in vitro actions of some antibiotics on phospholipases.the effects of some antibiotics on activities of phospholipase a2, b and c were investigated in vitro. tetracyclines, macrolides, chloramphenicol and carbenicillin inhibited the activity of crotalus adamanteus phospholipase a2 towards phospholipids of egg-yolk emulsions. when the ability to inhibit the activity of penicillium notatum phospholipase b towards mixed micelles of phosphatidylcholine and triton x-100 was investigated, polymyxin b was found to be inhibitory while chloramphenicol and ca ...1979541266
[microfloral study of bull seminal fluid stored at low temperatures].hundred twenty three samples of bull semen fluid frozen at 196 degrees c including 83 plastic ampules, 20 granules and 20 plastic straws obtained from the containers of the insemination stations of 10 farms from the sofia district were investigated. two hundred twelve strains were isolated and identified as: escherichia coli--25 strains, hafnia--16 strains, citrobacter, enterobacter and proteus mirabilis--9 strains of each. the remaining gram-negative genera and species were more rarely encounte ...1979545852
the growth and respiration of bacterial colonies.young colonies of two swarming organisms, bacillus subtilis and proteus vulgaris, grew about as quickly on solid media as in liquid culture whilst four non-swarming organisms, bacillus cereus, enterobacter cloacae, escherichia coli and staphylococcus albus, all grew slower on solid than in liquid media. oxygen uptake by young colonies of b. subtilis, followed manometrically, increased exponentially at about the same rate as unrestricted aerobic growth. all other colonies demonstrated acceleratin ...1977591923
biochemical aspects of the visual process. xxxvii. evidence for lateral aggregation of rhodopsin molecules in phospholipase c-treated bovine photoreceptor membranes.photoreceptor membranes derived from isolated bovine rod outer segments, are subjected to treatment with phospholipase c (bacillus cereus). this results in varying degrees of hydrolysis of the membrane phospholipids into diglycerides and water soluble phosphate esters without loss of rhodopsin. electron microscopic observations of thin sections and freeze-fractured preparations indicate extrusion of diglycerides from the membranes and their coalescence to lipid droplets, beginning at 20% hydroly ...1978647003
production and property of beta-lactamases in streptomyces: comparison of the strains isolated newly and thirty years ago.productivity and property of beta-lactamases of streptomyces strains isolated from soil some 30 years ago were studied in comparison with those of the newly isolated strains. at least three-quarters of the streptomyces strains produced beta-lactamase constitutively and extracellularly, mainly as penicillinases, as in the cases of those from the newly isolated strains. strains such as s. albus, s. diastatochromogenes, s. fradiae, and s. lavendulae were the highest producing strains, and the amoun ...1978666306
transduction in bacillus thuringiensis.bacteriophage cp-51, originally reported as a generalized transducing phage for bacillus cereus and b. anthracis, has been shown to carry out generalized transduction in several strains of b. thuringiensis. a newly isolated phage, cp-54, which has a broader host range than cp-51, also mediates generalized transduction in b. thuringiensis. cp-51 and cp-54 are similar in size and morphology and are related serologically, but they are not identical. cp-54 is more cold labile than cp-51, and, as wit ...1978677877
an enzymic determination for serum phospholipid.a new colorimetric determination for serum phospholipid is described. firstly, serum phospholipid is incubated with phospholipase c from bacillus cereus, and then the released diglyceride and triglyceride are hydrolyzed completely to fatty acid and glycerol by lipoprotein lipase from pseudomonas fluorescens. secondly, the glycerol produced is enzymatically determined by glycerol dehydrogenase in the presence of nad+, using phenazine methosulfate-nitro blue tetrazolium as color reagents. the abso ...1978709886
purification of antibiotics from physarum gyrosum by high pressure liquid chromatography.a family of five antibiotic substances was isolated from the slime mold physarum gyrosum by high pressure liquid chromatography (hplc). for this purpose, mold was cultured for two weeks in a liquid medium. soluble products were harvested by rotary evaporation of medium and extraction with 1-butanol. paper chromatography in ethyl acetate:pyridine:water (2:2:1 v/v) was used for preliminary fractionation. active components were separated by hplc with a reverse-phase column packed with bondapack c18 ...1978714881
toxicity of zinc to fungi, bacteria, and coliphages: influence of chloride ions.a 10 mm concentration of zn2+ decreased the survival of escherichia coli; enhanced the survival of bacillus cereus; did not significantly affect the survival of pseudomonas aeruginosa, norcardia corallina, and t1, t7, p1, and phi80 coliphages; completely inhibited mycelial growth of rhizoctonia solani; and reduced mycelial growth of fusarium solani, cunninghamella echinulata, aspergillus niger, and trichoderma viride. the toxicity of zinc to the fungi, bacteria, and coliphages was unaffected, le ...1978736544
[characterization by zymograms of r factor-determined beta-lactamases: plasmids of defined and undefined compatibility groups (author's transl)].an easy biochemical method is described, discriminating the beta-lacta-mases coded by various r factors. electrophoretic mobility and substrate affinity of beta-lactamases were studied simultaneously for 7 different penicillins and cephalosporins. they are i like r factors assigned into different compatibility groups (n, p, com6, com7, com8, x and com 9), five r factors isolated from piglets faeces and one r factor, ru1, originated from enterobacter aerogenes. three electrophoretic types of beta ...1976786104
[bacterial flora of the conjunctival sac of the horse].the aa. report the results of taxonomic research conducted on the conjunctival sac of 59 horses for identification of the present bacterial flora. in the controlled animals, it was observed, at the level of the considered niche, a community constituted of normal bacterial populations, but not autochtonous in the significance they attributed from dubos et al., relative to the characterization of the indigenous microbiota of the intestine. the isolated normal bacterial flora seems to be constitute ...1976788654
a direct spectrophotometric assay and determination of michaelis constants for the beta-lactamase reaction. 1975803320
biphasic kinetics induced by modified substrates of penicillinase. 1975803369
cytochrome pigments in spores of bacillus cereus t.absorption spectra of dormant spores of bacillus cereus t suspended in glycerol showed peaks characteristic of cytochrome pigments.1975803489
use of the aggregate-hemagglutination technique for determining exo-enterotoxin of bacillus cereus.the possibility of using the aggregate-hemagglutination technique for detection of bacillus cereus exo-enterotoxin in foodstuffs and culture media is shown. a 0.004-mug quantity of enterotoxin per ml can be detected by this method.1975803816
diol lipids of rat liver. quantitation and structural characteristics of neutral lipids and phospholipids derived from ethanediol, propanediols, and butanediols.specific enzymatic and chemical degradation of neutral lipid and phospholipid fractions from rat liver revealed the presence of novel types of lipid metabolites bearing a short-chain diol backbone. diol-derived lecithin and cephalin analogs were readily cleaved by phospholipase c (ec from bacillus cereus, although the cephalin analogs required "carrier" lecithin to sustain hydrolysis. the products of phosphilipase hydrolyses as well as the neutral lipid fractions were subjected to alkal ...1975803840
[frequencies of purine oligonucleotide occurrence in 16s and 23s ribosomal rna in bacillus cereus, bac. subtilis and bac. coagulans]. 1975803844
ultrastructural and chemical changes in spores of bacillus cereus after action of disinfectants. 1975803940
degradation of phospholipid and release of diglyceride-rich membrane vesicles during protoplast formation in certain gram-positive bacteria.membrane phospholipid was found to be hydrolyzed presumably by an intracellular phospholipase c, and diglyceride-rich membrane vesicles were released from the cells during protoplast formation in bacillus cereus bacillus subtilis, micrococcus lysodeikticus, and staphylococcus aureus. the released membranes consisted mainly of small vesicles of 50 to 100 nm in diameter. they have a lower density than that of protoplast membranes in all the bacteria tested in the present study.1975803959
production of verbenol pheromone by a bacterium isolated from bark beetles. 1975804144
the parenteral application of a new metacycline preparation, tri-metacycline.tri-metacycline, one of the new tetracycline complexes (tritetracyclines), is prepared by mere dissolution of metacycline hydrochloride in an aqueous solution of the complexing agent. in vitro and in vivo studies show a high antibiotic activity. significantly lower mic values were found for tri-metacycline than for the parent compound. parenteral administration resulted in high sera and tissue values, without signs of accumulation; excretion via the kidneys was proved.1975804312
characteristics of a bacillus megaterium bacteriophage.a bacteriophage which infects and lyses bacillus megaterium atcc 19213 was isolated from the soil. the phage produces lysis on nine strains of b, megaterium tested but did not lyse a bacillus cereus or bacillus licheniformis strain, nor any of eight bacillus subtilis strains tested. physical characteristics of the phage including morphology, size, thermal and ph stability, and buoyant density were examined. the nucleic acid is double-stranded dna of mol. wt. 41.7 times 10 and 36 to 38.5 mol perc ...1975804535
synthesis and properties of phosphatidyl carnitine and phosphatidyl beta-methylcholine.rac-phosphatidyl carnitine and rac-phosphatidyl beta-methylcholine were synthesized by direct condensation of phosphatidic acid and the appropriate alcohols in the presence of 2,4,6-triiso-propylbenzenesulphonylchloride and pyridine. tetraphenylborates of the quarternary ammonium compounds beta-methylcholine and carnitine benzyl ester were shown to be particularly convenient for synthesis in homogeneous phase. physical and chemical properties of the two phosphoglycerolipids and some intermediate ...1975804579
[pharmacokinetics after oral and intravenous administration of tetracycline compounds (author's transl)]. 1975804588
effects of cadmium on the growth and uptake of cadmium by microorganisms.six species of microorganisms, escherichia coli, bacillus cereus, lactobacillus acidophilus, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus faecalis and actinomyces niger, were grown under suitable conditions in appropriate media. cadmium chloride was added to provide 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 mug of cd per ml. at 40 and 80 mug of cd per ml, e. coli and b. cereus grew well and the other species were repressed. cd uptake patterns differed significantly among the species tested. the significance of these dat ...1975804857
the reaction of myelin phospholipids with phospholipase c and d. 1975804860
antimetabolites produced by microorganisms. xii (s)-alanyl-3-[alpha-(s)-chloro-3-(s)-hydroxy 2-oxo-3-azetidinylmethyl]-(s)-alanine, a new beta-lactam containing natural product.(s)-alanyl-3-[alpha-(s)-chloro-3-(s)-hydroxy-2-oxo-3-azetidinylmethyl]-(s)-alanine was isolated from a fermentation broth of an unidentified streptomyces species 372 a. the structure was determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction analysis. the substance inhibits the growth of several strains of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in a chemically defined medium but growth inhibition is relieved by addition of l-glutamine to the medium.1975805110
chemical characterization of new antibiotics, cerexins a and b. (studies on antibiotics from the genus bacillus. ii)acid hydrolysis revealed that the antibiotic cerexin a is constructed with aspartic acid (3), threonine (1), serine (1), valine (2), allo-isoleucine (1), gamma-hydroxylysine (1), tryptophan (1), and a variety of fatty acid residues. the essential difference between cerexins a and b is concluded to be replacement of serine and one valine residue in cerexin a by glycine and phenylalanine in cerexin b. isolation of a new amino acid l-threo-gamma-hydroxylysine is also described.1975805113
antibiotics from mycoplasma. ii. characterization of antibiotics produced by mycoplasma sp. rpiii. 1975805114
the diumycin complex. comparative studies on antibiotics from diumycin-and macarbomycin-fermentations.six phosphorus-containing antibiotics were isolated from both diumycin and macarbomycin fermentation products. on the basis of their chromatographic behavior and of their physico-chemical and microbiological properties it can be assumed that not only the main component but also the five minor components are the same in both antibiotic complexes. a comparison of the six components with the known classifications of diumycins and macarbomycins was made.1975805117
eimeria tenella in gnotobiotic chickens: hematocrit, weight change, cecal pathology, and mortality.on days 5 to 8 after oral inoculation with 200,000 eimeria tenella oocysts, the mean hematocrits of bacteria-free, bacillus cereus-monoflora and conventional chickens were equally reduced below control values. weight loss was first observed in bacteria-free and monoflora fowl between days 4 and 5 after e. tenella inoculation, whereas conventional fowl initially displayed weight loss between days 3 and 4. gross cecal lesion scores and total mortality of 4 experiments were not significantly differ ...1975805225
purification by affinity chromatography of phospholipase c from bacillus cereus. 1975805713
spores of microorganisms. xxvi. synthetic activities of germinating spores of bacillus cereus prevented from outgrowth.spores of bacillus cereus were germinated in a germination limited medium (gl-medium) which facilitates only germination but not the postgerminative development of spores. under these conditions a limited protein synthesis occurs. however, this protein synthesis is stopped after a short time interval. the rate of synthesis of new proteins, as well as their total amount, is influenced by the length of the activation heat shock. synthesis of the wall material continues for several hours and thick- ...1975806504
evaluation of two simple assay methods for detecting antibiotic residues in chicken and pig muscle. 1975806569
properties of bacillus cereus spore coat mutants.two classes of spore mutants have been selected in bacillus cereus t, those producing lysozyme-sensitive spores, and those producing spores dependent upon lysozyme for germination. one mutant from each class was studied in detail and found to have defective packing of the spore coat layers. the major spore coat poplypeptide appeared to be altered on the basis of gel electrophoretic profiles and/or peptide maps of half-syctine-containing peptides. the spores of the mutants of both classes were se ...1975806578
an insect toxin from spores of bacillus thuringiensis and bacillus cereus.spores of bacillus thuringiensis contain a toxin active against lepidopterous larvae. this toxin can be solubilized by extraction with reagents which dissolve the protein crystal of b thuringiensis. it is inactivated by crystal-specific antiserum. spores of bacillus cereus contain a similar toxin although the specific activity is much lower than the spores of b. thuringiensis. the b. cereus toxin contains a single major polypeptidecomponent. toxic activity can be solubliized from spores of both ...1975806656
the metal ion dependence of phospholipase c from bacillus cereus.1. the zinc content and metal ion dependence of phospholipase c(phosphatidylcholine cholinephosphohydrolase, ec from bacillus cereus have been examined. 2. the native enzyme contained about 2 atoms of tightly bound zinc/molecule. 3. incubation of the enzyme with edta or with o-phenanthroline caused inactivation. the inactivation was accompanied by the removal of one zinc atom from the enzyme and could be fully reversed by the addition of zn2+ or co2+ to the enzyme and partly reversed by ...1975807246
bacillus cereus beta-lactamase. reaction with n-bromosuccinimide and the properties of the product.the effect of n-bromosuccinimide on the enzymatic activity and the conformation of a bacillus cereus beta-lactamase (penicillin amido-beta-lactamase ec was studied. incubation with 10 mum n-bromosuccinimide caused over 95% decrease of the enzymatic activity within 15 min. spectrophotometric titration with n-bromosuccinimide showed that the reaction proceeded in two steps. the half-inactivated enzyme was prepared by the reaction with n-bromosuccinimide and its properties examined. amino ...1975807248
pathogenicity of bacillus cereus isolated from trichoplusia ni larvae. 1975807657
synthesis and antibacterial and antifungal activities of 5-nitro-2-furfurylidene polyhalophenoxyacethydrazides viii.fifteen 5-nitro-2-furfurylidene phenoxyacethydrazides were synthesized, and the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the compounds prepared were determined against different microorganisms. the o-methoxy derivative was found to be the most active compound.1975807705
2-phenethylimidazole derivatives. synthesis and antimycotic properties.compounds of type (x = o, nh; ar and ar' = phenyl of substituted phenyl; ten examples) were prepared and assayed against miconazole (ii,x = o; ar = ar' =2,4-cl2c6h3) as potential antimycotic agents. optimal activity was noted for i(x = o; ar = ar' = 2,4-cl2c6h3), the direct analog of miconazole. it is about one-tenth as active.1975807735
[ultrastructure of bac. anthracis and bac. cereus].a study was made of the ultrastructure of bac. anthracis and bac. cereus (strains 1835 and 205). there were established definite morphological differences between the bacilli under study. the cell wall was much thicker in the causative agent of anthrax, it was permeated by tubules; the surface of the wall was covered by a thick layer of osmiophilic material. the spore membrane of bac. anthracis was multistratal in character; osmiophilic filaments were seen on the surface of exosporium. fungoid p ...1975808059
microflora of maize prepared as tortillas.very little is known of the microflora in tortillas, the major component in the diet of many guatemalans and other central americans. based in a guatemalan highland indian village, this study examined the types and amounts of bacteria, yeasts, and molds in tortillas and in their maize precursors. coliforms, bacillus cereus, two species of staphylococcus, and many types of yeast were the main contaminants, but low concentrations of alpha-hemolytic streptococcus, facultative clostridium, and other ...1975808168
comparison of beta-lactamase ii from bacillus cereus 569/h/9 with a beta-lactamase from bacillus cereus 5/b/6.a mutant of bacillus cereus 5/b, strain 5/b/6, produces a beta-lactamase ii-like enzyme but no beta-lactamase i. beta-lactamases ii and ii 5/b/6 appear to show a high degree of homology, but there are significant differences in their enzymic properties.1975808215
a hg (ii) induced conformational change in penicillinase.penicillinase (e.c. from bacillus cereus 569/h is inhibited by hg(ii). the inhibition is characterized by non-competitive kinetics and can be reversed by edta. a hg(ii) induced conformational change is indicated because: (1) the edta regenerated activity is unstable and is rapidly converted to an iodine-sensitive state, and (2) an irreversible change in the circular dichroism spectrum at 222 nm is found.1975808510
effect of the lanthanides, lanthanum and neodymium on the heat resistance of bacillus cereus spores.the lanthanides, lanthanum and neodymium, do not completely replace calcium in producing heat-resistant spores in bacillus cereus sv1. the chelate stability of calcium-dipicolinic acid appears to be important in the heat resistance of bacterial spores as does the ability of calcium to produce a hydrophobic environment.1975808682
[microflora of active ooze participating in the decomposition of sulfanilic acid].microflora of domestic water can be a source of active ooze adapted to sulphanilic acid. adaptation of the microflora to sulphanilic acid at a concentration of 170-200 mg/l takes 6 to 8 days. the microflora of active ooze, immediately after adaptation, consists mainly of pseudomonas species, ps. denitrificans, ps. fluorescens, ps. striata, ps. putida, etc., and also of achromobacter stutzeri, achromobacter flavum, mycobacterium phlei, mycobacterium mucosum, bacillus mesentericus, bac. cereus, sa ...1975808686
[biosynthesis of group b vitamins by yeasts--symbionts of xylophagous insects].the biosynthesis of vitamins of the b group was studied in the yeasts debaryomyces and zygowillia--the symbionts of insects--xylophages. these yeasts provide the vitamins of the b group (biotin, thiamine, inositol, pyridoxine, nicotinic and pantothenic acids) for the preimaginal phases of insects--xylophages. the presence of these vitamins under the bark of trees and in other places of insect habitation is related to the viability of the yeasts. the content of the vitamins in the phloem depends ...1975808689
experimental infection of rabbits with bacillus cereus.bacillus cereus was able to grow and produced local infections following subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. an inflammatory response was produced with necrosis of muscle fibres and calcification. the organism was sensitive to chemotherapeutic agents on in vitro tests.1975808922
reimposition of heat-resistant on germinated spores of bacillus cereus by osmotic manipulation. 1975809041
bacillus cereus intoxication followed by periorbital oedema. 1975809090
germination of bacillus cereus endospores: a proposed role for heat shock and nucleosides.spores of bacillus cereus t prepared in a glucose - yeast extract - salts broth germinated in l-alanine or more rapidly in l-alanine plus inosine or adenosine. the nucleosides alone were not germinative. inosine was shown to produce no pregerminative changes in spores that prepared them for more rapid germination later in l-alanine. experiments which measured the interaction of nucleosides, heat shock, and d-alanine on germination rates suggested that nucleosides may potentiate l-alanine-induced ...1975809124
cross-reactions of streptococcus mutans due to cell wall teichoic acid.antisera to the whole cells of streptococcus mutans cross-reacted with antigen extracts from four other gram-positive species, as well as with those of three other oral streptococci. similarly, antisera to these bacteria cross-reacted with extracts from s. mutans and with those from each other. using a purified phenol extract of the walls of s. mutans, which was identified by chemical, immunochemical, and enzymatic analyses as glycerol teichoic acid, the cross-reactions were shown to be specific ...1975809357
ribonucleic acid polymerase of germinating bacillus cereus appears that a de novo synthesis of the deoxyribonucleic acid-dependent ribonucleic acid-polymerase in bacillus cereus t takes place fairly late in outgrowth, at the onset of the vegetative cycle. therefore, the ribonucleic acid-polymerase used by germinating spores is the one carried on from sporulating cells. however, the sporal enzyme is less soluble that the vegetative one, and its "core" is bound to two extra peptides. this complexing to other molecules could play a role in the regulatio ...1975809425
protease associated with spores of bacillus cereus.a proteolytic activity is associated with the dormant spores of bacillus cereus t and can be solubilized by washing the spores with 1 m kcl. this proteolytic activity is responsible for the attack of beta chains of ribonucleic acid-polymerase in extracts of dormant spores of this organism.1975809429
determination of bacterial cell concentrations by electrical instrument was developed to measure the concentration of bacterial suspensions by their electrical characteristics. it employed a square-wave signal generator, a tetra-polar electrode probe, and a voltage detector in the form of an oscilloscope. when electrical measurements were made on washed bacteria obtained from cultures or urine specimens, there was a direct relationship between the concentration of the cells and the electrical characteristics of the system as reflected by voltage change ...1975809465
the effect of chlorine on spores of clostridium bifermentans, bacillus subtilis and bacillus cereus.the effect of chlorine on the germination, outgrowth, colony formation and structure of spores of clostridium bifermentans, bacillus subtilis var. niger and bacillus cereus was examined. chlorine decreased heat resistance and slowed or prevented germination and swelling, but spores that did swell were usualy able to elongate to form vegetative cells. chlorine removed protein from spores, apparently from the coat, and allowed lysozyme to initiate germination. treatment with other agents that remo ...1975809541
[determination of heat resistance of bacillus cereus t spores using a germination ratio]. 1975809600
[effects of glycineon the germination mechanism of bacillus cereus t spores]. 1975809601
[on the efficiency of bac. cereus var. mycoides (flügge) during the release of nutritive substances from various organic materials (author's transl)]. 1975809942
some biochemical aspects of the enzymic transformation of cortisol with bacillus cereus.the role of a variety of compounds including organic acids, vitamins, growth promoting substances, purines and pyrimidines in the bioconversion of cortisol with bacillus cereus was investigated. the transformation of cortisol to prednisolone and pregn-4-en-11beta, 17alpha,20beta, 21-tetrol-3-one was affected by these compounds in different manners. the enzymatic delta1-dehydrogenation reaction was greatly induced with fumarate, menadione, and xanthine treatments. however, the enzymic reduction o ...1975809951
the partial amino acid sequence of the extracellular beta-lactamase i of bacillus cereus 569/h.the chemical structure of the extracellular beta-lactamase i of bacillus cereus 569/h was investigated. three electrophoretically homogenous charge variants of this enzyme were isolated and amino acid analysis of each revealed no significant differences. however, a degree of n-terminal heterogeneity was found by direct end-group modification of the protein and also on alignment of peptides from tryptic and chymotryptic digestion. the n-terminal heterogeneity observed was great enough to explain ...1975810136
the amino acid sequence of cerexin a (studies on antibiotics from the genus bacillus. vii.n-bromosuccinimide cleavage reaction on cerexin a liberated allo-isoleucine. treatment with conc. hydrochloric acid cleaved the antibiotic into two peptide fragments selectively at gamma-hydroxylysine residue. deacylation with an enzyme preparation from pseudomonas sp. afforded deacyl cerexin a. the amino acid sequences of these peptide fragments were examined by edman degradation. from all the results, the entire amino acid sequence of cerexin a was deduced.1975810467
disinfectant effect of performic acid.1. performic acid applied at short exposures to various kinds of microorganisms known for their resistance shows a strong bactericidal and sporicidal effect. 2. in addition to disinfection of hands and other parts of the body, the preparation could be used for the disinfection of various surfaces and objects.1975810511
[differentiation in culture of bacillus species isolated from semicanned meat].studied were the cultural, morphological, and biochemical properties of a total of 50 strains of aerobic spore-producing organisms of group i of the genus, bacillus isolated from semicanned meat. comparative investigations were carried out following four procedures (5, 7, 8, 14). fifty per cent of the bacilli studied were determined as bac. licheniformis, 26 per cent -- as bac. subtilis, 20 per cent -- as bac. pumilus, and 4 per cent -- as bac. cereus. data showed that the results obtained can s ...1975810942
[occurrence and function of a proteinase inhibitor in the hemolymph of insects].the presence of proteinase inhibitor has been proved in the hemolymph of a number of insect species from seven different insect orders. the amount of proteinase inhibitor in the hemolymph significantly increases after injection of inactivated bacteria into the hemocoelom of galleria mellonella-larvae. moreover the larvae show an increased resistance against normally lethal concentrations of trypsin, chymotrypsin, pronase p and extracellular proteinase produced by pseudomonas aeruginosa. it is di ...1975811027
death rates of bacterial spores: nonlinear survivor curves.nonlinear survivor curves were obtained when spores of bacillus cereus were heated in physiological saline solution. curvilinear survivor curves did not appear to be caused by experimental artifacts but by the heterogeneity of spore population with regard to heat resistance.1975811340
[demonstration of a single form of alpha-acetohydroxy acid synthetase in bacillus cereus t].existence of one form of alpha-acetohydroxyacid synthetase shown by sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation analysis, and inhibition in vitro by valine studies on the enzyme of bacillus cereus t.1975811404
thin-layer chromatographic technique for rapid detection of bacterial phospholipases.silica gel thin-layer chromatography was employed to detect lecithinase activity induced from bacterial resting cell preparations induced from bacterial resting cell preparations incubated at 37 c for 4 h in the presence of purified egg yolk lecithin. bacillus subtilis, bacillus cereus, serratia marcescens, and pseudomonas aeruginosa hydrolyzed lecithin with the formation of free fatty acids as the sole lipid-soluble product. in none of the escherichia coli and citrobacter freundii strains teste ...1975811682
food poisoning from take-away foods. 1975812070
comparison of methods for extraction of bacterial adenine nucleotides determined by firefly assay.adenine nucleotides in escherichia coli, bacillus cereus, klebsiella pneumoniae, staphylococcus aureus, and pseudomonas aeruginosa were extracted using 10 different methods. extracts were assayed for adenosine 5'-triphosphate (atp), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (adp), and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (amp) by the firefly method using an improved procedure. analytical interference by bacterial enzymes not inactivated during the extraction was found to be a major problem. however, these enzymes were ina ...1975812422
effect of some inhibitors derived from nitrite on marcomolecular synthesis in bacillus cereus.the effect of several inhibitors derived from nitrite on incorporation of [14c]uracil into ribonucleic acid of bacillus cereus during outgrowth and vegetative growth has been determined. a heat-induced inhibitor presumably of the perigo type was compared with the nitrosothiols of thioglycolate and beta-mercaptoethanol. all were found to effectively inhibit uracil incorporation at all stages tested. phase-contrast microscopy revealed that inhibition of morphological events occurred either before ...1975812424
studies on two isozymes of aconitase from bacillus cereus t. i. partial purification and stability. 1975812498
proceedings: interaction of cereolysin and streptolysin o with red blood cell membrane cholesterol. 1975812839
patterns of spore locations in pairs of bacillus cereus sporangia.the location patterns, relative to the cross wall, of terminal-to-subterminal bacillus cereus spores were determined in pairs of sporangia. the presence of three types of patterns suggests that spores are randomly located, but medium-dependent variability of the frequency ratios of the patterns strongly suggests that nonrandom localization cannot be discounted.1976812863
surface-localized cortex-lytic enzyme in spores of bacillus cereus t. 1975812943
bacillus cereus food poisoning: a provisional serotyping scheme.a provisional serotyping scheme for bacillus cereus has been developed. eighteen selected cultures of b. cereus isolated from foods and clinical specimens were used to prepare agglutinating sera against the flagellar antigen. there were no significant cross-reactions between the sera. the sera were used to type 137 isolates of b. cereus from 34 british and australian incidents of food poisoning associated with the consumption of cooked rice. the majority of the isolates from samples of food (56 ...1975813000
[interrelationship between phage types and biochemical types in bac. cereus cultures isolated from different natural sources]. 1975813459
[antibacterial activity of a lysozyme-like enzyme from staphylococci].a lysozyme-like enzyme isolated from the culture broth of staph. aureus 712 presented in its native state a lipoproteid complex. the lytic and antibacterial spectrum of the enzyme was similar to that of the egg albumin enzyme. however, the lipoproteid complex was somewhat superior to the egg albumin complex in its activity against micrococcus lysodeikticus, a number of gramnegative bacteria and staphylococci. out of the organisms studied microccus lysodeikticus, sarcina and bac. subtilis proved ...1975813563
correlation between changes in the membrane organization and susceptibility to phospholipase c attack induced by atp depletion of rat erythrocytes.about 20 and 43% of the total membrane phospholipids are hydrolized in fresh rat erythrocytes by treatment with phospholipase c (bacillus cereus), or both sphingomyelinase and phospholipase c, respectively, without causing cell lysis. treatment of atp-depleted cells with phospholipase c alone results in 50% hydrolysis and extensive lysis. depletion of atp causes a marked increase in the aggregation of intramembranous particles accompanied by a similar increase in the smooth area between the part ...1976813771
dense growth of aerobic bacteria in a bench-scale fermentor.escherichia coli b, escherichia coli mre 600, escherichia coli k 12-3300, pseudomonas fluorescens, and aerobacter aerogenes were grown exponentially in a bench-scale fermentor to cell concentrations in the range of 20 to 41 g dry cells/liter at 30 degrees c and 30 to 55 g dry cells/liter at 25 degrees c. the high cell concentrations were achieved in a growth system previously described for growth of escherichia coli w (biotechnol. bioeng., 16, 933 (1974); ibid. 17, 227 (1975)). various enzyme ac ...1976813791
inactivation of bacillus cereus beta-lactamase by halogenated isoxazolylpenicillins.upon preincubation with halogenated isoxazolyl-penicillins, the activity of bacillus cereus beta-lactamase is decreased by a factor proportional to the inhibitor concentration. this inactivation, which concerns essentially the catalytic rate constant of the enzyme, occurs only at or above 37 degrees c with cloxacillin and dicloxacillin, and even at 25 degrees c with flucloxacillin. the dependence of the inactivation rate upon inhibitor concentration is consistent, in the former case, with the oc ...1976814004
biological activity of hydroxyanthraquinones and their glucosides toward microorganisms.five mono- and dihydroxyanthraquinones as well as 12 of their glucosides (both free and acetylated) were tested with six different microbial species using the plate-diffusion method. none of the tested substances was active against escherichia coli, 15 of the 17 substances displayed an activity toward bacillus subtilis, bacillus cereus, candida albicans, saccharomyces cerevisiae and streptomyces aureofaciens. relationships between the substance type and biological activity are discussed.1976814068
[mechanism of germination of spores. (2). the role of l-alanine during the early stage of germination]. 1975814348
[bacillus cereus as an etiological factor in food poisoning]. 1976814606
gas gangrene-like infection with bacillus cereus in a lymphoma patient.a patient with a diffuse histiocytic lymphoma developed an infection caused by bacillus cereus during a period of induced granulocytopenia. a fulminant process resembling gas gangrene developed shortly after the accidental penetration by a small piece of metal into his right hand. incision and drainage as well as antimicrobial therapy did not prevent the loss of the third, fourth and fifth fingers; however, localization and subsequent control of the infection was achieved concomitant with bone m ...1976814994
evidence for the existence of two isozymes of aconitate hydratase and its correlation with 59fe uptake in bacillus cereus t. 1975815164
food poisoning. 1976815943
[normal status of bac. cereus and cl. perfringens in the body of healthy slaughter animals].studied were cattle, pigs, sheep, and young calves intended for slaughter. the experiments were carried out under productional conditions, strictly observing the routinely adopted practice of preslaughter handling. the blood of the animals was sampled prior to slaughter. samples from the meat (musculature), spleen, kidneys, liver, mesenterial and body lymph nodes as well as feces were taken immediately after slaughter. it was established that bacillus cereus and clostridium perfringens were almo ...1976816051
effect of nitrite and erythorbate on growth of bacillus cereus in cooked sausage and in laboratory media.bacillus cereus spores were inoculated into sausage mass before cooking. the sausages were kept at 20 degrees c for 48 h before the bacteriological and physiochemical analyses were done. a combination of an addition of 200 mg/kg sodium nitrite and 500 mg/kh sodium erythorbate totally prevented the growth of two strains of b. cereus. increasing the amount of erythorbate did not affect the antibacterial properties of the nitrite. the inhibitory effects of different combinations of the additives we ...1975816113
death rates of bacterial spores: mathematical models.the concave survivor curves produced as a result of spore heterogeneity were analyzed to determine whether they were caused by inmate characteristics of the spores or by the acquisition of heat resistance during the heating process. mathematical models developed for the two hypotheses revealed that the concave survivor curve (on semi-log paper) caused by innate heterogeneity is parabolic and that caused by acquired heat resistance is exponential. the mathematical models were applied to several p ...1976816439
response of bacillus thuringiensis to bacteriophage cp-51.bacteriophage cp-51, a transducing phage of bacillus cereus was able to replicate on all eight varieties of bacillus thuringiensis tested. three general plaque types were observed on each strain although one type predominated on each strain. the plaque size was uniform for each strain regardless of plaque type. the bacterial strain used as source of the phage had no effect on plaque type or size found on any host strain. cp-51 was stable in infected spores of b. thuringiensis var. kurstaki for a ...1976816441
acquisition of substrate-specific parameters during the catalytic reaction of penicillinase.the progress of the catalytic reaction of penicillinase (ec; penicillin amido-beta-lactamhydrolase) depends on the structure of the side-chain in derivatives of 6-aminopenicillanic acid (the parent substrate). side-chains of one class promote the rate of the reaction and cause no deviation from the linear kinetics observed with the parent compound. by contrast, side-chains of the other class induce a time-dependent, reversible change in the parameters of the catalytic reaction. the rate ...1976817286
[microorganisms in gums. iv. microbial degradation of plant exudates and seaweed extracts (author's transl)].the three plant exudates gum traganth, gum arabic, and gum karaya and the two seaweed extracts carrageenan and alginate were degraded by five different bacilli which were isolated from these gums: bacillus coagulans, b. lentus, b. cereus, b. licheniformis, and b. firmus. after 14 days all the gums have been degraded by these bacilli to a different extent after addition of trace elements. the fractions of degraded gums by tlc, glc, and ir-spectroscopy have been examined with the following results ...1975817530
[study of the antagonistic action of actinomycetes on anthrax bacilli].capacity for the growth inhibition of the highly virulent causative agent of siberia plague was studied with respect to actinomycetous strains from soil samples of the ukraine. it was found that on nutrient media 88.4, 88.9, 88.1 and 93.4% of the isolates inhibited the growth of bac. anthracis, bac. cereus, bac. mycoides and tsenkovsky vaccine strain respectively. representatives of very different taxonomic groups were found among the antagonistic actinomycetes. clearance of the soil from siberi ...1975817657
modified assay medium for the turbidimetric assay of chlortetracycline in previous experiments, the turbidimetric method for determining chlortetracycline-hci (ctc-hci) in feeds showed lower recovery than the aoac plate method. although the addition of vitamins to the turbidimetric medium improved results, values by the turbidimetric method remained about 10% lower than by the plate method. a modified (1.7x the weight recommended by the manufacturer) turbidimetric assay medium decreased assay sensitivity but did not significantly change the slope of s. aureus respo ...1976818071
the surface morphology of the phagocytosis of micro-organisms by peritoneal macrophages.scanning electron-microscopic studies of phagocytosis of various micro organisms by murine peritoneal macrophages has been made. bacillus cereus, staphylococcus aureus, and brewer's yeast were easily ingested, whereas cryptococcus neoformans was not. the development of intricate and tenuous filopodia preceded close-surface attachment, after which both thin and thicker lamellipodia invested the micro-organisms. loss of the normal surface ridges characterised the replete cell. the technique of sca ...1976818354
quantitative structure-activity relationships. 2. a mixed approach, based on hansch and free-wilson analysis.based on the theoretical and numerical equivalence of hansch's linear multiple regression model and the modified free-wilson model a mixed approach is developed. the mixed approach is a combination of both models which makes use of the advantages of each model and widens the applicability of hansch and free-wilson analysis. the free-wilson approach now is applicable also in the case of parabolic dependence of biological activity on a particular physical property, e.g., log p or pi. a rational ex ...1976818381
[morph-physiological researches on schizomycetes. morphogenesis and cytoarchitecture of the microbial colony. ii : b. cereus]. 1975818966
isolation of three new antibiotics, thiocillins i, ii and iii, related to micrococcin p. studies on antibiotics from the genus bacillus. viii.thiocillins i and ii were isolated from the culture broth of bacillus cereus g-15, and thiocillins ii and iii from that of bacillus badius ar-91. also, the former two were probably produced by bacillus megatherium i-13. these antibiotics active against gram-positive bacteria are soluble in a mixture of chloroform and methanol, show characteristic ultraviolet absorptions (maxima at ca. 275 nm and ca. 348 nm), and contain a high content of sulfur, as much as approximately 15%. they are related to ...1976819410
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