a pilot-scale microwave technology for sludge sanitization and drying.large volumes of sludge are produced from onsite sanitation systems in densely populated areas (e.g. slums and emergency settlements) and wastewater treatment facilities that contain high amounts of pathogens. there is a need for technological options which can effectively treat the rapidly accumulating sludge under these conditions. this study explored a pilot-scale microwave (mw) based reactor as a possible alternative for rapid sludge treatment. the reactor performance was examined by conduct ...201728605862
molecular epidemiology and antibiotic resistance patterns of enterococcus faecalis isolates from hospitals in tehran.enterococcus faecalis is one of the most important causative agents of nosocomial infections. control and prevention of these infections require appropriate epidemiological knowledge. this study investigated the correlation between molecular characteristics and drug resistance of e. faecalis isolates from local hospitals. a total of 125 isolates of enterococcus faecalis from two hospitals in tehran were identified by using culture and biochemical method. an antibiotic resistance assay was carrie ...201728603229
a new epipolythiodioxopiperazine with antibacterial and cytotoxic activities from the endophytic fungus chaetomium sp. m336.a new compound 6-formamide-chetomin (1) together with chetomin (2) was isolated from solid fermentation products of the endophytic fungus chaetomium sp. m336, which were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 1d and 2d nmr, and hr-esi-ms experiments. the bioassay result showed that compound 1 had strong antibacterial activity against escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus, salmonella typhimurium atcc 6539 and enterococcus faecalis with minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) v ...201728602097
antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotic susceptibility of oral enterococcus faecalis isolates compared to isolates from hospitalized patients and food.enterococcus faecalis, a commensal of the intestinal tract of humans and animals is of great significance as leading opportunistic pathogen, and also prevalent in oral diseases, such as endodontic infections, as well as the healthy oral cavity. to investigate the potential of oral e. faecalis to constitute a reservoir of antibiotic resistance, isolates from supragingival plaque/saliva and from endodontic infections were screened regarding their resistance to selected antibiotics in comparison to ...201728601926
a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay for the rapid detection of enterococcus spp. in water.faecal pollution of water and the resulting potential presence of human enteric pathogens is a predominant threat to public health. microbiological water quality can be assessed by the detection of standard faecal indicator bacteria (sfib) such as e. coli or certain enterococcus species. in recent years, isothermal amplification methods have become a useful alternative to polymerase chain reaction (pcr), allowing molecular diagnostics with simple or no instrumentation. in this study, a novel scr ...201728591662
an entirely solid phase peptide synthesis-based strategy for synthesis of gelatinase biosynthesis-activating pheromone (gbap) analogue libraries: investigating the structure-activity relationships of the enterococcus faecalis quorum sensing signal.the development of an entirely solid-phase peptide synthesis (spps)-based synthesis of the quorum sensing signal gelatinase biosynthesis-activating pheromone (gbap) from enterococcus faecalis is reported. the method was used to prepare three libraries of analogues to investigate the structure-activity relationships (sars) of the gbap signal. the sar studies revealed new characteristics of the gbap signal and uncovered the most potent quorum sensing activator in e. faecalis known to date.201728590764
2,6-difluorobenzamide inhibitors of bacterial cell division protein ftsz: design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationships.a wide variety of drug-resistant microorganisms are continuously emerging, restricting the therapeutic options for common bacterial infections. antimicrobial agents that were originally potent are now no longer helpful, due to their weak or null activity toward these antibiotic-resistant bacteria. in addition, none of the recently approved antibiotics affect innovative targets, resulting in a need for novel drugs with innovative antibacterial mechanisms of action. the essential cell division pro ...201728586174
susceptibility pattern of enterococci at tertiary care hospital.the study was aimed to characterize enterococci from various clinical specimens, to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, and to explore the association between virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance. a total of 283 clinical enterococcal isolates were speciated and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. virulence factors (hemolysin, gelatinase, and biofilm production) were detected phenotypically. of the 283 enterococci isolated, 12 species were identified; pred ...201728584459
can the enterococcus faecalis identified in the root canals of primary teeth be a cause of failure of endodontic treatment?this study investigated the presence of enterococcus faecalis in primary teeth with primary root canal infections and related to the possible failure of pulpectomy outcome after 36 months.201728580816
the role of reactive oxygen species in the antimicrobial activity of pyochelin.the increase in prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (arb) is currently a serious threat, thus there is a need for new antimicrobial compounds to combat infections caused by these arb. an antimicrobial-producing bacterium, burkholderia paludis was recently isolated and was able to produce a type of siderophore with antimicrobial properties, later identified as pyochelin. the chelating ability of pyochelin has been well-characterized but not for its antimicrobial characteristics. it was ...201728580180
antibacterial properties of chitosan nanoparticles and propolis associated with calcium hydroxide against single- and multispecies biofilms: an in vitro and in situ study.the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of chitosan nanoparticles (cnps) and ethanolic propolis extract (epe) incorporated into a calcium hydroxide paste (ca[oh]2) to kill bacterial biofilms.201728578886
genotyping, antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor gene profiles of vancomycin resistance enterococcus faecalis isolated from blood culture.enterococcus spp. is the common of intestinal micro flora in humans but nowadays this gram-positive bacterium causes the variety of nosocomial infections. resistance to antibiotic and also, presence of different virulence genes in the enterococcus spp. can change it to problematic microorganisms in the health care centers. the aim of this study was determined the genotyping, antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor gene profiles of vancomycin resistance enterococcus faecalis isolated from b ...201728578090
analysis of the incidence and risk factors of male urinary tract infection following urodynamic study.the purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors of male urinary tract infection (uti) after urodynamic study (uds). a total of 854 consecutive male patients, who underwent uds at peking union medical college hospital from january 2010 to march 2016, were recruited in this study. two to four weeks before the examination, urinalysis with bacterial culture was performed. patients with negative results were selected for uds. immediately before the examination, urinalysis ...201728577157
bactericidal activity and synergy studies of peptide ap-cect7121 against multi-resistant bacteria isolated from human and animal soft tissue infections.ap-cect7121 is an antimicrobial peptide, produced by enterococcus faecalis cect7121, with bactericidal activity against gram-positive bacteria. the aim of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal activity of ap-cect7121, alone and with gentamicin, against multi-resistant bacteria isolated from human and animals with soft tissue infections. during the period 2014-2015, bacterial strains producing human and animal soft tissue infections were studied. samples from patients attended at a general ...201728573492
detection of the optra gene in a clinical st16 enterococcus faecalis isolate in denmark. 201728572038
phytochemical characterisation and bioprospection for antibacterial and antioxidant activities of lippia alba brown ex britton & wilson (verbenaceae).ethanol extract and fractions obtained from fresh and dry aerial parts of lippia alba were examined in order to determine their phytochemical composition, antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activities. the ethanol extracts and fractions exhibited an antioxidant effect by the dpph assay, especially samples of fresh plant. hplc analysis of the ethyl acetate fractions identified the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids. the ethanol extract and fractions showed activity against reference an ...201728571495
comparative evaluation of different modes of laser assisted endodontics in primary teeth: an in vitro study.the presence of bacteria in root canals has been considered to be responsible for endodontic treatment failure, even in case of primary teeth. the use of lasers can be a valuable addition in removing bacterial load in areas where traditional methods may fail to succeed. methods like direct laser irradiation of canals, laser activated irrigation (lai) with sodium hypochlorite (naocl) and photodynamic therapy (pdt) seem to be a promising alternative for disinfection.201728571279
effects of diode laser, gaseous ozone, and medical dressings on enterococcus faecalis biofilms in the root canal ex vivo.the objective was to compare the antibacterial effects of adjunctive disinfection using diode laser and gaseous ozone compared to the medical dressings calcium hydroxide (ca(oh)2) and chlorhexidine gel (chx-gel) on enterococcus faecalis biofilms in human root canals ex vivo. root canals of 180 human extracted teeth were infected by e. faecalis and divided into 3 main groups (g): g1, control; g2, instrumentation and irrigation using 0.9% nacl; g3, instrumentation and irrigation using 1% naocl. in ...201728567421
virulence factors associated with enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis: a mini review.the enterococci are accountable for up to 20% of all cases of infective endocarditis, with enterococcus faecalis being the primary causative isolate. infective endocarditis is a life-threatening infection of the endocardium that results in the formation of vegetations. based on a literature review, this paper provides an overview of the virulence factors associated with e. faecalis infective endocarditis. furthermore, it reports the effects of active or passive immunization against some of these ...201728567146
human bile reduces antimicrobial activity of selected antibiotics against enterococcus faecalis and escherichia coli in has been known from previous studies that body fluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid, lung surfactant, and urine, have a strong impact on the bacterial killing of many anti-infective agents. however, the influence of human bile on the antimicrobial activity of antibiotics is widely unknown. human bile was obtained and pooled from 11 patients undergoing cholecystectomy. after sterilization of the bile fluid by gamma irradiation, its effect on bacterial killing was investigated for linezolid (lzd ...201728559254
collaborative research on puerperal infections in bangladesh.bangladesh is considered as a high-risk country for emerging infectious diseases because of its high population density, poverty, and unhygienic conditions. although control efforts have primarily been focused on major infectious diseases such as diarrheal diseases, tuberculosis, malaria, and hiv infection, the prevalence and impact of many local or minor infectious diseases are still unclarified in this country. in this review, we present our recent experience and outcomes of collaborative rese ...201728552890
structure and dimerization of ireb, a negative regulator of cephalosporin resistance in enterococcus faecalis.enterococcus faecalis, a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections, exhibits intrinsic resistance to most cephalosporins, which are antibiotics in the beta-lactam family that target cell-wall biosynthesis. a comprehensive understanding of the underlying genetic and biochemical mechanisms of cephalosporin resistance in e. faecalis is lacking. we previously determined that a transmembrane serine/threonine kinase (irek) and its cognate phosphatase (irep) reciprocally regulate cephalosporin resi ...201728551334
a novel polytetrafluoroethylene-channel model, which simulates low levels of culturable bacteria in buildup biofilm after repeated endoscope reprocessing.clinical studies have shown variable culture results from flexible endoscope channels possibly because of low levels of bacteria that are difficult to extract. the aim of this study was to develop a simulated-use buildup biofilm (bbf) model that mimics low levels of viable bacteria after repeated rounds of aldehyde fixation and accumulation.201728551023
comparative evaluation of micron- and nano-sized intracanal medicaments on penetration and fracture resistance of root dentin - an in vitro study.intracanal medicaments play a vital role in disinfection of root canal system. the aim of this study was to evaluate intratubular penetration and fracture resistance of roots filled with micron- and nano-sized intracanal medicaments: calcium hydroxide (ch), nanocalcium hydroxide (nch), chitosan (cs) and nanochitosan (ncs). their antibacterial effect on e. faecalis was tested using agar diffusion method. nch and ncs were prepared by precipitation method and ionic crosslinking respectively. nch an ...201728545965
identification of enterococcus faecalis enzymes with azoreductases and/or nitroreductase activity.nitroreductases, nad(p)h dependent flavoenzymes, are found in most of bacterial species. even if enterococcus faecalis strains seems to present such activity because of their sensitivity to nitrofurans, no enzyme has been described. nitroreductases were separated of others reductases due to their capacity to reduce nitro compounds. they are further classified based on their preference in cofactor: nadh and/or nadph. however, recently, azoreductases have been studied for their strong activity on ...201728545445
influence of different wild-garlic (allium ursinum) extracts on the gastrointestinal system: spasmolytic, antimicrobial and antioxidant there are no previous studies of the european wild-garlic (allium ursinum) effects on the gastrointestinal system, despite its traditional applications in gastrointestinal disorders' treatment and regular use in the human diet, we have quantified and compared spasmolytic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of its different leaf extracts.201728543032
antimicrobial resistance status of enterococcus from australian cattle populations at slaughter.antimicrobial agents are used in cattle production systems for the prevention and control of bacterial associated diseases. a consequence of their use is the potential development of antimicrobial resistance (amr). enterococcus faecium and enterococcus faecalis that are resistant to antimicrobials are of increased concern to public health officials throughout the world as they may compromise the ability of various treatment regimens to control disease and infection in human medicine. australia i ...201728542602
emergence of vana enterococcus faecium in denmark, describe the changing epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecium and enterococcus faecalis in clinical samples in denmark 2005-15 according to species and van type, and, furthermore, to investigate the genetic relatedness of the clinical e. faecium isolates from 2015.201728541565
the bacteriophage ef-p29 efficiently protects against lethal vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis and alleviates gut microbiota imbalance in a murine bacteremia model.enterococcus faecalis is becoming an increasingly important opportunistic pathogen worldwide, especially because it can cause life-threatening nosocomial infections. treating e. faecalis infections has become increasingly difficult because of the prevalence of multidrug-resistant e. faecalis strains. because bacteriophages show specificity for their bacterial hosts, there has been a growth in interest in using phage therapies to combat the rising incidence of multidrug-resistant bacterial infect ...201728536572
effect of gnp functionalisation and multiple n-methylation of β-amyloid residue (32-37) on gram-positive the previous report, the authors showed the gold nanoparticle (gnp) functionalised multiple n-methylated fragments of the residue (32-37) of beta (β)-amyloid protein (1-42), cggiglmvg and cgggggiglmvg toward disruption of β-amyloid (1-42), the predominant component of senile plaques. herein the in vitro antimicrobial activities of both normal and multiple n-methylated sequences of cggiglmvg and cgggggiglmvg were screened and it was found that all the eight sequences including four (non-functi ...201728530185
occurrence of enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium in various clinical infections: detection of their drug resistance and virulence determinants.the aim of this study was to characterize virulence determinants and antibiotic resistance profiles in enterococci obtained from various clinical sources in the northwest of iran. a total of 160 enterococcal clinical isolates from various wards of university teaching hospitals were collected and specified by biochemical test, from september 2014 to july 2015. identification of enterococci was confirmed by multiplex pcr in the genus and species level. antibiotic resistance properties and virulenc ...201728525287
mechanisms of peptide sex pheromone regulation of conjugation in enterococcus many gram positive bacteria, horizontal transfer and virulence are regulated by peptide-mediated cell-cell signaling. the heptapeptide ccf10 (c) activates conjugative transfer of the enterococcus faecalis plasmid pcf10, whereas the icf10 (i) peptide inhibits transfer. both peptides bind to the same domain of the master transcription regulator prgx, a repressor of transcription of the prgq operon encoding conjugation genes. we show that repression of prgq by prgx tetramers requires formation o ...201728523739
water and air ozone treatment as an alternative sanitizing technology.we investigated the effectiveness of ozone (aqueous and gaseous) treatment as an alternative sanitizing technology to common conventional disinfectants in reducing the microbial contamination of both water and air.201728515631
comparison of simplistic biofilm models for 
evaluating irrigating solutions.many innovations have recently been implemented in the field of endodontics, often based on a variety of in-vitro/ex-vivo test setups. it was the goal of this research to compare different biofilm models for evaluating the effectiveness of rinsing solutions.201728512652
comparative antimicrobial efficacy of eucalyptus galbie and myrtus communis l. extracts, chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite against enterococcus faecalis.the aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of eucalyptusgalbie and myrtus communis l. methanolic extracts, chlorhexidine (chx) and sodium hypochlorite (naocl) on enterococcus faecalis (e. faecalis) as the predominant species isolated from infected root canals.201728512487
comparative evaluation of three herbal solutions on the disinfection of guttapercha cones: an in vitro study.guttapercha (gp) cones are usually supplied in aseptic, sealed packages from the manufacturers, but once exposed to the dental office environment or even by handling; they can be contaminated by a number of microorganisms. supplementary decontamination of gp cones is critical. as they cannot be sterilized by moist or dry heat, cold sterilization, using disinfectants should be used.201728511502
rapid identification of vancomycin resistant enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates using a sugar fermentation method.vancomycin resistant enterococci (vre) can be found all over the world. thus, rapid detection of the isolates could be of high importance in the treatment or prevention of the associated disease.201728511382
development of a panel of recombinase polymerase amplification assays for detection of common bacterial urinary tract infection develop and evaluate the performance of a panel of isothermal real-time recombinase polymerase amplification (rpa) assays for detection of common bacterial urinary tract infection (uti) pathogens.201728510991
antimicrobial, anticancer, and antioxidant compounds from premna resinosa growing in saudi arabia.premna resinosa (hochst.) schauer (lamiaceae) is used in many places to treat bronchitis, respiratory illness and convulsions of the rib cage.201728508699
the effect of sodium hypochlorite concentration and irrigation needle extension on biofilm removal from a simulated root canal investigate the effect of sodium hypochlorite concentration and needle extension on removal of enterococcus faecalis biofilm, sixty root canal models were 3d printed. biofilms were grown on the apical 3 mm of the canal for 10 days. irrigation for 60s with 9 ml of either 5.25% or 2.5% naocl or water was performed using a needle inserted either 3 or 2 mm from the canal terminus and imaged using fluorescence microscopy and residual biofilm percentages were calculated using imaging software. the ...201728508523
empyema thoracis caused by an optra-positive and linezolid-intermediate enterococcus faecalis strain. 201728506787
chemical composition, antibacterial, schistosomicidal, and cytotoxic activities of the essential oil of dysphania ambrosioides (l.) mosyakin & clemants (chenopodiaceae).we have investigated the chemical composition and the antibacterial activity of the essential oil of dysphania ambrosioides (l.) mosyakin & clemants (chenopodiaceae) (da-eo) against a representative panel of cariogenic bacteria. we have also assessed the in vitro schistosomicidal effects of da-eo on schistosoma mansoni and its cytotoxicity to gm07492-a cells in vitro. gas chromatography (gc) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc/ms) revealed that the monoterpenes cis-piperitone oxide (35. ...201728504841
metabolic impact of nutrient starvation in mevalonate-producing escherichia coli.the aim of this work was to enhance mevalonate yield from glucose in escherichia coli by essential nutrient starvations and to reveal these effects on the central carbon metabolism. stationary phase culture without essential nutrients such as nitrogen, sulfur, and magnesium was evaluated using an engineered e. coli introducing mvae and mvas genes from enterococcus faecalis. sulfur starvation resulted in the highest mevalonate yield of 0.61c-molc-mol(-1) from glucose. the metabolic impacts of nut ...201728501379
occurrence of ampicillin-resistant enterococcus faecium carrying esp gene in pet animals: an upcoming threat for pet lovers.this study was carried out to investigate oral colonisation by enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium in pet dogs and cats, with special reference to antibiotic resistance.201728499907
an iterative glycosyltransferase ents catalyzes transfer and extension of o- and s-linked monosaccharide in enterocin 96.glycosyltransferases are essential tools for in vitro-glycoengineering. bacteria harbor an unexplored variety of protein glycosyltransferases. here, we describe a peptide glycosyltransferase (ents) encoded by orf0417 of enterococcus faecalis tx0104. ents di-glycosylates linear peptide of enterocin 96- a known antibacterial, in vitro. it is capable of transferring as well as extending the glycan onto the peptide in an iterative sequential dissociative manner. it can catalyze multiple linkages: gl ...201728498962
etiological and resistance profile of bacteria involved in urinary tract infections in young children.background. the objective of this study was to identify the bacteria most frequently responsible for urinary tract infection (uti) in the population of under-2-year-olds in our geographic area and to evaluate the activity of antibiotics widely used for uti treatment during a 4-year study period. materials and methods. a retrospective analysis was conducted of data on the identification and susceptibility of microorganisms isolated in urine samples from children under 2 years of age. results. a t ...201728497052
antimicrobial resistance patterns in women with positive urine culture: does menopausal status make a significant difference?aim. urinary tract infection (uti) is considered one of the most common bacterial infections in women. the aim of this study was to investigate the types of uropathogens present, as well as the degree of antimicrobial drug resistance seen among premenopausal (n = 2748) and postmenopausal (n = 1705) women with uncomplicated uti. methods. urinary samples (n = 4453) collected from women with uti were analyzed in terms of uropathogens present. these were considered as positive if bacterial growth wa ...201728497048
evaluation of the synergistic effect of tomatidine with several antibiotics against standard and clinical isolates of staphylococcus aureus, enterococcus faecalis, pseudomonas aeruginosa and escherichia coli.antibiotic resistance is an important problem in antibiotic treatment of infections, particularly in hospitals. tomatidine is a plant secondary metabolite with antimicrobial and antifungal effects. this study examined the possible synergistic effect tomatidine with several antibiotics against standard and clinical strains of staphylococcus aureus, enterococcus faecalis, pseudomonas aeruginosa and escherichia coli. after determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) of antibiotics and ...201728496482
chemical composition, antibacterial and antifungal activities of flowerhead and root essential oils of santolina chamaecyparissus l., growing wild in tunisia.the antimicrobial properties of essential oil from various santolina species have not been investigated enough in the previous studies dealing with the biological activities of medicinal plants. in tunisia, santolina chamaecyparissus l. (asteraceae) is the only santolina species recorded and is used as vermifuge and emmenagogue. the chemical composition, antibacterial and antifungal properties of essential oils from the flowerheads and roots of spontaneous s. chamaecyparissus growing in tunisia ...201728490960
the most frequent isolates from outpatients with urinary tract infection.the main objective of the study was to identify the most frequent isolates from female outpatients with urinary tract infection.201728484348
five-year summary of in vitro activity and resistance mechanisms of linezolid against clinically important gram-positive cocci in the united states from the leader surveillance program (2011 to 2015).this report describes linezolid susceptibility testing results for 6,741 gram-positive pathogens from 60 u.s. sites collected during 2015 for the leader program. in addition, the report summarizes linezolid in vitro activity, resistance mechanisms, and molecular typing obtained for 2011 to 2015. during 2015, linezolid showed potent activity in testing against staphylococcus aureus, inhibiting >99.9% of 3,031 isolates at ≤2 µg/ml. similarly, linezolid showed coverage against 99.2% of coagulase-ne ...201728483950
association of metal homeostasis and (p)ppgpp regulation in the pathophysiology of enterococcus enterococcus faecalis, the regulatory nucleotides pppgpp and ppgpp, collectively, (p)ppgpp, are required for growth in blood, survival within macrophages, and virulence. however, a clear understanding of how (p)ppgpp promotes virulence in e. faecalis and other bacterial pathogens is still lacking. in the host, the essential transition metals iron (fe) and manganese (mn) are not readily available to invading pathogens because of a host-driven process called nutritional immunity. considering it ...201728483855
cytoprotective effect of the enzyme-mediated polygallic acid on fibroblast cells under exposure of uv-irradiation.the poly(gallic acid), produced by laccase-mediated oxidation of gallic acid in aqueous media (ph5.5) to attain a novel material with well-defined molecular structure and high water solubility (500mg/ml at 25°c), has been investigated to understand its potential biological activities. in this regard, a biomedical approach based on cytoprotective effect on human fibroblast cells exposed to uv-irradiation in the presence of the polymer has been demonstrated. the results also shows that 200μg/ml of ...201728482545
use of photo-fenton's reaction by 400-nm led light for endodontic disinfection: a preliminary in vitro study on enterococcus of the biggest challenges in endodontics is the complete disinfection of root canals. in addition to mechanical preparation, the technique traditionally also involves channel disinfection with other agents such as sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, chlorhexidine, or a combination of these. some bacterial species are particularly resistant to eradication. using enterococcus faecalis in this preliminary study, we tested the bactericidal effectiveness of the fenton reaction and the photo-f ...201728482224
daptomycin: new insights into an antibiotic of last resort. 201728481142
studies on chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of bioactive molecules from date palm (phoenixdactylifera l.) pollens and seeds.natural resources have been the crucial origin of chemical elements. they have been used in many traditions as alternative medicines. the chemical profiling of some plant extracts and essential oils related to different plants were followed to unveil their most active components. in this paper, phoenix dactilyfera l was selected as a host plant to investigate the composition of different organs with different cultivars.201728480436
does the removal of cementum facilitate bacterial penetration into dentinal tubules in vitro?the importance of an intact layer of cementum on the root surface in preventing bacterial penetration into radicular dentin has not been sufficiently investigated. the aim of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of the absence of cementum from the root surface and the length of the infection period (2 or 4 weeks) on the maximum depth of bacterial penetration and the percentage of sectors lined with bacteria.201728476468
urinary tract infections in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes: clinical correlates and quinolone susceptibility.introduction diabetes mellitus and the postmenopausal period are associated with increased risk of urinary tract infections (utis) in women. however, data on utis in postmenopausal diabetic women are scarce. objectives the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of utis in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus, identify the potential risk factors, describe the causative pathogens, and assess their susceptibility to quinolones.  patients and methods patients were interviewe ...201728475170
a short artificial antimicrobial peptide shows potential to prevent or treat bone infections.infection of bone is a severe complication due to the variety of bacteria causing it, their resistance against classical antibiotics, the formation of a biofilm and the difficulty to eradicate it. antimicrobial peptides (amps) are naturally occurring peptides and promising candidates for treatment of joint infections. this study aimed to analyze the effect of short artificial peptides derived from an optimized library regarding (1) antimicrobial effect on different bacterial species, (2) efficac ...201728473710
chicken embryo lethality assay for determining the lethal dose and virulence of enterococcus faecalis.enterococcus faecalis is the major pathogen found in field cases of amyloid arthropathy in chickens. given the need for a better understanding of the virulence mechanisms of the causative strains, the embryo lethality assay (ela) is proposed in the present study as a model to evaluate the virulence of e. faecalis strains, specifically the pathogenic avian strain k923/96, which was previously related with amyloid arthropathy. hence, 0.2 ml of five doses of the cited strain (from 2.5 to 2500 colon ...201728470098
evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of photodynamic therapy vs. 2.5% naocl against e. faecalis-infected root canals using real-time pcr technique.bacteria like e. faecalis can produce intra- and extra-radicular biofilms. theoretically, the adjustable penetration ability of lasers enables better access to root canal system. therefore the aim of the present study was to compare the ability of photoactivated laser and 2.5% naocl irrigation solution to eliminate e. faecalis from the root canals by real-time pcr technique.201728469819
role of surface energy and nano-roughness in the removal efficiency of bacterial contamination by nonwoven wipes from frequently touched associated infections (hcais) are responsible for substantial patient morbidity, mortality and economic cost. infection control strategies for reducing rates of transmission include the use of nonwoven wipes to remove pathogenic bacteria from frequently touched surfaces. wiping is a dynamic process that involves physicochemical mechanisms to detach and transfer bacteria to fibre surfaces within the wipe. the purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which systematic changes ...201728469734
molecular mechanism of quorum-sensing in enterococcus faecalis: its role in virulence and therapeutic approaches.quorum-sensing systems control major virulence determinants in enterococcusfaecalis, which causes nosocomial infections. the e. faecalis quorum-sensing systems include several virulence factors that are regulated by the cytolysin operon, which encodes the cytolysin toxin. in addition, the e. faecalis fsr regulator system controls the expression of gelatinase, serine protease, and enterocin o16. the cytolysin and fsr virulence factor systems are linked to enterococcal diseases that affect the hea ...201728467378
total staphylococci as performance surrogate for greywater treatment.faecal indicator bacteria (fib) are commonly used as water quality indicators; implying faecal contamination and therefore the potential presence of pathogenic enteric bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. hence in wastewater treatment, the most commonly used treatment process measures (surrogates) are total coliforms, faecal coliforms, escherichia coli (e. coli), and enterococci. however, greywater potentially contains skin pathogens unrelated to faecal load, and e. coli and other fib may grow withi ...201728462431
applications of copolymer for rapid identification of bacteria in blood culture broths using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) can be used to identify pathogens in blood culture samples. however, sample pretreatment is needed for direct identification of microbes in blood culture bottles. conventional protocols are complex and time-consuming. therefore, in this study, we developed a method for collecting bacteria using polyallylamine-polystyrene copolymer for application in wastewater treatment technology. using representative ba ...201728461023
bacterial diversity of the gastric content of preterm infants during their first month of life at the hospital.studies focused on the stomach microbiota are relatively scarce, and most of them are focused on the adult population. the aim of this work is to describe the bacterial communities inhabiting the gastric content (gc) of preterm neonates. for that purpose, gc samples were collected weekly from a total of 13 preterm neonates during their first month of life within their hospital stay. samples were analyzed by using both culture-dependent and -independent techniques. the former allowed the isolatio ...201728459051
transcriptomics analysis reveals putative genes involved in biofilm formation and biofilm-associated drug resistance of enterococcus faecalis.enterococcus faecalis is a gram-positive bacterium associated with endodontic infections and is capable of forming biofilms that can confer drug resistance to the bacterium, resulting in treatment failure. current knowledge on e. faecalis drug resistance is of a limited and conflicting nature. the present study examined the genetic basis of e. faecalis biofilm formation and drug resistance using a rna sequencing (rna-seq)-based transcriptome approach.201728457636
high-purity nisin alone or in combination with sodium hypochlorite is effective against planktonic and biofilm populations of enterococcus faecalis.nisin, a broad-spectrum bacteriocin, has recently been highlighted for its biomedical applications. to date, no studies have examined the antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties of high-purity (>95%) nisin (nisin zp) on enterococcus faecalis and biofilms formed by this species. we hypothesize that nisin can inhibit e. faecalis and reduce biofilm biomass, and combinations of nisin and sodium hypochlorite (naocl) will enhance the antibiofilm properties against e. faecalis biofilms.201728457635
enzymes required for maltodextrin catabolism in enterococcus faecalis exhibit novel activities.maltose and maltodextrins are formed during the degradation of starch or glycogen. maltodextrins are composed of a mixture of maltooligosaccharides formed by α-1,4- but also some α-1,6-linked glucosyl residues. the α-1,6-linked glucosyl residues are derived from branching points in the polysaccharides. in enterococcus faecalis, maltotriose is mainly transported and phosphorylated by a phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system. the formed maltotriose-6″-phosphate is intracellular ...201728455338
response surface method optimization of a novel hypericin formulation in p123 micelles for colorectal cancer and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy.the photodynamic properties of hypericin (hyp) may be used as an alternative treatment for malignancies of the lower gastrointestinal tract and for the prevention of surgical-site infection; however, its use in photodynamic therapy has been limited because of its poor hydrosolubility. therefore, in order to improve its water solubility and its photodynamic effect, hyp was encapsulated in pluronic p123 (p123) and the photodynamic effects against intestinal and epidermal bacteria and against two l ...201728454049
recurrence of deep surgical site infection in cerebral palsy after spinal fusion is rare.retrospective review of prospective registry.201728449964
synthesis and bioactivity evaluation of novel 2-salicyloylbenzofurans as antibacterial order to discover new antibacterial agents, series of 2-salicyloylbenzofuran derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antibacterial activities against three gram-(+) strains (methicillin-sensitive staphylococcus aureus (mssa) atcc 29213, methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) atcc 43300, and streptococcus faecalis (s. faecalis) atcc 29212) and one gram-(-) strain (escherichia coli (e. coli) atcc 25922). the 2-salicyloylbenzofuran heterocycles were generated b ...201728441350
substance p enhances lactic acid and tyramine production in enterococcus faecalis v583 and promotes its cytotoxic effect on intestinal caco-2/tc7 cells.enterococcus faecalis, generally considered as a saprophytic bowel commensal, has recently emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen causing severe urinary tract infections, surgical wound infections, bacteremia, and bacterial endocarditis. this bacterium is capable of forming biofilms on various surfaces and its high level of antibiotic resistance contributes to its pathogenicity. the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on e. faecalis, of substance p (sp), an antimicrobial peptide th ...201728439299
comparison of linezolid and vancomycin lock solutions with and without heparin against biofilm-producing bacteria.the activity of linezolid and vancomycin lock solutions against biofilm-producing strains of staphylococcus aureus, s. epidermidis, and enterococcus faecalis was studied.201728438824
comparative evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of an alternative natural agent for disinfection of toothbrushes.the aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial potency of aqueous extract of psidium guajava leaves in two different concentrations as a toothbrush disinfectant against three oral bacterial species.201728435376
dual-targeting small-molecule inhibitors of the staphylococcus aureus fmn riboswitch disrupt riboflavin homeostasis in an infectious setting.riboswitches are bacterial-specific, broadly conserved, non-coding rna structural elements that control gene expression of numerous metabolic pathways and transport functions essential for cell growth. as such, riboswitch inhibitors represent a new class of potential antibacterial agents. recently, we identified ribocil-c, a highly selective inhibitor of the flavin mononucleotide (fmn) riboswitch that controls expression of de novo riboflavin (rf, vitamin b2) biosynthesis in escherichia coli. he ...201728434876
disinfection of water inoculated with enterococcus faecalis using solar/fe(iii)edds-h2o2 or s2o8(2-) this study, the activation of h2o2 and persulfate ions induced by solar photolysis of fe(iii)edds complex were investigated in water disinfection, applying solar aops processes. the use of fe(iii)edds complex maintains iron in soluble form until slightly basic ph and so the photolysis is efficient in a large range of ph compatible with natural waters. moreover, for the first time, the impact of photogenerated hydroxyl and sulfate radicals on the inactivation of enterococcus faecalis in water ...201728433695
diversity of integrative and conjugative elements of streptococcus salivarius and their intra- and interspecies transfer.integrative and conjugative elements (ices) are widespread chromosomal mobile genetic elements which can transfer autonomously by conjugation in bacteria. thirteen ices with a conjugation module closely related to that of icest3 of streptococcus thermophilus were characterized in streptococcus salivarius by whole-genome sequencing. sequence comparison highlighted ice evolution by shuffling of 3 different integration/excision modules (for integration in the 3' end of the fda, rpsi, or rpmg gene) ...201728432093
[effects of application of vancomycin in the early stage of patients with extremely severe burn].objective: to evaluate the effects of application of vancomycin in the early stage of patients with extremely severe burn, in order to provide reference to drug for anti-infection treatment in the early stage of patients with extremely severe burn. methods: data of 15 patients of kunshan explosion on august 2nd, 2014, admitted to the department of intensive care in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. the clinical efficacy of continuously intravenous dripping of vancomycin (combined with ...201728427133
correction: chitosan-propolis nanoparticle formulation demonstrates anti-bacterial activity against enterococcus faecalis biofilms.[this corrects the article doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0174888.].201728426772
comprehensive analysis of phospholipids and glycolipids in the opportunistic pathogen enterococcus faecalis.enterococcus faecalis is a gram-positive, opportunistic, pathogenic bacterium that causes a significant number of antibiotic-resistant infections in hospitalized patients. the development of antibiotic resistance in hospital-associated pathogens is a formidable public health threat. in e. faecalis and other gram-positive pathogens, correlations exist between lipid composition and antibiotic resistance. resistance to the last-resort antibiotic daptomycin is accompanied by a decrease in phosphatid ...201728423018
split tasks of asymmetric nucleotide-binding sites in the heterodimeric abc exporter efrcd.many heterodimeric atp-binding cassette (abc) exporters evolved asymmetric atp-binding sites containing a degenerate site incapable of atp hydrolysis due to noncanonical substitutions in conserved sequence motifs. recent studies revealed that nucleotide binding to the degenerate site stabilizes contacts between the nucleotide-binding domains (nbds) of the inward-facing transporter and regulates atp hydrolysis at the consensus site via allosteric coupling mediated by the d-loops. however, it is u ...201728417533
effect of instrumentation techniques and preparation taper on apical extrusion of bacteria.the aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of different root canal instrumentation techniques and preparation tapers on the amount of apically extruded bacteria.201728416303
effect of bacterial biofilm on the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells of apical papilla.although clinical success in regenerative endodontics is substantially high, histological success is limited to finding bone/cementum-like tissue instead of dentin within the canal space. the aims of this study were to investigate (1) the effect of bacterial biofilm on osteogenic gene expression in stem cells of the apical papilla (scap) and (2) the effect of bacterial antigens on the functional differentiation of scap into a mineralizing phenotype.201728416302
bacterial epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance profiles of urinary specimens of the elderly.although urinary tract infections are the second leading cause of infections among patients aged above 65 years, data on bacterial epidemiology of urinary specimens in these patients is scarce. our aim was to describe the main bacterial species found at significant levels in urine specimens of the elderly and to determine their antimicrobial resistance profiles.201728408060
preventive effects of heat-killed enterococcus faecalis strain ec-12 on mouse intestinal tumor development.establishing effective methods for preventing colorectal cancer by so-called "functional foods" is important because the global burden of colorectal cancer is increasing. enterococcus faecalis strain ec-12 (ec-12), which belongs to the family of lactic acid bacteria, has been shown to exert pleiotropic effects, such as anti-allergy and anti-infectious effects, on mammalian cells. in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of heat-killed ec-12 on intestinal carcinogenesis. ...201728406434
peptidoglycan o-acetylation increases in response to vancomycin treatment in vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis.vancomycin resistance is conferred upon vancomycin-resistant enterococci (vre) through the replacement of peptidoglycan (pg) stem terminal d-ala-d-ala with d-ala-d-lac. the d-ala-d-lac incorporation can affect both the fitness and virulence of vre. here we comprehensively investigate the changes to pg composition in vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis following the growth in presence of vancomycin using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. using high-resolution mass spectrometry, 104 ...201728406232
rna and a cell wall component of enterococcus faecalis ic-1 are required for phagocytosis and interleukin 12 production by the mouse macrophage cell line j774.1.enterococcus faecalis is a resident lactic acid bacterium in the human intestine. its immunostimulatory action was reported to be enhanced by heat sterilization. to investigate its beneficial actions, we evaluated the ability of 10 e. faecalis strains to induce interleukin-12 (il-12) production in a mouse macrophage cell line, j774.1 and found that the strain, e. faecalis ic-1, had a potent il-12-inducing ability. furthermore, we investigated the underlying mechanism by treating ic-1 cells with ...201728406067
antibiotic resistant airborne bacteria and their multidrug resistance pattern at university teaching referral hospital in south ethiopia.hospitals provide a reservoir of microorganisms, many of which are multi-resistant to antibiotics. emergence of multi-drug resistant strains in a hospital environment, particularly in developing countries is an increasing problem to infection treatment. this study aims at assessing antibiotic resistant airborne bacterial isolates.201728403894
strain-specific inhibition of the adherence of uropathogenic bacteria to bladder cells by probiotic lactobacillus spp.urinary tract infections (utis), one of most common infections worldwide, face high recurrence rates and increasing antimicrobial resistance. probiotic bacteria, especially of the genus lactobacillus, are considered a promising preventive and/or treatment therapy against utis. in order to elucidate the mechanisms involved in these beneficial effects, we studied the impact of different lactobacillus strains (lactobacillus salivarius ucm572, l. plantarum clc17 and l. acidophilus 01) in the adheren ...201728402532
wound infection secondary to snakebite.snakebites can produce severe local and systemic septic complications as well as being associated with significant overall morbidity and even mortality.201728395682
stochasticity among antibiotic-resistance profiles of common burn-related pathogens over a six-year of the most significant contributors to morbidity and death in patients with burns is infection, which accounts for 30%-75% of post-burn fatalities. because of concerns for the development of antibiotic resistance in burn-related pathogens, the aims of this study were to identify antibiotic resistance trends for the four most common burn-related pathogens over a six-year period.201728394746
examination of enterococcus faecalis toxin-antitoxin system toxin fst function utilizing a pheromone-inducible expression vector with tight repression and broad dynamic for regulated gene expression in enterococcus faecalis are extremely limited. in this report, we describe the construction of an expression vector for e. faecalis, designated pcie, utilizing the pq pheromone-responsive promoter of plasmid pcf10. we demonstrate that this promoter is tightly repressed, responds to nanogram quantities of the peptide pheromone, and has a large dynamic range. to demonstrate its utility, the promoter was used to control expression of the toxic peptides of two pa ...201728348028
yeasts harbored by vespine wasps in the pacific northwest.the ecological role of social wasps has been extensively studied, but little is known about symbiotic relationships of these wasps with microbes. recently, it was shown that vespid wasps in europe carry yeasts, predominantly saccharomyces cerevisiae, in their gastrointestinal (gi) tract. interestingly, this niche allowed for sexual recombination of yeasts to occur and the formation of novel hybrid species. our goals were 1) to survey the gi tract of eusocial wasps in the pacific northwest for th ...201728169397
synthesis and characterization of new chlorhexidine-containing nanoparticles for root canal disinfection.root canal system disinfection is limited due to anatomical complexities. better delivery systems of antimicrobial agents are needed to ensure efficient bacteria eradication. the purpose of this study was to design chlorhexidine-containing nanoparticles that could steadily release the drug. the drug chlorhexidine was encapsulated in poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(l-lactide) (peg-b-pla) to synthesize bilayer nanoparticles. the encapsulation efficiency was determined through thermogravimetric an ...201628773576
physicochemical characterization and antibacterial activity of rajata bhasma and silver nanoparticle.bhasma, an ayurvedic metallo-mineral preparation, is claimed to be biologically produced nanoparticles. rajata (silver) is a noble metal known for its antimicrobial activity. rajata bhasma (rb) is expected to be composed of nanoparticles. with all these facts in place, this study was conducted to evaluate rb for the presence of silver nanoparticle (snp) and its antimicrobial effect.201728827959
[case of a 14-year-old boy with chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis first diagnosed as acute focal bacterial nephritis].a 14-year-old boy was admitted to a general hospital because of prolonged fever of unknown origin. after enterococcus feacalis was detected from his urine and abdominal contrast enhanced computed tomography and 99m-tc dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigram showed multiple focal defects, he was diagnosed as acute focal bacterial nephritis (afbn). his condition recovered as a result of ampicillin (abpc)and cefotaxime infusion. there was no specific finding in voiding cystography. six months later, his ...201525735087
counteraction of reactive oxygen species and determination of antibacterial efficacy of proanthocyanidin and lycopene when mixed with calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine mixture: an in vitro comparative study.the objective of the study was to determine the neutralizing effect of proanthocyanidin (grape seed extract) and lycopene (tomato extract) on reactive oxygen species (ros) generated by the mixture when used as an intracanal medicament. the study also evaluated the effect of proanthocyanidin and lycopene on the antibacterial efficacy of a mixture of chlorhexidine (chx) and calcium hydroxide [ca(oh)(2)] against enterococcus feacalis.201223112480
use of bioinformatics and pcr in the search for abc transporter homology among various bacteria.bioinformatics databases and search tools are utilised to produce polymerase chain reaction (pcr) primers for the amplification of an abc transporter gene from the clinically important anaerobe finegoldia magna. on sequencing, a 450 base pair amplicon showed homology with the amino acid transporter of enterococcus faecalis. little sequence data is available for f. magna and the newly isolated dna could be a useful tool in the identification of this organism in clinical specimens.200428696898
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