characterization of enterococcal isolates by restriction enzyme analysis of genomic dna.a restriction enzyme analysis (rea) of chromosomal dna for the intra-species characterization of enterococci is reported. the dna was extracted by a rapid method and digested with the restriction enzyme sal i to provide a characteristic 'fingerprint' consisting of 10-20 bands in the 1.6-5.0 kb range. one hundred and eighty enterococcal isolates were examined; 5 were type strains, 15 from an out-patient clinic and 160 from a geographically isolated british antarctic survey base. the epidemiologic ...19921379935
cis-acting, orientation-dependent, positive control system activates pheromone-inducible conjugation functions at distances greater than 10 kilobases upstream from its target in enterococcus faecalis.the prgb gene encodes the surface protein, asc10, which mediates cell aggregation, resulting in high-frequency conjugative transfer of the pheromone-inducible tetracycline-resistance plasmid pcf10 in enterococcus faecalis. messenger rna analysis by northern blot hybridization and primer extension indicates that prgb transcription is pheromone-inducible and monocistronic. previous transposon mutagenesis and sequencing analysis of a 12-kilobase (kb) region of pcf10 indicated that several genes inc ...19921384040
preferential activation of peripheral blood v gamma 9+ gamma/delta t cells by group a, b and c but not group d or f streptococci.previous studies have established that inactivated mycobacteria are potent and selective activators of v gamma 9+/v delta 2+ human gamma/delta t cells. here we have analysed the proliferative response of human gamma/delta t cells to five serologically distinct groups of streptococci. while heat-inactivated streptococci of all five serogroups tested (a, b, c, d and f) induced a strong proliferative response in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc), only groups a, b and c elicited a selective ...19921386299
the bactericidal activity and postantibiotic effect of trospectomycin.trospectomycin sulfate (trospectomycin, trs) is a novel, broad-spectrum, aminocyclitol antibiotic that is being developed clinically for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections, bacterial vaginosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and gonorrhea. this study investigated the bactericidal activity (by time-kill kinetics) and the postantibiotic effect (pae) of trs. species-dependent bacteriostatic/bactericidal activity was observed for trs; the antibiotic was bacteriostatic for staphylococc ...19921386566
in vitro activity of decaplanin (m86-1410), a new glycopeptide antibiotic.the in vitro activity of decaplanin (formerly m86-1410), a novel glycopeptide antimicrobial agent, was tested against 169 gram-positive bloodstream isolates from patients at the university of iowa hospitals and clinics and 12 selected vancomycin-resistant strains. enterococcus faecalis, e. faecium, staphylococcus aureus, streptococci, bacilli, corynebacteria, and listeria were inhibited by decaplanin (mics for 90% of the strains tested [mic90s], 0.12 to 4 micrograms/ml). however, some rarely iso ...19921386973
isolation and identification of intestinal bacteria from japanese tree frog (hlya japonica) with the special reference to anaerobic bacteria.the bacteria in the large intestines of eight japanese tree frogs (hlya japonica) were enumerated by using an anaerobic culture system. the microorganisms at approximately 3.1 x 10(9) bacteria per g (wet weight) of intestinal contents were present in the intestine of all the frogs tested. no difference of the total bacteria in the frog intestine was observed between two different incubation-temperatures (room temperature and 37 degrees c). eleven genera and 16 species were isolated from the frog ...19921391180
nosocomial bacterial infections among children with severe protein energy malnutrition.the incidence of hospital acquired acute bacterial infections among 164 severely malnourished children admitted to the paediatric wards at the muhimbili medical centre in dar es salaam were studied. on admission, ninety two per cent of the patients had at least one form of bacterial infection. during the subsequent two weeks hospital stay, 49% of the patients acquired a new infection. septicaemia and urinary tract infection (uti) were the commonest infections. staphylococcus aureus was the commo ...19921396209
new high-content disks for determination of high-level aminoglycoside resistance in clinical isolates of enterococcus faecalis.disks impregnated with 500 and 1000 micrograms of streptomycin, 1000 micrograms of kanamycin and 250 and 500 micrograms of gentamicin were used for detection of high-level resistance to aminoglycosides in 120 clinical isolates of enterococcus faecalis. fifty-seven strains were highly resistant to streptomycin, 80 to kanamycin and 41 to gentamicin. using disks containing 500 micrograms of streptomycin, 1000 micrograms of kanamycin and 500 micrograms of gentamicin strains resistant to high levels ...19921396758
microbiological evaluation of the efficacy of chlorhexidine in a sustained-release device for dentine sterilization.the aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the effect of chlorhexidine in solution and in a sustained-release device as an intracanal medication. hollow cylindrical dentine specimens prepared from bovine incisors were incubated with streptococcus faecalis for a period of 3 weeks. the intracanal medicaments tested were 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate solution (ch), chlorhexidine in a sustained-release device (1.2 mg) (sbd), camphorated paramonochlorophenol (cmcp), and a control (no medication). ...19921399048
efficacy of a sustained-release device containing chlorhexidine and ca(oh)2 in preventing secondary infection of dentinal tubules.this study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the antibacterial activity of ca(oh)2 and a sustained-release device containing chlorhexidine (srd) in both sterilization and prevention of secondary infection of the root canal system. bovine root dentine specimens previously incubated with streptococcus faecalis were used in this experiment. two different formulations of the srd (differing in their cross-linkage), ca(oh)2 and normal saline (control) were evaluated. the degree of bacterial in ...19921399050
the distribution of homologous enterococcal plasmid dna sequences in human faecal isolates.hybridization was used to investigate the distribution of enterococcal plasmid sequences among 306 strains of enterococcus and streptococcus spp. isolated from faeces of humans of various ages. as dna probes for the survey three plasmids, whose dnas did not hybridize each other and designated as pms13, ptw34 and phk30, were selected from plasmids borne in ent. faecalis. ptw34 dna hybridized only with dnas from enterococci, with high frequency in ent. faecalis and low frequency in ent. faecium. p ...19921399908
in-vitro activity of rp 59500, a semisynthetic streptogramin, against staphylococci and streptococci.the in-vitro activity of rp 59500, an injectable streptogramin derived from pristinamycin, was determined by agar dilution and compared with that of pristinamycin. two hundred and sixty-one recent clinical isolates of gram-positive cocci were tested against both antibiotics. the two compounds displayed similar activities. the mic90s of rp 59500 ranged from 0.5 to 2 mg/l in 114 strains of staphylococcus aureus showing various phenotypes of antibiotic resistance (penicillin-susceptible; penicillin ...19921399945
new vancomycin disk diffusion breakpoints for enterococci. the national committee for clinical laboratory standards working group on enterococci.since 1988, when the first vancomycin-resistant enterococcus was described, several descriptions of failures of disk diffusion breakpoints to detect low-level vancomycin resistance (mics, 8 to 32 micrograms/ml) have been published. a four-laboratory collaborative study was undertaken to establish more accurate breakpoints for the disk test. mueller-hinton agar was used to perform dilution testing (in three laboratories) and disk diffusion testing (in all laboratories). results were determined at ...19921400949
antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of common and unusual species of enterococci causing infections in the united states. enterococcal study group.we collected 705 isolates of enterococci (1 per patient) from cultures of a variety of anatomic sites from patients at eight tertiary-care hospitals in six geographic regions of the united states. a total of 632 (90%) enterococcus faecalis, 58 (8%) e. faecium, 5 e. gallinarum, 4 e. avium, 3 e. casseliflavus, 1 e. raffinosus, and 1 e. hirae isolate and 1 biochemical variant of e. faecalis were identified; 606 (86%) of these isolates were associated with clinical infections. the most common sites ...19921401001
transfer of pheromone-inducible plasmids between enterococcus faecalis in the syrian hamster gastrointestinal tract.pheromone-responsive plasmids are common to enterococcus faecalis, transfer at high frequency in vitro, and carry cytolysin and other gene products implicated in the pathogenesis of enterococcal infection. a syrian hamster model of enterococcal intestinal overgrowth was used to test for transfer of three isogenic plasmids differing in conjugative and cytolytic phenotypes. transconjugants were found in 8 (44%) of 18 and 6 (35%) of 17 hamsters given donor strains containing cytolytic (pam714) and ...19921402034
molecular cloning and analysis of the gene encoding the nadh oxidase from streptococcus faecalis 10c1. comparison with nadh peroxidase and the flavoprotein disulfide reductases.the gene encoding the streptococcal flavoprotein nadh oxidase (noxase), which catalyzes the four-electron reduction of o2-->2h2o, has been cloned and sequenced from the genome of streptococcus (enterococcus) faecalis 10c1 (atcc 11700). the deduced noxase protein sequence corresponds to a molecular mass of 48.9 kda and contains three previously sequenced cysteinyl peptides obtained with the purified enzyme. in escherichia coli, the expressed nox gene produced a catalytically active product, which ...19921404382
optimal method for culturing vascular prosthetic grafts.vascular prosthetic infection may be underrecognized when identified by standard culture techniques. improved microbiologic methodology may enhance detection of bacteria in prosthetic graft specimens, and thus may alter clinical decisions. quantitative culture techniques were employed to compare three methods of enhancing bacterial recovery from dacron graft cylinders seeded with commonly encountered bacterial pathogens. methods included: (1) ultrasonic bath treatment, (2) direct ultrasonic disr ...19921405618
proposal of a new scheme for the serological typing of enterococcus faecalis systematic study on serotyping of enterococcus faecalis has been reported since 1964 when m.e. sharpe conducted serotyping of group d streptococcus in u.k. so, we attempted to re-evaluate serotyping of e. faecalis. for this purpose, we received 42 sharpe's strains and first examined for their biochemical characteristics as e. faecalis. only 9 of the 42 strains were identified as e. faecalis. we raised rabbit antisera against a large number of e. faecalis strains, including the 9 sharpe's stra ...19921406370
enterococci in human periodontitis.enterococci are potential pathogens in many human body sites. this study determined the subgingival occurrence and the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of enterococci in 100 persons with early-onset periodontitis and 545 persons with advanced adult periodontitis. subgingival microbial samples were collected with paper points, transported in vmga iii and plated onto anaerobic enriched brucella blood agar or selective enterococcosel agar (bbl microbiology systems). enterococcal speciation was ...19921408361
an anti-k apparently induced by enterococcus faecalis in a 30-year-old man. 19921412691
vector construction, transformation, and gene amplification in clostridium acetobutylicum atcc order to alter the primary metabolism of c. acetobutylicum, we have constructed e. coli- or b. subtilis-c. acetobutylicum shuttle vectors that could be used to deliver homologous fermentative genes into c. acetobutylicum atcc 824. the plasmid copy number and plasmid stability in c. acetobutylicum for several of these plasmids were determined. we have also developed a protocol for the electrotransformation of c. acetobutylicum atcc 824. difficulty in the transformation of c. acetobutylicum atc ...19921416617
teicoplanin versus vancomycin for prophylaxis of experimental enterococcus faecalis endocarditis in rats.teicoplanin was compared with vancomycin for the prophylaxis of experimental enterococcus faecalis endocarditis in rats. single intravenous doses of teicoplanin (7 mg/kg of body weight) or vancomycin (15 mg/kg) were given 30 min before bacterial challenge. two strains of e. faecalis (309 and 1209) isolated from patients with endocarditis were tested. bacterial inocula ranged from 10(4) (i.e., the inoculum infecting 90% of the control rats [id90]) to 10(7) cfu/ml. the mics and mbcs of teicoplanin ...19921416824
continuous intravenous versus intermittent ampicillin therapy of experimental endocarditis caused by aminoglycoside-resistant enterococci.we studied the efficacy of continuous intravenous infusion of ampicillin compared with that of intermittent administration of ampicillin alone or in combination with gentamicin for the therapy of highly aminoglycoside-resistant enterococcal experimental endocarditis. rabbits were infected with a gentamicin-susceptible (mic, 256 micrograms/ml) strain of enterococcus faecalis or a strain of e. faecalis which was highly resistant to gentamicin in vitro (mic, greater than 2,000 micrograms/ml). admin ...19921416826
in vitro activity of mc-352, a new 16-membered macrolide.the in vitro activity of mc-352, 3,4'-dideoxy-5-o-mycaminosyltylonolide, was compared with those of erythromycin, clarithromycin, and rokitamycin. the mc-352 mic90 (mic for 90% of isolates) for erythromycin-susceptible staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus epidermidis was less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml, similar to those of the other agents. the mc-352 mic50 for erythromycin-resistant s. aureus was 2 micrograms/ml, similar to that of rokitamycin. the mc-352 mic90 (0.12 micrograms/ml) for ...19921416853
in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of e1077, a novel parenteral cephalosporin with a broad antibacterial spectrum.e1077 is a new injectable cephalosporin with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including staphylococci and pseudomonas aeruginosa. the in vitro activities of e1077 against clinical isolates of methicillin-susceptible staphylococcus aureus (mic of e1077 for 90% of the strains tested [mic90], 0.78 microgram/ml) and methicillin-resistant s. aureus (mic90, 50 micrograms/ml) were similar to those of cefpirome and flomoxef. against enterococcu ...19921416879
the activity of metal compounds against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of two metal compounds, jm-1397 (oso2[xylyl]2) and jm-2469 (aucl[s2cpet3]). both inhibited methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus at concentrations of 0.5-2 micrograms/ml, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (mic90) of 1 microgram/ml for jm-1397 and 0.5 microgram/ml for jm-2469. similar concentrations inhibited methicillin-susceptible and -resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (s. epidermidis, s. haemolyticus, and ...19921424509
antibacterial oxazolidinones. in vitro activity of a new analogue, e3709.the oxazolidinone compound e3709, which contains a 4-pyridyl group, was found to be more active in vitro than other members of this series, such as dup 721. mic90 for staphylococci(including methicillin-resistant isolates), streptococci (including enterococcus faecalis), clostridia, and diphtheroids was less than 0.5 micrograms/ml. haemophilus influenzae, moraxella catarrhalis, and bacteroides fragilis were less susceptible, with an mic90 between 2 and 8 micrograms/ml. e3709 mics of gram-negativ ...19921424519
microbial adhesion and biofilm formation on ureteral stents in vitro and in vivo.thirty ureteral stents, inserted for 5 to 128 days following extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, were examined for the presence of bacterial biofilms. of these, 90% had adherent pathogens (44% mixed organisms) on the stents, 45% of which were present in low numbers (10(1)-10(2) per 1 cm3 section) and 55% were in small and large microcolony biofilms (> 2 x 10(2)-10(7)). the organisms were recovered from the stents even though urine culture was only positive in 27% of patients. of the organisms ...19921433574
[clinical evaluation of imipenem/cilastatin sodium against infections in compromised children (malignancy, hematological disease, collagen disease)].eighteen immuno-compromised children (malignancies, hematological diseases, collagen diseases) with neutropenia and infections were treated with imipenem/cilastatin sodium (ipm/cs), and the efficacy and the safety of the drug were evaluated. 1. responses to ipm/cs were excellent in 13 patients, good in 1, and fair in 4. none of the patients displayed a poor response to the treatment thus the efficacy rate was 77.8%. 2. of 5 patients with sepsis, 4 had excellent or good responses. ipm/cs was effe ...19921433890
[comparative studies on activities of antimicrobial agents against causative organisms isolated from urinary tract infections (1988). i. susceptibility distribution].isolation frequencies and sensitivities to antibacterial and antibiotic agents were investigated on 801 bacterial strains isolated from patients with urinary tract infections in 9 hospitals during the period of june to november 1988. of the above total bacterial population, gram-positive bacteria accounted for 29.3% and a majority of them were enterococcus spp. gram-negative bacteria accounted for 70.7% and most of them were escherichia coli. 1. enterococcus faecalis: vancomycin was most active ...19921433906
effect of ethylenediamine di-o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and transferrin on the growth of some bacterial strains in vitro.the ability of some bacterial strains to obtain iron from ethylenediamine di-o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (edda) or iron-free transferrin, and accordingly grow in their presence, was studied. growth of staphylococcus aureus and yersinia pseudotuberculosis was inhibited by edda or by iron-free transferrin. growth of streptococcus faecalis, however, was inhibited by iron-free transferrin, but not by edda. the other bacterial strains, i.e.; escherichia coli, salmonella typhimurium and shigella dysent ...19921435350
absence of synergistic activity between ampicillin and vancomycin against highly vancomycin-resistant enterococci.the emergence of clinical enterococcal isolates resistant to both ampicillin and vancomycin is a cause of great concern, as there are few therapeutic alternatives for treatment of infections caused by such organisms. we evaluated the effects of the combination of ampicillin with vancomycin against vancomycin-resistant clinical enterococcal isolates. using both the checkerboard technique and time-kill curves, we examined 28 strains of enterococci (17 enterococcus faecalis and 11 enterococcus faec ...19921444300
pharmacodynamic interaction between rp 59500 and gram-positive bacteria infecting fibrin clots.the fibrin clot penetration and in vivo bactericidal activity of rp 59500, a new semisynthetic streptogramin, for two staphylococcus aureus strains (one methicillin resistant and the other methicillin susceptible), two staphylococcus epidermidis strains (one methicillin resistant and the other methicillin susceptible), and one enterococcus faecalis strain were evaluated. the clots, inserted subcutaneously, were infected with a mean of 10(8) cfu of the pathogen per g. for each strain, groups of f ...19921444302
sequence analysis of the beta-lactamase repressor from staphylococcus aureus and hybridization studies with two beta-lactamase-producing isolates of enterococcus faecalis.the putative beta-lactamase (bla) repressor gene, blai, from the staphylococcal plasmid pi524 was isolated, and the dna sequence was determined. the sequence of blai was found to be identical to the blai sequence from pi9789 (blai blaz seg-1), a plasmid related to pi524. a blai probe from pi524 was hybridized with plasmid and genomic dna from bla+ enterococcus faecalis isolates hh22 and pa. the bla structural gene of hh22 has been previously shown to be of staphylococcal origin, but dna homologo ...19921444307
characterization and partial purification of a bacteriocin produced by leuconostoc carnosum la44a.twenty leuconostoc strains isolated from vacuum packaged vienna-type sausages were screened for antagonistic activity against various gram-positive organisms (including listeria spp.). one of the three strains exhibiting inhibitory activity was chosen for further investigation. this strain was identified as leuc. carnosum and the inhibitory substance produced was named carnosin. carnosin was inactivated by trypsin but not by catalase or other non-proteolytic enzymes tested. carnosin retained act ...19921445765
identification and composition of the tonsillar and anal enterococcal and streptococcal flora of dogs and cats.enterococcus faecalis was the most frequently isolated enterococcal species from anal swabs and tonsils of dogs and cats, although in the anal samples from dogs ent. hirae was found almost as often as ent. faecalis. most ent. faecium strains from dog tonsils differed from those associated with humans and other animals in that they fermented sorbitol. typical ent. avium as well as atypical ent. avium-like strains were seen in dogs, while the related species ent. raffinosus was associated with cat ...19921447058
expression of protein f, the fibronectin-binding protein of streptococcus pyogenes jrs4, in heterologous streptococcal and enterococcal strains promotes their adherence to respiratory epithelial a previous study we reported the identification of protein f, a fibronectin-binding protein that was essential to the ability of streptococcus pyogenes jrs4 to adhere to respiratory epithelial cells (e. hanski and m. caparon, proc. natl. acad. sci. usa, 89:6172-6176, 1992). to further evaluate the role of protein f in the adherence of the group a streptococci, we screened other group a streptococcal strains, including six recent clinical isolates, and one strain of enterococcus faecalis for t ...19921452345
rapid increase in the prevalence of high-level aminoglycoside resistance among enterococci isolated from blood cultures during st elizabeth hospital medical center in youngstown, ohio, usa, the first blood culture isolate of enterococcus faecalis with high-level gentamicin resistance (mic > 2000 mg/l) was seen in 1985, and the prevalence of high-level gentamicin resistance among enterococci isolated from blood cultures during 1985-8 was 9%. during the period 1989-91, the prevalence of high-level gentamicin resistance among enterococci isolated from blood cultures increased to 35% (44 of 126 strains). increases in the ...19921452493
use of the e test to predict high-level resistance to aminoglycosides among enterococci.the e test and the reference agar dilution methods were compared for detecting high-level aminoglycoside resistance (hlar) among 71 selected clinical isolates, including 62 enterococcus faecalis and 9 enterococcus faecium isolates. high-level gentamicin resistance alone was found in 11% (5 e. faecalis and 3 e. faecium strains) and high-level streptomycin resistance was found in 42% (28 e. faecalis, 2 e. faecium strains) of the strains tested, and 31% of the strains demonstrated high-level resist ...19921452679
activities of chromolaena odorata (compositae) leaf extract against pseudomonas aeruginosa and streptococcus faecalis. 19921453706
a descriptive analysis of urine cultures: pure versus mixed isolates.out of 5,670 urine cultures performed in 1989, 1,448 positive cultures with unique results were analyzed. of these 1,448, 67% were pure cultures, and 50% had at least one isolate with a colony count greater than 100,000 colony forming units/ml. pseudomonas aeruginosa, enterococcus faecalis, proteus mirabilis, klebsiella pneumoniae, staphylococcus aureus, and diphtheroids were more likely (p < 0.01) to occur in mixed than pure culture, while escherichia coli was more likely to occur in pure than ...19921454171
androstenediol regulates systemic resistance against lethal infections in mice.we previously reported that subcutaneous injection of dhea (5-androsten-3 beta-ol-17-one, dehydroepiandrosterone) protected mice from lethal infection. this included both a lethal herpes virus type 2 encephalitis and a lethal systemic coxsackievirus b4 (cb4) infection. androstenediol (5-androsten-3 beta-17 beta-diol, aed), a metabolic product of dhea is up to 100 x more effective in regulating systemic resistance against lethal infection with cb 4 than its precursor dhea. compared to dhea, treat ...19921456887
antibacterial activity and mutagenicity studies of water-soluble phosphazene high polymers.eight water-soluble phosphazene high polymers, [npr2]n (r, organic, water-solubilizing side-group; n, approx: 15,000) and the small-molecule counterparts of the polymers were examined for antibacterial activity against six different strains of bacteria (escherichia coli, salmonella typhimurium (ta 100), salmonella pullorum, streptococcus faecalis, bacillus subtilis and pseudomonas aeruginosa). antibacterial testing was carried out by measuring zones of inhibition and changes in solution turbidit ...19921457679
evidence that the hemolysin/bacteriocin phenotype of enterococcus faecalis subsp. zymogenes can be determined by plasmids in different incompatibility groups as well as by the chromosome.the hemolysin (hly/bac) determinant in strains of enterococcus faecalis was found to be present on plasmids in different incompatibility groups (conferring different sex pheromone responses) as well as on the chromosome. of 33 hly/bac plasmids identified in clinical isolates, the related pheromone for 30 was cad1; the related pheromone for another two (pyi1 and pyi3) or one (pyi2) was cob1 or cy12, respectively. the representative hly/bac plasmids pad1, pyi1, pob1, and pyi2, which responded to p ...19921459967
catalytic properties of streptococcal nadh oxidase containing artificial flavins.the flavoprotein nadh oxidase from streptococcus faecalis 10c1, which catalyzes the tetravalent reduction of o2-->2h2o, has been purified as the apoenzyme to allow reconstitution studies with both native and artificial flavins. turnover numbers for the enzyme containing 1-deaza-, 2-thio-, and 4-thio-fad range from 51 to 4% of that of the native fad enzyme; these reconstituted oxidases also catalyze the four-electron reduction of oxygen. dithionite and nadh titrations of the native fad oxidase re ...19921464596
comparative in vitro activity of clarithromycin. spanish collaborative group.the activity in vitro of clarithromycin, a new macrolide, was compared to that of various antibiotics in tests using 3,880 clinical isolates. clarithromycin was two times more active than erythromycin against staphylococcus aureus, enterococcus faecalis, enterococcus faecium, streptococci of groups c, g and f, brucella melitensis, legionella pneumophila and mycoplasma spp., 16 times more active against ureaplasma urealyticum and 2 to 4 times less active against campylobacter spp. in general, cla ...19921468430
conjugal transfer of plasmid-borne bacteriocin production in enterococcus faecalis 226 nwc.enterococcus faecalis 226 nwc, isolated from natural whey cultures utilized as starter in water-buffalo mozzarella cheese manufacture, produces a bacteriocin, designated enterocin 226 nwc, which is inhibitory to listeria monocytogenes. plasmid analysis of e. faecalis 226 nwc showed a single 5.2-kb plasmid, pef226. in conjugation experiments, pef226 was transferred into a plasmid-free strain of e. faecalis jh2-2. the transfer required direct cell-to-cell contact and was not inhibited by dnase. th ...19921468612
[recurrent bacterial endocarditis on mitral and aortic biological prostheses in young drug addicts. the role of transthoracic cardiac echo-doppler in the diagnosis and assessment of postendocarditis dysfunction].bioprosthetic infective endocarditis is a very serious complication since both medical and surgical treatment is associated with a high mortality. we describe a case of a young drug addict who presented 3 recurrent episodes of bacterial endocarditis of mitral and aortic bioprosthetic valves, caused by different virulent germs. all 3 episodes were resolved by medical therapy, but the residual aortic bioprosthetic dysfunction was important and the patient died before surgical replacement. which wa ...19921470391
[enterococcal infection in children]. 19921475147
the relative lethality of intestinal bacteria for gnotobiotic rats with experimental intestinal eight experiments utilizing 28 animals each, germfree rats with and without ischemically or hemorrhagically strangulated closed loop intestinal segments were contaminated with either one of four common intestinal anaerobic bacteria, or a combination of two or three bacteria previously found to be innocuous in pure culture. the results showed that: a) in pure culture, bacteroides fragilis, bacteroides melaninogenicus, and peptostreptococcus anaerobius were innocuous; b) fusobacterium necrophor ...19921479304
pyruvate catabolism during transient state conditions in chemostat cultures of enterococcus faecalis nctc 775: importance of internal pyruvate concentrations and nadh/nad+ ratios.nadh/nad+ ratios and internal pyruvate concentrations were determined during switches between aerobic and anaerobic steady-state conditions of glucose-limited chemostat cultures of enterococcus faecalis. during the switch experiments, changes in catabolic fluxes were observed: transition from anaerobic to aerobic conditions resulted in a complete and instantaneous conversion of glucose into acetate and co2 via the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, while during a switch from aerobic to anaerobic co ...19921479339
[evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of cefazolin alone and in combination with cefmetazole or flomoxef using agar dilution method and disk diffusion method].antimicrobial activities of cefazolin (cez) against 251 strains of various clinical isolates obtained during 1989 and 1990 were determined using the mueller-hinton agar dilution method at an inoculum level 10(6) cfu/ml. the reliability of the disk susceptility test was also studied using mueller-hinton agar and various disks at inoculum levels of 10(3-4) cfu/cm2 in estimating approximate values of mics. in addition, antimicrobial activities of cez and cefmetazole (cmz) or flomoxef (fmox) in comb ...19921479676
the endodontic microflora revisited.the microbial flora of 35 dental root canals were examined, taking care to maintain the viability of obligate anaerobes which accounted for 45% of total isolations, while streptococcal species accounted for 24% of the total species isolated. individual root canals yielded a maximum of eight bacterial species. a total of 40 different species was isolated of which the most prevalent were the facultative anaerobe streptococcus sanguis and the obligate anaerobe, peptostreptococcus micros (both in 23 ...19921479923
[sequential parenteral and oral therapy with ofloxacin in urogenital infections].125 hospitalized patients (56 men and 69 women) suffering from urinary tract infection (uti) and 15 women with endometritis or pelvic inflammatory disease were treated with ofloxacin 6 mg/kg/d i.v. divided into 2 doses. two thirds of the patients were switched to oral ofloxacin using the same dose regimen after 4 days. the median duration of treatment was 10 days. 98 patients were evaluable for efficacy: 45 had complicated lower uti, 32 had upper uti (75% of them with complications), 13 had endo ...19921481544
synthesis and biological activity of new heterocyclic structures: [1,3]thiazino[2,3-i]purine, thiazolo[3,2-c] [1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-e]pyrimidine and [1,2,3]triazolo [4', 5': 4,5] pyrimido[6,1-b][1,3]thiazine.some derivatives of thiazolo[3,2-c]pyrimidine, pyrimido[6,1-b][1,3]thiazine, thiazolo[2,3-i]purine, [1,3]thiazino[2,3-i]purine, thiazolo[3,2-c][1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-e]pyrimidine and [1,2,3]triazolo[4',5':4,5]pyrimido[6,1-b][1,3]thiazine were prepared. the compounds were tested for antimicrobial and antimycotic activity on a number of strains, namely, escherichia coli, proteus vulgaris, p. mirabilis, pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella sp., staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus faecalis, bacillus sub ...19921482518
[a comparative microbiological and pharmacokinetic activity of vancomycin and teicoplanin].vancomycin and teicoplanin are two commercially available glycopeptide antibiotics. they have identical spectra of activity and similar mechanisms of action, and both are complex molecules. in vitro, vancomycin is more active against coagulase-negative staphylococci, while teicoplanin is more active against enterococci and pneumococci. the activity of the two antibiotics against staphylococcus aureus is similar. the serum pharmacokinetics of vancomycin and teicoplanin are highly different, teico ...19921484744
influence of high-level gentamicin resistance and beta-hemolysis on susceptibility of enterococci to the bactericidal activities of ampicillin and vancomycin.the bactericidal activities of ampicillin and vancomycin against 40 recent isolates of enterococcus faecalis were examined by kill-kinetic studies at concentrations of 4 x the mic and 20 micrograms/ml. greater killing was seen with ampicillin (3.57 +/- 0.87 and 2.50 +/- 1.09 log10 cfu/ml, respectively; mean +/- standard deviation) than with vancomycin (1.23 +/- 0.65 and 1.05 +/- 0.57 log10 cfu/ml, respectively). highly gentamicin-resistant strains showed a tendency toward reduced susceptibility ...19921489198
antibacterial spectrum of lactoferricin b, a potent bactericidal peptide derived from the n-terminal region of bovine lactoferrin.a physiologically diverse range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was found to be susceptible to inhibition and inactivation by lactoferricin b, a peptide produced by gastric pepsin digestion of bovine lactoferrin. the list of susceptible organisms includes escherichia coli, salmonella enteritidis, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus vulgaris, yersinia enterocolitica, pseudomonas aeruginosa, campylobacter jejuni, staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus mutans, corynebacterium diphtheriae, list ...19921490908
[abscess on the thigh, an unusual complication of lumbar spondylodiscitis]. 19921492084
high-level aminoglycoside resistance among enterococci and group a streptococci.the occurrence of high-level aminoglycoside resistance (hlamr) was determined for 73 enterococci and 54 group a streptococci by the high-load disc method, tube macrodilution and the polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the pcr method revealed the presence of genes coding for aminoglycoside-3'-o-phosphoryltransferase-iii (aph(3')-iii), aminoglycoside-6'-n-acetyltransferase/2''-o-phosphoryltransferase (aac(6')/aph(2'')), or both, in 20.6%, 9.6% and 4.1% of the enterococci, respectively. the prevalence ...19921493982
[the influence of cefdinir on the intestinal bacterial flora].the influence of cefdinir (cfdn), a new oral cephalosporin, on the intestinal bacterial flora was studied in tetra-contaminated mice and in pediatric patients. cfdn in fine granules was administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg once a day for 5 consecutive days to mice contaminated with 4 different species of organism: escherichia coli, enterococcus faecalis, bacteroides fragilis and bifidobacterium breve. no remarkable changes were observed in the fecal viable cell counts except that decreases in e. c ...19921495195
macrophage response to bacteria: induction of marked secretory and cellular activities by lipoteichoic acids.lipoteichoic acids (ltas) from various bacterial species, including staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus pyogenes, streptococcus pneumoniae, enterococcus faecalis, and listeria monocytogenes, were examined for the ability to induce secretory and cellular responses in a pure population of bone marrow-derived mononuclear phagocytes. some of the highly purified ltas, in particular ltas from bacillus subtilis, s. pyogenes, e. faecalis, and enterococcus hirae, were able to affect each of the macropha ...19921500175
epidemiology of enterococcus faecalis urinary tract infection in a teaching hospital in london, united kingdom.enterococcus faecalis is a frequent cause of urinary tract infection in hospitalized patients. recent reports have suggested that the organism may frequently be acquired by cross-infection from other patients. in this study, we used total dna restriction patterns to type 135 urine isolates of e. faecalis from four sets of patients. isolates were placed into types (all bands identical) and into groups (most bands identical). most isolates were discriminated by the typing method, and the results s ...19921500498
evaluation of the e test by using selected gram-positive bacteria.the e test (ab biodisk na inc.) was compared with standard reference methods using the national committee for clinical laboratory standards's recommendations for determining the mics of four selected antibiotics against 208 clinical isolates of gram-positive bacteria. these bacteria included 32 strains of streptococcus pneumoniae, 25 strains of enterococcus faecium, 20 strains of oxacillin-sensitive staphylococcus aureus (ossa), 96 strains of oxacillin-resistant s. aureus (orsa), and 35 strains ...19921500524
streptococcal bacteremia in neutropenic adult order to define the circumstances of occurrence, clinical presentation and prognostic factors of streptococcal bacteremia in neutropenic patients, we retrospectively reviewed 60 cases of streptococcal bacteremia following intensive chemotherapy for acute myeloblastic leukemia (aml), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (all) or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. causative streptococcal species included streptococcus viridans (42 cases), streptococcus faecalis (12), streptococcus pneumoniae (4) a ...19921502026
effects of amino acids on expression of enterococcal vancomycin resistance.the effects of various amino acids on vancomycin mics obtained with resistant enterococci was investigated by using broth dilution testing. for both the type a (i.e., possessing transferable resistance to teicoplanin and vancomycin) and the type b (i.e., possessing teicoplanin susceptibility and nontransferable vancomycin resistance) resistant strains, vancomycin mics in the presence of glycine were substantially lower than those in unsupplemented broth (range of mic decrease, 8- to 128-fold). n ...19921503457
co-transfer of vancomycin and other resistance genes from enterococcus faecalis nctc 12201 to staphylococcus aureus.conjugative transfer, in the apparent absence of plasmid dna, of high-level vancomycin resistance from enterococcus faecalis nctc 12201 to staphylococcus aureus b111 has been demonstrated in vivo and in vitro. selection of transconjugants on media containing erythromycin or chloramphenicol may result in the transfer of resistance to erythromycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, streptomycin and vancomycin though these are capable of separate transfer. vancomycin resistance has not been transmitted ...19921505742
[surgical treatment of native valve endocarditis].twenty eight patients with native valve endocarditis (nve) were subjected to this study. thirteen patients underwent an operation at the chronic phase, and 15 patients at the active phase. one of the 13 patients at the chronic phase died of cardiac rupture due to myocardial infarction which had occurred preoperatively, and one of 10 patients at active phase without annular infection died of rupture of mycotic cerebral aneurysm early postoperatively. among 5 patients at the active phase with annu ...19921506696
[the microbiological exam of the urine: what significance in urinary tract infections?].11,829 urine cultures, coming from the pediatrics department of florence and other hospital divisions for adults in the period 1st of july-31st of december 1990, have been examined in the bacteriology and virology laboratory of the university hospital of florence. besides illustrating various methods of drawing, preservation and transport of the urinary specimen, the authors showed the incidence of bacterial species responsible of urinary tract infections (u.t.i.). e. coli was showed to be the m ...19921508751
isolation of a beta-lactamase-producing, aminoglycoside-resistant strain of enterococcus faecium.beta-lactamase-producing, aminoglycoside-resistant strains of enterococcus faecalis have been isolated from different geographic areas and are endemic at our institution. we report the isolation of a beta-lactamase-producing, aminoglycoside-resistant strain of e. faecium. the beta-lactamase was plasmid mediated and transferable with high frequency into a plasmid-free e. faecalis recipient strain. mics suggested that the e. faecium strain also contained intrinsic (chromosomal) resistance to penic ...19921510404
in vitro and in vivo activities of sce-2787, a new parenteral cephalosporin with a broad antibacterial spectrum.sce-2787, a new cephalosporin having a condensed azolium moiety in the 3 position and an aminothiadiazolyl group in the 7 beta side chain, was evaluated for its in vitro and in vivo activities in comparison with those of ceftazidime, flomoxef, cefpirome, and e1040. against methicillin-susceptible strains of staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus epidermidis, sce-2787 was more active than ceftazidime and e1040 and was as active as flomoxef and cefpirome, with mics for 90% of strains tested (mic ...19921510428
heterogeneity of lipoteichoic acid detected by anion exchange chromatography.a complex polydispersity became apparent when the poly(glycerophosphate) lipoteichoic acid of enterococcus faecalis was chromatographed on deae-sephadex. the chain length varied between 13 and 33 glycerophosphate residues per lipid anchor. in parallel, the extent of chain glycosylation increased from 0.2 to 0.4 diglucosyl residues per glycerophosphate unit. substitution with d-alanine ester showed a reverse distribution dropping with increasing chain length from 0.53 to 0.23 mol d-alanine per mo ...19921510570
isolation and characterization of genetic expression and secretion signals from enterococcus faecalis through the use of broad-host-range alpha-amylase probe vectors.we have constructed two broad-host-range gram+/gram- probe vectors designed for the cloning of bacterial genetic expression and secretion signals. these vectors make use of a silent reporter gene encoding the mature alpha-amylase from bacillus licheniformis whose reactivation can easily be monitored on iodine-stained starch plates. shotgun cloning of enterococcus faecalis dna fragments allowed recovery of several cassettes directing transcription, translation of the reporter gene and secretion o ...19921511881
a strategy to construct vector-free amylolytic strains through nondisruptive homologous recombination: application to enterococcus order to direct chromosomal integration of the alpha-amylase-encoding gene from bacillus licheniformis (amyl) under the control of expression and secretion signals from enterococcus faecalis, the chromosomal fragment (named ab) from the pgip3124 plasmid [hols et al., gene 118 (1992) 21-30] was chosen and split into two fragments (a and b). a translation fusion between the a fragment and 'amyl, deleted of its expression and secretion signals, was made and this fusion was flanked with the ab fr ...19921511882
a case of endogenous enterococcus faecalis endophthalmitis.a case of successful treatment by vitrectomy and lensectomy of early-stage endogenous endophthalmitis caused by enterococcus faecalis was reported. the case was a 50-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetes. following t-tube drainage for a necrotic cholecystitis operation, he developed iridocyclitis in both eyes as well as fever. at the time of his first visit to our clinic, his right eye had already lost light perception. his left eye had visual acuity recognizing hand movement, marked uvei ...19921513069
characterization of bacteriocins from two strains of bacillus thermoleovorans, a thermophilic hydrocarbon-utilizing species.bacillus thermoleovorans s-ii and b. thermoleovorans nr-9 produce bacteriocins, and these bacteriocins are designated thermoleovorin-s2 and thermoleovorin-n9, respectively. the bacteriocins are effective against all but the producing strain of b. thermoleovorans, as well as being effective against salmonella typhimurium, branhamella catarrhalis, streptococcus faecalis, and thermus aquaticus. thermoleovorins are produced during log-phase growth and are inhibitory to actively growing cells. the ba ...19921514786
[antimicrobial and membranolytic activities of anti-burn drug fenozan].fenozan, an anti-burn preparation, was shown to have antimicrobial activity against freshly isolated clinical strains of staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus faecalis, as well as against collection strains of the other gram-positive bacteria. the antimicrobial action of the preparation was possibly due to impairment of permeability of the cytoplasmic membranes in the sensitive bacterial cells and their liberation of intracellular low molecular weight compounds to the environment. the membrano ...19921514860
study on the influence of adsorbent substances against the antigen activity of inactivated orovaccines.specific igagm, iga and igg levels were evaluated in two groups of rabbits orally treated with inactivated vaccine consisting of escherichia coli, proteus vulgaris, staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus faecalis and with the same vaccine supplemented with charcoal and kaolin, respectively. the determinations demonstrated that charcoal and kaolin do not have a significant, negative effect on immunoresponses at the intestinal and hematic level after both medium (two-week) and prolonged (four-wee ...19921517807
transfer of a plasmid determining bacteriocin bc-48 production and immunity, and response to sexual pheromones in enterococcus faecalis s-48.production of bacteriocin bc-48 by enterococcus faecalis s-48 is encoded by the conjugative plasmid pmb1, which is approximately 90 kb and also responds to sex pheromones of e. faecalis og1x. mutants harboring deleted forms of this plasmid (pmb1-del, 75 kb) have lost both the phenotype bc-48 (production and immunity) and the clumping response. the conjugal transfer of pmb1 to e. faecalis og1x results in the acquisition by this strain of both bacteriocin production and immunity and also the clump ...19921518913
bactericidal activity of antibiotics alone and in combination against enterococcus faecalis in a pharmacodynamic model.we evaluated the bactericidal kinetics of teicoplanin, mezlocillin, netilmicin, and ciprofloxacin alone and in dual combinations against strains of enterococcus faecalis susceptible or resistant to ampicillin in a pharmacodynamic model reproducing in bacterial culture in active human plasma or mueller-hinton broth the serum kinetics of these antibiotics in humans. killing was not different in cultures grown in plasma and those grown in broth. antibiotics used alone had no or low bactericidal act ...19921520797
mechanisms of resistance to growth inhibition and killing by beta-lactam antibiotics in enterococci.enterococci are characterized by an intrinsic resistance to growth inhibition by beta-lactam antibiotics. the low susceptibility of enterococci to beta-lactam antibiotics is associated with the synthesis of a particular penicillin-binding protein (pbp) that has a low affinity for beta-lactam agents. this protein appears to be capable of taking over the function of the other pbps when they are saturated with beta-lactam molecules or inactivated by mutations. a quantitative correlation can be esta ...19921520798
antibiotic resistance of clinical isolates of enterococcus in italy.alarming reports from various parts of the world of an increase in multiple-drug resistance among enterococci have prompted the italian association of clinical microbiologists to sponsor a nationwide study aimed at assessing the magnitude of this problem in italy. during the last 3 months of 1988, technicians from a total of 162 general and teaching hospitals, in 16 of the 20 italian regions and covering 89,061 beds, isolated 58,886 bacterial strains from inpatients and outpatients. enterococci ...19921520799
lactic acid bacteria in the gut in normal and disordered states.the human gut flora is a complex and finely balanced ecosystem which plays an important protective role in humans. although relatively stable, its composition may be altered in various disease states and by the administration of antimicrobial agents. preparations containing viable lactic acid bacteria of human origin appear to have value in restoring normal microbial function and alleviating symptoms in some patients with gastrointestinal infection and other conditions.19921521350
pcr amplification of streptococcal dna using crude cell lysates.gram-positive organisms such as streptococci and enterococci are often difficult to lyse. obtaining dna for procedures such as pcr amplification usually requires a large scale isolation for each strain under investigation. we describe a simple procedure for small volumes of whole cells, involving pretreatment with detergent and proteinase that allows for efficient release of dna for pcr amplification. this procedure is fast, reproducible, can be used with a large number of samples, and has been ...19921521762
the cytoplasmic peptidoglycan precursor of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis terminates in lactate.vancomycin resistance plasmids in enterococci carry the genes vanh and vana, which encode enzymes catalyzing, respectively, the reduction of 2-keto acids to 2-d-hydroxy acids and the addition of d-hydroxy acids to d-alanine. it has therefore been postulated that resistant cells produce peptidoglycan precursors that terminate in the depsipeptide d-alanine-2-d-hydroxy acid rather than the dipeptide d-alanine-d-alanine, thus preventing vancomycin binding (m. arthur, c. molinas, t. d. h. bugg, g. d. ...19921522072
[a report on a clinical experience of which has successfully made several antibiotics-resistant bacteria (mrsa etc.) negative on a bedsore].at the treatment of a bedsore of which had been resistant to various sorts of antibiotics, the mixture of several drugs was used for the treatment of its bedsore. those drugs from which were used as the drugs-mixture, are 1% liquid of pioctanin (c24h28n3cl). 600 mg of ascorbic acid, 9 mg of pantothenic calcium and 20mg of hydrochloric amitriptyline, respectively. the drugs-mixture, as mentioned above, has been scattered over its bedsore before the usual traditional treatment. after that, the bed ...19921523942
in vitro activity of cefodizime.cefodizime is a bactericidal cephem with the typical broad spectrum activity of an aminothiazolyl cephalosporin, including both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria: its mic90 is 0.125 mg/l for streptococcus pneumoniae, streptococcus pyogenes and other streptococci; and 0.05 mg/l for haemophilus spp., neisseria meningitidis, neisseria gonorrhoeae and moraxella catarrhalis; while beta-lactamase positive strains of m. catarrhalis require 1 mg/l. less than 1 mg/l is needed for escherichia coli, ...19921526673
computed tomography-guided percutaneous drainage of a head and neck infection. 19921527669
clarithromycin in vitro activity enhanced by its major metabolite, 14-hydroxyclarithromycin.14-hydroxyclarithromycin, an active metabolite of clarithromycin, was compared for antimicrobial activity alone and in combination with the parent compound. the 14-hydroxyclarithromycin potency was comparable to that of clarithromycin, but was more active against haemophilus influenzae (mic50, 1 microgram/ml). combination mics at pharmacokinetic ratios produced end points equal to the most active component of the combination. however, checkerboard mics and kill-curve studies suggested enhanced i ...19921533827
[detection of gonococcal antigens by staphylococcus protein a (spa) coagglutination assay].gonococcal coagglutination assay reagent was produced on the basis of a spa absorbent of specific antibody against neisseria gonorrhoeae reference strains. using this reagent, the assay could detect a minimum bacterial concentration of 10(6) cfu/ml. no crossreactivity was found with bacteria such as escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus, branhamella catarrhalis, streptococcus faecalis, pseudomonas aeruginosa and neisseria meningitidis. fifty-five neisseria gonorrhoeae strains isolated from pat ...19921535561
enterococcal and streptococcal species isolated from faeces of calves, young cattle and dairy cows.faeces from non-ruminating calves were found to contain several species of enterococci: enterococcus avium, ent. cecorum, ent. durans, ent. faecalis, ent. faecium and ent. hirae. enterococcus faecalis was the most frequent. few of these animals carried streptococci. streptococcus bovis largely predominated in ruminating calves, young cattle and dairy cows. other streptococci as well as enterococci were infrequent in dairy cows, but a variety of other streptococci and enterococci were found in th ...19921541597
the influence of temperature on the behaviour of mixed bacterial contamination of the shell membrane of the hen's egg.the inner membrane of the air cell of hens' eggs was inoculated with pseudomonas putida, staphylococcus xylosus, enterococcus faecalis, escherichia coli and salmonella enteritidis. the first mentioned eventually dominated the contamination of the albumen of eggs stored at 4, 15, and 20 degrees c. the last mentioned did so in eggs stored at 37 degrees c. the interval between inoculation of the membrane and gross contamination of the albumen was markedly influenced by site of contamination relativ ...19921547832
detection by elisa of low numbers of shiga-like toxin-producing escherichia coli in mixed cultures after growth in the presence of mitomycin c.techniques currently available to detect shiga-like toxin (slt)-producing escherichia coli lack sensitivity or require specialised equipment and facilities, and in some cases detect only strains belonging to serotype o157. we have used an elisa technique, capable of detecting both slti and sltii with crude p1 glycoprotein from hydatid cysts, in combination with enhancement of toxin production by culture with mitomycin c. supernates of tryptone soya broth cultures containing mitomycin c 200 ng/ml ...19921548693
staphylococcal phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system: molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the staphylococcus carnosus ptsi gene and expression and complementation studies of the gene product.a digoxigenin-labeled dna probe that was complementary to the gene ptsh and the beginning of the gene ptsi was used to clone a 3.2-kb hincii-bamhi restriction fragment containing the complete ptsi gene of staphylococcus carnosus. the restriction fragment was cloned in the antisense orientation to the lac promoter in the low-copy-number vector psu18. the nucleotide sequences of the ptsi gene, which encodes enzyme i (ec, and the corresponding flanking regions were determined. the primary ...19921551842
antibacterials. synthesis and structure-activity studies of 3-aryl-2-oxooxazolidines. 4. multiply-substituted aryl derivatives.the synthesis and structure-activity relationship (sar) studies of the effect of different polysubstitution patterns in the aromatic ring of 5-(acetamidomethyl)oxazolidinone antibacterials (i) on antibacterial activity are presented. compounds i were prepared by the six-step synthesis described previously (gregory, w. a.; et al. j. med. chem. [formula: see text] 1989, 32, 1673), electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions of 3-substituted compounds, and functional-group interchange reactions o ...19921552508
the effect of isolated high-energy shock wave treatments on subsequent bacterial determine whether high-energy shock waves possess bactericidal potential, atcc strains of escherichia coli, streptococcus faecalis, pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aureus were suspended in solution at concentrations approximating 10(6) bacteria per milliliter, placed in polypropylene cryovials, and immersed in the water bath of a dornier hm3 lithotriptor. each cryovial was then fluoroscopically guided to the epicenter of the f2 focal point and 2000 shocks at 20 kv applied. suspensio ...19921553796
d-alanine: d-alanine ligase of escherichia coli. expression, purification and inhibitory studies on the cloned enzyme.a 1.2 kb bamhi fragment from pdk30 [robinson, kenan, sweeney & donachie (1986) j. bacteriol. 167, 809-817] was cloned in pdoc55 [o'connor & timmis (1987) j. bacteriol. 169, 4457-4482] to give two constructs, pdoc89 and pdoc87, in which the escherichia coli d-alanine:d-alanine ligase (ec gene (ddl) was placed under the control of the lac and lambda pl promoters respectively. both constructs, when used to transform e. coli m72, gave similar levels of expression of the ddl gene. the expres ...19921554356
degenerate oligonucleotide primers for enzymatic amplification of reca sequences from gram-positive bacteria and mycoplasmas.reca protein in gram-negative bacteria, especially in escherichia coli, has been extensively studied, but little is known about this key enzyme in other procaryotes. described here are degenerate oligonucleotide primers that have been used to amplify by the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) reca sequences from several gram-positive bacteria and mycoplasmas. the dna sequences of reca pcr products from streptococcus pyogenes, streptococcus mutans, enterococcus faecalis, and mycoplasma pulmonis were ...19921556091
quantitative separation of bacteria in saline solution using lanthanide er(iii) and a magnetic field.a trivalent lanthanide ion, erbium (er3+), has been used in combination with a magnetic separation technique to isolate seven bacterial species from suspensions in 0.9% saline. erbium has an exceptionally high atomic magnetic moment of 9.3 bohr magnetons, and following addition as ercl3 (final concentration 5 mm) to bacterial suspensions, it imparts the magnetic moment to the bacterial cells by ionic binding to the cell surface. strains of escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, proteus mirabil ...19921556557
a hemolysin-encoding plasmid contributes to bacterial virulence in experimental enterococcus faecalis endophthalmitis.beta-hemolysin production is a variable trait of the lancefield group d streptococcus, enterococcus faecalis. the e. faecalis hemolysin is encoded by large transmissible plasmids. the variable nature of this putative virulence factor provided an ideal system for testing its contribution in experimental endophthalmitis. in this study, isogenic e. faecalis strains were compared to determine whether the presence of the hemolysin-encoding plasmid affected the severity of disease in a rabbit endophth ...19921559764
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