cell systems by the action of transforming growth factor beta (tgf-beta). it has been established that the mechanism whereby tgf-beta 1 inhibits cell growth does not interfere with the triggering of early mitogenic signal transduction mechanisms. phospholipase c-catalyzed hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (pc) is a relatively late step in the cascade activated by growth factors. therefore, conceivably activation of phospholipase c ...19921309592
bce83i, a restriction endonuclease from bacillus cereus 83 which recognizes novel nonpalindromic sequence 5'-cttgag-3' and is stimulated by s-adenosylmethionine. 19921315959
phospholipids chiral at phosphorus. stereochemical mechanism for the formation of inositol 1-phosphate catalyzed by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase c.the phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase c (pi-plc) from mammalian sources catalyzes the simultaneous formation of both inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate (icp) and inositol 1-phosphate (ip). it has not been established whether the two products are formed in sequential or parallel reactions, even though the latter has been favored in previous reports. this problem was investigated by using a stereochemical approach. diastereomers of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-(1d- [16o,17o]phosphoinositol) ( ...19921318746
characterization of a zn(2+)-requiring glycerophosphocholine cholinephosphodiesterase possessing p-nitrophenylphosphocholine phosphodiesterase activity.p-nitrophenylphosphocholine phosphodiesterase activity was purified 5000-fold from mouse brain by treatment of membranes with bacillus cereus phospholipase c preparation and sequential chromatographies on concanavalin a-sepharose and cm-sephadex columns. the phosphodiesterase (zn(2+)-requiring) showed km and vmax. values of 5.5 microm and 4.2 mumol/min per mg respectively in the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylphosphocholine, and possessed an optimum ph of 10.5 and a molecular mass of approx. 74 kda. ...19921326942
substrate stereospecificity of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase c from bacillus cereus examined using the resolved enantiomers of synthetic myo-inositol 1-(4-nitrophenyl phosphate).the substrate stereospecificity of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase c from bacillus cereus is examined using the resolved optical isomers of synthetic myo-inositol 1-(4-nitrophenyl phosphate), a chromogenic substrate for the phospholipase. the synthetic route employs mild acid-labile protecting groups and separation of the substituted myo-inositol enantiomers as the (-)-camphanyl ester diastereomers. measurements of the initial rates of cleavage of the d and l enantiomers of the nitro ...19921327107
mammalian cells that express bacillus cereus phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase c have increased levels of inositol cyclic 1:2-phosphate, inositol 1-phosphate, and inositol 2-phosphate.phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase c (ptdins-plc) of bacillus cereus catalyzes the conversion of ptdins to inositol cyclic 1:2-phosphate and diacylglycerol. nih 3t3, swiss mouse 3t3, cv-1, and cos-7 cells were transfected with a cdna encoding this enzyme, and the metabolic and cellular consequences were investigated. overexpression of ptdins-plc enzyme activity was associated with elevated levels of inositol cyclic 1:2-phosphate (2.5-70-fold), inositol 1-phosphate (2-20-fold), and inosi ...19921328186
kinetics of bacillus cereus phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase c with thiophosphate and fluorescent analogs of phosphatidylinositol.thiophosphate analogs (c-s-p bond) of phosphatidylinositol (cn-thio-pi: racemic hexadecyl-, dodecyl-, and octylthiophosphoryl-1-myo-inositol) and a fluorescent analog (pyrene-pi: rac-4-(1-pyreno)-butylphosphoryl-1-myo-inositol) were all substrates for phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase c from bacillus cereus. hydrolysis of thio-pi was followed by coupling the production of alkylthiol to a disulfide interchange reaction with dithiobispyridine. hydrolysis of pyrene-pi was followed using a ...19921333794
a high level of cell surface phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase c activity is characteristic of growth-arrested 3t3 fibroblasts but not of transformed variants.confluent monolayers of four contact-inhibited mouse fibroblast lines (swiss 3t3, balb/c 3t3, nih 3t3, and c3h10t1/2) were found to have substantial levels of a cell surface phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase c (ecto-plc). in contrast, confluent cultures of virally, chemically, or spontaneously transformed variants derived from these cell lines expressed undetectable or negligible levels of this enzyme activity. a simple and rapid assay, using lysophosphatidylinositol radio-labeled in t ...19921338336
[cloning and gene expression of bacillus cereus neutral proteinase in bacillus subtilis cells].the neutral proteinase gene of bacillus cereus was cloned. its restriction map and the direction of transcription was determined. it was shown that the neutral proteinase gene could be expressed in bacillus cells. the thermostability of the product coded by the neutral proteinase gene and its natural analogue was explored. the obtained data indicate that the neutral proteinase of bacillus cereus is closely related to the enzyme of bacillus amyloliquefaciens by these parameters. it was found that ...19921339956
organization and nucleotide sequence of the glutamine synthetase (glna) gene from lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.a 3.3-kb bamhi fragment of lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus dna was cloned and sequenced. it complements an escherichia coli glna deletion strain and hybridizes strongly to a dna containing the bacillus subtilis glna gene. dna sequence analysis of the l. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus dna showed it to contain the glna gene encoding class i glutamine synthetase, as judged by extensive homology with other prokaryotic glna genes. the sequence suggests that the enzyme encoded in this gene ...19921359838
differential susceptibility of phosphatidylcholine small unilamellar vesicles to phospholipases a2, c and d in the presence of membrane active peptides.activities of phospholipases c and d along with a2 were followed on egg phosphatidylcholine small unilamellar vesicles in the presence of membrane active peptides melittin, gramicidin s and alamethicin. decrease in the activity of phospholipase c and d and enhancement of phospholipases a2 activity suggest that these enzymes are sensitive to alterations in the lipid packing in the membranes in the presence of these peptides. phospholipase c and d, which have not been used to study peptide--membra ...19921370889
comparative analysis of 23s ribosomal rna gene sequences of bacillus anthracis and emetic bacillus cereus determined by pcr-direct sequencing.the primary structures of the 23s ribosomal rna genes of bacillus anthracis and an emetic strain of bacillus cereus were determined by direct sequencing of enzymatically amplified chromosomal dna. the 23s rrna gene sequences of b. anthracis and b. cereus were found to be almost identical and showed only two differences (a single nucleotide change, and a single base insertion in b. cereus). the feasibility of using pcr-direct sequencing for the rapid sequence determination of large-subunit rrna g ...19921381695
a method for the determination of bacterial spore dna content based on isotopic labelling, spore germination and diphenylamine assay; ploidy of spores of several bacillus species.a reliable method for measuring the spore dna content, based on radioactive dna labelling, spore germination in absence of dna replication and diphenylamine assay, was developed. the accuracy of the method, within 10-15%, is adequate for determining the number of chromosomes per spore, provided that the genome size is known. b subtilis spores were shown to be invariably monogenomic, while those of larger bacilli bacillus megaterium, bacillus cereus and bacillus thuringiensis, often, if not invar ...19921391052
effect of side-chain amide thionation on turnover of beta-lactam substrates by beta-lactamases. further evidence on the question of side-chain hydrogen-bonding in catalysis.two side-chain-thionated beta-lactams, a penicillin and a cephalosporin, have been prepared and found to be not significantly poorer as substrates of typical serine (classes a and c) beta-lactamases than are their oxo analogues. this result is interpreted to mean that any hydrogen-bonding site on these enzymes for the beta-lactam side-chain amide carbonyl group must be flexible and is more likely to be a passive rather than active or essential feature of the active site. previously, data from cr ...19921417747
[fractal structure of microorganism colonies]. 19921425170
[microbial contamination of twenty drugs of plant origin].twenty drugs of plant origin were analysed in order to determine the microbial contamination level. a light homogenizing method was used to avoid an increase in the antimicrobial capacity of certain drugs, which would falsify the analytical results. the total viable aerobic count (tvc) varied from 10(1) to 10(7) cfu/g and in 11 samples out of 21 was equal to or higher than 10(5) cfu/g. the number of fungi varied from one drug to another, but was generally lower than the aerobic tvc to the power ...19921438458
mass sociogenic illness in a youth july, 1989, 63 (42%) of 150 children ages 4-14 years attending an outreach program at a youth center in florida, but no employees, developed acute and rapidly resolving upper gastrointestinal symptoms 2 to 40 minutes after a prepackaged lunch. all ill children were sent to 3 local hospital emergency departments for evaluation. however, clinical evaluation was normal for all. of 102 children who ate any prepackaged foods, 48 (47%) became ill compared to 1/19 (5%) for children who did not eat ( ...19921439062
structural comparison suggests that thermolysin and related neutral proteases undergo hinge-bending motion during catalysis.crystal structures are known for three members of the bacterial neutral protease family: thermolysin from bacillus thermoproteolyticus (tln), the neutral protease from bacillus cereus (neu), and the elastase of pseudomonas aeruginosa (pae), both in free and ligand-bound forms. each enzyme consists of an n-terminal and c-terminal domain with the active site formed at the junction of the two domains. comparison of the different molecules reveals that the structure within each domain is well conser ...19921445869
changes in enzymatic and membrane-adsorbing activities of sphingomyelinase from bacillus cereus by modification with a polyethylene glycol derivative.sphingomyelinase (smplc) from bacillus cereus was modified with a polyethylene glycol (peg) derivative, methoxypolyethylene glycol-succinimidyl succinate (ss-peg). the molecular weight of the ss-peg-modified smplc was calculated to be approx. 150 kda by gel-filtration whereas that of the native enzyme, was 25 kda. by this modification, the enzyme increased its thermostability and retained its hydrolytic activity toward 2-(n-hexadecanoylamino)-4-nitrophenylphosphocholine (hnp) and sphingomyelin ( ...19921446369
cloning of a gene from bacillus cereus with homology to the mreb gene from escherichia coli.we have cloned and sequenced a gene coding for a putative shape-determining protein (mreb) highly homologous to the mreb gene product of escherichia coli. the amino acid (aa) identity was 53% and the similarity 72%. the gene is expressed early in the logarithmic phase. the aa sequence comparison showed that the protein, like the e. coli mreb, has structural similarity to actin and heat-shock protein hsc70 encoded by a new super-gene family.19921452027
ocular injuries caused by magpies.this paper presents a series of six patients with ocular injuries resulting from magpie attacks. five cases involved children. in two cases the penetration was overlooked initially. in one case the keratitis was caused by bacillus cereus. full ophthalmic examination, including indirect ophthalmoscopy and microbiological studies, must be undertaken initially to identify unrecognised eye injuries and to prevent the possible sight-threatening complications of vitreal fibrosis with subsequent retina ...19921454001
mechanisms of bacillus cereus enteropathy.three strains of bacillus cereus isolated from sausages (salami and trekker, ranbac, ranchi) produced enterotoxin which caused vascular permeability in skin and haemorrhage in the ligated ileal loops of rabbits. histopathological studies revealed haemorrhage and congestion in submucosa, mononuclear cell infiltration in lamina propria and submucosa and villous atrophy. histochemical studies ruled out the effect on mitochondrial enzymes of intestinal epithelial cells. purified enterotoxin given in ...19921459602
involvement of calcium in germination of coat-modified spores of bacillus cereus t.the effect of calcium on germination of coat-modified bacillus cereus t spores was investigated. coat-modified spores produced either by chemical extraction (sds-dtt-treated spores) or by mutagenesis (10ld mutant spores) were unable to germinate in response to inosine. while sds-dtt-treated spores could germinate slowly in the presence of l-alanine, 10ld mutant spores could not germinate at all. the lost or reduced germinability of coat-modified spores was restored when exogenous ca2+ was supple ...19921461151
prospective study of blood culture during transesophageal ascertain the incidence and significance of bacteremia associated with transesophageal echocardiography (tee), 132 consecutive patients (aged 17 to 73 years) free of apparent infection who were undergoing 135 transesophageal echocardiographic procedures from october 1990 to august 1991, were prospectively studied. for each procedure, two sets of blood cultures were obtained for culture 30 to 60 minutes before tee, immediately after, and 180 to 240 minutes after the procedure. for each blood c ...19921462911
site-directed mutagenesis and substrate-induced inactivation of beta-lactamase i.the substrate-induced inactivation of beta-lactamase i from bacillus cereus 569/h has been studied. both the wild-type enzyme and mutants have been used. the kinetics follow a branched pathway of the type recently analysed [waley (1991) biochem. j. 279, 87-94]. the substrate cloxacillin (a penicillin) formed an acyl-enzyme (characterized by m.s.), and it was probably the instability of this intermediate that brought about inactivation. a disulphide bond was introduced into beta-lactamase i (the ...19921471977
studies on the atpase of bacillus cereus.the membrane atpase (ec of bacillus cereus was solubilized by a 'shock-wash' process and purified. the non-specific phosphatase contaminant was separated by glycerol density gradient centrifugation. the optimum temperature was 39.5 degrees c and the ph optimum at 7.5. on sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis two classes of subunits were observed in equal proportions with molecular weights of 70 k and 83 k. the effect of various compounds on the enzymatic activity was studied. the enzym ...19921473262
bacillus cereus meningitis in two neurosurgical patients: an investigation into the source of the organism.two patients developed bacillus cereus meningitis following neurosurgery. during the subsequent investigation into the source of the organism, linen was discovered to be heavily contaminated with b. cereus. no other prolific source of the organism was found. it seems probable that lint from contaminated fabric was the vehicle of transmission of the organism during extended surgery. linen should be considered as a possible source of b. cereus infection.19921474265
[studies of cockroachcidal toxin].a cockroachcidal bacterial isolate cw-w-90-3 was selected by egg yolk agar plate. the isolate produced phospholipase c (plc) which was pathogenic to the nymph of cockroach. the conditions for production of high level plc indicated that using lb medium supplement tween-80 or minimal medium could effectively increase the activity of plc. the optical phase for production of plc was in the period of 12-18 hours and below ph8.0. the activity of plc was reduced along with the culture time until 48 hou ...19921481534
media for the detection and enumeration of bacillus cereus in foods: a review.bacillus cereus is an established cause of food poisoning in addition to being a troublesome and persistent contaminant, responsible for a variety of spoilage defects in processed foods and dairy products. a range of diagnostic and selective media has been developed to facilitate the detection and enumeration of b. cereus in routine surveillance situations and food poisoning investigations. these media are reviewed with respect to the selective and diagnostic systems they employ, their ability t ...19921486027
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