enterococcus faecalis: a biological marker predicting the emergence of necrotizing enterocolitis. 201222924710
antibacterial efficacy of casein-derived peptides against enterococcus faecalis.the aim of this study was to test a casein peptide in its glycosylated form (kappa-casein glycopeptide, kcgp) and its non-glycosylated form (kappa-casein peptide, kcp) for antibacterial efficacy against enterococcus faecalis in planktonic and biofilm cultures.201222924358
tnf-α mediates macrophage-induced bystander effects through netrin-1.macrophage-induced bystander effects have been implicated as an important mediator of chromosomal instability and colon cancer triggered by enterococcus faecalis, a human intestinal commensal bacteria. there is little understanding about how inflammatory cytokines mediate bystander effects, but questions in this area are important because of the pivotal contributions made by inflammatory processes to cancer initiation and progression. here, we report that the central proinflammatory cytokine tnf ...201222915753
secondary cell wall polymers of enterococcus faecalis are critical for resistance to complement activation via mannose-binding lectin.the complement system is part of our first line of defense against invading pathogens. the strategies used by enterococcus faecalis to evade recognition by human complement are incompletely understood. in this study, we identified an insertional mutant of the wall teichoic acid (wta) synthesis gene tagb in e. faecalis v583 that exhibited an increased susceptibility to complement-mediated killing by neutrophils. further analysis revealed that increased killing of the mutant was due to a higher ra ...201222908219
increased pheromone ccf10 expression in enterococcus faecalis biofilm formed by isolates from renal transplant patients.renal transplant recipients are at a high risk of developing infectious complications even caused by commensal bacteria. this is because of various physiological non-immunological, and immunological protective mechanisms are not fully efficient in rtx patients. therefore, rapid and precise diagnostic tools are essential in this particular group of patients. we aimed to develop simple and sensitive protocol flow-fish for the study of gene expression in enterococci and to compare expression of gen ...201222907591
characterization and risk factors of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (vre) among animal-affiliated workers in malaysia.this study determined the risk factors and characteristics of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (vre) among individuals working with animals in malaysia.201222906187
[daptomycin in the treatment of infectious endocarditis].overcoming polyresistance of pathogens of infectious endocarditis (ie) is only possible through the use of new antibiotics, such as daptomycin, that was successfully used in 4 patients. the clinical features of endocarditis caused by enterococcus faecalis resistant to penicillin, gentamicin, and streptomycin are described. cases of ie with negative blood cultures and a failure of previous antibacterial therapy are considered. the literature data on the use of daptomycin in ie caused by oxacillin ...201222896985
ampicillin susceptibility can predict in vitro susceptibility of penicillin-resistant, ampicillin-susceptible enterococcus faecalis isolates to amoxicillin but not to imipenem and piperacillin.our findings demonstrated that the results obtained for ampicillin may accurately predict the in vitro susceptibility to amoxicillin but not to imipenem and piperacillin among isolates of enterococcus faecalis resistant to penicillin but susceptible to ampicillin, which have emerged recently, in contrast to penicillin- and ampicillin-susceptible isolates.201222895041
the effect of tissue inhibitors on the antibacterial activity of chitosan nanoparticles and photodynamic therapy.newer antibacterial alternatives such as chitosan nanoparticles (csnps) and photodynamic therapy (pdt) have been investigated to achieve effective root canal disinfection. the current study aims to assess the effect of various tissue inhibitors such as dentin, dentin matrix, pulp tissue, bacterial lipopolysaccharides (lpss), and bovine serum albumin (bsa) on the antibacterial activity of csnps and pdt.201222892750
microbial biofilm proliferation within sealer-root dentin interfaces is affected by sealer type and aging period.root canal fillings are intended to prevent microbial proliferation over time in the canal after treatment. the objective of this study was to assess biofilm proliferation within the sealer-dentin interfaces of 2 methacrylate resin-based systems, self-etch (se) and total-etch (te), and an epoxy resin-based sealer (ep), aged for up to 6 months.201222892745
an assessment of antibacterial activity of four endodontic sealers on enterococcus faecalis by a direct contact test: an in vitro study.aim. to evaluate the antibacterial activity of four endodontic sealers on enterococcus faecalis by a direct contact test. material and methods. enterococcus faecalis was used as a test organism. direct contact test which is based on measuring the effect of close contact between test bacteria and tested material on the kinetics of bacterial growth was performed to overcome the disadvantages of agar diffusion test. the sealers tested were zinc oxide eugenol-based sealer, glass-ionomer-based sealer ...201222888444
complete genome sequence of bacteriophage bc-611 specifically infecting enterococcus faecalis strain np-10011.enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic pathogen that causes serious infections in humans and animals and is also an important bacterium for dairy and probiotic supplement production. therefore, bacteriophages infecting e. faecalis may be useful for phage therapy against multidrug-resistant strains or may threaten industrial fermentation. we isolated a virulent siphoviridae bacteriophage, bc-611, specifically infecting e. faecalis strain np-10011 but not infecting other e. faecalis strains or ...201222879611
aerobic glycerol dissimilation via the enterococcus faecalis dhak pathway depends on nadh oxidase and a phosphotransfer reaction from pep to dhak via eiiadha.two pathways for glycerol dissimilation are present in enterococcus faecalis. either glycerol is first phosphorylated by glycerol kinase and then oxidized by glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase with molecular oxygen as the electron acceptor (glpo/glpk pathway), or it is first oxidized by glycerol dehydrogenase with nad(+) as the acceptor of the reduction equivalents and then phosphorylated by dihydroxyacetone kinase (glda/dhak pathway). the final end product in both cases is dihydroxyacetone phosphate ...201222878395
comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of natural extracts of morinda citrifolia, papain and aloe vera (all in gel formulation), 2% chlorhexidine gel and calcium hydroxide, against enterococcus faecalis: an in vitro study.a comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of natural extracts of morinda citrifolia, papain, and aloe vera (all in gel formulations), 2% chlorhexidine gel and calcium hydroxide, against enterococcus faecalis-an in vitro study.201222876022
effect of freezing on photoreactivation of escherichia coli and enterococcus faecalis.the effect of freezing on photoreactivation of two strains of escherichia coli (atcc strain 25922 and o157:h7 strain 961019) and two strains of enterococcus faecalis (strain atcc 51299, vancomycin-resistant and strain atcc 29212, vancomycin-sensitive) following ultraviolet irradiation were examined. the level of log photoreactivation of the freezing treated test organisms (frozen at -7, -15, or -30 degrees c then thawed at room temperature prior to ultraviolet irradiation) was compared with that ...201222866394
characterization of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genotypes of enterococcus faecalis recovered from a pork processing plant.the objective of this study was to assess the antimicrobial resistance and virulence genotypes of enterococcus faecalis isolated from samples obtained from a commercial pork processing plant. a total of 200 samples were randomly obtained from carcasses after bleeding (bc; 50 samples) and pasteurization (pc; 100 samples) and from retail pork products (rp; 50 samples). one isolate from each e. faecalis -positive sample was analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility and characterized using a enteroc ...201222856575
luxs-dependent ai-2 regulates versatile functions in enterococcus faecalis v583.bacteria utilize a quorum sensing (qs) system to coordinate gene expression by monitoring the concentration of molecules known as autoinducers (ai). in the present study, we confirmed the presence of a luxs/ai-2 dependent qs system in vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis v583. then, the cellular targets controlled by ai-2 were identified by comparative proteomics analysis in order to elucidate the possible role of ai-2 in e. faecalis. results demonstrated 15 proteins that are differentiall ...201222856334
stimulation of cadaverine production by foodborne pathogens in the presence of lactobacillus, lactococcus, and streptococcus spp.the effect of lactobacillus plantarum (fi8595), lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris mg 1363), lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (il 1403), and streptococcus thermophilus on cadaverine and other biogenic amine production by foodborne pathogens was investigated lysine decarboxylase broth. both of lactic acid bacteria and foodborne pathogens used (especially staphylococcus aureus, e. coli, lc. lactis subsp. lactis and lb. plantarum) had an ability to convert aminoacids into biogenic amine. the conver ...201222853653
enterococcus faecalis enhances cell proliferation through hydrogen peroxide-mediated epidermal growth factor receptor activation.enterococcus faecalis is a member of the intestinal and oral microbiota that may affect the etiology of colorectal and oral cancers. the mechanisms by which e. faecalis may contribute to the initiation and progression of these cancers remain uncertain. epidermal growth factor receptor (egfr) signaling is postulated to play a crucial role in oral carcinogenesis. a link between e. faecalis and egfr signaling in oral cancer has not been elucidated. the present study aimed to evaluate the associatio ...201222851748
application of bacteriocinogenic enterococcus mundtii crl35 and enterococcus faecium st88ch in the control of listeria monocytogenes in fresh minas cheese.several strains of enterococcus spp. are capable of producing bacteriocins with antimicrobial activity against important bacterial pathogens in dairy products. in this study, the bacteriocins produced by two enterococcus strains (enterococcus mundtii crl35 and enterococcus faecium st88ch), isolated from cheeses, were characterized and tested for their capability to control growth of listeria monocytogenes 426 in experimentally contaminated fresh minas cheese during refrigerated storage. both str ...201222850372
prosthetic valve endocarditis after double valve replacement with the manouguian procedure.prosthetic valve endocarditis is a rare but severe complication after double mitral and aortic valve replacement. it is debated whether or not all prostheses should be replaced simultaneously, because of high operative mortality with redo double valve replacement. we report a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis after double mitral and aortic valve replacement with the manouguian procedure. a 56-year-old man had undergone double valve replacement 12 years prior and presented with high fever 2 m ...201322850092
the preterm gut microbiota: changes associated with necrotizing enterocolitis and describe gut colonization in preterm infants using standard culture and 16s gene rrna profiling, exploring differences in healthy infants and those who developed nec/late onset sepsis (los).201222845166
construction and application of a luxabcde reporter system for real-time monitoring of enterococcus faecalis gene expression and growth.the present work describes the construction of a novel molecular tool for luciferase-based bioluminescence (bl) tagging of enterococcus faecalis. to this end, a vector (psl101) and its derivatives conferring a genetically encoded bioluminescent phenotype on all tested strains of e. faecalis were constructed. psl101 harbors the luxabcde operon from ppl2lux and the preg696 broad-host-range replicon and axe-txe toxin-antitoxin cassette, providing segregational stability for long-term plasmid persis ...201222843522
biological activities of extracts from chenopodium ambrosioides lineu and kielmeyera neglecta saddi.chenopodium ambrosioides and kielmeyera neglecta are plants traditionally used in brazil to treat various infectious diseases. the study of the biological activities of these plants is of great importance for the detection of biologically active compounds.201222839690
comment on: intensive care unit dissemination of multiple clones of linezolid-resistant enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium. 201222833641
standardization of isothermal microcalorimetry in urinary tract infection detection by using artificial urine.isothermal microcalorimetry (imc) has recently been reported as a new method to rapidly detect urinary tract pathogens (utp). however, further application of microcalorimetry in the clinical setting requires a standardized procedure. an important step toward such standardization is to use a reproducible growth medium. in this study, we investigated the potential of artificial urine in combination with microcalorimetry for detection of common utp.201322832589
incongruence between the cps type 2 genotype and host-related phenotypes of an enterococcus faecalis food isolate.enterococcus faecalis is a nosocomial opportunistic pathogen, but is also found in fermented food products where it plays a fundamental role in the fermentation process. previously, we have described the non-starter e. faecalis cheese isolate qa29b as harboring virulence genes and proven to be virulent in galleria mellonella virulence model. in this study, we further characterized this food strain concerning traits relevant for the host-pathogen relationship. qa29b was found to belong to sequenc ...201222831818
the metal ion-dependent adhesion site motif of the enterococcus faecalis ebpa pilin mediates pilus function in catheter-associated urinary tract infection.though the bacterial opportunist enterococcus faecalis causes a myriad of hospital-acquired infections (hais), including catheter-associated urinary tract infections (cautis), little is known about the virulence mechanisms that it employs. however, the endocarditis- and biofilm-associated pilus (ebp), a member of the sortase-assembled pilus family, was shown to play a role in a mouse model of e. faecalis ascending uti. the ebp pilus comprises the major ebpc shaft subunit and the ebpa and ebpb mi ...201222829678
an agar diffusion study comparing the antimicrobial activity of nanoseal with some other endodontic sealers.the aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of a new experimental nano-hydroxyapatite epoxy resin-based sealer (nanoseal) with several other commercially available sealers; ah26, tubliseal, sealapex and roekoseal against enterococcus faecalis, pseudomonas aeruginosa, streptococcus mutans, streptococcus sobrinus and escherichia coli for up to 7 days. agar diffusion was used in this study. fifty muller-hinton agar plates were prepared and divided into five experimental groups ...201222827817
screening fecal enterococci from greek healthy infants for susceptibility to antimicrobial agents.enterococci are among the first lactic acid bacteria to colonize the neonatal gastrointestinal tract, but they are also characterized as significant nosocomial pathogens. the aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of antibiotic resistance in enterococci isolated from neonates' gut microbiota as well as the presence of genetic determinants encoding for certain antibiotic resistance traits. a total of 263 fecal samples derived from 97 infants were collected on day 4, 30, and 90 after d ...201222827719
polymicrobial peritonitis following colonoscopic polypectomy in a peritoneal dialysis patient.patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (capd) are at an increased risk of peritonitis following colonoscopy with or without polypectomy. guidelines for peritoneal dialysis patients recommend administration of prophylactic antibiotics and drainage of the abdomen before colonoscopy. in this report, we describe a 53-year-old woman on capd who underwent colonoscopy with polypectomy and developed peritonitis within 24 hours. she presented with severe abdominal pain, typical reb ...201222821097
fecal indicator bacteria transport and deposition in saturated and unsaturated porous media.beach sediment and sand are recognized as nonpoint fecal indicator bacteria (fib) sources capable of causing water quality and health risks for beach-goers. a comprehensive understanding of the key factors and mechanisms governing the migration and exchange of fib between beach water column and sediment is desired to better predict fib concentration variations and assess the associated risk. the transport and retention behavior of two model fib enterococcus faecalis (e. faecalis) and escherichia ...201222809290
nonculture-based identification of bacteria in milk by protein fingerprinting.traditional methods for bacterial identification include gram staining, culturing, and biochemical assays for phenotypic characterization of the causative organism. these methods can be time-consuming because they require in vitro cultivation of the microorganisms. recently, however, it has become possible to obtain chemical profiles for lipids, peptides, and proteins that are present in an intact organism, particularly now that new developments have been made for the efficient ionization of bio ...201222807025
molecular basis for different levels of tet(m) expression in streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates.seventy-four unrelated clinical isolates of streptococcus pneumoniae harboring the tet(m) gene were studied. seven strains with low tetracycline (tc) mics (0.25 to 0.5 μg/ml) were found to harbor truncated tet(m) alleles that were inactivated by different frameshift mutations. in contrast, five strains bore deletions in the tet(m) promoter region, among which four displayed increased tc mics (16 to 64 μg/ml). the same promoter mutations were detected in tc-resistant mutants selected in vitro fro ...201222802249
in vitro activity of ceftaroline and comparator antimicrobials against european and middle east isolates from complicated skin and skin-structure infections collected in 2008-2009.the activities of ceftaroline, the active metabolite of the pro-drug ceftaroline fosamil, a novel anti-meticillin-resistant staphylococcal cephalosporin, and nine comparators were determined against surveillance isolates collected in 2008-2009. over 3000 isolates associated with complicated skin and skin-structure infections (csssis) were collected from 106 centres in 19 countries. mics were determined using clsi broth microdilution methodology. clonal relatedness of meticillin-resistant staphyl ...201222796201
use of multiparameter flow cytometry to determine the effects of monoterpenoids and phenylpropanoids on membrane polarity and permeability in staphylococci and enterococci.monoterpenoids and phenylpropanoids are major components of many plant essential oils and are relatively simple, low-molecular-weight compounds with antimicrobial activity. this study used multiparameter flow cytometry to examine changes in membrane polarity and permeability in staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus epidermidis and enterococcus faecalis following exposure to the monoterpenoids carvacrol, 1,8-cineole and terpinen-4-ol and the phenylpropanoids eugenol and cinnamaldehyde. melaleuca ...201222795655
efficacy of berberine, an antimicrobial plant alkaloid, as an endodontic irrigant against a mixed-culture biofilm in an in vitro tooth model.berberine, a plant alkaloid isolated from many medicinal plants, has shown antimicrobial activity against selected oral pathogens. the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of berberine solution against selected endodontic pathogens using a multispecies biofilm tooth model.201222794217
evidence for occurrence, persistence, and growth potential of escherichia coli and enterococci in hawaii's soil environments.high densities of escherichia coli and enterococci are common in freshwaters on oahu and other hawaiian islands. soil along stream banks has long been suspected as the likely source of these bacteria; however, the extent of their occurrence and distribution in a wide range of soils remained unknown until the current investigation. soil samples representing the seven major soil associations were collected on the island of oahu and analyzed for fecal coliforms, e. coli, and enterococci by the most ...201222791049
the pava-like fibronectin-binding protein of enterococcus faecalis, efba, is important for virulence in a mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection.enterococcus faecalis is an established nosocomial pathogen, yet the pathogenesis of enterococcal infections, particularly of urinary tract infections (utis), remains to be fully elucidated. fibronectin-binding proteins have been identified as potent adhesins in pathogenic gram-positive cocci. here, we characterized efba, which is encoded by the enterococcal orthologue of streptococcus pneumoniae pava. similar to pava, the anchorless efba protein was localized to the enterococcal cell outer surf ...201222782954
volatile organic compound analysis by ion molecule reaction mass spectrometry for gram-positive bacteria differentiation.approximately 50 % of all clinically proven infections in critically ill patients are caused by gram-positive bacteria. the timely and appropriate treatment of these infections is vital in order to avoid negative outcomes. hence, fast and reliable methods are needed for the early detection and identification of microorganisms. recently, direct mass spectrometry-based analysis of volatile organic compounds emitted by microorganisms has been employed to study gram-negative bacteria. here, we repor ...201222782437
infected total knee arthroplasty treatment outcome analysis.infected total knee arthroplasty (tka) is a topic of great importance, because its diagnosing and treatment requires a lot of resources, and often has an unsatisfactory outcome. the aim of this study was to analyze the outcome of the treatment of infection developed following tka.201222779296
characterization of a conjugate between rose bengal and chitosan for targeted antibiofilm and tissue stabilization effects as a potential treatment of infected dentin.bacterial biofilms and dentin structural changes are some of the major challenges in the management of infected dentin tissue. this study characterized a photosensitizer-conjugated chitosan with enhanced photodynamic efficacy against dental biofilms, as well as the ability to reinforce the postinfected dentin matrix in order to improve its mechanical and chemical stability. rose bengal-conjugated chitosan (csrb) was synthesized using a chemical cross-linking method and characterized for photophy ...201222777042
complete genome sequence of enterococcus faecium strain tx16 and comparative genomic analysis of enterococcus faecium genomes.enterococci are among the leading causes of hospital-acquired infections in the united states and europe, with enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium being the two most common species isolated from enterococcal infections. in the last decade, the proportion of enterococcal infections caused by e. faecium has steadily increased compared to other enterococcus species. although the underlying mechanism for the gradual replacement of e. faecalis by e. faecium in the hospital environment is n ...201222769602
enterococcus faecium stimulates human neutrophils via the formyl-peptide receptor 2.the human formyl-peptide receptor 2 (fpr2/alx) senses phenol-soluble modulin (psm) peptide toxins produced by pathogenic staphylococcal species and plays a crucial role in directing neutrophil influx during staphylococcal infection. however, it has remained unclear if fpr2 responds also to molecules from other bacterial pathogens. here we analyzed a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens and found that apart from staphylococci only certain enterococcal strains have the capacity to ...201222768166
nosocomial infections in a pediatric intensive care unit of a developing country: nhsn surveillance.this study aimed to determine the epidemiology of the three most common nosocomial infections (ni), namely, sepsis, pneumonia, and urinary tract infection (uti), in a pediatric intensive care unit (picu) in a developing country and to define the risk factors associated with ni.201222767099
aseptic simulation test challenged with microorganisms for validation of pharmacy operators.aseptic technique of pharmacy operators was assessed using simulated media-fill tests challenged with microorganisms.201222761076
type i and type ii mechanisms of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: an in vitro study on gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (apdt) employs a non-toxic photosensitizer (ps) and visible light, which in the presence of oxygen produce reactive oxygen species (ros), such as singlet oxygen ((1) o(2), produced via type ii mechanism) and hydroxyl radical (ho(.), produced via type i mechanism). this study examined the relative contributions of (1) o(2) and ho(.) to apdt killing of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.201222760848
in vitro activities of antimicrobial cationic peptides; melittin and nisin, alone or in combination with antibiotics against gram-positive bacteria.the in vitro activities of two antimicrobial cationic peptides, melittin and nisin alone and in combination with frequently used antibiotics (daptomycin, vancomycin, linezolid, ampicillin, and erythromycin), were assessed against clinical isolates of methicillin-susceptible staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant s. aureus and enterococcus faecalis. using the broth microdilution method, minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) ranges of melittin and nisin against all strains were 2-8 μg/ml an ...201222759757
antimicrobial resistance among gram-positive pathogens in saudi arabia.several species of gram-positive cocci are major nosocomial or community pathogens associated with morbidity and mortality. here, we review the antimicrobial resistance among these pathogens in saudi arabia. in the last decades, antimicrobial resistance has increased among staphylococcus aureus in the kingdom with a growing prevalence of both nosocomial and community methicillin-resistant s. aureus (mrsa) isolates. as yet, no vancomycin-resistant mrsa have been reported, although isolates with r ...201222759756
identification, structural, and biochemical characterization of a group of large csn2 proteins involved in crispr-mediated bacterial immunity.many prokaryotic organisms acquire immunity against foreign genetic material by incorporating a short segment of foreign dna called spacer into chromosomal loci, termed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (crisprs). the encoded rnas are processed into small fragments that guide the silencing of the invading genetic elements. the crispr-associated (cas) proteins are the main executioners of these processes. herein, we report the crystal structure of stu0660 of streptococcus ...201222753072
antimicrobial effectiveness of intracanal medicaments on enterococcus faecalis: chlorhexidine versus determine the viability of enterococcus faecalis in infected human root dentine in vitro after exposure to root canal medicaments based on chlorhexidine and octenidine.201322747603
chemomechanical preparation by hand instrumentation and by mtwo engine-driven rotary files, an ex vivo compare the disinfecting efficacy of the sodium hypochlorite irrigation by root canal preparation with stainless steel hand files, taper 0.02 and nickel-titanium mtwo files with taper 0.04-0.06.201224558545
antibiotic resistance and virulence traits in clinical and environmental enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium isolates.this study compared virulence and antibiotic resistance traits in clinical and environmental enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium isolates. e. faecalis isolates harboured a broader spectrum of virulence determinants compared to e. faecium isolates. the virulence traits cyl-a, cyl-b, cyl-m, gel-e, esp and acm were tested and environmental isolates predominantly harboured gel-e (80% of e. faecalis and 31.9% of e. faecium) whereas esp was more prevalent in clinical isolates (67.8% of e. f ...201222742879
antimicrobial phenylpropanoids from the argentinean highland plant parastrephia lucida (meyen) cabrera.the argentinean highland plant parastrephia lucida (meyen) cabrera is used in traditional medicine as an antiseptic and anti-inflammatory crude drug.201222735664
antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity analysis of halistanol trisulphate from marine sponge petromica aqueous extract and fraction from the marine sponge petromica citrina have antibacterial activity. we performed a chemical and biological characterization of the antibiotic substance from p. citrina and investigated its mode of action on staphylococcus aureus cells.201222729926
[enterococcus faecalis meningitis after spinal anesthesia successfully managed with linezolid]. 201222727505
role of mprf1 and mprf2 in the pathogenicity of enterococcus faecalis.enterococcus faecalis is one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. due to its innate and acquired resistance to most antibiotics, identification of new targets for antimicrobial treatment of e. faecalis is a high priority. the multiple peptide resistance factor mprf, which was first described in staphylococcus aureus, modifies phosphatidylglycerol with lysin and reduces the negative charge of the membrane, thus increasing resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides. we studied the ef ...201222723861
enterococcus faecalis clones in poultry and in humans with urinary tract infections, vietnam.enterococcus spp. as pathogens have increased, but the sources of infection often remain unclear. to investigate whether poultry might be a reservoir for e. faecalis-associated urinary tract infections (utis) in humans, we characterized e. faecalis isolates from patients in vietnam with utis during january 2008-january 2010 and poultry living in close contact with them by multilocus sequence typing (mlst), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, analysis of antimicrobial drug susceptibility patterns, ...201222709904
lantibiotic production by pathogenic microorganisms.lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesised, post-translationally modified antimicrobial peptides produced by gram positive bacteria, many which have broad-ranging antimicrobial activities. lantibiotics have long been the subject of investigation with a view to their application as food preservatives or chemotherapeutic agents for clinical and veterinary medicine, while the associated biosynthetic machinery has been employed for peptide engineering purposes. however, although many lantibiotics are ...201222708496
transmission and genetic diversity of enterococcus faecalis during hatch of broiler chicks.the normal gastrointestinal flora of poultry includes enterococcus faecalis. e. faecalis is also associated with first week mortality of chickens, but it is not clear whether this is due to vertical or horizontal transmission. aims of the present study were to investigate transmission and genetic diversity of e. faecalis during hatching of broiler chicks. when hatching started, 15% of the chicks were colonized with e. faecalis. this colonization was interpreted as vertical transmission and was h ...201222704244
the effect of detergents on the antibacterial activity of disinfecting solutions in dentin.detergents have been added into different disinfecting solutions to lower their surface tension and to enhance their antibacterial effects. the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of dentin disinfection by different antibacterial solutions in the presence and absence of detergents using a novel dentin infection model and confocal laser scanning microscopy (clsm).201222703659
antimicrobial substantivity over time of chlorhexidine and reach an adequate control of dentin infection and to promote success in endodontic therapy, antimicrobial irrigating solutions with confirmed substantivity are recommended. the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial substantivity against enterococcus faecalis of a dentin-volumetric unit exposed for 1 minute to chlorhexidine (chx) and cetrimide (ctr).201222703655
extracellular dextran and dna affect the formation of enterococcus faecalis biofilms and their susceptibility to 2% chlorhexidine.enterococcus faecalis is frequently recovered from root-filled teeth with refractory apical periodontitis. the ability of e. faecalis to form a matrix-encased biofilm contributes to its pathogenicity; however, the role of extracellular dextran and dna in biofilm formation and its effect on the susceptibility of the biofilm to chlorhexidine remains poorly understood.201222703650
abundance of enterococcus species, enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium, essential indicators of fecal pollution, in river water.enterococci such as enterococcus faecalis and e. faecium are considered as the most suitable indicators of fecal pollution in an aquatic environment, and new methods for enterococcus determination have been developed, namely, membrane filtration (mf) using membrane-enterococcus indoxyl-β-d-glucoside agar (mei) and defined substrate technology (dst) using enterolert®. this study used pcr analysis to identify e. faecalis and e. faecium among enterococcus strains in river water isolated using both ...201222702808
isolation and characterization of kluyvera georgiana strain with the potential for acrylamide biodegradation.worldwide contamination by acrylamide, a neurotoxicant and carcinogen in animals, is becoming a significant problem. we isolated three novel acrylamide-degrading bacteria from domestic wastewater in chonburi, thailand. using biochemical characteristics and 16s rrna gene sequencing, the strains were identified as klebsiella pneumoniae, kluyvera georgiana and enterococcus faecalis. k. georgiana strain no. 2 was selected for further characterization due to its degradation potential of high concentr ...201222702807
bacteriophage control of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in cattle isolate bacteriophage that infects vancomycin-resistant enterococci (vre) and to investigate the ability of this phage to diminish vre number in vitro and in experimentally vre-inoculated compost.201222702478
molecular evidence of enterococcus faecalis in an occluding coronary thrombus from a patient with late prosthetic valve endocarditis. 201222688276
pharmacodynamics of early, high-dose linezolid against vancomycin-resistant enterococci with elevated mics and pre-existing genetic mutations.vancomycin-resistant enterococci (vre) have emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen in medical centres worldwide. this study evaluated the impact of front-loading of linezolid on bacterial killing and suppression of resistance against vre strains with defined genetic mutations.201222685161
the role of asymptomatic bacteriuria in young women with recurrent urinary tract infections: to treat or not to treat?little is known about the role of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ab) treatment in young women affected by recurrent urinary tract infection (uti). we aimed to evaluate the impact of ab treatment on the recurrence rate among young women affected by recurrent uti.201222677710
improved identification including maldi-tof mass spectrometry analysis of group d streptococci from bovine mastitis and subsequent molecular characterization of corresponding enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium isolates.we examined 199 group d streptococci isolated from clinically defined and epidemiologically unrelated cases of bovine mastitis. samples were collected during a 5-month period from 2010 to 2011 from diseased animals in 199 herds (1 isolate per herd) raised in different counties and federal states in germany. a classical enterococcal species identification procedure started with pyrase and catalase assays, growth on enterococcoselagar(®) and gcg(®) agar plates and in 6.5% nacl followed by a bioche ...201222677481
mycotic left main coronary artery aneurysm following double-valve replacement for active infective endocarditis.a 68-year-old man underwent double-valve replacement (dvr) for active infective endocarditis caused by enterococcus faecalis. postoperative coronary angiography (cag) revealed a saccular aneurysm originating from the distal portion of lmca with severe stenosis at the ostium of the left anterior descending (lad) artery and left circumflex artery (lcx). emergent surgical resection with concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting were performed.mycotic coronary artery aneurysms have a great tendenc ...201322673548
isolation and characterization of a novel bacteriophage φ4d lytic against enterococcus faecalis recent years, enterococcus faecalis has emerged as an important opportunistic nosocomial pathogen capable of causing dangerous infections. therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel antibacterial agents to control this pathogen. bacteriophages have very effective bactericidal activity and several advantages over other antimicrobial agents and so far, no serious or irreversible side effects of phage therapy have been described. the objective of this study was to characterize a novel v ...201222669253
emergence and characterisation of vanb vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis in rio de janeiro, we describe the detection and characterisation of three isolates of vancomycin-resistant vanb-type enterococcus faecalis. sequence analysis suggested that these isolates harboured the vanb1 gene. the isolates were susceptible to the majority of antimicrobial agents tested, with the exception of chloramphenicol, erythromycin and vancomycin, and showed distinct profiles of high-level resistance to aminoglycosides. analysis of the clonal relatedness of the vanb e. faecalis isolates showed simi ...201222666871
correlation between mutations in liafsr of enterococcus faecium and mic of daptomycin: revisiting daptomycin breakpoints.mutations in liafsr, a three-component regulatory system controlling cell-envelope stress response, were recently linked with the emergence of daptomycin (dap) resistance in enterococci. our previous work showed that a liaf mutation increased the dap mic of a vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis strain from 1 to 3 μg/ml (the dap breakpoint is 4 μg/ml), suggesting that mutations in the liafsr system could be a pivotal initial event in the development of dap resistance. with the hypothesis t ...201222664970
role of m2b macrophages in the acceleration of bacterial translocation and subsequent sepsis in mice exposed to whole body [137cs] γ-irradiation.the influence of whole-body gamma-irradiation on the antibacterial host defense against enterococcus faecalis translocation was investigated. mice irradiated with or without 5 gy [(137)cs] gamma-rays were orally infected with 10(6) cfu/mouse e. faecalis. the pathogen was detected in the mesenteric lymph nodes (mlns) of irradiated mice 1-4 d postinfection, whereas e. faecalis was not isolated from mlns of normal mice. all irradiated mice died within 5 d of infection, whereas no mortality was show ...201222664870
fatal meningitis caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci: report of two cases from south india.vancomycin-resistant enterococci rarely cause meningitis and present a therapeutic challenge. antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done for strains of enterococcus species isolated from csf samples of patients with meningitis by phenotypic methods. multiplex polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the genetic basis of vancomycin resistance of such isolates. we report here two cases of enterococcal meningitis caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococcus species. one of the isolate ...201222664449
molecular screening of virulence genes in high-level gentamicin-resistant enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium isolated from clinical specimens in northwest iran.the present study screened clinical isolates of enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium to determine the prevalence of high-level gentamicin-resistant enterococci and the potential virulence genes among them.201222664433
enterococcal endocarditis: can we win the war?treatment of enterococcal infections has long been recognized as an important clinical challenge, particularly in the setting of infective endocarditis (ie). furthermore, the increase prevalence of isolates exhibiting multidrug resistance (mdr) to traditional anti-enterococcal antibiotics such as ampicillin, vancomycin and aminoglycosides (high-level resistance) poses immense therapeutic dilemmas in hospitals around the world. unlike ie caused by most isolates of enterococcus faecalis, which sti ...201222661339
a novel method for simultaneous enterococcus species identification/typing and van genotyping by high resolution melt order to develop a typing and identification method for van gene containing enterococcus faecium, two multiplex pcr reactions were developed for use in hrm-pcr (high resolution melt-pcr): (i) vana, vanb, vanc, vanc23 to detect van genes from different enterococcus species; (ii) isr (intergenic spacer region between the 16s and 23s rrna genes) to detect all enterococcus species and obtain species and isolate specific hrm curves. to test and validate the method three groups of isolates were tes ...201222658426
global transcriptional analysis of the stringent response in enterococcus enterococcus faecalis, production of guanosine tetraphosphate/guanosine pentaphosphate [(p)ppgpp], the effector molecule of the stringent response, is controlled by the bifunctional synthetase/hydrolase rela and the monofunctional synthetase relq. previously, the (p)ppgpp profiles of strains lacking rela, relq or both genes indicated that rela is the primary enzyme responsible for (p)ppgpp synthesis under stress conditions, while the contributions of relq to the stringent response and cell ho ...201222653948
synthesis and antimicrobial activity of some new hydrazone-bridged thiazole-pyrrole this work, we synthesized fourteen different compounds which contain hydrazone bridged thiazole and pyrrole rings. for this purpose, pyrrole-2-carboxaldehydes were reacted directly with thiosemicarbazide in ethanol and then obtained thiosemicarbazones were condensed with α-bromoacetophenone derivatives (hantzsch reaction) to give 1-substituted pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde [4-(4-substituted phenyl)-1,3-thiazol-2-yl] hydrazones. the structures of the obtained compounds were elucidated by using ir, ...201322651798
oral administration of enterococcus faecalis fk-23 suppresses th17 cell development and attenuates allergic airway responses in mice.evidence is increasing that oral administration of probiotics can attenuate asthmatic responses both in murine models and clinical trials. t-helper 17 (th17) cells, a subset of cd4+ t cells have been implicated as having an important role in the development of several allergic disorders, but the relationship between oral administration of probiotics and th17 development has not been well studied. balb/c mice were given lysed enterococcus faecalis fk-23 (lfk) orally for 28 days. after sensitizati ...201222641478
in vitro evaluation of the root canal cleaning ability of plant extracts and their antimicrobial action.this in vitro study evaluated both the antimicrobial activity and the root canal cleaning ability of plant extracts used in irrigation solutions. the antimicrobial activities of the aroeira-da-praia (schinus terebintifolius raddi) and the quixabeira (syderoxylum obtusifolium roem & schult) hydroalcoholic extracts, of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (naocl) and of 0.12% chlorhexidine (positive control) against enterococcus faecalis were tested with the agar well diffusion method. the level of root canal ...201322641440
detection of vana-containing enterococcus species in faecal microbiota of gilthead seabream (sparus aurata).vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis, e. faecium and e. durans isolates with the genotype vana were detected in 7 of 118 faecal samples (5.9%) of natural gilthead seabream recovered off the coast of portugal, and one vancomycin-resistant isolate/sample was further characterized. the genes erm(b), tet(l), tet(m), aac(6')-aph(2"), aph(3')-iiia and/or ant(6)-ia were identified in most of the 7 vancomycin-resistant enterococci. sequence types st273, st313 and st76 were detected in three e. fae ...201222641152
the antimicrobial activity of the appetite peptide hormone ghrelin.the present study examined the antimicrobial activity of the peptide ghrelin. both major forms of ghrelin, acylated ghrelin (ag) and desacylated ghrelin (dag), demonstrated the same degree of bactericidal activity against gram-negative escherichia coli (e. coli) and pseudomonas aeruginosa (p. aeruginosa), while bactericidal effects against gram-positive staphylococcus aureus (s. aureus) and enterococcus faecalis (e. faecalis) were minimal or absent, respectively. to elucidate the bactericidal me ...201222634233
gender and age-dependent etiology of community-acquired urinary tract infections.urinary tract infections (utis) are among the most frequent community-acquired infections worldwide. escherichia coli is the most common uti pathogen although underlying host factors such as patients' age and gender may influence prevalence of causative agents. in this study, 61 273 consecutive urine samples received over a 22-month period from outpatients clinics of an urban area of north italy underwent microbiological culture with subsequent bacterial identification and antimicrobial suscepti ...201222629135
genetic modifications and introduction of heterologous pdc genes in enterococcus faecalis for its use in production of bioethanol.genetically-modified enterococcus faecalis has a potential of survival and can be used in ethanolic fermentations. fermentation profiles of e. faecalis jh2-2 were assessed using glucose and lactose as carbon sources. deletion of lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) genes increased the ethanol production from 0.25 to 0.82 g/l, which was further increased to 0.96 g/l by the insertion of a pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc) gene (from sarcina ventriculi or clostridium acetobutylicum) in place ldh1. when grown on ...201222628022
antimicrobial activity of wild mushroom extracts against clinical isolates resistant to different antibiotics.this work aimed to screen the antimicrobial activity of aqueous methanolic extracts of 13 mushroom species, collected in bragança, against several clinical isolates obtained in hospital center of trás-os-montes and alto douro, portugal.201222621239
vancomycin-resistant enterococci (vre) isolates isolated in rajavithi hospital between 1999 and 2009.from 1999 to 2009, a total of 10,470 clinical enterococcal strains from patients in rajavithi hospital were isolated. of these, 201 (1.9%) vancomycin-resistant enterococci (vre) including 199 (99.0%) enterococcus faecium and 2 (1.00%) enterococcus faecalis were found. the incidence of vre was 1.8% in 1999, 3.3% in 2000, 5.1% in 2001, 1.0% in 2002, 0.0% in 2003 and 2004, 1.1% in 2005, 4.7% in 2006, 1.9% in 2007, 2.2% in 2008 and 0.9% in 2009. seventy-one vre isolates were classified to vana pheno ...201222619881
selective grazing by protists upon enteric bacteria in an aquatic is well known that protozoan grazing can be an important agent of mortality for suspended bacteria, both in marine and freshwater environments. considering that the presence of fecal contamination is a frequent phenomenon in tríese environments, and that escherichia coli and the genus enterococcus are indicators of microbiological water quality, the effect of protozoan grazing on e. coli and enterococcus faecalis in los padres lagoon waters (buenos aires, argentina, 37° 56'30" s, 57° 44'30" w ...201222610287
outbreak of mastitis in sheep caused by multi-drug resistant enterococcus faecalis in sardinia, outbreak of infective mastitis due to enterococcus faecalis occurred in an intensive sheep farm in north sardinia (italy). e. faecalis, which is only rarely isolated from sheep milk, was unexpectedly found in 22·3% of positive samples at microbiological examination. forty-five out of the 48 e. faecalis isolates showed the same multi-drug resistance pattern (cloxacillin, streptomycin, kanamycin, clindamycin, oxytetracycline). e. faecalis isolates were analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophores ...201322595402
residual activity of chelating agents and their combinations with cetrimide on root canals infected with enterococcus faecalis.the use of chelating agents in endodontic treatment is required to remove the smear layer and to achieve better disinfection within the root canal system. the aim of this study was to evaluate the residual antimicrobial activity of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (edta), 7% maleic acid (ma), and 10% lactic acid (la) alone and combined with 0.2% cetrimide (ctr) on infected root canals with enterococcus faecalis.201222595119
structural characterization and antimicrobial evaluation of atractyloside, atractyligenin, and 15-didehydroatractyligenin methyl ester.we report the first complete structure elucidation of the ent-kaurane diterpenoid glycoside atractyloside (1) by means of nmr and x-ray diffractometry techniques. extensive one- and two-dimensional nmr experiments were employed to assign the proton and carbon signals of 1, and crystallography experiments established the configurations of all stereogenic centers. furthermore, we present a novel semisynthetic route for the preparation of the highly cytotoxic aglycone derivative of 1, 15-didehydroa ...201222594797
speciation and antimicrobial resistance of enterococci isolated from recreational beaches in malaysia.we report the first study on the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant enterococci in coastal bathing waters in malaysia. one hundred and sixty-five enterococci isolates recovered from two popular recreational beaches in malaysia were speciated and screened for antibiotic resistance to a total of eight antibiotics. prevalence of enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium was highest in both beaches. e. faecalis/e. faecium ratio was 0.384:1 and 0.375:1, respectively, for isolates from port dicks ...201322592782
[influence of alkaline environment on the hydrophobicity of starved enterococcus faecalis].to study the effect of calcium hydroxide solutions at different ph values on the cell-surface hydrophobicity of starved enterococcus faecalis.201222588924
survey of virulence determinants among vancomycin resistant enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium isolated from clinical specimens of hospitalized patients of north west of iran.recent data indicates an increasing rate of vancomycin resistance in clinical enterococcal isolates worldwide. the nosocomial enterococci are likely to harbor virulence elements that increase their ability to colonize hospitalized patients. the aim of this study was to characterize virulence determinants in vancomycin-resistant enterococci (vre) obtained from various clinical sources.during the years 2008 to 2010, a total of 48 vre isolates were obtained from three university teaching hospitals ...201222582098
effects of cow's and goat's milk as fermentation media on the microbial ecology of sugary kefir the present study, we have investigated the importance of fermentation media on grain formation and the microbial characteristics of sugary kefir. the sugary kefir grains were fermented in brown sugar, cow's milk or goat's milk. using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, we identified the microorganisms present in both the grains and filtrate and then evaluated their distribution. the structure of the grains was also observed by scanning electronic microscopy (sem). the identifi ...201222578996
a role for skn-1/nrf in pathogen resistance and immunosenescence in caenorhabditis elegans.a proper immune response ensures survival in a hostile environment and promotes longevity. recent evidence indicates that innate immunity, beyond antimicrobial effectors, also relies on host-defensive mechanisms. the caenorhabditis elegans transcription factor skn-1 regulates xenobiotic and oxidative stress responses and contributes to longevity, however, its role in immune defense is unknown. here we show that skn-1 is required for c. elegans pathogen resistance against both gram-negative pseud ...201222577361
sensitivities of major causative organisms isolated from patients with acute uncomplicated cystitis against various antibacterial agents: results of subanalysis based on the presence of menopause.we investigated whether the presence of menopause influenced the species and distribution of causative bacteria isolated from patients with acute uncomplicated cystitis (the most common urinary tract infection), and we also investigated the sensitivity of the isolated species to antibacterial agents. using multivariate analysis, we also investigated risk factors for infection with quinolone-resistant escherichia coli, because its frequency has increased and it is now a clinical problem in japan. ...201222572853
molecular epidemiology of enterococcus sp. isolated in a university hospital in algeria.the aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of enterococci isolated from infections at an algerian university hospital, and to evaluate the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (vre) and the clonal cluster present in this country.201222568723
Displaying items 13801 - 13900 of 14299