salb inactivation modulates culture supernatant exoproteins and affects autolysis and viability in enterococcus faecalis og1rf.the culture supernatant fraction of an enterococcus faecalis gele mutant of strain og1rf contained elevated levels of the secreted antigen salb. using differential fluorescence gel electrophoresis (dige) the salb mutant was shown to possess a unique complement of exoproteins. differentially abundant exoproteins were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (maldi-tof) mass spectrometry. stress-related proteins including dnak, dps family protein, sod, and nadh p ...201222563054
enhancing production of bio-isoprene using hybrid mva pathway and isoprene synthase in e. coli.the depleting petroleum reserve, increasingly severe energy crisis, and global climate change are reigniting enthusiasm for seeking sustainable technologies to replace petroleum as a source of fuel and chemicals. in this paper, the efficiency of the mva pathway on isoprene production has been improved as follows: firstly, in order to increase mva production, the source of the "upper pathway" which contains hmg-coa synthase, acetyl-coa acetyltransferase and hmg-coa reductase to covert acetyl-coa ...201222558074
antibacterial effectiveness of several irrigating solutions and the endox plus system - an ex vivo compare the ex vivo antibacterial effectiveness of the endox plus system and sodium hypochlorite (naocl) in combination with biopure mtad (tulsa dental, tulsa, ok, usa) or with edta in enterococcus faecalis-contaminated root canals.201222554197
[virulence genes and bacteriocins in enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from different clinical samples in maule region, chile].the presence of virulence genes (vg) and bacteriocins from different clinical samples was studied in enterococcus faecalis isolated from urinary tract infections (uti), bacteremia and endodontitis and was correlated with haemolysin and gelatinase activity. we evaluated the presence of vg by pcr in 150 strains of e. faecalis including cyla, agga, efaa, eep, gele, esp, as-48, bac31, entl50a/b, enta, entp, entb, enla andentl071. haemolysin and gelatinase activity was studied. gele and cyla genes ex ...201222552513
the structure of the wall teichoic acid isolated from enterococcus faecalis strain 12030.wall teichoic acid (wta) was isolated from enterococcus faecalis 12030, a clinical isolate and biofilm-producing strain, and analyzed using compositional chemical methods, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. the repeating units of wta were composed of d-glucose, d-galactose, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-galactose, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-glucose, d-ribitol, and phosphate in a molar ratio 1:2:1:1:1:1, and had the structure given below.201222551470
antibiotic-resistant enterococci in seawater and sediments from a coastal fish farm.the aim of this study was to detect and characterize antibiotic-resistant enterococci in seawater and sediment from a mediterranean aquaculture site where no antibiotics are used. colonies (650) grown on slanetz-bartley (sb) agar were amplified on antibiotic-supplemented sb, and erythromycin (ery), tetracycline (tet), and ampicillin (amp) mics were determined. of 75 resistant isolates (17 to tet, 5 to ery, and 45 to amp), 5 enterococcus faecalis, 25 e. faecium, 5 e. casseliflavus, 1 e. gallinaru ...201222546011
an investigation on first-week mortality in layers.the quality of day-old chick placement and management upon arrival have a major impact on first-week mortality (fwm) and subsequent welfare in layers. the present study investigated fwm and causes of fwm in 50 flocks of layers. post mortem results from 983 chickens showed that 50% died from infections, whereas noninfectious causes, in particular dehydration and nephropathy with visceral gout, made up the remaining causes of mortality. escherichia coli and enterococcus faecalis were identified as ...201222545528
in vivo and in vitro analyses of regulation of the pheromone-responsive prgq promoter by the prgx pheromone receptor protein.expression of conjugative transfer and virulence functions of the enterococcus faecalis antibiotic resistance plasmid pcf10 is regulated by the interaction of the pheromone receptor protein prgx with two dna binding operator sites (xbs1 and xbs2) upstream from the transcription start site of the prgq operon (encoding the pcf10 transfer machinery) and by posttranscriptional mechanisms. occupancy of both binding sites by prgx dimers results in repression of the prgq promoter. structural and geneti ...201222544272
development of a genomic site for gene integration and expression in enterococcus faecalis.enterococcus faecalis, a gram-positive opportunistic pathogen, has become one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. normally a resident of the gastrointestinal tract, extensive use of antibiotics has resulted in the rise of e. faecalis strains that are resistant to multiple antibiotics. this, compounded with the ability to easily exchange antibiotic determinants with other bacteria, has made certain e. faecalis infections difficult to treat medically. the genetic toolbox for the study ...201222542850
fluorescent protein vectors for promoter analysis in lactic acid bacteria and escherichia coli.fluorescent reporter genes are valuable tools for real-time monitoring of gene expression in living cells. in this study we describe the construction of novel promoter-probe vectors containing a synthetic mcherry fluorescent protein gene, codon-optimized for lactic acid bacteria, divergently linked, or not, to a gene encoding the s65t and f64l variant of the green fluorescent protein. the utility of the transcriptional fusion vectors was demonstrated by the cloning of a single or two divergent p ...201222534822
intensive care unit dissemination of multiple clones of linezolid-resistant enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium.outbreaks caused by linezolid-resistant (lr) enterococci remain rare. we report the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of the multiclonal dissemination of lr enterococci in the intensive care unit (icu) of a greek hospital.201222532462
first study on antimicriobial activity and synergy between isothiocyanates and antibiotics against selected gram-negative and gram-positive pathogenic bacteria from clinical and animal source.the emergence of new diseases and the resurgence of several infections that were controlled in the past, associated with recent increase of bacterial resistance have created the necessity for more studies towards to the development of new antimicrobials and new treatment strategies. the aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro synergy between different classes of important glucosinolates hydrolysis products-isothiocyanates with antibiotics (gentamycin and vancomycin), against import ...201222530889
presence of the resistance genes vanc1 and pbp5 in phenotypically vancomycin and ampicillin susceptible enterococcus faecalis.ampicillin and vancomycin are important antibiotics for the therapy of enterococcus faecalis infections. the ampicillin resistance gene pbp5 is intrinsic in enterococcus faecium. the vanc1 gene confers resistance to vancomycin and serves as a species marker for enterococcus gallinarum. both genes are chromosomally located. resistance to ampicillin and vancomycin was determined in 484 e. faecalis of human and porcine origin by microdilution. since e. faecalis are highly skilled to acquire resista ...201222524613
enterococcus ureilyticus sp. nov. and enterococcus rotai sp. nov., two urease-producing enterococci from the environment.a set of 25 urease-producing, yellow-pigmented enterococci was isolated from environmental sources. phenotypic classification divided the isolates into two phena. both phena were characterized using 16s rrna gene sequence analysis, dna base composition, rep-pcr fingerprinting and automated ribotyping. the obtained data distinguished the isolates from all members of the genus enterococcus with validly published names and placed them in the enterococcus faecalis species group. dna-dna hybridizatio ...201322523160
characterization of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in enterococcus spp. isolated from retail meats in alberta, canada.the objective of this study was to characterize antimicrobial resistance (amr) and virulence genotypes of enterococcus spp. particularly enterococcus faecalis isolated from retail meats purchased (2007-2008) in alberta, canada. unconditional statistical associations between amr pheno- and genotypes and virulence genotypes were determined. a total of 532 enterococci comprising one isolate from each positive sample were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility. a customized enterococcal microarra ...201222520502
uncommitted role of enterococcal surface protein, esp, and origin of isolates on biofilm production by enterococcus faecalis isolated from bovine mastitis.this study was conducted in order to determine the occurrence of esp and biofilm formation among enterococcus faecalis causing mastitis isolated from different bovine and environmental origins.201322520271
the persistence of flood-borne pathogens on building surfaces under drying conditions.previous research into microbial persistence on material surfaces following flooding has produced a wide range of results due to differing experimental conditions, including the temperature and humidity conditions of the experimental material and/or surrounding air. however, investigations to identify and quantify these factors and their links to the hygrothermal properties of building materials and the transient environmental conditions are rarely reported. this paper examines the viability of ...201322516628
profile of antibiotic consumption, sensitivity and resistance in an urban area of andhra pradesh, india.antibiotics are an important category of drugs in which indiscriminate use can affect the susceptibility patterns among infectious organisms, resulting in antibiotic resistance.201222511051
biochemical and structural basis for inhibition of enterococcus faecalis hydroxymethylglutaryl-coa synthase, mvas, by hymeglusin.hymeglusin (1233a, f244, l-659-699) is established as a specific β-lactone inhibitor of eukaryotic hydroxymethylglutaryl-coa synthase (hmgcs). inhibition results from formation of a thioester adduct to the active site cysteine. in contrast, the effects of hymeglusin on bacterial hmg-coa synthase, mvas, have been minimally characterized. hymeglusin blocks growth of enterococcus faecalis. after removal of the inhibitor from culture media, a growth curve inflection point at 3.1 h is observed (vs 0. ...201222510038
the spx regulator modulates stress responses and virulence in enterococcus faecalis.the ability to cope with endogenous or host-generated reactive oxygen species is considered a key virulence attribute of the opportunistic pathogen enterococcus faecalis, a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. in this study, we used in silico and mutational analyses to identify and characterize the role of the spx global regulator in oxidative stress tolerance and virulence in e. faecalis. while the δspx strain grew as well as the wild-type strain under anaerobic conditions, the mutant ...201222508863
worldwide appraisal and update (2010) of telavancin activity tested against a collection of gram-positive clinical pathogens from five continents.a total of 15,480 gram-positive pathogens were collected from 89 sites in the united states, europe, the asia-pacific region, and latin america in 2010. telavancin was active against indicated staphylococcus aureus (mic(50/90), 0.12/0.25 μg/ml), vancomycin-susceptible enterococcus faecalis (mic(50/90), 0.5/0.5 μg/ml), and beta-hemolytic (mic(50/90), 0.06/0.12 μg/ml) and viridans group streptococcus (mic(50/90), 0.03/0.06 μg/ml) isolates. these mic results showed potency for telavancin equal to o ...201222508304
bactericidal activity and oral pathogen inactivation by electromagnetic wave irradiation.the aim of this work was to clarify the effects of electromagnetic wave irradiation (emwi) on oral bacterial pathogens.201222507081
multi-drug-resistant enterococcus spp. as a cause of non-responsive septic synovitis in three horses.three thoroughbred horses, a 6-week-old filly (case 1), a 15-year-old broodmare (case 2) and a yearling filly (case 3), sustained synovial sepsis secondary to trauma.201222506887
the surface lipids of non-tuberculous mycobacteria suppress production of phagocyte activating cytokines in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.the genus mycobacterium includes obligate pathogens as well as opportunistic and non-pathogenic species ubiquitous in the environment. mycobacteria have a unique cell wall abundant in lipids. here we investigated cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) in response to the opportunistic mycobacteria mycobacterium avium and mycobacterium abscessus, the non-pathogenic mycobacterium gordonae and extracted surface lipids from the three species. the cytokine response elic ...201222497872
transcriptional regulator pera influences biofilm-associated, platelet binding, and metabolic gene expression in enterococcus faecalis.enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic pathogen and a leading cause of nosocomial infections, traits facilitated by the ability to quickly acquire and transfer virulence determinants. a 150 kb pathogenicity island (pai) comprised of genes contributing to virulence is found in many enterococcal isolates and is known to undergo horizontal transfer. we have shown that the pai-encoded transcriptional regulator pera contributes to pathogenicity in the mouse peritonitis infection model. in this stu ...201222496800
complete genome sequence of enterococcal bacteriophage sap6.enterococcus faecalis is an important bacterium for use as a probiotic and is an opportunistic pathogen in human beings. the antibiotic resistance acquired by e. faecalis is restricted to antibiotics used in the clinical setting. while screening for alternative antibiotics for use against multidrug-resistant e. faecalis, we isolated a virulent enterococcal bacteriophage, sap6, belonging to the family siphoviridae. to our knowledge, this study is the first to report the complete genome sequence o ...201222492926
transferable plasmid-mediated resistance to linezolid due to cfr in a human clinical isolate of enterococcus faecalis.nonmutational resistance to linezolid is due to the presence of cfr, which encodes a methyltransferase responsible for methylation of a2503 in the 23s rrna. the cfr gene was first described in animal isolates of staphylococci, and more recently, it has been identified in staphylococcus aureus from human clinical infections, including in an outbreak of methicillin-resistant s. aureus. in enterococci, cfr has been described in an animal isolate of enterococcus faecalis from china. here, we report ...201222491691
myasthenia, spondylitis and enterococcus faecalis endocarditis.parasympathomimetics, immunosuppression and plasmapheresis have considerably improved management and prognosis of myasthenia gravis. side effects of these measures, however, may complicate the course of the disease. in a 66-year-old male with myasthenia gravis and lower back pain, blood cultures, echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging led to the diagnosis of endocarditis and spondylodiscitis. enterococcus faecalis grew in the blood cultures as well as on the aortic and tricuspid valve v ...201222487784
enterococci of animal origin and their significance for public health.enterococci are commensal bacteria in the intestines of humans and animals, but also cause infections in humans. most often, enterococcus faecium isolates from clinical outbreaks belong to different types than e. faecium from animals, food, and humans in the community. the same variants of the vana gene cluster (tn1546) encoding vancomycin resistance can be detected in enterococci of both human and animal origin. this could indicate horizontal transfer of tn1546 between enterococci of different ...201222487203
decontamination efficacy of photon-initiated photoacoustic streaming (pips) of irrigants using low-energy laser settings: an ex vivo assess ex vivo, the antibacterial effectiveness of photon-initiated photoacoustic streaming (pips) of irrigants using an er:yag laser equipped with a newly designed, stripped and tapered tip in extracted teeth with infected root canals.201222486805
contribution of catalase to hydrogen peroxide resistance in enterococcus faecalis.enterococcus faecalis exhibits high resistance to oxidative stress. several enzymes are responsible for this trait. the role of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (ahp), thiol peroxidase (tpx), and nadh peroxidase (npr) in oxidative stress defense was recently characterized. enterococcus faecalis, in contrast to many other streptococci, contains a catalase (kata), but this enzyme can only be formed when the bacterium is supplied with heme. we have used this heme dependency of catalase activity and mu ...201222486165
phage endolysins with broad antimicrobial activity against enterococcus faecalis clinical strains.increasing antibiotic resistance of bacterial pathogens has drawn the attention to the potential use of bacteriophage endolysins as alternative antibacterial agents. here we have identified, characterized, and studied the lytic potential of two endolysins, lys168 and lys170, from phages infecting enterococcus faecalis. lys168 and lys170 belong to the cysteine, histidine-dependent amidohydrolases/peptidases (chap) and amidase-2 protein families, respectively. lys168 is quite a unique enterococcal ...201222480295
isolation and lytic activity of the listeria bacteriophage endolysin lysz5 against listeria monocytogenes in soya milk.the endolysin gene (lysz5) from the genome of the listeria monocytogenes phage fwllm3 was cloned in escherichia coli and characterized. comparative sequence analysis revealed that lysz5 resembled the murein hydrolase ply511 encoded by l. monocytogenes phage a511. the encoded protein lysz5 had a predicted molecular mass of 35.8 kda and was expressed in e. coli as an n-terminal fusion protein of 41.5 kda. addition of purified fusion protein to lawns of indicator bacteria showed that lysz5 could ly ...201222475951
bioactivity of the essential oil of an argentine collection of acanthospermum hispidum (asteraceae).the essential oil of an argentine collection of the annual herb acanthospermum hispidum dc. (asteraceae), which contains the sesquiterpenoids beta-caryophyllene (35.2%), alpha-bisabolol (11.4%), and germacrene d (11.1%) as major constituents, displayed molluscicidal effects on an adult population of biomphalaria peregrina orbigny (ld50 37.8 microg/ml) and produced alteration of the feeding and oviposition behavior of the polyphagous insect spodoptera frugiperda smith when incorporated in the lar ...201222474971
essential oil composition and antibacterial activity of monticalia greenmaniana (asteraceae).the essential oils from fresh aerial parts of monticalia greenmaniana (hieron) c. jeffrey (asteraceae) collected in march, were analyzed by gc/ms. oil yields (w/v) of 0.1% (flowers), 0.07%, (stems) and 0.1% (leaves) were obtained by hydrodistillation. thirteen, sixteen and eighteen components, respectively, were identified by comparison of their mass spectra with those in the wiley gc-ms library data base. the major components of the flower and stem oils were 1-nonane (38.8% flowers; 33.5% stems ...201222474970
evaluation of standard- and high-dose daptomycin versus linezolid against vancomycin-resistant enterococcus isolates in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model with simulated endocardial vegetations.daptomycin mics for enterococci are typically 1- to 2-fold higher than those for staphylococcus aureus, and there is an imminent need to establish the optimal dose for appropriate treatment of enterococcal infections. we investigated the bactericidal activity of daptomycin at various dose exposures compared to that of linezolid against vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (vre) in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model utilizing simulated endocardial vegetations over 96 h. daptomycin at ...201222470111
[diaper cystitis as recurrent cause of urinary infections in geriatric community hospital].chronic cystitis in diaper-dependent elderly patients can be a causative pathology for recurrent urinary tract infections (utis) in community hospitals.201222466781
oral application of bacterial lysate in infancy decreases the risk of atopic dermatitis in children with 1 atopic parent in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.lower prevalence of atopy was found in children with continuous exposure to livestock and thus to microbial compounds. in animal models exposure to endotoxin (lps) decreases allergic sensitization and airway inflammation.201222464674
in vitro antimicrobial effect of a cold plasma jet against enterococcus faecalis biofilms.the hypothesis that a cold plasma jet has the antimicrobial effect against enterococcus faecalis biofilms was tested in vitro. 27 hydroxyapatite discs were incubated with e. faecalis for six days to form a monoculture biofilm on the disc surface. the prepared substrata were divided into three groups: the negative control, the positive control (5.25% naocl solution), and the plasma treatment group. resultant colony-forming unit counts were associated with observations of bacterial cell morphology ...201222461988
in vitro study of elution kinetics and bio-activity of meropenem-loaded acrylic bone cement.use of antibiotic-loaded acrylic bone cement to treat orthopaedic infections continues to remain popular, but resistance to routinely used antibiotics has led to the search for alternative, more effective antibiotics. we studied, in vitro, the elution kinetics and bio-activity of different concentrations of meropenem-loaded acrylic bone cement.201222461001
tigecycline-resistant enterococcus faecalis associated with omeprazole use in a surgical patient. 201222454491
quantitative molecular and culture analyses of bacterial elimination in oval-shaped root canals by a single-file instrumentation technique.bacterial reduction in oval-shaped root canals by a single-instrument technique was compared ex vivo with a conventional nickel-titanium rotary technique. data obtained from two quantification methods, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qpcr) and culture, were also compared.201222452547
antioxidant/antibacterial activities of a topical phytopharmaceutical formulation containing a standardized extract of baccharis incarum, an extremophile plant species from argentine puna.the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of standardized extracts of baccharis incarum in 60° and 80° ethanol and of a phytopharmaceutical formulation obtained from them were measured. baccharis tinctures showed antimicrobial activity against clinically isolated antibiotic resistant staphylococcus aureus and enterococcus faecalis, with mic values of 40-80 µg gae/ml. both tinctures exhibited abts(●+) scavenging activity with sc(50) values between 1.6 and 4.0 µg gae/ml. the tinctures were not ...201222451265
efficacy of ceftobiprole medocaril against enterococcus faecalis in a murine urinary tract infection model.we evaluated ceftobiprole against the well-characterized enterococcus faecalis strain og1rf (with and without the β-lactamase [bla] plasmid pbem10) in a murine urinary tract infection (uti) model. ceftobiprole was equally effective for bla(+) and bla(-) og1 strains, while ampicillin was moderately to markedly (depending on the inoculum) less effective against bla(+) than bla(-) og1 strains. these data illustrate an in vivo effect on ampicillin of bla production by e. faecalis and the stability a ...201222450988
antibacterial activity of wine phenolic compounds and oenological extracts against potential respiratory investigate the effect of seven wine phenolic compounds and six oenological phenolic extracts on the growth of pathogenic bacteria associated with respiratory diseases (pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus aureus, moraxella catarrhalis, enterococcus faecalis, streptococcus sp group f, streptococcus agalactiae and streptococcus pneumoniae).201222449241
transcriptomic response of enterococcus faecalis to iron excess.iron is an essential nutrient for sustaining bacterial growth; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern gene expression during the homeostatic response to iron availability. in this study we analyzed the global transcriptional response of enterococcus faecalis to a non-toxic iron excess in order to identify the set of genes that respond to an increment of intracellular iron. our results showed an up-regulation of transcriptional regulators of the fur family (perr and z ...201222447126
differences in biofilm formation and virulence factors between clinical and fecal enterococcal isolates of human and animal origin.the present study investigated the possible correlation between carriage of the virulence genes esp and fsrb, production of hemolysin and gelatinase and biofilm formation in human vs. animal enterococcal isolates. a collection of 219 enterococcal isolates recovered from clinical and fecal surveillance samples of hospitalized patients and 132 isolates from animal feces were studied. isolates were tested for hemolysin and gelatinase phenotypically and for quantitative biofilm production by a micro ...201222445820
antibacterial substantivity of a new antibiotic-based endodontic irrigation solution.the aim of this study was to evaluate the residual antibacterial activity of tetraclean, mtad and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (naocl) in bovine root dentin in vitro. one hundred and ten dentin tubes prepared from bovine incisor teeth were infected in vitro for 14 days with enterococcus faecalis. thereafter, the specimens were divided into five groups as follows: tetraclean; mtad; 5.25% naocl; infected dentin tubes (positive control); and sterile dentin tubes (negative control). dentin chips were c ...201222432823
bacterial leakage of guttaflow-filled root canals compared with resilon/epiphany and gutta-percha/ah26-filled root canals.the purpose of this study was to assess bacterial apical leakage in root canals obturated with guttaflow and compare this with the leakage of root canals obturated with resilon/epiphany or gutta-percha/ah26. a total of 55 single-rooted human teeth were divided randomly into three experimental (n = 15) and two control groups (n = 5). following a standardised preparation, the teeth were obturated with either guttaflow, resilon/epiphany or gutta-percha/ah26. a two-chamber bacterial model using ente ...201222432820
[the influence of different alkaline ph conditions on enterococcus faecalis in planktonic and biofilm mode].to study the influence of different ph conditions on enterococcus faecalis(e. faecalis) in planktonic and biofilm mode.201222431038
action of linezolid or vancomycin on biofilms in ventriculoperitoneal shunts in vitro.cerebrospinal fluid (csf) shunts used to treat hydrocephalus have an overall infection rate of about 10% of operations. the commonest causative bacteria are staphylococcus epidermidis, followed by staphylococcus aureus and enterococci. major difficulties are encountered with nonsurgical treatment due to biofilm development in the shunt tubing and inability to achieve sufficiently high csf drug levels by intravenous administration. recently, three cases of s. epidermidis csf shunt infection have ...201222430965
the enterococcus faecalis exoproteome: identification and temporal regulation by fsr.analysis of the culture supernatant exoproteins produced by two pfge clusters of high-level gentamicin and ciprofloxacin-resistant clinical isolates of enterococcus faecalis from the uk and ireland revealed two distinct protein profiles. this grouping distinguished og1rf and gele metalloprotease-expressing isolates from jh2-2 and other gele-negative isolates. the integrity of the fsrabdc operon was found to determine the exoproteome composition, since an fsrb mutant of strain og1rf appeared very ...201222428053
candidiasis caused by candida kefyr in a neonate: case report.systemic candidia infections are of major concern in neonates, especially in those with risk factors such as longer use of broad spectrum antibiotics. recent studies showed that also term babies with underlying gastrointestinal or urinary tract abnormalities are much more prone to systemic candida infection. we report a very rare case of candidiasis caused by candida kefyr in a term neonate.201222424058
prevalence of enterococcus faecalis in saliva and filled root canals of teeth associated with apical investigate the prevalence of enterococcus faecalis in saliva and filled root canals of patients requiring endodontic retreatment for apical periodontitis. patients with apical periodontitis who were referred for endodontic retreatment were examined. the type and quality of the restoration, symptoms, quality of obturation were recorded. during retreatment, an oral rinse sample and root canal sample were cultured using brain-heart infusion agar and bile esculinazide agar to select for e. faeca ...201222422085
antibacterial activity of dentine and pulp extracellular matrix determine whether extracellular matrix (ecm) preparations from pulp (pecm) and dentine (decm) possess antimicrobial activity.201222416895
treatment of root canal biofilms of enterococcus faecalis with ozone gas and passive ultrasound activation.biofilms of resistant species such as enterococcus faecalis pose a major challenge in the treatment of root canals with established periapical disease. this study examined the effects of gaseous ozone delivered into saline on biofilms of e. faecalis in root canals of extracted teeth with and without the use of passive ultrasonic agitation.201222414842
correlation between chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from fifteen eucalyptus species growing in the korbous and jbel abderrahman arboreta (north east tunisia).the essential oils of fifteen eucalyptus species harvested from the jbel abderrahman and korbous arboreta (north east tunisia) were screened for their antibacterial activities by the agar disc diffusion method. eighteen major components as identified by gc/fid and gc/ms were selected for a study of the chemical and biological activity variability. the main one was 1,8-cineole, followed by spathulenol, trans-pinocarveol, α-pinene, p-cymene, globulol, cryptone, β-phellandrene, viridiflorol, borneo ...201222410416
comparison of swab transport media for recovery of listeria monocytogenes from environmental samples.environmental monitoring is recognized as an important strategy for controlling listeria monocytogenes in food processing facilities. samples are taken by swabbing environmental surfaces, and the swabs are immersed in a medium for transport to the laboratory. in this study, buffered peptone water (bpw), dey-engley neutralizing broth (de), neutralizing buffer (nb), letheen broth (le), and newly described mcc buffer (mcc) were evaluated as transport media for recovery of sanitizer-stressed l. mono ...201222410235
characterization of microbiota of root canal-treated teeth with posttreatment disease.this study evaluated the microbiota of root canals undergoing retreatment. the most prevalent taxa detected by checkerboard included propionibacterium species, fusobacterium nucleatum, streptococci, and pseudoramibacter alactolyticus. quantitative real-time pcr detected enterococcus faecalis and streptococci in 38% and 41% of the cases, comprising 9.76% and 65.78% of the total bacterial counts, respectively. the findings call into question the status of e. faecalis as the main pathogen and sugge ...201222403423
the use of optical fiber in endodontic photodynamic therapy. is it really relevant?this study analyzed the necessity of use of an optical fiber/diffusor when performing antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (pdt) associated with endodontic therapy. fifty freshly extracted human single-rooted teeth were used. conventional endodontic treatment was performed using a sequence of protaper (dentsply maillefer instruments), the teeth were sterilized, and the canals were contaminated with enterococcus faecalis 3 days' biofilm. the samples were divided into five groups: group 1--ten roots ...201322399242
synthesis, antimicrobial activity and molecular modeling study of substituted 5-aryl-pyrimido[5,4-c]quinoline-2,4-diones.a series of pyrimido[5,4-c]quinoline-2,4-dione derivatives 5a-k were synthesized in moderate yields via a thermolysis reaction of equimolar ratio of 5-arylidine-1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid derivatives 3a-d with aniline derivatives 4a-d at 150-180 °c for 1-2 h. eight of the synthesized compounds were chosen for a primary in vitro one-dose anticancer assay performed using the full nci 60 cell panel. only compound 5b showed moderate gi% at the used dose (10 μm) against four of the tested cell lines ...201322397395
the optimal aminoglycoside and its dosage for the treatment of severe enterococcus faecalis infection. an experimental study in the rabbit endocarditis model.aminoglycosides are recommended for the treatment of enterococcus faecalis infections, especially in severe and bacteremic infection. however, the optimal aminoglycoside or the optimal dosage remains uncertain. this study aimed to compare the activity of four aminoglycosides against e. faecalis (gentamicin, netilmicin, tobramycin, and amikacin) and two dosages of gentamicin. one clinical strain of e. faecalis was used to induce aortic endocarditis in the study rabbits. each aminoglycoside was in ...201222395262
[study on the expression of toll like receptor 2 and interleukin-1 beta induced by enterococcus faecalis lipoteichoic acid on human periodontal ligament cells].to investigate the expression of toll like receptor 2 (tlr2) and interleukin-1 beta (il-1 beta) of cultured human periodontal ligament cells (hpdlcs) activated by enterococcus faecalis (e. faecalis) lipoteichoic acid (lta).201222389976
[the correlation analysis on enterococcus faecalis biofilm and clinical manifestation in retreatment of root canal].to detect the ability of enterococcus faecalis (e. faecalis) biofilm formation and explore the relationship between e. faecalis biofilm formation ability and clinical manifestation.201222389970
probing the nadh- and methyl red-binding site of a fmn-dependent azoreductase (azoa) from enterococcus faecalis.azoa from enterococcus faecalis is a member of the polymeric flavin-dependent nadh-preferred azoreductase group. little is known about the binding and interaction of nadh and azo dye in the azoreductase group. a synergetic strategy based on computational prediction, reverse genetics validation coupled with site-directed mutagenesis, and reconstruction of mutation network was used to investigate the binding and interaction of nadh and a model azo dye, methyl red, with azoa. methyl red and nadh in ...201222387379
a comparison of box-pcr and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to determine genetic relatedness of enterococci from different environments.genetic relatedness of enterococci from poultry litter to enterococci from nearby surface water and groundwater in the lower fraser valley regions of british columbia, canada was determined. a new automated box-pcr and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) were used to subtype enterococcal isolates from broiler and layer litter and surface and groundwater. all surface water samples (n = 12) were positive for enterococci, as were 11% (3/28) of groundwater samples. enterococcus faecium (n = 90) ...201222383122
microbiological aspects of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls.this study aimed to establish the vaginal introitus microbial flora in girls with and without symptoms of vulvovaginitis, and to present the distribution of isolated microorganisms by age groups in girls with vulvovaginitis. we enrolled 500 girls with vulvovaginitis symptoms, aged 2-12 years, referred by their pediatricians for microbiological examination of the vaginal introitus swabs, and 30 age-matched asymptomatic girls. similar microbial flora was isolated in both groups, but the symptomati ...201222383074
virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility in enterococci isolated from oral mucosal and deep infections.this study evaluates the presence of virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility among enterococcal isolates from oral mucosal and deep infections.201222368771
bactericidal effect of the 908 nm diode laser on enterococcus faecalis in infected root canals.the aim of this study is to evaluate the bactericidal effect of 908 nm diode laser in conjunction with various irrigation regimes in disinfection of apical third of root dentin.201222368335
interactions of the intact fsrc membrane histidine kinase with its pheromone ligand gbap revealed through synchrotron radiation circular dichroism.fsrc is the membrane-bound histidine kinase component of the fsr two-component signal transduction system involved in quorum sensing in the hospital-acquired infection agent enterococcus faecalis. synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy was used here to study the intact purified protein solubilised in detergent micelles. conditions required for fsrc stability in detergent were firstly determined and tested by prolonged exposure of stabilised protein to far-ultraviolet radiation. us ...201222366202
efficient synthesis and biological evaluation of proximicins a, b and c.a quick and efficient synthesis and the biological evaluation of promising antitumor-antibiotics proximicins a, b and c are reported. the characteristic repetitive unit of these molecules, the methyl 4-boc-aminofuran-2-carboxylate 15, was prepared in three synthetic steps in good yield using an optimised copper-catalysed amidation method. the proximicins were evaluated for their antitumor activity using cellular methods. proximicin b induced apoptosis in both hodgkin's lymphoma and t-cell leukem ...201222364744
antimicrobial activity of polyphenol-rich fractions from sida alba l. (malvaceae) against co-trimoxazol-resistant bacteria strains.the increased resistance of microorganisms to the currently used antimicrobials has lead to the evaluation of other agents that might have antimicrobial activity. medicinal plants are sources of phytochemicals which are able to initiate different biological activities including antimicrobials201222364123
fatal dengue hemorrhagic fever in adults: emphasizing the evolutionary pre-fatal clinical and laboratory manifestations.a better description of the clinical and laboratory manifestations of fatal patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (dhf) is important in alerting clinicians of severe dengue and improving management.201222363829
protection against staphylococcus aureus by antibody to the polyglycerolphosphate backbone of heterologous lipoteichoic acid.type 1 lipoteichoic acid (lta) is present in many clinically important gram-positive bacteria, including enterococci, streptococci, and staphylococci, and antibodies against lta have been shown to opsonize nonencapsulated enterococcus faecalis strains. in the present study, we show that antibodies against e. faecalis lta also bind to type 1 lta from other gram-positive species and opsonized staphylocccus epidermidis and staphylcoccus aureus strains as well as group b streptococci. inhibition stu ...201222362863
[treatment of endocarditis and spondylitis caused by enterococcus faecalis with continuous intravenous infusion of ampicillin]. 201224159662
comparative genomics of enterococci: variation in enterococcus faecalis, clade structure in e. faecium, and defining characteristics of e. gallinarum and e. casseliflavus.the enterococci are gram-positive lactic acid bacteria that inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of diverse hosts. however, enterococcus faecium and e. faecalis have emerged as leading causes of multidrug-resistant hospital-acquired infections. the mechanism by which a well-adapted commensal evolved into a hospital pathogen is poorly understood. in this study, we examined high-quality draft genome data for evidence of key events in the evolution of the leading causes of enterococcal infections, i ...201222354958
comparison of the clinical characteristics and outcomes associated with vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis and vancomycin-resistant e. faecium published studies, cohorts of patients with bacteremia due to vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (vre) have predominantly been infected with enterococcus faecium. little is known about the epidemiology and outcomes associated with bacteremia due to vr enterococcus faecalis. a retrospective study of isolates obtained from january 2008 to october 2010 was conducted at detroit medical center (dmc). unique patients with blood cultures positive for vre were reviewed. outcomes were analyzed using lo ...201222354290
[disinfection effects of mtad on apical isthmus of the root canal system: a scanning electron microscopic evaluation].to evaluate the disinfection efficacy of mtad on enterococcus faecalis biofilm and smear layer colonization in apical isthums of the root canal system.201222353896
in vitro comparison of commensal, probiotic and pathogenic strains of enterococcus vivo studies have provided evidence that micro-organisms have important roles in immunological, digestive and respiratory functions, conferring health benefits on the host. several in vitro methods have been advised for the initial screening of microbes with potential health effects. the objective of the present study was to employ such in vitro methodology to characterise different strains of enterococcus faecalis. the characteristics of a commercial product marketed as a probiotic, symbiofl ...201222348541
chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the volatile oil from seeds of artemisia annua l. from iran.the composition of essential oil of the seeds of artemisia annua l. was analysed by gc-ms. overall, 16 volatile components were identified on the basis of their mass spectra characteristics and retention indices representing 95.5% of the total oil. trans-3(10)-caren-4-ol (22.3%), artemisia ketone (18.6%), 1,8-cineole (14.9%), δ-selinene (13.0%) and α-pinene (8.2%) were the major compounds. oxygenated monoterpenes were the main compounds with 51.6% followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (13.3%), ...201322348222
antibacterial and neutralizing effect of human β-defensins on enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecalis lipoteichoic acid.enterococcus faecalis is frequently found in the root canal of teeth, is a major microorganism of endodontic therapy failure, and is associated with chronic apical periodontitis. human β-defensins (hbds) are known to play critical roles in defending the host against infectious microbes and producing dental pulp in healthy and patients. the purpose of the present study was to investigate the bactericidal and neutralizing effects of hbds on e. faecalis and e. faecalis lipoteichoic acid (ef lta) as ...201222341073
daptomycin lock therapy for grampositive long-term catheter-related bloodstream evaluate the efficacy of daptomycin (dpt) lock therapy in the treatment of grampositive long-term catheter-related bloodstream infections (lt-crbi).201222340450
brain abscess caused by enterococcus faecalis following a dental procedure in a patient with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (hht) is a disease characterized by arteriovenous malformations (avms). brain abscess is a complication of hht with avms. literature provides evidence that enterococcus faecalis can cause endodontic infections. we present the case of an hht patient who developed brain abscess due to e. faecalis after a dental procedure.201222337991
crystal structure and biochemical properties of putrescine carbamoyltransferase from enterococcus faecalis: assembly, active site, and allosteric regulation.putrescine carbamoyltransferase (ptcase) catalyzes the conversion of carbamoylputrescine to putrescine and carbamoyl phosphate (cp), a substrate of carbamate kinase (ck). the crystal structure of ptcase has been determined and refined at 3.2 å resolution. the trimeric molecular structure of ptcase is similar to other carbamoyltransferases, including the catalytic subunit of aspartate carbamoyltransferase (atcase) and ornithine carbamoyltransferase (otcase). however, in contrast to other trimeric ...201222328207
in vitro interference of tigecycline at subinhibitory concentrations on biofilm development by enterococcus faecalis.since biofilm formation is the hallmark of enterococcus faecalis isolates, the aim of this study was to quantify biofilm formation in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of tigecycline.201222323499
antimicrobial activity and enterococcus faecalis biofilm formation on chlorhexidine evaluate, in vitro, the antimicrobial activity and biofilm formation of three chlorhexidine varnishes in four e. faecalis strains: e. faecalis atcc 29212, e. faecalis ef-d1 (from failed endodontic treatment), e. faecalis 072 (cheese) and e. faecalis u-1765 (nosocomial infection), and one e. durans strain (failed endodontic treatment).201222322495
rapid detection of urinary tract pathogens using microcalorimetry: principle, technique and first results.what's known on the subject? and what does the study add? microcalorimetry has been applied in several microbiological studies, but never in a clinical urological context. in addition, basic knowledge on the growth of urinary pathogens in urine is still scarce and data regarding the growth rate of many urinary pathogens in urine are still not available. the study demonstrates that this innovative application of microcalorimetry is useful in (i) investigating the growth of urinary pathogens in st ...201222313675
surveillance of bacterial contamination in small animal veterinary hospitals with special focus on antimicrobial resistance and virulence traits of determine the prevalence of bacterial contamination on 4 surfaces of 4 types of standard equipment in small animal veterinary hospitals.201222309016
enterococcus faecalis og1rf:pmv158 survives and proliferates in the house fly digestive tract.enterococcus faecalis is an important nosocomial pathogen and house flies have been implicated in the dissemination of this bacterium. in this study, gfp-expressing e. faecalis og1rf:pmv158 was used to track the fate of the bacterium in the digestive tract of the house fly, musca domestica (l.) to assess the vector potential of this insect for e. faecalis. colony forming unit (cfu) counts were obtained from viable fluorescing e. faecalis recovered from mouthparts and digestive tract regions (lab ...201222308783
rapid identification of enterococcus faecalis by species-specific primers based on the genes involved in the entner-doudoroff this study we report a novel method for identification of enterococcus faecalis based on polymerase chain reaction with primers specific for the eda-genes encoding the enzymes involved in the entner-doudoroff pathway, a pathway present only in this species among gram-positive bacteria. the designed primers were checked in several different enterococcus species, and with some other gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial species as well. five primer combinations were used to detect the eda-1 ...201222307795
impact of enterococcus on immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients with perforation of the small or large bowel.the role of enterococcus in intraabdominal infection remains controversial. a retrospective study of 473 patients with bowel perforation was conducted to assess the impact of enterococci on outcome of patients with perforation of the small and large bowel.201222297712
broad identification of bacterial type in urinary tract infection using (1)h nmr address the shortcomings of urine culture for the rapid identification of urinary tract infection (uti), we applied (1)h-nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) spectroscopy as a surrogate method for fast screening of microorganisms. study includes 682 urine samples from suspected uti patients, 50 healthy volunteers, and commercially available standard strains of gram negative bacilli (gnb) (escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella pneumonia, enterobacter, acinetobacter, proteus mirabili ...201222292465
vaginal bacterial flora and cytology in proestrous bitches: role on fertility.the study of canine vaginal cytology underwent limited evolution over the years. presence and significance of inflammatory cells in vaginal smears are little considered aspects in the bitch. moreover, occurrence of vaginal bacteria in breeding bitches during follicular phase of the reproductive cycle, in absence of clinical signs of infection, involves the difficult question of antibiotics administration. the aim of this study was to relate findings in vaginal cytology (presence of neutrophils, ...201222289216
effect of a novel antimicrobial peptide chrysophsin-1 on oral pathogens and streptococcus mutans caries and pulpal diseases are common oral bacterial infectious diseases. controlling and reducing the causative pathogens, such as streptococcus mutans and enterococcus faecalis, is a key step toward prevention and treatment of the two diseases. chrysophsin-1 is a cationic antimicrobial peptide having broad-spectrum bactericidal activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. in this study, we investigated the antibacterial activity of chrysophsin-1 against several oral p ...201222281025
degradation, mineralization and antibiotic inactivation of amoxicillin by uv-a/tio₂ photocatalysis.the uv-a/tio(2) photocatalytic decomposition of amoxicillin (amx) in aqueous suspensions was investigated. experiments were performed at antibiotic concentrations between 2.5 and 30 mg/l, eight commercially available tio(2) catalysts at loadings between 100 and 750 mg/l, acidic or near-neutral conditions (ph 5 or 7.5) and two different matrices (ultrapure water and secondary treated effluent) at a photon flux of 8 × 10(-4) e/(l min). of the various catalysts tested, degussa p25 was highly active ...201222277347
relationship between urinary tract infection categorization and pathogens' antimicrobial susceptibilities.urinary tract infections (utis) can be hard to treat and treatment plans need to include accurate categorization such as uncomplicated or complicated uti, or catheterized or uncatheterized uti. we investigated the antibiotic susceptibilities of representative uropathogens in uti categories.201222237308
impact of curcumin supersaturation in antibacterial photodynamic therapy--effect of cyclodextrin type and amount: studies on curcumin and curcuminoides xlv.curcumin has been investigated as a potential photosensitizer (ps) in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (apdt). the phototoxic effect of curcumin is dependent on proper formulations of the compound because of the lipophilic nature of the molecule and the extremely low water solubility at physiological conditions. in the present study, the combination of curcumin with either a methylated β-cyclodextrin (cd) or polyethylene glycol-based β-cd or γ-cd polymers was investigated in apdt using escheri ...201222228150
effect of water-soluble fraction from lysozyme-treated enterococcus faecalis fk-23 on mortality caused by influenza a virus in maintain homeostasis of the immune system is considered important for the prevention of influenza a virus infection. aberrant systemic inflammation is frequently induced by influenza a virus infection, and the severity of the symptoms is associated with pathogenicity of the virus. lactic acid bacteria are known to have a positive effect in maintaining the immune system. furthermore, preparations of a lactic acid bacteria strain, enterococcus faecalis fk-23 (fk-23), have been reported to exert ...201222225469
influence of terminal substitution on structural, dna, protein binding, anticancer and antibacterial activities of palladium(ii) complexes containing 3-methoxy salicylaldehyde-4(n) substituted thiosemicarbazones.the variable chelating behavior of 3-methoxysalicylaldehyde-4(n)-substituted thiosemicarbazones was observed in equimolar reactions with [pdcl(2)(pph(3))(2)]. the new complexes were characterized by various analytical, spectroscopic techniques (mass, (1)h-nmr, absorption, ir). all the new complexes were structurally characterized by single crystal x-ray diffraction. crystallographic results showed that the ligands h(2)l(1) and h(2)l(4) are coordinated as binegative tridentate ons donor ligands i ...201222222360
different protein expression profiles in cheese and clinical isolates of enterococcus faecalis revealed by proteomic analysis.the use of enterococcus faecalis in the food industry has come under dispute because of the pathogenic potential of some strains of this species. in this study, we have compared the secretome and whole-cell proteome of one food isolate (e. faecalis disav 1022) and one clinical isolate (e. faecalis h1) by 2-de and itraq analyses, respectively. extracellular protein patterns differed significantly, with only seven proteins common to both strains. notably, only the clinical isolate expressed variou ...201222213736
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