phosphatidylkojibiosyl diglyceride: metabolism and function as an anchor in bacterial cell membrane.the recently discovered phosphoglycolipid, phosphatidylkojibiosyl diglyceride (pkd), was first observed as a biosynthetic by-product of glycosyl diglyceride metabolism in streptococcus faecalis (faecium) atcc 9790. its structure is 1, 2-diacyl-3-o-alpha-dglucopyranosyl-6'-o-phosphoryl- [1'', 2''-diacyl-3''-o-sn-glycerol]-alpha-d-glucopyranosyl)-sn-glycerol. the biosynthesis of phosphatidyl-kojibiosyl diglyceride occurs by a novel transphosphatidylation reaction in which a phosphatidyl glycero ...1975806764
[clinical study with spectacillin on patients with infections of the urogenital system (author's transl)].report is given of clinical experiences gained with the new developed semi-syntheticpenicillin "spectacillin" on 75 patients suffering from an urological disease. the drug has been applied for therapy of acute and chronic forms of inflammations of the bladder and the urethra, additionally the prostatitis, the epididymitis, but first of all the pyelonephritis (caused bacterially). within the germ spectrum of these diseases, germs of the coli-type, streptococcus faecalis (enterococcus), staphyloco ...1975806772
the effectiveness of common office disinfection procedures for gutta-percha and silver points. 1975806861
the digestibility and availability of lysine and methionine in isolated soya-bean protein after severe heat damage. 1975806914
subclinical mastitis in suckler a two-year study of the incidence of subclinical mastitis in two beef suckler herds over 2400 quarter milk samples from 180 cows were examined. somatic cell counts and total bacterial counts were carried out and infecting organisms were isolated on sheep blood agar. results of these tests indicated that: (a) in spite of extremely dirty udders, fewer contaminants were found in the suckler cow milk samples than in a group of over 1700 samples from typical dairy herds; (b) 18 per cent of all q ...1975807019
experimental production of elevated serum folate in dogs with intestinal blind loops. ii. nature of bacterially produced folate coenzymes in blind loop fluid.jejunal and ileal blind loops were constructed in separate groups of dogs and the folate coenzymes present in these loops were investigated. although only those dogs with high blind loops had appreciably elevated folate levels active for lactobacillus casei but not streptococcus faecalis, every blind loop appeared to contain four folate compounds--5-formyltetrahydrofolic acid, 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid, tetrahydrofolic acid and a compound tentatively identified as 5-formyltetrahydrofolic trig ...1975807096
studies of cephalothin: aminoglycoside synergism against enterococci.combinations of cephalothin and aminoglycoside antibiotics are not currently used in the therapy of serious enterococcal infections, because clinical trials of these combinations have been unsuccessful. studies of 28 enterococci isolated from patients with enterococcal bacteremia suggested three possible mechanisms for this in vivo antibiotic failure: (i) a relatively high level of resistance to cephalothin among all enterococci and especially those characterized as streptococcus faecium, (ii) a ...1975807155
membrane filter technique for enumeration of enterococci in marine waters.a membrane filter procedure is described for the enumeration of enterococci in marine waters. the procedure utilizes a highly selective and somewhat differential primary isolation medium followed by an in situ substrate test for identifying colonies of those organisms capable of hydrolyzing esculin. the procedure (me) was evaluated with known streptococci strains and field samples with regard to its accuracy, sensitivity, selectivity, precision, and comparability to existing methods. essentially ...1975807165
the prevalence of enterococci in the human mouth and their pathogenicity in animal models. 1975807189
a critical look at chemical disinfection of anaesthetic apparatus.studies were carried out to test the efficacy of disinfection of a previously contaminated corrugated anaesthetic tube and reservoir bag. bacteriological swabs and sampling with broth were evaluated as methods of detecting contamination. gross contamination was detected by broth sampling on occasions when swabbing failed to reveal contamination. the presence of up to 18% by volume of residual air within the apparatus was detected. a method of ensuring elimination of all air is described and stud ...1975807229
protein quality of feeding-stuffs. 7. collaborative studies on the microbiological assay of available amino acids.1. twenty-two samples of high-protein feeding-stuffs, sixteen of them fish meals, were used in a collaborative study of the precision and the limits of discrimination of the streptococcus zymogenes assay procedure, as applied to the estimation of available methionine, tryptophan and isoleucine contents. 2. all the participating laboratories ranked the test samples in much the same sequence with respect to content for all three amino acids. there were apparently systematic differences between lab ...1975807233
effect of valinomycin on ion transport in bacterial cells and on bacterial growth.the antimicrobial action of valinomycin relative to the k+ and na+ contents of the medium has been investigated in several species of bacteria, particularly in streptococcus faecalis, which effects energy-linked transport exclusively via degradation of glycolytic atp, micrococcus lysodeikticus, effecting active ion transport by respiration and staphylococcus aureus, the energy-dependent ion transport of which is due to both glycolytic atp degradation and respiration. it was demonstrated that val ...1975807259
synthesis and excretion of glycerol teichoic acid during growth of two streptococcal species.examination of both supernatant culture medium and cell pellets after exponential- and stationary-phase growth of streptococcus mutans strain fa-1 and streptococcus faecalis atcc 9790 (s. faecium) showed the presence of [-3h]glycerol-labeled material that possessed several of the properties of glycerol teichoic acid. in the supernatant medium of s. mutans fa-1, an apparently large-molecular-size material, which eluted from agarose columns with the kd value expected of a lipoteichoic acid, was ob ...1975807523
a new parenteral cephalosporin, sk&f 59962: 7-trifluoromethylthioacetamido-3-(1-methyl-1h-tetrazol-5-ylthiomethyl)-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid. chemistry and structure activity relationships.the synthesis, microbiological profile and in vivo effectiveness in laboratory animals of a series of cephalosporins having 7-acyl substituents derived from methylthioacetic acid are described. structure-activity relationships examined include the effect of oxidation of the side-chain sulfur atom, replacement of the (side-chain) methyl hydrogens by fluorine and replacement of the 3-acetoxy substituent by thioheterocycles. one derivative, 7-trifluoromethylthioacetamido-3-(1-methyl-1h-tetrazol-5-y ...1975807547
cellular localization of lipoteichoic acid in streptococcus faecalis.the release of lipoteichoic acid and mesosomal vesicles to the supernatant buffer during the formation of spherical, osmotically fragile bodies was studied using streptococcus faecalis atcc 9790. autolytic n-acetylmuramidase action was permitted to take place in exponential-phase cells incubated in a buffer which provides an exceptional degree of osmotic stabilization. both lipoteichoic acid and mesosomal vesicles were relatively rapidly released to the supernatant buffer. most of the cellular c ...1975807556
folate concentration and pattern in bovine milk. 1975807607
streptococcal infection in young pigs. iv. an outbreak of streptococcal meningitis in weaned pigs.twenty-eight pigs died in an outbreak of streptococcal meningitis in an east anglian herd. most were 10-14 weeks old. the outbreak lasted from january to april and was finally controlled by antibiotic therapy. a similar number of losses had occurred in the previous year though no diagnosis had then been made. the causal agent appeared to be a haemolytic streptococcus belonging to group d and provisionally designated streptococcus suis type 2. it is probably identical with de moor's group r strep ...1975807620
synthesis of n-10-methyl-4-thiofolic acid and related compounds.compound 21 (n10-methyl-4-thiofolic acid) and related compounds were prepared as potential inhibitors of the cofactor forms of tetrahydrofolate. the preparation of 2-acetylamino-4-(benzylthio)-6-chloro-5-nitropyrimidine (4) provided an intermediate that was allowed to react with methyl p-[(3-aminoacetonyl)methylamino]benzoate oxime (16). the oxime function of the resulting 6-substituted aminopyrimidine 6 was hydrolyzed to give the corresponding acetonylaminopyrimidine 7, which on reductive cycli ...1975807732
substituted 1-[(5-nitrofurfurylidene)amino]-4-imidazolin-2-ones.a series of 1-[(5-nitrofurfurylidene)amino]-4-imidazolin-2-ones has been prepared. a new synthesis of 4-alkyl-1-[(5-nitrofurfurylidene)amino]-4-imidazolin-2-ones involving the oxidative ring closure of 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde 2-(2-hydroxyethylalkyl)semicarbazones is described. the in vitro testing of the compounds against a variety of bacteria is reported.1975807733
2-phenethylimidazole derivatives. synthesis and antimycotic properties.compounds of type (x = o, nh; ar and ar' = phenyl of substituted phenyl; ten examples) were prepared and assayed against miconazole (ii,x = o; ar = ar' =2,4-cl2c6h3) as potential antimycotic agents. optimal activity was noted for i(x = o; ar = ar' = 2,4-cl2c6h3), the direct analog of miconazole. it is about one-tenth as active.1975807735
monocyclic antibiotic beta-lactams.the preparation and antimicrobial activity of a series of beta-lactams (3a-f) are described. these compounds were prepared from the 2+2 cycloaddition of beta,beta-disubstituted enamines with aryl isocyanates; compounds 3a-f underwent facile beta-lactam ring fission between aminal carbon atom c4 and the lactam nitrogen n1. the resisting formylacetanilide derivatives were devoid of antibiotic activity.1975807736
competitive effects of intestinal microflora on vibrio cholerae in gnotobiotic mice.the coexistence of vibrio cholerae and several intestinal bacteria was determined in gnotobiotic mice. the bacteria tested included a bacteroides sp, clostridium difficile, clostridium perfringens type a, 2 separate isolates of escherichia coli, 2 different lactobacilli, 2 separate isolates of proteus mirabilis, pseudomonas maltophilia, and streptococcus faecalis. each species of bacteria became established and was recovered repeatedly from the stools during the studies. no single strain or spec ...1975807775
herd incidence of bovine mastitis in four danish dairy. districts ii. evaluation of the effect of the mastitis control scheme.bacteriological and cytological examinations have been carried out on samples from 6,808 cows belonging to 339 herds in four danish dairy districts. after a discussion of differences between the districts as regards intensivity of mastitis control, public health surveillance, etc., definitions are given of certain terms, such as presence of bacteria, infection, pathogenic versus non-pathogenic (less pathogenic) organisms. the rate of infection with pathogenic organisms varies between districts f ...1975807908
plasmid-determined tetracycline resistance in streptococcus faecalis: evidence for gene amplification during growth in presence of tetracycline.the tetracycline (tg)-resistant streptococcus faecalis strain ds-5cl harbors two plasmids designated alpha and gamma with molecular masses of approximately 6 and 35 million daltons, respectively. tc-sensitive variants were derived by storing cells at 45 degrees for 2-3 weeks. analysis of covalently closed circular dna from five such variants (derived independently) revealed that in each variant the alpha-plasmid, which normally sediments at 28 s (supercoiled) in a sucrose density gradient, was r ...1975807914
relationship of bacterial infection in urine and calculi to canine 26 dogs treated surgically for urolithiasis, bacteriological examination of the urine and the interior of calculi showed that infection was present in both materials in 14 cases. infection with phosphate calculi, present in 13 of these 14 dogs, was associated with a variety of bacteria including staphylococcus aureus, staph epidermidis, streptococcus faecalis, escherichia coli and proteus spp. in a follow-up examination of 16 dogs, organisms different from the original isolates were recovered ...1975808018
plasmid-determined resistance to erythromycin: comparison of strains of streptococcus faecalis and streptococcus pyogenes with regard to plasmid hmology and resistance inducibility.streptococcus faecalis strains ds-5 and streptococcus pyogenes strain ac-1 both have a 17 million dalton plasmid that determines resistance to erythromycin, lincomycin, and vernamycin b(alpha). the results of deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization experiments indicate that the two plasmids are about 95% homologous. it was also shown that erythromycin resistance is inducible in ac-1 and constitutive in ds-5.1975808161
editorial: bacteraemia from the bowel. 1975808245
studies of the formation of peptide cross-links in the cell wall peptidoglycan of streptococcus faecalis.a method was developed to label specifically the glycan chains of the cell wall peptidoglycan of streptococcus faecalis atcc 9790 with [14c]acetate. the formation of peptide cross-links (a) during exponential growth, (b) after valine starvation and wall thickening, and (c) during regrowth after 2 hours of valine starvation, was studied using continuous, pulse and pulse-chase labeling of the peptidoglycan with both [14c]acetate and [3h]lysine. after labeling, walls were isolated, digested with th ...1975808547
synthesis and biological activity of 10-thia-10-deaza analogs of folic acid, pteroic acid, and related compounds.the 10-thia analogs of pteroic acid, folic acid, their esters, and their 4-amino analogs were synthesized through a reaction sequence involving, as a key step, the condensation of 2-amino-3-cyano-5-chloromethylpyrazine with appropriately substituted thiols. the abilities of the products to inhibit the growth of methotrexate (mtx)-sensitive and mtx-resistant microorganisms were investigated as were their abilities to inhibit dihydrofolic acid reductase and thymidylic acid synthetase. several comp ...1975808608
synthesis and biological activity of 5-fluoro-4'-thiouridine and some related nucleosides.the synthesis of a series of 4'-thio-5-halogenopyrimidine nucleosides, including the 5-fluoro, chloro, bromo and iodo derivatives, has been carried out by condensation of the 2,4-bis-o-trimethylsilyl derivatives of the corresponding pyrimidine bases with the protected 4-thio-d-ribofuranosyl chloride. among these, the alpha and beta anomers of 4'-thio-5-fluorouridine inhibited the growth of leukemia l1210 cells at concentrations of 4 x 10(-7) and 2 x 10(-7) m, respectively, and that of s. faecium ...1975808609
methotrexate analogs. 6. replacement of glutamic acid by various amino acid esters and amines.a series of methotrexate (mtx) analogs was prepared in which the glutamic acid moiety is replaced by various amino acid esters and amines. the synthetic method consisted of the reaction of 4-amino-4-deoxy-n10-methylpteroic acid with various reagents to form intermediate mixed anhydrides, which then reacted with amino acid esters or amines to give the mtx analogs. these compounds were tested for antibacterial activity against streptococcus faecium and for antitumor activity against l1210 leukemia ...1975808614
[bacteriological detection of asymptomatic urinary tract infections]. 1975808673
detection of bacteriuria in pediatric outpatients. a new culture device.urine samples from 1,003 pediatric patients were examined for bacteriuria with a culture-nitrite strip test, along with microscopic assessment of pyruia and conventional chemical analysis. the latter two methods proved of little value in reliably detecting or excluding substantial bacteriuria. an overall prevalence of 5.2% was shown. using microstix reagent strips, 92 urine samples with substantial colony counts were detected. subculture from the strips disclosed that 52 of these involved single ...1975808961
an assessment of antibiotics for the treatment of pyogenic dental infections.tests made with a series of antibiotics against a number of different organisms indicate that if clinical evidence suggests a streptococcal infection, penicillin should be used otherwise erythromycin is preferred.1975809025
effect of hyperbaric helium on vitamin uptake and utilization by micro-organisms.growth responses under hyperbaric helium of various procaryotic micro-organisms to graded levels of six water-soluble vitamins were measured. vitamins included: thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, and folic acid (folacin). growth response of each organism under hyperbaric helium was compared with that under 80% he-20% o2 and other he-o2 gas mixtures at atmospheric pressure, and with response in air at atmospheric pressure. for five of the six vitamins, no differences in respon ...1975809032
[effect of the combination of 5-methylquinolin-8-ol, 7-bromo-5-methylquinolin-8-ol and 5-methylquinolin-8-ol-dodecylsulfate on the intestinal flora of healthy subjects].the influence of a combination of 5-methyl-quinolin-8-ol, 7-bromo-5-methyl-quinolin-8-ol with 5-methyl-quinolin-8-ol-dodecylsulfate on the composition of intestinal bacteria of healthy adults has been examined. the composition of normal anaerobic and aerobic intestinal bacteria practically showed no change.1975809045
the structure of dihydrofolate reductase. identification of methionine residues carboxymethylated by iodoacetate with loss of catalytic activity.dihydrofolate reductase from the amethopterin-resistant mutant (strain a) of streptococcus faecium var. durans was reacted with iodo[14c]acetate according to three procedures; (a) in the absence of an inhibitor, (b) in the presence of aminopterin, and (c) in absence of inhibitor, but after treatment with unlabeled iodoacetate in presence of aminopterin. the first and last procedures resulted in the loss of approximately 90% of the catalytic activity, whereas in the presence of aminopterin essent ...1975809271
antibacterial activity of human cervical mucus.the antimicrobial property of human uterine cervical mucus was tested in three groups of women. healthy women, using no contraception, women using an intrauterine device and women receiving hormonal treatment for contraception. cervical mucus was taken on the 10th, 14th, 18th and 22nd day of the menstrual cycle. cervical mucus had a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of micrococcus lysodeicticus in all three groups. the strength of the inhibitory effect on the other microorganisms were in t ...1975809320
osteomyelitis caused by streptococcus faecalis (report of an unusual case). 1975809352
evidence for the synthesis of soluble peptidoglycan fragments by protoplasts of streptococcus faecalis.growing protoplasts of streptococcus faecalis 9790 were found to synthesize and excrete soluble peptidoglycan fragments. the presence of soluble peptidoglycan derivatives in culture supernatants was determined by (i) incorporation of three different radioactively labeled precursors (l-lysine, d-alanine, and acetate) into products which, after hen egg-white lysozyme hydrolysis, had the same kd values on gel filtration as muramidase hydrolysis products of isolated walls; (ii) inhibition of net syn ...1975809417
characterization of the presumed peptide cross-links in the soluble peptidoglycan fragments synthesized by protoplasts of streptococcus faecalis.protoplasts of streptococcus faecalis atcc 9790 were produced with the aid of lysozyme, and the ability of these bodies to synthesize soluble, peptide cross-linked peptidoglycan (pg) fragments was examined. lysozyme digests of pg isolated using gel filtration from the supernatant medium of protoplasts grown in the presence of [14c]acetate and l-[3h]lysine contained small amounts of pg having kd expected for peptide cross-linked dimers and trimers. addition of benzyl penicillin (300 mug/ml) to gr ...1975809418
synthesis of peptidoglycan in the form of soluble glycan chains by growing protoplasts (autoplasts) of streptococcus faecalis.protoplasts (autoplasts) of streptococcus faecalis were produced by the action of native autolytic n-acetylmuramidase in the absence of added peptidoglycan hydrolases and were grown in osmotically stabilized medium containing l-[3h]lysine and d-[14c]alanine. to reduce the level of muralytic hydrolysis of glycan chains during growth, heat-inactivated cell walls were added to the medium to bind autolytic enzyme, and tetracycline (1 mug/ml) was added to inhibit further enzyme synthesis. under these ...1975809419
nucleic acid related compounds. 17.3-deazuridine. stannous chloride catalysis of cis-diol vs. phenolic base methylation with diazomethane.treatment of a methanolic solution of 4-hydroxy-1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-2-pyridinone (3-deazauridine, 1) with diazomethane gave 2-methoxy-1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-4-pyridinone (2) and 4-methoxy-1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-2-pyridinone (3a) in an approximate ratio of 1:2. analogous treatment of 1 with diazomethane in the presence of stannous chloride dihydrate gave eight detected products including 2, 2-methoxy-1-(2-o-methyl-beta-d-ribofuranosyl)-4-phridinone (4), 2-methoxy-1-(3-o-methyl-beta-d-ribofuran ...1975809580
'single-stranded' dna from phix174 and m13 is cleaved by certain restriction endonucleases. 1975809717
[change in the accumulation of dibenzyldimethylammonium by irradiated cells of streptococcus under the effects of modifiers of radiation injury]. 1975810185
relationship between various bacterial populations and coprostanol and cholesterol.a year-long study was conducted at three different locations in canada to evaluate the relationship between fecal sterols and bacterial populations. a statistical model was constructed to study the following: (i) seasonal variations in the sterols and bacterial parameters; (ii) the differences between morning and afternoon samples; (iii) the relationship between the two sterols (coprostanol and cholesterol) as well as their relationship to the bacterial parameters; and (iv) the geographical diff ...1975810236
survival of salmonella and other indicator microorganisms.survival times for enteric bacteria and fecal streptococci were investigated using filter-sterilized water from a northern illinois river and temperatures of 0 degrees, 5 degrees, 10 degrees, and 20 degrees c. survival of salmonella typhimurium was essentially the same as escherichia coli over normal seasonal temperatures. fecal streptococci generally exhibited classic survival patterns.1975810237
streptococcal infections--updated.streptococci are amont the most common bacterial pathogens physicians encounter in practice. infections with streptococci continue to occur with significant frequency despite the general sensitivity of these organisms to a variety of widely used antibiotics. in newborn infants and other special patient groups, streptococci may produce fulminant and fatal sepsis (table 1). in normal children and adults, infections usually are short term and often mild or unrecognized but with the possibility of r ...1975810336
the antibacterial and pharmacological activity of oxolinic acid (prodoxol). 1975810473
transmissible toxin (hemolysin) plasmid in streptococcus faecalis and its mobilization of a noninfectious drug resistance plasmid.streptococcus faecalis strain ds-5 has been shown previously to contain three plasmids, pamalpha1, pambeta1, and pamgamma1. mixed incubation of ds-5 with strain jh2-2, a plasmid-free s. faecalis recipient, results in the transfer of pamalpha1 (which determines resistance to tetracycline) and/or pamgamma1. analyses of recipients carrying various combinations of these plasmids have revealed the pamgamma1 codes for toxin (hemolysin) production and two bacteriocin activities. jh2-2 strains carrying ...1975810482
phage typing scheme for group d streptococci isolated from human urogenital tract.streptococci of lancefield group d were isolated from 52.2% of pharyngeal, 55.5% of urethral, 56.6% of endocervical, and 75.4% of ano-rectal specimens. seventeen phages isolated from sewage and urogenital specimens were selected for phage typing. four of these lysed only the strains of streptococcus faecalis and its variety liquefaciens. another six phages lysed only the strains of streptococcus faecium and its variety durans. with the help of seven bacteriophages, 346 of 384 (90.1%) strains of ...1975810495
[effects of formula diet with varying carbohydrate proportion on gut microflora in man].the effects of conventional food and of formula diet on gut microflora were tested in six healthy persons. in comparison with conventional food, the total gut microflora concentrations slightly increased during formula diet with oligosaccharides. during the periods of formula diet rich in sucrose of maltose, total flora concentrations declined. these changes of total gut microflora were especially caused by the increase and decrease of the enterococci and enterobacteria, the bacteroides showing ...1975810751
streptococcus faecalis and streptococcus faecium in infected dental root canals at filling and their susceptibility to azidocillin and some comparable antibiotics.the study was performed on 612 routine cultures of material obtained from root canals of teeth at the time of filling (r-cultures) by students at the department of endodontics during a continuous period of one year. twenty-nine isolates from 27 (29.3%) of the 92 positive cultures filled the criteria of enterococci (sherman, 1937) and had demonstrable group d-antigen. with a set of tests these isolates were identified as follows: strep. faecalis subsp. faecalis (10), strep. faecalis subsp. zymoge ...1975810753
the effect of neutralizing agents on aqueous parachlorophenol.the effect of possible neutralizing agents on aqueous parachlorophenol were studied. results indicated that saline, edtac, dentin, saliva, prolonged light exposure, and thermal extremes do not appreciably affect the antibacterial properties of aqueous parachlorophenol. the presence of blood and necrotic tissue demonstrated a marked inhibitory effect.1975810757
experimental intestinal granulomas. 1975810807
[study of enterococci in milk].studied were a total of 270 samples of raw and pasteurized milk taken during the various technologic states of pasteurized mild produced for consumption at the state economic enterprise "serdica", establishing the enterococcus and coli titers. it was found that the enterococcus titer of the raw milk varies from 10(-3) up to 10(-6), and the titer of the pasteurized milk at the enterprise and upon delivery through its commercial channels is from 1 up to 10(-3). the enterococcus titer of milk that ...1975810940
glomerular and vascular lesions in chronic atrophic pyelonephritis and reflux nephropathy. 1975811093
inhibition of microorganisms by pyrimidine nucleosides. 1975811152
evaluation of a most-probable-number technique for the enumeration of pseudomonas aeruginosa.a most-probable-number (mpn) technique was evaluated for detecting and enumerating pseudomonas aeruginosa in water and wastewater. both the presumptive and confirmatory media, as described in the 13th edition of standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, as well as modifications of these media were included in evaluations. various samples of water were tested, namely chlorinated tap water, creek water, and influent to a wastewater treatment plant. modified media repeatedly gav ...1975811166
distribution and significance of fecal indicator organisms in the upper chesapeake viable aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci were enumerated in samples collected at five stations located in the upper chesapeake bay, december 1973 through december 1974. significant levels of pollution indicator organisms were detected at all of the stations sampled. highest counts were observed in samples collected at the confluence of the susquehanna river and the chesapeake bay. the indicator organisms examined were observed to be q ...1975811167
prophylactic interparietal povidone-iodine in abdominal surgery.this study sought to determine in a district general hospital (a) the frequency and nature of bacterial contamination at operation, (b) the incidence of consequent infection and (c) the prophylactic effect, if any, of interparietal povidone-iodine against postoperative wound infection. bacterial contamination was shown in 49 per cent of all the abdominal surgical wounds at the end of operation. from 61 per cent of the subsequently infected wounds, organisms identified as contaminants at operatio ...1975811302
morphology and viability of large bodies of streptococcal l-forms.a procedure is described for the massive formation and isolation of large bodies of group a and d streptococcal l-forms. up to 90% individual bodies of 20 to 100 mum in diameter can be produced in pour plates of nutrient gelatin and subsequently harvested by simple micromanipulation. the growth of these giant bodies was followed by light microscopy and their ultrastructure and internal architecture was examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. large bodies had a honeycomb struct ...1975811562
selective adhesion of microorganisms to the ductular epithelium of the bovine mammary gland.streptococcus agalactiae, streptococcus faecalis, staphylococcus aureus, escherichia coli, and corynebacterium bovis were examined for their ability to adhere to the ductular epithelial cells of the bovine udder. s. agalactiae and s. aureus adhered readily and in large numbers, whereas the other organisms adhered poorly or not at all. the organisms showing the ability to adhere are those which frequently cause mastitis. these data suggest that selective adherence to the ductular epithelium may b ...1975811566
adherence of bacteria to heart valves in vitro.the abilities of 14 strains of aerobic gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli to adhere in vitro to human or canine aortic valve leaflets were compared. 2-mm sections of excised valve leaflets were obtained by punch biopsy and were incubated under standardized conditions in suspensions of bacteria. valve sections were subsequently washed and homogenized, and quantitative techniques were used to determine the proportions of bacteria from the initial suspensions that had adhered to the valv ...1975811687
streptococcus faecalis chain disruption. 1975811762
quinazolines as inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase. 3. analogs of pteroic and isopteroic acids.a series of 19 quinazoline analogs of pteroic and isopteroic acid was prepared with particular emphasis being placed upon carboxylic acid esters. each compound was evaluated as an inhibitor of the dihydrofolate reductases from rat liver as well as from streptococcus faecium. several of the more potent inhibitors were found to be inactive against l1210 leukemia in mice at low dose levels and were lethal to mice at 100 mg/kg. six compounds were also evaluated for antimalarial activity against plas ...1975811798
3-acyloxymethyl-7-(2-thienylacetamido)-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acids. an improved synthesis and biological properties. 1975811800
studies on the establishment of multi-drug-resistant strain bio-4r of streptococcus faecalis in the intestinal tract of germ-free mice. bacterial interaction and effect of antibiotics.germ-free icr mice were mono- or dicontaminated with a multi-drug-resistant strain bio-4r of streptococcus faecalis (bio-4r) and escherichia coli 026 : k60 (e. coli) and administered aminobenzyl penicillin (abpc). bio-4r was established in the intestinal tract at a level of 10(8) viable cells per gram of stool on the fourth day following oral inoculation and the bio-4r population was stably maintained thereafter. the drug resistance of bio-4r remained unchanged in the intestinal tract of gnotobi ...1975811833
cellular immunity in experimental pyelonephritis. 1975811919
[comparative study of some quaternary ammoniums neutralizing agents. influence of the nature of the bacterial strains used].the neutralising capacity of the anti-bacterial activity of a quaternary ammonium salt, depends on the nature of the bacterial strains used. consequently, the choice of a neutralising agent of the bactericidal activity can only be made following a preliminary study on several bacterial species. out of five products which we tested, we found the tween-lecithin fresh egg mixture alone had satisfactory activity.1975812041
ecological studies of the microbial flora of the female lower genital tract. 1975812101
[studies on enterocinogens of enterococci present in food products and of their role in the mechanism of antagonisms]. 1975812169
[comparative studies on the disinfection effect of bromine and chlorine in swimming pools and model tests]. 1975812178
[microflora and immunity in surgical patients. i. some microfloral indices in the pre- and postoperative periods].surgical treatment can lead to the appearance of a purulent staphylococcus infection of endogenous etiology. endogenous infection originates as a result of the patient's diminished resistance, indicated by an increase in the number of pathogenic staphylococci, the appearance of representatives of the intestinal flora in the oral cavity and on the surface of the skin. no iogenous purulent infection.1975812300
[biocenotic dynamics of liquid sewage in the process of its biological purification at aeration stations].a study was made of biological purification of sewage at the aeration stations on the quantitative composition of the main indicator microbes--of bacteria of the coliform group and of the fecal coliform bacilli, enterococci, proteus, and also pathogenic enterobacteria. there was found a difference in the behaviour of different species of proteus, i.e. reduction in the process of purification in the numbers of pr. mirabilis, and a sharp elevation of pr. morganii content. there was noted an insign ...1975812301
seasonal occurrence and distribution of microbial indicators and pathogens in the rhode river of chesapeake bay.the seasonal incidence and occurrence of indicator organisms and pathogens were studied at four sites in the rhode river, a subestuary of chesapeake bay. the highest frequency of occurrence of total and fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci was in muddy creek, a marsh area receiving pasture land runoff. second highest frequency of occurrence of these bacteria was in cadle creek, a populated area. lowest measurements of these parameters were obtained at stations in the central portion of the rho ...1975812423
role of amino acids on the growth and lipase production of streptococcus faecalis.a study was conducted on the requirement of amino acids for the growth of s. faecalis and its lipase production. arginine, glutamic acid, histidine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, threonine, tryptophane and valine were found to be essential, with alanine, glycine, lysine and serine as stimulatory and aspartic acid, cystine, phenylalanine, proline and tyrosine as non-essential for both growth and lipase synthesis.1975812727
studies of balanced and unblaanced growth of streptococcus mutans. 1976812891
chronic granulomatous disease in an adult male: a proposed x-linked defect.a 25-year old patient with chronic granulomatous disease of somewhat unusual history is described. the diagnosis of cgd was based on increased susceptibility to infection, granulomatous appearance of tissues, and diminished bactericidal and metabolic response of leukocytes during phagocytosis: the clinical and cellular features considered phenotypic of cgd. a 16-year-old female sibling had bactericidal and metabolic abnormalities of leukocyte function similar to those of the patient's leukocytes ...1976812972
synthesis of inhibitors of bacterial cell wall biogenesis. analogs of d-alanyl-d-alanine. 1976812991
chemistry and antibacterial activity of nitrobenzofurans.thirteen 2-methylbenzofurans were synthesized and their antibacterial activity was investigated. 2-methyl-3-nitrobenzofuran and analogs containing 7-no2, 5-no2, 7-br, 7-conh2, and 7-cf3 substituents are bacteriostatic. the spectrum of activity of these compounds is similar to nitrofurazone; however, a strain of e. coli br which has increased resistance to nitrofurazone did not show increased resistance to 3,7-dinitro-2-methylbenzofuran (1). the 3-nitro-2-methylbenzofurans are labile in solution ...1976812994
the faecal flora in ulcerative colitis.differential counts of the faecal flora of patients with ulcerative colitis showed a dysbiotic flora with a 100-fold increase of group-d streptococci and a reduction of bifidobacteria in comparison with the stable eubiotic flora of healthy subjects. the increase in number in group-d streptococci was accompanied by an increase in variety. about four different varieties of enterococci were found in faeces from patients compared with one or two in samples from healthy subjects. the strains isolated ...1975812997
[the antifolic activity of several derivatives of 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine and 2,6-diaminopurine in a microbiologic test system]. 1975813381
severe disabling polyarthritis associated with bacterial endocarditis. 1975813398
infection following total hip replacement in a general hospital without special orthopaedic facilities.infection following total hip replacement is a serious complication for it is frequently impossible to resolve without removal of the prosthesis. we have reviewed 321 total hip replacements undertaken in a general hospital without special orthopaedic theatres. there were 17 deep infections, nine early and eight late. athough the diagnosis of early infection is usually not difficult, the differentiation between late infections, mechanical failure and metal sensitivity may be a problem. this paper ...1975813492
on the mode of action of 5-diazouracil on bacterial cell division.cell division by strains of escherichia coli and salmonella typhimurium is inhibited by 5-diazouracil (5-du). division recovers in the presence of the inhibitor after a period which is temperature-dependent. recovery is probably due to breakdown of 5-du and the rate of this breakdown is apparently increased at alkaline ph. growth with 5-du caused only a slight reduction in the rate of murein synthesis and no alteration in the properties or composition of membranes of s. typhimurium. the agent ca ...1976813834
activation of lipolytic activity of streptococcus faecalis by nitrosoguanidine. 1976814069
microbial synergy in experimental intra-abdominal abscess.intra-abdominal sepsis was studied in wistar rats by using four microbial species: escherichia coli, enterococci, bacteroides fragilis, and fusobacterium varium. these organisms were implanted into the peritoneal cavity singly and in all possible dual combinations. results were evaluated by mortality rates and the incidence of intra-abdominal abscesses on autopsy following sacrifice after 7 days. mortality was restricted to recipients of e. coli, thus implicating coliforms in the acute lethality ...1976814099
selective adherence as a determinant of the host tropisms of certain indigenous and pathogenic bacteria.the relationship between the selective abilities of bacteria to adhere and their predilections for colonizing different mammalian hosts was investigated by using bacteria indigenous to the tongue dorsum of humans and rats as models. streptococcus salivarius and s. sanguis averaged 22.6 and 2.8%, respectively, of the cultivable bacteria recovered from swab samples of the tonges of five humans, but these organisms were not indigenous on the tongues of rats (charles river strain). s. faecalis and s ...1976814100
bacterial endocarditis. echocardiographic and clinical evaluation during two patients with bacterial endocarditis and apparent vegetations, the echocardiographic findings included thickening but normal excursion of the mitral leaflet and abnormal shaggy echoes superimposed on the mitral leaflet echogram. both patients had had endocarditis several weeks before the study was performed. in both patients the abnormal echoes disappeared after antibiotic therapy. whether or not the echocardiographic findings are specific to bacterial endocarditis must be determined by f ...1976814136
antimicrobial efficacy of reduced concentrations of parachlorophenol in extracted teeth. 1975814185
racemic diastereoisomers of 1-amino-2-hydroxycyclopentanecarboxylic acid.the synthesis and characterization of the two diastereoisomeric forms of 1-amino-2-hydroxycyclopentanecarboxylic acid have been accomplished. a previously reported synthesis produced a racemic mixture of the threonine analog trans-2-hydroxy-1-aminocyclopentanecarboxylic acid (trans with respect to the hydroxy and carboxyl group). the alternate allothreonine analog was produced by conversion of cyclopentene oxide to trans-2-methoxycyclopentanol, followed by oxidation to 2-methoxycyclopentanone an ...1976814238
products from furans. 1. sunthesis and anticoccidial and antimicrobial activity of 5-amino-5,6-dihydro-6-methoxy-2-methyl-2-(4'-biphenylyl)-2h-pyran-3(4h)-ones and related compounds.a michael type addition of an amine to 6-methoxy-2-methyl-2-(4'-biphenylyl)-2h-pyran-3(6h)-one (1) dissolved in ether, benzene, or thf gave 5-amino derivatives of 5,6-dihydro-6-methoxy-2-methyl-2-(4'-biphenylyl)-2h-pyran-3(4h)-one (2). these by subsequent reduction with lialh4 were converted to 5-amino derivatives of 6-methoxy-2-methyl-2-(4'-biphenylyl)tetrahydro-2h-pyran-3-ol (3). both isomers a and b of 1 (in regard to the methoxy group at c6) were used for the synthesis of 2 and 3. the in vit ...1976814239
[inoculability and bacteriocinogenic activity of enterococci]. 1975814387
microstix-a reagent strip for urine culture.microstix is a simple and convenient reagent strip for obtaining a semi-quantitative bacterial count on urine specimens. this method correctly predicted over 10(5) gram-negative organisms per ml in 84 percent of samples and over 10(5) gram-positive organisms per ml in 72 percent. urine specimens containing 10(4) per ml or more of any organism should be recultured using fully quantitative methods. if this criterion had been used 89 percent of urine samples with over 10(5) organisms per ml would h ...1975814509
a sensitive radioactive method for determination of glutamine. 1975814840
the effect of cooling and warming rates on the survival of a variety of bacteria.cooling and warming rates affect bacterial survival profoundly with all bacteria tested (azotobacter chroococcum, klebsiella aerogenes, salmonella typhimurium, pseudomonas aeruginosa, streptococcus faecalis) behaving similarly. most bacteria were sensitive to salt on freezing and thawing. viabilities of population frozen and thawed in saline were always less (by at least 20%) than comparable ones frozen in water alone. under these conditions, s. faecalis was resistant to the presence of sodium c ...1976814981
chemical modification of peptide antibiotics : part iii. biological activities of some ethanolamine and tryptophan derivatives and of some polypeptides containing tryptophan. 1975815158
importance of streptococci as pathogens in the urinary tract.streptococcus faecalis, while the most common streptococcal serotype causing urinary tract infection, is not the only one. lancefield group a, b, c and g serotypes are capable of invading the urinary tract. this finding is not generally appreciated. the reason for this anomaly is seen in the failure of most investigators to utilise a definitive procedure to group streptococcal isolates from urine. streptococci are responsible for 8.5 percent of urinary tract infections in this hospital.1975815857
accelerated healing in infected wounds.the effect of a standardized infection of pure and mixed cultures of gram-negative bacteria and a gram-positive coccus was studied in laparotomy wounds of rats. the infections were significantly stronger than in the control group wounds in 14 of 15 comparisons. this increased strength could not be correlated with an increased wound content of collagen. results of histologic studies showed a vigorous inflammatory response which probably was responsible for the increased strength. there was a sugg ...1976816018
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