the identification of the intracellular folate coenzymes of different cell types. 1976826433
the folate-mediated synthesis of ribothymidylate in transfer ribonucleic acid, and evidence for multifunctional enzymes in one-carbon metabolism in eukaryotic sources. 1976826434
delay in metabolism of parenteral folinic acid to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in man. 1976826436
folate coenzyme forms in fibroblasts from patients deficient in 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. 1976826437
biosynthesis of ribothymidine in the transfer rna of streptococcus faecalis and bacillus subtilis. a methylation of rna involving 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate.the methyl moiety of ribothymidine in the trna of streptococcus faecalis, bacillus subtilis, and probably bacillus cereus is dervied from a 1-carbon folate derivative and not s-adenosylmethionine. micrococcus luteus (m. lysodeikticus) trna appears to be almost devoid of ribothymidine. s. faecalis trna lacking ribothymidine can be methylated in vitro with formation of ribothymidine. 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate has been identified as the 1-carbon donor involved in ribothymidine formation in s. ...1976826533
[further investigations into the effectiveness of gentamicin and other antibiotics against urinary tract infection organisms (author's transl)].in continuance of our investigations from 1968 to 1972, we isolated 32939 microorganisms from urinary tract infections and subjected them to routine sensitivity tests against six antibiotics from 1973 to august 1975. all organisms except enterococci and proteus proved to be sensitive to gentamicin at a level exceeding 90% during the study period of two and a half years. a loss of activity of gentamicin worth mentioning was not detected during the studies. so this antibiotic must further be consi ...1976826773
[effect of decimeter waves on a streptococcus culture]. 1976827117
[enzymatic preparation of peptides of the general type: l-ala-d-glu-l-mesodiaminopimelyl (l)-d (140) ala by transfer reactions between non radioactive corresponding peptides and d-alanine (140)].membrane bound ld-transpeptidase of streptococcus faecalis atcc 9790 was used to catalyse transpeptidation reactions between non radioactive peptide donors of the general type: l-ala-d-glu (l)meso-a2pm(l)-d-ala and d-(14c) alanine acceptor. the presence of one or two amide residues on the carboxyl groups of glutamic acid and meso-diaminopimelic acid increases the transfer reactions and subsequently the yield in radioactive peptides l-ala-d-glu (l)meso-a2pm(l)-d-(14c) ala.1976827312
a modified technique for the detection of antibiotic synergism. 1976827555
[disinfection of sewage waters from rendering plants by means by peracetic acid].in our experiments, peracetic acid -- known in commerce as "wolfasteril" was tested as a new and efficient disinfectant to disinfect sewage waters from rendering plants. peracetic acid was used in experiments in concentration of 0.1 to 1.0% for 30 sec. to 60 min. as a comparative agent, 5% chloramine was used. results obtained in preliminary and main experiments proved that peracetic acid is fully appropriate to disinfect biologically cleaned sewage waters in rendering plants. sewage waters supp ...1976827581
[characteristics of the energy components involved in generation of the membrane potential of streptococcus faecalis following gamma-irradiation]. 1976827782
partial purification of streptococcus faecalis chain disrupting system by gel filtration.short-chain-forming streptococcus faecalis var. zymogenes (group d) has been found to elaborate an extracellular system, which in crude form and after fractionation with 75% saturated ammonium sulphate and on gel filtration on g-75 sephadex has been shown to split the long chains of the atypical strain nctc 2400 of the same species. the gram staining reveals random sites of the lytic activity in the chains indicated by the presence of gram-negative lysing cocci within a single chain.1976827876
a ten-year survey of bacteriuria in the osaka university hospital.10 consecutive years of observation of the laboratory data of quantitative urinary bacterial culture in the central clinical laboratory of osaka university hospital was made. the marked rise of pseudomonas and other enterobacteriaceae was clearly demonstrated. the difference in bacterial species in bacteriuria between inpatients and outpatients strongly suggests that the origin of infection was quite different. the disappearance of staph. aureus as a causative agent was also demonstrated.1975828085
enterocin typing of group 'd' streptococci. 1976828211
[influence of amnioscopy on the development of fetal infection].bacteriologycal examinations of vaginal swabs from the cervix obtained during 45 amnioscopies, demonstrated a rise in culture positivity after the 2-nd and 3-rd amnioscopies. bacteriologycal examinations in the same women on the 2-nd and 3-rd days of puerperium demonstrated a change of bacterial flora with appearance of more virulent flora. the problem of possible "ascending" infections or hospital infections is discussed.1976828364
[elimination from the digestive tract of a "gnotoxenic" child of a "lactobacillus casei" strain, isolated from a commercial preparation: antagonistic effect of an "escherichia coli" strain of human origin, demonstrated in "gnotoxenic" mice (author's transl)].a strain of lactobacillus casei from a pharmaceutical preparation became established in the digestive tract of an axenic child. it was eliminated by the first bacteria occurring after inoculation of the child's digestive tract with a human flora, before the child was taken out of the isolator. using "gnotoxenic" mice, we found that the elimination of l. casei was due to a bactericidal effect of the escherichia coli of human origin, within the digestive tract.1976828463
[comparative study of membranes of streptococcus faecalis and micrococcus lysodeikticus].a comparative study of ultrastructure and ir-spectroscopy of osmotic shock membranes from cells of glycolyzing (streptococcus faecalis) and respiring (micrococcus lysodeikticus) bacteria, was made. the s. faecalis and m. lysodeikticus membranes differ in their cross-section. treatment of the preliminary washed membranes of s. faecalis and m. lysodeikticus with a low ionic strength solution removes 40% and 70% of their proteins respectively, decreases the membrane cross-section but does not chang ...1976828857
effect of 9-arylpurines, 9-aryl-8-azapurines & related 5-phenylazopyrimidines on the growth of streptococcus faecalis. 1976828901
[criteria for the evaluation of hygienic and microbiologic characteristics of mineral waters].the appraisement of mineral waters microbial quality is closely depending of their definition: waters endowed with therapeutic properties, strongly mineralised waters, etc. in the beginning mineral water is exceptionally infected by dangerous germs tought it contain a regular load of some saprophytic microorganisms. indeed, exploitation licences are reserved to geologically perfectly protected strata. on the other hand, there are contaminations which are due, most commonly, to the bottling proce ...1976829204
bacterial flora of the healthy skin in children.the normal bacterial flora of the skin of 100 healthy children was studied in a paediatric practice with regard to the germ spectrum and the resistance constellation, by means of abrasion skin samples taken from the upper part of the back. staphylococcus albus was by far the most predominant bacteria, followed by sarcina bacteria and corynebacteria. the high degree of pervasion of this physiological cutaneous flora with antibiotic-resistant strains increases the suspicion that in the case of flo ...1976829225
distribution of group d streptococci in rivers and streams.a study was undertaken to determine sources of bacteriological contamination of rivers as well as the ecology of faecal streptococci in natural and contaminated waters. media used to characterize and speciate group d streptococci were also evaluated using isolates from the water and sediment. due to the low concentrations of faecal coliforms (fc) and faecal streptococci (fs) in river water samples, the fc/fs ratio was shown to be of little value in determining sources of contamination. high conc ...1976829267
["streptococcus faecalis" and "staphylococcus aureus" viability in root canals (study "in vitro") (author's transl)]. 1976829843
synthesis and biological activity of some new furan quaternary salts.a series of new n-(5-substituted 2-furfuryl)-n,n-dimethyl-n-aryloxyalkyl quaternary ammonium salts relating to general structure iv has been synthesized by reacting 5-substituted 2-(n,n-dimethylaminomethyl)furans iia-d with appropriate aryloxyalkyl bromides iii. the resulting compounds are tested for in vitro antimicrobial activity. a simpler synthesis of 5-nitro-2-(n,n-dimethylaminomethyl)furan (iid) involving the reduction of n,n-dimethyl-5-nitro-2-furamide (ib) with diborane is described. a n ...1977833814
[the influence of the permeability of the cell membrane on tmpd oxydase activity (author's transl)].26 bacterial strains representing a variety of both gram-negative and gram-postive groups were investigated for their n,n,n',n'-tetramethyl-1, 4-phenylendiamin (tmpd) oxidase activities and cytochrome contents. the oxidase activites of colonies were examined by dropping the reagent on agar surface colonies. intact and sonicated cells were tested by recording the oxidation of the tmpd reagent at 546 nm after addition to the cell suspensions. cytochromes were determined by recording the difference ...1977848217
relationship of cytochrome content to the sensitivity of bacteria to nacl on freezing and thawing.eight species of bacteria representing rod, coccus, gram-positive, and gram-negative forms were tested for their sensitivity to sodium chloride during freezing and thawing. six of the eight species tested were salt-sensitive, though to different degrees, while lactobacillus casei and streptococcus faecalis were resistant. escherichia coli grown anaerobically exhibited only 38% of the salt sensitivity of aerobically grown cells. analysis of cytochrome pigments in the organisms revealed that the s ...1977861847
drug resistance in group d streptococci of clinical and nonclinical origin: prevalence, transferability, and plasmid d streptococci isolated from clinical specimens and from sewage were investigated with regard to resistance to tetracycline (tc), erythromycin (em), and chloramphenicol (cm). the median values of the percentages of resistant strains from sewage were: for tc, 14%; for em, 2.8%; and for cm, 0.1%. for the recent isolates of clinical origin, resistance percentages found were 58% for tc, 12% for em, and 14% for cm, and, in comparison to clinical isolates from 1964, the incidence of drug resista ...1977879758
the effect of amniotic fluid on bacterial growth in three population groups.eighty-five amniotic fluid from women of three racial groups in the third trimester of pregnancy were each tested for antibacterial activity against escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus, proteus mirabilis, streptococcus faecalis, and candida albicans. seventy-six per cent of fluid samples from white patients were inhibitory, while the corresponding figures for africans and indians were 33 and 52, respectively. of 19 african fluid samples tested against e. coli only, one proved inhibitory.1977888865
[lactobacilli of freshwater fishes].normal microflora in the intestinal tract of fishes inhabiting fresh-water reservoirs includes lactic bacteria. the number of the bacteria depends on the animal species, the composition of food, the age, and the season. the highest number of these microorganisms (hundreds of millions per gram of the intestinal content) is found in carps. enterococci are most often encountered in fishes inhabiting ponds: streptococcus faecalis andrewes a. horder, str. faecium orla-jensen, str. bovis orla-jensen. ...1977909475
bacteriology of the urethra in normal men and men with nongonococcal urethritis.sixty-nine caucasian males without a previous history of urethritis and who developed nongonococcal urethritis (ngu) and 39 similar men without urethritis (nu) were cultured from the urethra for chlamydia trachomatis, mycoplasma hominis, ureaplasma urealyticum, aerobes, and anaerobes. c. trachomatis infection was proven by culture of serology in 26 (38%) of the ngu group and 1 (3%) of the nu group; the c. trachomatis-negative ngu group had significantly more u. urealyticum (81%) than the c. trac ...1977925148
the fate of bacteria in frozen red cells.units of blood were intentionally contaiminated with suspensions of either aerobacter aerogenes, escherichia coli, bacillus subtilis, enterobacter cloacae, pseudomonas aeruginosa, sarcina lutea, seratia marcesens, staphylococcus epidermidis, streptococcus faecalis, paracolabacterum aerogenoides (enterobacter hafriae), mima polymorpha or acinetobacter- calcoaceticus. when inoculation was made prior to glycerolization, the subsequent glycerolization, freezing, thawing, and deglycerolization result ...1976936269
laboratory studies with a new broad-spectrum penicillin, pirbenicillin.pirbenicillin {6-[d-2-phenyl-2(n-4-pyridylformimidoylaminoacetamido) -acetamido]-penicillanic acid} showed broad-spectrum antibacterial activity in vitro and also in the treatment of experimental infections after parenteral administration to mice. against pseudomonas aeruginosa, a three- to fourfold potency advantage over carbenicillin was seen both in vitro and in vivo. the in vitro antibacterial spectrum of pirbenicillin includes escherichia coli, serratia, citrobacter, and enterobacter isolat ...1976938027
laboratory evaluation of 3-(5-tetrazolyl) penam, a new semisynthetic beta-lactam antibacterial agent with extended broad-spectrum the new agent 3-(5-tetrazolyl)penam, hereafter referred to as cp-35,587, the carboxyl function at c3 in the penicillin nucleus has been replaced with the 5-tetrazolyl moiety. marked changes in spectrum and resistance to gram-negative beta-lactamases, particularly with regard to klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, were conferred by this modification. the anti-klebsiella activity clearly distinguishes the antibacterial spectrum of cp-35,587 from any known broad-spectrum penicillin. compared to oral ...1976984745
laboratory evaluation of bl-s786, a cephalosporin with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity.biological and physicochemical properties of bl-s786 were compared with those of cephalothin, cephaloridine, and cefazolin. with few exceptions, bl-s786 was more active than the reference compounds against major gram-negative pathogenic species and its antibacterial spectrum was broader than that of cephalosporins currently available for clinical use. although bl-s786 was generally less active than the control cephalosporins against gram-positive pathogens, it inhibited their growth at concentra ...1976984784
pharmacokinetics of cefamandole in patients undergoing hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.the pharmacokinetics of cefamandole nafate, a new parenteral cephalosporin derivative, were evaluated in 11 patients with chronic renal failure (creatinine clearance less than 5 ml/min), including five patients during hemodialysis, four patients during routine peritoneal dialysis, and two patients during the interdialytic period. peak serum levels of cefamandole were comparable to those observed in patients with normal renal function. clearance of the drug during the interdialytic period and dur ...1976984787
comparison of the in vitro activity of several cephalosporin antibiotics against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria resistant to cephaloridine.the in vitro activity of each of two oral [cefatrizine (bl-s640), cephalexin] and three parenteral (cefamandole, cefazolin, cephapirin) cephalosporin antibiotics was compared with that of cephalothin against 168 clinical isolates of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria selected as resistant to 20 mug of cephaloridine per ml on the basis of agar dilution susceptibility test data. each of the five other cephalosporins inhibited a greater percentage of gram-negative bacillary isolates than did ...1976984793
cefamandole: antimicrobial activity in vitro of a new cephalosporin.cefamandole, a new cephalosporin derivative, was found to have a broad spectrum of activity against a cross-section of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria isolated from clinical material. gram-positive cocci, except for streptococcus faecalis, were very susceptible. penicillin g-resistant staphylococcus aureus also was susceptible to cefamandole. minimal bactericidal concentrations for gram-positive cocci approximated the minimal inhibitory concentrations. strains of haemophilus influe ...19751044248
coated bedpans: their cleaning and disinfection.this paper reports on tests of cleaning and disinfection of stainless steel bedpans which have been coated with either a silicone grease or polytetrafluoroethylene (ptfe). the coatings were applied manually using an aerosol spray (silicone grease and ptfe), and by an industrial process (ptfe). soils used comprised (i) british standard soil (b.s., 1966), (ii) human serum albumin labelled with technetium-99m (hsa-tc), and (iii) a suspension of streptococcus faecalis in broth. tests of cleaning and ...19761068198
susceptibility of various serogroups of streptococci to clindamycin and lincomycin.the minimal inhibitory concentration of lincomycin and clindamycin for a large number of strains from multiple serogroups of streptococci was determined. the median minimal inhibitory concentration for streptococci from groups a, b, c, f, g, h, l, and m and nongroupable organisms ranged from 0.02 to 0.39 mug of lincomycin per ml and from </=0.01 to 0.09 mug of clindamycin per ml. among the group d strains, streptococcus faecium and streptococcus faecalis were resistant to lincomycin and clindamy ...19751137367
evaluation of human oral organisms and pathogenic streptococcus for production of iga protease.iga protease is a proteolytic enzyme found in whole human saliva and in dental plaque that cleaves both secretory and myeloma iga of human origin to yield intact fabalpha and fcalpha fragments. to determine which bacteria are capable of producing this enzyme, we have examined a variety of strains normally found in the human oral cavity and a number of streptococci of known lancefield group serotype. streptococci of groups a, b, c, d, f, g, h, m, and n, streptococcus mutans, streptococcus sanguis ...19751168676
metabolic studies in the pyelonephritic rat.insulin antagonism characterizes infection, but the mechanism is unknown. previous studies have been performed during the acute catabolic stage of infection, and the resultant metabolic changes reflect this decreased food intake and weight loss. to delineate metabolic alterations due to infection itself, rats with pyelonephritis induced by tail-vein injection of 1 ml. of streptococcus faecalis (10(9) bacteria per milliliter) were studied two weeks later during a period of near-normal weight gain ...19751175860
presumptive speciation of streptococcus bovis and other group d streptococci from human sources by using arginine and pyruvate tests.a simplified method for speciation of group d streptococci is described. a total of 4,156 streptococcal isolates from human clinical material was tested for ability to hydrolyze esculin in the presence of 40% bile, ferment pyruvate, hydrolyze arginine, and grow in media containing 40% bile or 6.5% nacl. streptococci which hydrolyzed esculin in 40% bile, but which did not hydrolyze arginine, were also tested for their ability to ferment raffinose or sorbose. sixty percent (2,503) of the isolates ...19751176592
immunoadjuvant activities of cell walls and their water-soluble fractions prepared from various gram-positive bacteria.the cell walls from all 21 species of gram-positive bacteria examined, except lysozyme-susceptible micrococcus lysodeikticus (nctc 2665) and lysozyme-resistant staphylococcus epidermidis (atcc 155), were found to be definitely adjuvant-active in both stimulation of increased serum antibody levels and induction of delayed-type hypersensitivity to ovalbumin when administered to guinea-pigs as water-in-oil emulsions. using various cell wall lytic enzymes, the immunoadjuvant principles were solubili ...19751180872
comparative study of the in vitro antibacterial activity of cefoxitin, cefuroxine, and cephaloridine.the in vitro antibacterial effects of cefoxitin, a semisynthetic cephamycin, cefuroxime, a new cephalosporin antibiotic, and cephaloridine were compared. with gram-positive bacteria, marked differences were found only in the effects against streptococcus faecalis, where cephaloridine and cefuroxime were superior to cefoxitin. with gram-negative aerobic bacteria, cefoxitin, which is known to be more resistant to beta-lactamases from gram-negative bacteria than any cephalosporin, was found to be m ...19761259406
unbalanced growth and macromolecular synthesis in streptococcus mutans fa-1.the continued synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid, protein, cell wall peptidoglycan and intracellular iodophilic polysaccharide (ips) by streptococcus mutans strain fa-1 after several treatments intended to inhibit protein synthesis was studied. exponential-phase cultures were: (i) simultaneously deprived of two required amino acids (cystine and leucine) that are not present in the cell wall peptidoglycan of this species; (ii) depreived of required amino acids (lysine or glutamate plus glutamine ...19761270138
vancomycin-resistant enterococci. 19921285233
in vitro activity of cefpirome (hr 810) against enterococci and staphylococci.the inhibitory activity of cefpirome (hr 810), a new cephalosporin derivative for parenteral use, was tested by agar dilution methods against enterococcus faecalis (100 strains), staphylococcus aureus (40 strains) and coagulase-negative staphylococcal species (60 strains) in comparison with other beta-lactam antibiotics. for e. faecalis, the cefpirome minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) range was 2-128 micrograms/ml, with an mic50 of 8 micrograms/ml, and an mic90 of 64 micrograms/ml. the opti ...19921287135
in vitro evaluation of bay y3118, a new full-spectrum fluoroquinolone.bay y3118, 1-cyclopropyl-7-(2,8-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-8-yl)-6-fluoro-8- chloro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid hydrochloride, is a new fluoroquinolone with antibacterial activity against an expanded spectrum of species including staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus epidermidis, enterococcus faecalis, enterococcus faecium, streptococcus pneumoniae, streptococcus pyogenes, and also anaerobes such as bacteriodes fragilis and clostridium perfringens. mic90s for s. aureus, s. epidermid ...19921288961
the effect of selective decontamination of the digestive tract on gastrointestinal enterococcal colonization in itu patients.the effect of selective decontamination of the digestive tract (sdd) on intensive therapy unit (itu)-acquired enterococcal infection and colonization was studied. changes in the predominant species isolated and resistance patterns to antimicrobial agents were also studied.19921289369
[activity of enterococcus faecalis (fk-23) preparation as a biological response modifier].the biological activity of a preparation of heat killed cells of enterococcus faecalis, fk-23 which was isolated from the feces of a healthy human, was investigated in c3h/he mice. intraperitoneal injection of the preparation caused an accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages in the peritoneal cavity of the mice 6 h later. as a parameter of the activation of macrophages, the effect of the fk-23 preparation on the production of tumor necrosis factor (tnf) was examined. the mice were given two ...19921294717
comparison of the autoscan-w/a and vitek automicrobic systems for identification and susceptibility testing of bacteria.the identification and susceptibility testing of bacteria by the autoscan-w/a rapid panels and vitek automicrobic systems were compared. a total of 291 clinical isolates, including 207 members of the enterobacteriaceae, 41 nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli, 31 staphylococcus aureus strains and 12 enterococcus faecalis strains, were tested. autoscan-w/a and vitek correctly identified 93% and 94% respectively of the enterobacteriaceae, the identification in an additional 2% and 5% of strains r ...19921295766
campylobacter jejuni in acute diarrhoea in infancy and its relation to faecal leucocytic count.a prospective study was carried out to identify the relative risk of campylobacter jejuni infection in 50 infants with acute diarrhoea, 24 infants with acute resistant diarrhoea and 25 healthy normal infants as a matching control group. faecal samples were collected from the three groups and were cultured on both selective media for campylobacter and other media for isolation of other organisms. direct stool smears, stained with methylene blue, were examined for detection of faecal leucocyte in ...19921295942
antibacterial in vitro-activity of meropenem against 200 clinical isolates in comparison to 11 selected antibiotics.the antimicrobial activity of meropenem, a new parenteral carbapenem, was tested in vitro by an agar dilution method against 200 clinical isolates (gram-negative/positive aerobes and anaerobes). meropenem was compared with imipenem, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, piperacillin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin; and metronidazole, cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, vancomycin when appropriate. meropenem and imipenem exhibited an extended spectrum of activity with low minimal inhibitory concentrations (mi ...19921303691
high-level aminoglycoside resistance in recent years enterococci have been isolated with increasing frequency in association with serious infections. suitable therapy for empirical treatment can only be chosen on the basis of susceptibility studies. the synergistic effects obtained by the combination of aminoglycosides with penicillin or vancomycin disappear in strains that show high level resistance (hlr) to the former. this highlights the importance of correct identification of the species of enterococcus (especially enterococcus ...19921306949
increased risk of bacterial endocarditis in inflammatory bowel disease.the purpose of this retrospective as well as prospective case-control study was to analyze a possible overrepresentation of inflammatory bowel diseases among patients with native valve endocarditis as well as the factors that predispose patients with inflammatory bowel disease to infective endocarditis.19921307218
susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of enterococcus faecium and enterococcus faecalis.we collected 103 clinical enterococcus faecium isolates from across canada, performed standard broth microdilution susceptibility testing, and compared these results with results from the microscan pos mic type 6 panel (baxter health care corp., west sacramento, calif.) and the ams-vitek gram-positive susceptibility card (vitek inc., st. louis, mo.). high-level aminoglycoside resistance to gentamicin and streptomycin was detected by a single-concentration agar method with 1,000 micrograms of eac ...19921310332
cloning and disruption of a putative nah-antiporter gene of enterococcus hirae.when growing in a sodium-rich environment, wild-type enterococcus hirae extrudes sodium by two mechanisms, atp-driven sodium extrusion, and nah-antiport. mutant 7683 is unable to grow on sodium-rich media. this is due to two mutations, one inactivating atp-driven sodium transport and a second rendering nah-antiport inoperative. 7683 was transformed by electroporation with a gene bank, derived from e. hirae, in an escherichia coli-e. hirae shuttle vector. transformants which had regained the abil ...19921312090
hyperhemolytic phenomena associated with insertions of tn916 into the hemolysin determinant of enterococcus faecalis plasmid pad1.members of the tn916 family of conjugative transposons are able to insert themselves into enterococcus faecalis hemolysin/bacteriocin plasmid pad1 (and related elements) in such a way as to generate hyperexpression of the hemolysin/bacteriocin. to examine this phenomenon in more detail, e. faecalis (pad1::tn916) derivatives defective or altered in hemolysin expression were isolated and characterized with respect to production of the l (lytic) or a (activator) component (also known as cyla) and t ...19921312528
regulation of the pad1-encoded sex pheromone response in enterococcus faecalis: nucleotide sequence analysis of traa.the enterococcus faecalis plasmid pad1 conjugatively transfers in response to a sex pheromone, cad1, excreted by potential recipient cells. a key determinant responsible for regulation of pad1 transfer is traa, which encodes a negative regulator also believed to function in signal sensing. in this study, we analyzed the nucleotide sequence and transcription of traa. a protein of 319 amino acids with a molecular weight of 37,856 was inferred and found to exhibit limited homology with several dna- ...19921312529
in vivo activity of the combination of daptomycin and fosfomycin compared with daptomycin alone against a strain of enterococcus faecalis with high-level gentamicin resistance in the rat endocarditis model.the in vivo activity of the combination of daptomycin and fosfomycin against a beta-lactamase-producing, highly gentamicin-resistant strain of enterococcus faecalis in a relapse model of rat endocarditis was studied. minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) (micrograms per milliliter) for these agents against this strain were 4 (daptomycin) and 16 (fosfomycin). time-kill studies demonstrated synergistic bactericidal activity when daptomycin (0.5 micrograms/ml) and fosfomycin (32 micrograms/ml) w ...19921315234
typing of enterococcus species by dna restriction fragment analysis.enterococci are a frequent cause of hospital-acquired infection, being associated with urinary tract infections, wound sepsis, bacteremia, and endocarditis. the source of infection is usually thought to be endogenous, but some evidence points to cross-infection between patients. a better understanding of the epidemiology of enterococci has been limited by the lack of a good discriminatory typing system. this report describes the application of two dna-based typing methods to enterococcus faecali ...19921315338
conjugative transfer of enterococcus faecalis plasmid pad1: nucleotide sequence and transcriptional fusion analysis of a region involved in positive regulation.the enterococcus faecalis plasmid pad1 undergoes conjugative transfer in response to cad1, a peptide sex pheromone emitted by potential bacterial recipients. regulation of pad1 transfer involves a number of plasmid-encoded determinants:iad, which determines a peptide-competitive inhibitor iad1; signal sensing and transducing elements; and negative and positive regulators. the key positive regulator(s) of the pheromone response is believed to be encoded within a segment designated the e region of ...19921315730
antibacterial activity of a 1,8-naphthyridine quinolone, pd 131628.a new 1,8-naphthyridine quinolone antimicrobial, pd131628, was found to be as, or more active than ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin against escherichia coli and considerably more active than the two 4-quinolone agents against staphylococci in terms of both mic and obc (the optimum bactericidal concentration, at which the rate of kill is greatest). in common with ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin, the rate of kill of pd131628 against enterococcus faecalis was considerably slower than against the other three ...19921316970
natural occurrence of structures in oral streptococci and enterococci with dna homology to tn916.seventeen oral streptococci and 18 enterococci were tested for the presence of dna sequences homologous to the conjugative transposon tn916 encoding tetracycline resistance. all the strains were resistant to tetracyclines, including minocycline, and most of them were resistant to other antibiotics. tn916-like structures, identified by hybridization of hincii-digested dna, were found on the chromosomes of 11 oral streptococci and four enterococci and on two plasmids, pip1549 and pip1440, one harb ...19921317150
conjugative transposition of tn916: the transposon int gene is required only in the donor.conjugative transposition of transposon tn916 has been shown to proceed by excision of the transposon in the donor strain and insertion of this element in the recipient. this process requires the product of the transposon int gene. we report here the surprising finding that the int gene is required only in the donor during conjugative transposition. we find that tn916 int-1, whose int gene has been inactivated by an insertion mutation, transposes when a complementing wild-type int gene is presen ...19921317846
mobilization of cutaneous immunity for systemic protection against infections.this laboratory reported that a single subcutaneous (sc) injection of the natural steroid hormone dehydroepiandrosterone (dhea) resulted in significant protection against a lethal herpes virus type 2 encephalitis or a systemic coxsackievirus b4 infection. our previous results have shown that sc injection of dhea resulted in upregulation of the specific host immune response resulting in protection against a lethal infection. this hormone did not have any direct antiviral effects in vitro. further ...19921318664
comparison of enterococcal and staphylococcal beta-lactamase-encoding fragments.a restriction map of a 13.5-kb ecori fragment encoding beta-lactamase from a plasmid isolated from enterococcal strain pa was prepared and found to differ markedly from the published maps of beta-lactamase-encoding ecori fragments of two staphylococcal plasmids and the plasmid from enterococcal strain hh22. this comparison also showed that one of two contiguous ecorv fragments that encompass the beta-lactamase gene differs in size in the pa strain from that found in the other strains. however, r ...19921318675
contribution of animal models in the search for effective therapy for endocarditis due to enterococci with high-level resistance to gentamicin.earlier studies suggest that ampicillin and amoxicillin are more effective than other beta-lactam agents in killing enterococci, although beta-lactam agents are slowly and incompletely bactericidal against most strains of enterococcus faecalis. we previously showed that continuous infusion of ampicillin is more effective than intermittent administration in decreasing the number of enterococci in valvular vegetations of rats with catheter-induced endocarditis that are treated for 5 days. in this ...19921319757
in vitro activity of sparfloxacin compared with those of five other quinolones.the in vitro activity of sparfloxacin, a new difluorinated quinolone, was evaluated against 857 gram-positive and gram-negative clinical isolates and compared with those of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, fleroxacin, and lomefloxacin. the mic of sparfloxacin for 90% of the members of the family enterobacteriaceae tested was 0.5 microgram/ml (range, 0.06 to 4.0 micrograms/ml); only for members of the genera serratia, citrobacter, and providencia were mics above 1 microgram/ml. some 90% of ...19921320362
isolation, characterization, and nucleotide sequence of the streptococcus mutans mannitol-phosphate dehydrogenase gene and the mannitol-specific factor iii gene of the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system.streptococcus mutans, the causative agent of dental caries, utilizes carbohydrates by means of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (pts). the pts facilitates vectorial translocation of metabolizable carbohydrates to form the corresponding sugar-phosphates, which are subsequently converted to glycolytic intermediates. the pts consists of both sugar-specific and sugar-independent components. complementation of an escherichia coli mtld mutation with a streptococcal recombina ...19921322373
characterization of the tet(m) determinant of tn916: evidence for regulation by transcription attenuation.the nucleotide sequence of the tetracycline resistance determinant tet(m), located on conjugative transposon tn916 of enterococcus faecalis, was determined and found to encode a 72,486-dalton protein exhibiting a high degree of homology with other tet(m) determinants. a short open reading frame corresponding to a 28-amino-acid peptide and containing a number of inverted repeat sequences was noted immediately upstream of tet(m), suggesting that regulation might occur by a mechanism involving tran ...19921323953
comparative in vitro activities of teicoplanin, daptomycin, ramoplanin, vancomycin, and pd127,391 against blood isolates of gram-positive cocci.the in vitro activities of teicoplanin, daptomycin, ramoplanin, and pd127,391, a new quinolone, were compared with that of vancomycin. teicoplanin showed the lowest mics against enterococcus faecalis. ramoplanin was slightly more active than the other peptide antibiotics against oxacillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus. the mics of the four peptide antibiotics were similar for the oxacillin-susceptible s. aureus. daptomycin had good activity against staphylococci but was the least active agent ...19921324649
gene structure of enterococcus hirae (streptococcus faecalis) f1f0-atpase, which functions as a regulator of cytoplasmic ph.enterococcus hirae (formerly streptococcus faecalis) atcc 9790 has an f1f0-atpase which functions as a regulator of the cytoplasmic ph but does not synthesize atp. we isolated four clones which contained genes for c, b, delta, and alpha subunits of this enzyme but not for other subunit genes. it was revealed that two specific regions (upstream of the c-subunit gene and downstream of the gamma-subunit gene) were lost at a specific site in the clones we isolated, suggesting that these regions were ...19921328152
identical genes confer high-level resistance to gentamicin upon enterococcus faecalis, enterococcus faecium, and streptococcus agalactiae.the structural gene coding for the bifunctional aminoglycoside-modifying 6'-acetyltransferase-2''-phosphotransferase (6'aac-2''aph) enzyme was specifically amplified by the polymerase chain reaction using template dna of clinical isolates of enterococci (both enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium) and the single high-level gentamicin-resistant streptococcus agalactiae strain identified thus far. the results of the present study demonstrated that the genes encoding this antibiotic resist ...19921329614
evidence of incorporation of the chromosomal beta-lactamase gene of enterococcus faecalis ch19 into a transposon derived from staphylococci.we recently reported the chromosomal location of the staphylococcal beta-lactamase gene in four strains of enterococcus faecalis. transfer of this gene from strain ch19 to an enterococcal recipient was accompanied by transfer of numerous other antimicrobial resistance determinants in the absence of detectable plasmid dna. a restriction map developed by comparing digestions of the regions surrounding the beta-lactamase gene in donor and recipient chromosomes resembles published maps of previously ...19921329630
comparison of daptomycin, vancomycin, and ampicillin-gentamicin for treatment of experimental endocarditis caused by penicillin-resistant enterococci.infections with enterococci that are resistant to multiple antibiotics are an emerging clinical problem. we evaluated the antibiotic treatment of experimental enterococcal endocarditis caused by two strains with different mechanisms of penicillin resistance. enterococcus faecalis hh-22 is resistant to aminoglycosides and penicillin on the basis of plasmid-mediated modifying enzymes; enterococcus raffinosus sf-195 is susceptible to aminoglycosides but is resistant to penicillin on the basis of lo ...19921329632
in vitro activity of the new glycopeptide decaplanin.the activity of decaplanin, a new glycopeptide, was compared to that of vancomycin, teicoplanin and daptomycin. decaplanin was two- to four-fold less active than vancomycin, telcoplanin and daptomycin against staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus epidermidis, with an mic90 of 2 micrograms/ml for methicillin-susceptible and 4 micrograms/ml for methicillin-resistant isolates. decaplanin had activity similar to that of vancomycin against streptococcus pyogenes, streptococcus agalactiae, group c ...19921330562
tn5381, a conjugative transposon identifiable as a circular form in enterococcus faecalis.we have identified two 19-kb conjugative transposons (tn5381 and tn5383) in separate strains of multiply resistant enterococcus faecalis. these transposons confer resistance to tetracycline and minocycline via a tetm gene, are capable of both chromosomal and plasmid integration in a rec- environment, and transfer between strains in the absence of detectable plasmid dna at frequencies ranging from < 1 x 10(-9) to 2 x 10(-5) per donor cfu, depending on the donor strain and the growth conditions. h ...19921331026
in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of am-1155, a new 6-fluoro-8-methoxy is a new quinolone with a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against various bacteria including anaerobes and mycoplasma pneumoniae. am-1155 was 2- to 16-fold more active than ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin against staphylococcus aureus including methicillin-resistant strains, staphylococcus epidermidis, streptococcus pneumoniae, and enterococcus faecalis; its mics for 90% of strains tested were 0.10 to 0.78 micrograms/ml. the activity of am-1155 was comparable to that of ciprofloxacin ...19921332587
comparison of the gentamicin resistance transposon tn5281 with regions encoding gentamicin resistance in enterococcus faecalis isolates from diverse geographic locations.the genetic determinant encoding gentamicin resistance (gmr) on the beta-lactamase encoding plasmid pbem10 of enterococcus faecalis hh22 is carried on a transposon, termed tn5281, that is highly related to the staphylococcal gmr transposons tn4001 found in australian isolates of staphylococcus aureus and tn4031 found in united states isolates of staphylococcus epidermidis. we have now studied plasmid dna from gmr strains of e. faecalis isolated from diverse geographical locations (houston, penns ...19921332593
tetracycline enhances tn916-mediated conjugal transfer.pregrowth of the donor on medium containing tetracycline increased conjugative transposition of tn916 and the transposon-dependent mobilization of pc194 19- to 119-fold in matings between bacillus subtilis and bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. tn916 and pc194 transferred independently under these conditions. when enterococcus faecalis was the donor and b. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis the recipient, pregrowth in tetracycline increased the conjugative transposition frequency by approx ...19921334267
[a clinical case of puerperal septic metrothrombophlebitis]. 19921342560
cloning and sequence analysis of the muramidase-2 gene from enterococcus hirae.extracellular muramidase-2 of enterococcus hirae atcc 9790 was purified to homogeneity by substrate binding, guanidine-hcl extraction, and reversed-phase chromatography. a monoclonal antibody, 2f8, which specifically recognizes muramidase-2, was used to screen a genomic library of e. hirae atcc 9790 dna in bacteriophage lambda gt11. a positive phage clone containing a 4.5-kb dna insert was isolated and analyzed. the ecori-digested 4.5-kb fragment was cut into 2.3-, 1.0-, and 1.5-kb pieces by usi ...19921347040
clinical isolates of enterococci with high-level resistance to currently available aminoglycosides.enterococci isolated from different body sites were tested for high-level gentamicin resistance. a total of 139 enterococcal isolates were screened for resistance (minimum inhibitory concentration [mic] greater than 2000 mg l-1) by a broth-tube method. twenty-five (18%) were found to exhibit resistance and this was confirmed by agar screening (1000 mg l-1) and agar dilution mic determinations. the majority of isolates also showed high-level resistance to kanamycin and streptomycin. the remaining ...19921348070
the housefly (musca domestica) as a carrier of pathogenic microorganisms in a hospital environment.houseflies have long been regarded as potential carriers of microorganisms. since pathogenic microorganisms are widespread in the hospital environment, there is abundant opportunity for flies to become contaminated and, in turn, to contaminate the patient environment. in the present study, an attempt was made to isolate and identify pathogenic bacteria, fungi and parasites from the housefly musca domestica collected in the surgical ward of the all india institute of medical sciences hospital and ...19921348776
prophylactic ciprofloxacin for catheter-associated urinary-tract infection.patients receiving antibiotics during bladder drainage have a lower incidence of urinary-tract infections compared with similar patients not on antibiotics. however, antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with a urinary catheter is opposed because of the fear of inducing resistant bacterial strains. we have done a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of prophylactic ciprofloxacin in selected groups of surgical patients who had postoperative bladder drainage scheduled to last for 3 to 14 days. pati ...19921348797
gadolinium ion inhibits loss of metabolites induced by osmotic shock and large stretch-activated channels in bacteria.bacteria subjected to a hypotonic osmotic shock lose internal ions and also metabolites, without lysis of the cells. we show that the presence in the shock medium, at submillimolar concentrations, of the ion gadolinium, recently shown to block stretch-activated channels in xenopus oocytes [yang, x.-c. & sachs, f. (1989) science 243, 1068-1071], was sufficient to inhibit shock-induced release of metabolites such as lactose and atp in escherichia coli and atp in streptococcus faecalis. moreover, g ...19921350764
antibiotic-resistant enterococci.enterococci have emerged as an important cause of nosocomial infection. successful antibiotic treatment of serious enterococcal infection usually depends on the synergistic bactericidal effect achieved by the combination of a cell wall-active agent, such as ampicillin or a glycopeptide, and an aminoglycoside. however, the prevalence of enterococci resistant to one or more of these antibiotics is increasing, and has resulted in serious therapeutic difficulties. the mechanisms of antibiotic resist ...19921351492
handwashing and disinfection of heavily contaminated hands--effective or ineffective?hands are among the principal vehicles for transfer of nosocomial pathogens in hospitals. often, outbreaks of infection are thought to be caused by a lack of compliance with handwashing guidelines, rather than due to the inadequacy of the handwashing agents used. in this study the effectiveness of proper handwashing and the use of three different hand disinfectants: ethanol 70% (e), isopropanol 40% (i) and alcoholic chlorhexidine (70%) (ac) was compared using three volunteers whose fingertips we ...19921351497
modular design of the enterococcus hirae muramidase-2 and streptococcus faecalis autolysin.the mature forms of the extracellular muramidase-2 of enterococcus hirae and streptococcus faecalis autolysin have very similar primary structures. each consists of an active-site-containing n-terminal domain fused to a multiple-repeat c-terminal domain. polypeptide segments occurring at equivalent places in these two bacterial wall lytic enzymes have homologues in two phage lysozymes and in three functionally unrelated proteins, illustrating the principle that protein molecules frequently are c ...19921352512
[the bactericidal efficiency of ultrasonic in the root canal].the objective of this paper was to determine the quantitative bactericidal efficiency of ultrasonic in the root canal. four test organisms found frequently in the root canal were compared. the result showed ultrasonic can kill the test organisms effectively in the root canals. the best bactericidal efficiency occurred at 4 or 5 min. of ultrasonic though the more efficiency as the time longer. bactericidal irrigation could increase the bactericidal efficiency of ultrasonic and its bactericidal ac ...19921354151
a novel electrical method for the prevention of microbial colonization of intravascular electrical device designed to prevent microbial attachment to plastic intravascular cannulae is described. the device produced an electrical current (10 microa) in both carbon-impregnated and 'hydrocath' cannulae. in-vitro models were utilized to demonstrate that the current can block several mechanisms by which microorganisms gain initial access to intravascular devices, including extra- and intra-luminal routes. the electrical system prevented organisms from traversing along both the extern ...19921358949
[adhesion capacity of enterococcus faecium (sf 68) and enterococcus faecalis to various substrates].the author's studied the adherence ability of enterococcus faecium sf 68 compared to that of enterococcus faecalis im 11f, on various substrates: vascular catheters and cardiac valves of rabbit, immunodepressed rats and diabetic rats. the bacterial adherence test was calculated by the number of bacteria adhered for microscopic field enlarged to 2000. the data obtained by scanning electron microscope sem (cambridge stereoscan 150 mk2) revealed a different adherence action of the two germs on the ...19921365744
immobilization and treatment of streptococcus faecalis for the continuous conversion of arginine into citrulline.citrulline is one of the steps of the arginine dihydrolase system of streptococcus faecalis. we have shown that the bacteria, immobilized in polyacrylamide gel and treated with cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (ctab) or heat, were able to convert arginine to citrulline. used continuously in a column reactor, the entrapped cells have a stable enzymatic activity for at least 30 days at 45 degrees c.19901367441
construction of a bioreactor for production of (r)-(-)-mandelate, a typical specialty chemical. 19901367442
c-terminal identification of ad74, a proteolytic product of enterococcus faecalis aggregation substance: application of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.sexual aggregation involved in conjugative transfer of enterococcus faecalis plasmid pad1 is enhanced by the sex pheromone cad1, which is excreted from recipient cells. a membrane-anchored 137 kda protein is a pad1-encoded aggregation substance designated asal, which is responsible for cell-cell contact and leads to the aggregation of cells. an ad74 protein is a proteolytic product corresponding to the n-terminal half of asal. the c-terminal of ad74 was identified as lysine at position 510 (k-51 ...19921368124
transformation of lactobacillus helveticus subsp. jugurti with plasmid plhr by electroporation.lactobacillus helveticus subsp. jugurti was transformed with plasmid, plhr (8.5 kilobases), by electroporation. the plasmid, plhr, consists of a cryptic plasmid, plj1, from l. helveticus subsp. jugurti, the escherichia coli vector pbr329, and the erythromycin resistance gene of pam beta 1 from enterococcus faecalis. maximum transformation efficiency of 1.3 x 10(4) transformants per microgram of dna was obtained by exposure to a pulse with an exponential decay waveform at 4 kv/cm with 25 microf c ...19901368569
adsorption of streptococcus faecalis on diatomite carriers for use in biotransformations.adsorption of cells on particulate carriers is potentially one of the most cost-effective immobilization techniques available. diatomite carriers, such as celite, have desirable physical properties, are inexpensive, and are suitable for both mycelial and bacterial systems. this work investigated the use of diatomite carriers as a biocatalyst support in a packed-bed reactor where l-tyrosine was enzymatically decarboxylated using adsorbed, non-growing cells of streptococcus faecalis. composition o ...19901369249
molecular design of a eukaryotic messenger rna and its chemical synthesis.a designed mrna consisting of 42 ribonucleotides having the cap structure was synthesized. the capped leader sequence of the brome mosaic virus (bmv) mrna 4, m7g5'pppguauuaaua (f-1), was synthesized by the phosphotriester method and followed by the capping reaction. a 32-mer consisting of an initiation codon (aug), the coding region corresponding to a bacterial pheromone cad1 and two stop codons, was constructed by the 18-mer (f-2) and 14-mer (f-3), which were synthesized by the phosphoramidite ...19921374557
organisms in the prostate and antibiotics in the treatment of postoperative infections.on 24 benign prostatic hyperplasia patients with preoperatively sterile urine, who also had no history of urinary tract infection, the organisms in the prostate obtained through transurethral resection as well as in the anterior urethra were isolated. in 17 patients out of 24, organisms obtained in the prostate were identical to those in the anterior urethra; therefore, it can be concluded that another 7 patients had organisms in the prostate itself before the operation. these results would sugg ...19921374978
induction of nitric oxide synthase is a necessary precondition for expression of tumor necrosis factor-independent tumoricidal activity by activated macrophages.various bacteria and bacterial products induce in pure, lymphocyte-free bone marrow-derived mononuclear phagocytes (bmmø) the generation of tumor necrosis factor, nitric oxide (no) synthase, no and nitrite (no2-), the flow of l-arginine to citrulline, and tumoricidal activity. the flow of l-arginine to citrulline and formation of no/no2- on the one hand and expression of tumoricidal activity were not always closely related; however, these parameters were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by ...19921375460
Displaying items 701 - 800 of 14299