crystallization and first data collection of the putative transfer protein tran from the gram-positive conjugative plasmid pip501.conjugative plasmid transfer is the most important route for the spread of resistance and virulence genes among bacteria. consequently, bacteria carrying conjugative plasmids are a substantial threat to human health, especially hospitalized patients. whilst detailed information about the process has been obtained for gram-negative type-4 secretion systems, little is known about the corresponding mechanisms in gram-positive (g+) bacteria. the successful purification and crystallization of the put ...201223143259
rapid identification of gram-positive pathogens and their resistance genes from positive blood culture broth using a multiplex tandem rt-pcr assay.the early initiation of targeted antibiotic therapy in patients with bacteraemia and septic shock impacts favourably on outcomes. rapid methods are therefore increasingly employed for bacterial identification directly from positive blood culture bottles, but with variable success. we evaluated the performance of the gram positive 12 multiplex tandem pcr (mt-pcr) assay (ausdiagnostics; catalogue no. 6202, version 07) containing targets for the identification of staphylococci including staphylococ ...201323139396
ex vivo antimicrobial efficacy of the endovac system plus photodynamic therapy associated with calcium hydroxide against intracanal enterococcus evaluate the ex vivo efficacy of the endovac system and photodynamic treatment (pdt) as adjuncts to chemomechanical debridement associated with calcium hydroxide (caoh2 ) in reducing the levels of intracanal enterococcus faecalis.201323137292
enterococcus faecalis overcomes foreign body-mediated inflammation to establish urinary tract infections.urinary catheterization elicits major histological and immunological changes that render the bladder susceptible to microbial invasion, colonization, and dissemination. however, it is not understood how catheters induce these changes, how these changes act to promote infection, or whether they may have any protective benefit. in the present study, we examined how catheter-associated inflammation impacts infection by enterococcus faecalis, a leading cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infe ...201323132492
comparative in vitro antibacterial activity of six root canal sealers against enterococcus faecalis and proteus evaluate the antimicrobial properties of six endodontic sealers in unset and set states against enterococcus faecalis and proteus vulgaris.201223129142
antibacterial action of calcium hydroxide vehicles and calcium hydroxide evaluate the in vitro action of vehicles alone and with calcium hydroxide against different bacterial species.201223129141
3-phenyl substituted 6,7-dimethoxyisoquinoline derivatives as ftsz-targeting antibacterial agents.the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria has created an urgent need for antibiotics with a novel mechanism of action. the bacterial cell division protein ftsz is an attractive target for the development of novel antibiotics. the benzo[c]phenanthridinium sanguinarine and the dibenzo[a,g]quinolizin-7-ium berberine are two structurally similar plant alkaloids that alter ftsz function. the presence of a hydrophobic functionality at either the 1-position of 5-methylbenzo[c]phenanthridinium deriv ...201223127490
the effect of ascorbic acid on the substantivity of tetraclean in sodium hypochlorite-treated bovine dentin.the purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro effect of ascorbic acid on the antibacterial substantivity of tetraclean in bovine root dentin pretreated with sodium hypochlorite (naocl).201223119132
a surveillance of high-level gentamicin-resistant enterococcal bacteremia.enterococci have recently been recognized as a causative organism of intractable infections, including severe sepsis and infective endocarditis, in immunocompromised patients. this study investigated the epidemiological, microbiological, and prognostic characteristics of high-level gentamicin-resistant (hlgr) enterococcal bacteremia, including severe cases of infective endocarditis, in japan. a total of 155 enterococcal bacteremia episodes were identified between july 2007 and december 2009. hlg ...201223115941
the influence of chlorhexidine on the antibacterial effects of investigate the influence of chlorhexidine in different concentrations when mixed with mineral trioxide aggregate gray (mta-g) or white (mta-w). the antibacterial effect on enterococcus faecalis was used as the primary parameter.201223115769
evaluation of a pcr assay to detect enterococcusfaecalis in blood and determine glycopeptides resistance genes: van a and van b.bacteremia due to enterococcus faecalis is usually caused by strains resistant to most antibiotics. effective management of the disease is dependent on rapid detection and characterization of the bacteria, and determination its sensitivity pattern to antimicrobial drugs. the aim of this study was to investigate a more rapid and reliable assay for simultaneous diagnosis of enterococcal bacteremia and its sensitivity pattern to antimicrobial drugs.201223115452
biochemical characterization of cardiolipin synthase mutations associated with daptomycin resistance in enterococci.daptomycin (dap) resistance in enterococci has been linked to mutations in genes that alter the cell envelope stress response (cesr) (liafsr) and changes in enzymes that directly affect phospholipid homeostasis, and these changes may alter membrane composition, such as that of cardiolipin synthase (cls). while cls substitutions are observed in response to dap therapy, the effect of these mutations on cls activity remains obscure. we have expressed, purified, and characterized cls enzymes from bo ...201323114777
evaluation of bacterial microleakage of root canals irrigated with different irrigation solutions and ktp laser system.the aim of this study was to evaluate bacterial microleakage of the root canals irrigated with different irrigation solutions and the potassium-titanyl-phosphate (ktp) laser system and filled with gutta-percha and ah26 root canal sealer. in addition, the effect of the irrigation solutions on dentin surface was evaluated with a scanning electron microscope (sem).201323113510
molecular identification of an enterococcus faecalis endocarditis antigen efaa in root canals of therapy-resistant endodontic infections.enterococcus faecalis has long been implicated in persistent root canal infections and therapy-resistant endodontic infections. it has also been associated with bacteremia, that is, infective endocarditis arising from certain invasive dental procedures. e. faecalis endocarditis antigen (efaa) has been identified as one of the principal virulence factors associated with infective endocarditis.201223112476
comparative kinetic analysis of glycerol 3-phosphate cytidylyltransferase from enterococcus faecalis and listeria monocytogenes.glycerol 3-phosphate cytidylyltransferase (gct) is an enzyme central to the synthesis of teichoic acids, components of the cell wall in gram positive bacteria. catalysis by gct from enterococcus faecalis and listeria monocytogenes has been investigated and catalytic properties compared.201223111733
antimicrobial efficacy of cryotreatment against enterococcus faecalis in root canals.the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate intracanal bacterial reduction by cryotreatment using a dental instrument equipped with a duct and connected to a cryogenic fluid source. a total of 86 roots were infected with enterococcus faecalis and incubated. after incubation, the contaminated roots were divided into three study groups: 35 roots irrigated with 2 ml of a 5% sodium hypochlorite (naocl) solution, 35 roots irrigated with 2 ml of a 5% naocl solution and further treated with cryo ...201323106670
antibiotic susceptibility of periodontal enterococcus faecalis.enterococcus faecalis may contribute to periodontal breakdown in heavily infected subgingival sites, particularly in patients responding poorly to mechanical forms of periodontal therapy. because only limited data are available on the antimicrobial sensitivity of enterococci of subgingival origin, this study evaluates the in vitro antibiotic susceptibility of e. faecalis isolated from periodontitis patients in the united states.201323106507
characterization of the effects of an rpoc mutation that confers resistance to the fst peptide toxin-antitoxin system toxin.overexpression of the fst toxin in enterococcus faecalis strain og1x leads to defects in chromosome segregation, cell division and, eventually, membrane integrity. the m7 mutant derivative of og1x is resistant to most of these effects but shows a slight growth defect in the absence of fst. full-genome sequencing revealed two differences between m7 and its og1x parent. first, og1x contains a frameshift mutation that inactivates the etar response regulator gene, while m7 is a wild-type revertant f ...201323104812
bactericidal strontium-releasing injectable bone cements based on bioactive glasses.strontium-releasing injectable bone cements may have the potential to prevent implant-related infections through the bactericidal action of strontium, while enhancing bone formation in patients suffering from osteoporosis. a melt-derived bioactive glass (bg) series (sio2–cao–caf2–mgo) with 0–50% of calcium substituted with strontium on a molar base were produced. by mixing glass powder, poly(acrylic acid) and water, cements were obtained which can be delivered by injection and set in situ, givin ...201323097502
effectiveness of photoactivated disinfection (pad) to kill enterococcus faecalis in planktonic solution and in an infected tooth model.the aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of photoactivated disinfection (pad) in killing enterococcus faecalis (ef) in planktonic solution and in an infected tooth model.201223095248
antimicrobial effects of root canal medicaments against enterococcus faecalis and streptococcus compare the antimicrobial activities of activ point (roeko, langenau, germany), calcium hydroxide plus point (roeko, langenau, germany), calcium hydroxide, 1% chlorhexidine gel and bioactive glass (s53p4) against enterococcus faecalis and streptococcus mutans.201323095092
smad4 haploinsufficiency associates with augmented colonic inflammation in select humans and mice.smad4 is a common mediator of the tgf-beta signaling pathway. one of the members of this pathway, tgf-beta 1, has an important role in controlling gut inflammation in relation to the continuous stimulation of the intestinal microbiota. smad4 haploinsufficiency in humans has been linked to juvenile polyposis hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia syndrome (jp/hht; omim#17505). hematochezia and colonic mucosal inflammation suggestive of inflammatory bowel diseases (ibd) have been reported in jp/hht ...201223090737
characterization of plasmid pml21 of enterococcus faecalis ml21 from koumiss. 201323090644
psk41-like plasmid is necessary for inc18-like vana plasmid transfer from enterococcus faecalis to staphylococcus aureus in vitro.vancomycin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (vrsa) is thought to result from the in vivo conjugative transfer of a vana plasmid from an enterococcus sp. to s. aureus. we studied bacterial isolates from vrsa cases that occurred in the united states to identify microbiological factors which may contribute to this plasmid transfer. first, vancomycin-susceptible, methicillin-resistant s. aureus (mrsa) isolates from five vrsa cases were tested for their ability to accept foreign dna by conjugation in ...201323089754
synthesis and characterization of polysaccharide-maghemite composite nanoparticles and their antibacterial properties.the aim of this study was to obtain saccharide (dextran and sucrose)-coated maghemite nanoparticles with antibacterial activity. the polysaccharide-coated maghemite nanoparticles were synthesized by an adapted coprecipitation method. x-ray diffraction (xrd) studies demonstrate that the obtained polysaccharide-coated maghemite nanoparticles can be indexed into the spinel cubic lattice with a lattice parameter of 8.35 å. the refinement of xrd spectra indicated that no other phases except the maghe ...201223088756
antibacterial activity of substituted 5-methylbenzo[c]phenanthridinium derivatives.antibiotic resistance has prompted efforts to discover antibiotics with novel mechanisms of action. ftsz is an essential protein for bacterial cell division, and has been viewed as an attractive target for the development of new antibiotics. sanguinarine is a benzophenanthridine alkaloid that prevents cytokinesis in bacteria by inhibiting ftsz self-assembly. in this study, a series of 5-methylbenzo[c]phenanthridinium derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for antibacterial activity against s ...201223084900
characterization of lead-resistant river isolate enterococcus faecalis and assessment of its multiple metal and antibiotic resistance.contamination of surface waters has a direct impact on the public health of entire communities. microorganisms inhabiting contaminated surface waters have developed mechanisms of coping with a variety of toxic metals and drugs. investigations were carried out to isolate and identify lead-resistant bacteria from the river kızılırmak along the city of kırıkkale, turkey. of the 33 lead-resistant isolates, one isolate with a minimal inhibitory concentration of 1,200 mg l(-1) was isolated and identif ...201323079796
antimicrobial efficacy of a human β-defensin-3 peptide using an enterococcus faecalis dentine infection assess the antibacterial efficacy of a human β-defensin-3 (hbd3) peptide against enterococcus faecalis biofilms.201323078156
[multivalvular infective endocarditis with enterococcus faecalis].infective endocarditis (ie) is a relatively rare disease that can take part of sepsis and may be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. polyvalvular location of el is rare. we present a patient of 60 years diagnosed with plurivalvular infective endocarditis by enterococcus faecalis with septic complications, visceral, dragged, hospitalized for a psychiatric pathology, who raised the problems of diagnosis and treatment, without being able to make assessments on the entrance gate. for help in dia ...201623077930
the evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility of urine enterococci with the vitek 2 automated system in eastern turkey.antibiotic resistant enterococci are an emerging problem, especially in urinary tract infections. the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of 118 enterococci isolates from urine samples of patients admitted to malatya state hospital, a secondary care hospital in eastern turkey. the vitek 2 automated sytem was used to identify the bacteria and detect antimicrobial susceptibility to ten antibiotics: ampicillin, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, quinupristi ...201223077822
false daptomycin-nonsusceptible mic results by microscan panel pc 29 relative to etest results for staphylococcus aureus and enterococci.this study correlated the daptomycin mic results obtained by microscan and by etest in staphylococcus aureus and enterococci and found that the microscan panel gp 29 had a high rate of false nonsusceptible results. of the isolates interpreted as nonsusceptible by microscan, 87% of staphylococcus aureus, 90% of enterococcus faecalis, and 88% of enterococcus faecium isolates were interpreted as susceptible by etest. in turn, etest also has false nonsusceptible results compared to reference methods ...201323077121
intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms in enterococcus.enterococci have the potential for resistance to virtually all clinically useful antibiotics. their emergence as important nosocomial pathogens has coincided with increased expression of antimicrobial resistance by members of the genus. the mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance in enterococci may be intrinsic to the species or acquired through mutation of intrinsic genes or horizontal exchange of genetic material encoding resistance determinants. this paper reviews the antibiotic resistanc ...201223076243
study of photodynamic effects on nih 3t3 cell line and bacteria.bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a constantly growing challenge. photodynamic therapy (pdt) offers a new approach to the treatment of bacterial and viral diseases. the aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of photosensitizers used in pdt applied to cell lines and bacterial strains.201423073531
species-level analysis of dna sequence data from the nih human microbiome project.outbreaks of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections emphasize the importance of surveillance of potentially pathogenic bacteria. genomic sequencing of clinical microbiological specimens expands our capacity to study cultivable, fastidious and uncultivable members of the bacterial community. herein, we compared the primary data collected by the nih's human microbiome project (hmp) with published epidemiological surveillance data of staphylococcus aureus.201223071716
comparative genomics of community-acquired st59 methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus in taiwan: novel mobile resistance structures with is1216v.methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) with st59/sccmecv and panton-valentine leukocidin gene is a major community-acquired mrsa (ca-mrsa) lineage in taiwan and has been multidrug-resistant since its initial isolation. in this study, we studied the acquisition mechanism of multidrug resistance in an st59 ca-mrsa strain (pm1) by comparative genomics. pm1's non-β-lactam resistance was encoded by two unique genetic traits. one was a 21,832-bp composite mobile element structure (mes(pm1) ...201223071689
epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis: a case-case-control study.although much is known about vancomycin-resistant (vr) enterococcus faecium, little is known about the epidemiology of vr enterococcus faecalis. the predilection of vr e. faecalis to transfer the vancomycin resistance determinant to staphylococcus aureus is much greater than that of vr e. faecium. the epidemiology of vr e. faecalis has important implications regarding the emergence of vancomycin-resistant s. aureus (vrsa); 8 of 13 reported vrsa cases have been from michigan. a retrospective case ...201323070173
transferable multiresistance plasmids carrying cfr in enterococcus spp. from swine and farm environment.seventy-seven porcine enterococcus isolates with florfenicol mics of ≥16 μg of were/ml screened for the presence of the multiresistance gene cfr, its location on plasmids, and its genetic environment. three isolates-enterococcus thailandicus 3-38 (from a porcine rectal swab collected at a pig farm), enterococcus thailandicus w3, and enterococcus faecalis w9-2 (the latter two from sewage at a different farm), carried the cfr gene. the smai pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of the three is ...201323070165
synergistic effect of microbubble emulsion and sonic or ultrasonic agitation on endodontic biofilm in vitro.irrigation dynamics and antibacterial activity determine the efficacy of root canal disinfection. sonic or ultrasonic agitation of irrigants is expected to improve irrigation dynamics. this study examined the effects of microbubble emulsion (me) combined with sonic or ultrasonic agitation on irrigation dynamics and reduction of biofilm bacteria within root canal models.201223063230
wetting properties and critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride mixed in sodium hypochlorite.the purposes of the present study were to (1) assess the effect of the addition of benzalkonium chloride to sodium hypochlorite on its wetting properties, contact angle, and surface energy; (2) determine the critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride in sodium hypochlorite; and (3) investigate the influence of addition of benzalkonium chloride on the free chlorine level, cytotoxicity, and antiseptic properties of the mixture.201223063229
crispr-cas, a prokaryotic adaptive immune system, in endodontic, oral, and multidrug-resistant hospital-acquired enterococcus faecalis.microorganisms are vulnerable to invasion by mobile genetic elements such as viruses, plasmids, and transposons. the recently discovered clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (crispr)-associated system, or crispr-cas, is an adaptive immunity system found in most archaea and many bacteria that targets and inactivates invading foreign genetic elements. cells with crispr-cas are more likely to resist the invasion and uptake of foreign dna such as viruses, plasmids, and transposo ...201223063226
evaluation of microbial survival post-incidence on fresh mozzarella cheese.commercial fresh mozzarella cheese is made by direct acidification and is stored dry or in water without salt addition. the cheese has a shelf life of 6 wk, but usually develops an off-flavor and loses textural integrity by 4 wk, potentially due to the lack of salt and high moisture that allow the outgrowth of undesirable bacteria. to understand how microbial incidence affects cheese quality and how incident pathogen-related bacteria are limited by salt level during refrigerated storage, we made ...201223063153
a comparative study to determine the recovery rate of microorganisms of bloodstream infections: two versus three blood culture specimens.there has been a development of automated and continuous-monitoring blood culture systems that are more sensitive than conventional systems for the detection of microorganisms. whether two or three blood culture specimens obtained during a 24-hour period using these automated systems achieving a higher recovery rate of microorganism remains to be determined. the present study was aimed to compare the recovery rates of microorganism of blood-stream infections (bsis) using two and three blood cult ...201223061310
the par toxin-antitoxin system from enterococcus faecalis plasmid pad1 and its chromosomal homologs.the par post-segregational killing locus present on enterococcus faecalis plasmid pad1 was the first type i toxin-antitoxin system described in gram-positive bacteria. translation of the 33 amino acid fst toxin, encoded on rna i, is suppressed by a 66 nucleotide regulatory rna, rna ii. rna i and rna ii are transcribed convergently and interact at dispersed regions of complementarity, establishing a stable complex that accumulates in plasmid-containing cells. rna ii is slowly removed from the com ...201223059908
antibacterial activity of substituted dibenzo[a,g]quinolizin-7-ium derivatives.berberine is a substituted dibenzo[a,g]quinolizin-7-ium derivative whose modest antibiotic activity is derived from its disruptive impact on the function of the essential bacterial cell division protein ftsz. the present study reveals that the presence of a biphenyl substituent at either the 2- or 12-position of structurally-related dibenzo[a,g]quinolizin-7-ium derivatives significantly enhances antibacterial potency versus staphylococcus aureus and enterococcus faecalis. studies with purified s ...201223058886
propolis: a new alternative for root canal disinfection.this study evaluated and compared colony forming units (cfus) and minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) of calcium hydroxide and propolis as intracanal medicaments.201223056131
removal of faecal indicator pathogens from waters and wastewaters by photoelectrocatalytic oxidation on tio(2)/ti films under simulated solar radiation.the disinfection efficiency of water and secondary treated wastewater by means of photoelectrocatalytic oxidation (pec) using reference strains of enterococcus faecalis and escherichia coli as faecal indicators was evaluated. operating parameters such as applied potential (2-10 v), initial bacterial concentration (10(3)-10(7) cfu/ml), treatment time (up to 90 min) and aqueous matrix (pure water and treated effluent) were assessed concerning their impact on disinfection.201223054740
a composite bacteriophage alters colonization by an intestinal commensal bacterium.the mammalian intestine is home to a dense community of bacteria and its associated bacteriophage (phage). virtually nothing is known about how phages impact the establishment and maintenance of resident bacterial communities in the intestine. here, we examine the phages harbored by enterococcus faecalis, a commensal of the human intestine. we show that e. faecalis strain v583 produces a composite phage (φv1/7) derived from two distinct chromosomally encoded prophage elements. one prophage, prop ...201223045666
draft genome sequence of the quality control strain enterococcus faecalis atcc 29212.enterococcus faecalis atcc 29212, a vancomycin-sensitive strain, has been extensively used as a representative control strain for clinical and laboratory experiments. here we report the draft genome and annotation of this strain, containing 3,027,060 bp, with a g+c content of 37.2% in 126 contigs (≥ 500 bp).201223045510
virulence factors in isolates of enterococcus faecalis from infective endocarditis and from the normal flora.infective endocarditis (ie) is a severe infection associated with significant morbidity and mortality. enterococcus faecalis is among the most common causes of this disease, and yet little is known about the pathogenesis of e. faecalis ie. we screened 21 e. faecalis isolates from ie and 21 isolates from normal flora for the putative virulence factors ace, asa1, gele, and esp with pcr. in addition, we determined the ability of the isolates to form biofilm and to aggregate platelets. with the exce ...201323044056
the changing epidemiology of bacteraemias in europe: trends from the european antimicrobial resistance surveillance system.we investigated bacteraemia trends for five major bacterial pathogens, staphylococcus aureus, escherichia coli, streptococcus pneumoniae, enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium, and determined how expanding antimicrobial resistance influenced the total burden of bacteraemias in europe. aetiological fractions of species and antibiotic phenotypes were extracted from the european antimicrobial resistance surveillance system (earss) database for laboratories, which consistently reported betw ...201323039210
impact of ph on activity of trimethoprim, fosfomycin, amikacin, colistin and ertapenem in human urine.although major impairment of activity at lower ph values has been reported for fluoroquinolones, acidification is a widely recommended practice for the prophylaxis and treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (utis). until now, there is little evidence for the influence of ph on the activity on other antimicrobial classes in urine.201223037005
computer keyboard covers impregnated with a novel antimicrobial polymer significantly reduce microbial contamination.contaminated computer keyboards have been acknowledged as a potential source for bacterial transmission between health care providers and patients. biosafe hm 4100 is an antimicrobial polymer that can be incorporated into the polyurethane material used to make keyboard covers. this study aimed to determine whether plastic keyboard covers containing hm 4100 effectively minimize the survival of bacterial species commonly present on health care environmental surfaces.201323036480
effects of a pulsed light-induced stress on enterococcus faecalis.pulsed light (pl) technology is a surface decontamination process that can be used on food, packaging or water. pl efficiency may be limited by its low degree of penetration or because of a shadow effect. in these cases, surviving bacteria will be able to perceive pl as a stress. such a stress was mimicked using low transmitted energy conditions, and its effects were investigated on the highly environmental adaptable bacterium enterococcus faecalis v583.201323035907
the vane operon in enterococcus faecalis n00-410 is found on a putative integrative and conjugative element, date no complete genetic structure of acquired dna harbouring a d-ala-d-ser operon in an enterococcus is known. we wished to characterize the acquired dna harbouring the vane operon located in the enterococcus faecalis n00-410 chromosome.201323034711
enterococcus faecalis leakage of root canal sealers: an ex vivo study.the aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate bacterial penetration after filling root canals using 3 different techniques. three experimental groups of 25 teeth each, obturated with lateral-warm-vertical condensation of gutta-percha, microseal technique and endorez system, respectively, were tested in a split chamber model system using enterococcus faecalis and monitored for 180 days to determine bacterial penetration. a statistical analysis was performed using the kaplan-meier method. median s ...201223034274
the relative importance of staphylococcus saprophyticus as a urinary tract pathogen: distribution of bacteria among urinary samples analysed during 1 year at a major swedish determine the distribution of urinary tract pathogens with focus on staphylococcus saprophyticus and analyse the seasonality, antibiotic susceptibility, and gender and age distributions in a large swedish cohort. s. saprophyticus is considered an important causative agent of urinary tract infection (uti) in young women, and some earlier studies have reported up to approximately 40% of utis in this patient group being caused by s. saprophyticus. we hypothesized that this may be true only in ve ...201323030816
survey on hospital-acquired urinary tract infection in neurological intensive care unit.this study aimed to explore the causes, incidence, and risk factors of urinary tract infection patients in neurological intensive care unit (icu). patients (n = 916) admitted to the neurological icu from january 2005 to december 2010 were retrospectively surveyed for urinary tract infections. there were 246 patients in neurological icu who were diagnosed with hospital-acquired urinary tract infection during that period of time (26.9%). forty-three cases were upper urinary tract infection, and 20 ...201323030808
a case of daptomycin-induced immune thrombocytopenia.we report a case of severe daptomycin-induced immune thrombocytopenia in a patient treated for methicillin-resistant staphylococcus epidermidis and ampicillin-resistant enterococcus faecalis bacteremia acquired in an intensive care unit. serum antibodies bound to platelets in the presence of daptomycin on flow cytometry. there was no evidence of other causes of thrombocytopenia. the patient died of brain herniation complicating extensive cerebral hemorrhage. to our knowledge, this is the first d ...201223027187
water disinfection using photo-fenton: effect of temperature on enterococcus faecalis survival.the photo-fenton process is a promising alternative to classical water disinfection treatments, although information in this regard is scarce due to its operational limitations. the effect of temperature (10, 20, 30 and 40 °c) was studied on water disinfection using the photo-fenton reaction at initial near neutral ph with resorcinol as a model of natural organic matter (nom). enterococcus faecalis, a gram-positive microorganism, was selected as an indicator of wastewater faecal contamination. t ...201223021523
chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of lippia grandis schauer (verbenaceae) from the western amazon.lippia grandis schauer is an aromatic plant that has been used as a spice in brazilian culinary and in traditional medicine to treat liver disease, disorders of the stomach and throat infections. we determined the chemical composition of the essential oil of l. grandis and evaluated its potential for the treatment of clinically-important pathogenic micro-organisms. the essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms), giving carvacrol ( ...201225005969
antibacterial mechanisms of rhodomyrtone against important hospital-acquired antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria.the antibacterial mechanisms of rhodomyrtone, a member of the acylphloroglucinols isolated from rhodomyrtus tomentosa leaves, against important hospital-acquired antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria were assessed. the results indicated that rhodomyrtone exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity against key antibiotic-resistant pathogens including epidemic meticillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (emrsa), vancomycin-intermediate s. aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococcal strains. the ...201323019189
synergistic bactericidal activity between hyperosmotic stress and membrane-disrupting nanoemulsions.there is a clear clinical need for alternative types of non-antibiotic biocides due to the rising global health concern of microbial drug resistance. in this work, a novel antibacterial concept was delineated that utilized hyperosmotic stress (h) in concert with membrane-disrupting nanoemulsions (nes). the antibacterial effects of either h or a ne, as well as in combination (h+ne), were assessed in vitro using an escherichia coli model. it was found that exposure to h or ne alone produced dose-d ...201323019188
quantification of antibiotic in biofilm-inhibiting multilayers by 7.87 ev laser desorption postionization ms imaging.the potential of laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (ldpi-ms) imaging for small molecule quantification is demonstrated here. the n-methylpiperazine acetamide (mpa) of ampicillin was adsorbed into polyelectrolyte multilayer surface coatings composed of chitosan and alginate, both high molecular weight biopolymers. these mpa-ampicillin spiked multilayers were then shown to inhibit the growth of enterococcus faecalis biofilms that play a role in early stage infection of implanted me ...201223017064
aerobic vaginitis and mixed infections: comparison of clinical and laboratory investigate the clinical features of aerobic vaginitis (av) and mixed infections with av to achieve efficient diagnosis.201323015152
in vivo exposure of mytilus edulis to living enteric bacteria: a threat for immune competency?mussels are widespread in coastal environments and experience various physical, chemical, and bacteriological conditions. owing to the increase of coastal urbanization, mussels are now commonly exposed not only to indigenous bacteria, but also to enteric bacteria originating from pulsed and chronic sewage discharges into coastal environments. due to its broad resilience to environmental variations, the blue mussel mytilus edulis is commonly used as an indicator of environmental quality in bio-mo ...201323014953
the influence of predation and competition on the survival of commensal and pathogenic fecal bacteria in aquatic habitats.the role of fecal indicator bacteria (fib) in water quality assessment is to provide a warning of the increased risk of pathogen presence. an effective surrogate for waterborne pathogens would have similar survival characteristics in aquatic environments. although the effect of abiotic factors such as sunlight and salinity on the survival of fib and pathogens are becoming better understood, the effect of the indigenous microbiota is not well characterized. the influence of biotic factors on the ...201323013262
bactericidal effects of nd:yag laser irradiation and sodium hypochlorite solution on enterococcus faecalis biofilm.the aim of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal effects of nd:yag laser on biofilm of enterococcus faecalis.201223003122
clinical analysis of cataract surgery complicated by assess the efficacy of vitrectomy combined with intravitreal injection in the treatment of endophthalmitis after phacoemulsification and iol implantation.201222993061
the antibacterial efficacy of biopure mtad in root canal contaminated with enterococcus faecalis.aim. the purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of biopure mtad against e. faecalis in contaminated root canals. materials and methods. forty-two single rooted extracted human teeth were inoculated with e. faecalis and incubated for four weeks. the samples were divided in two control and five experimental groups irrigated with 1.5% sodium hypochlorite solution (naocl); 3% naocl; biopure mtad; 1.5% naocl/17% edta; or 3% naocl/17% edta. after a one-week incubation, ...201222991671
rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis associated with pr3-anca positive subacute bacterial endocarditis.patients with bacterial endocarditis often have renal complications. this report presents the case of an elderly man with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (rpgn) associated with subacute bacterial endocarditis (sbe) due to enterococcus faecalis infection. the patient was positive for anti-proteinase 3-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (pr3-anca) and rheumatoid factor (rf) with hypocomplementemia. treatment for sbe with antibiotics and the surgical replacement of the affected valves resul ...201222989831
[spectrum and drug sensitivity of pathogenic bacteria in children with nephrotic syndrome complicated by urinary tract infection: an analysis of 97 cases].to investigate the spectrum and drug sensitivity of pathogenic bacteria in children with nephrotic syndrome (ns) complicated by urinary tract infection (uti).201222989432
inhibition of listeria monocytogenes by enterococcus mundtii isolated from soil.two bacterial isolates with inhibitory activity against listeria monocytogenes and enterococcus faecalis were obtained from soil. genotypic and phenotypic characterization identified them as enterococcus mundtii, a species whose ability to compete with l. monocytogenes is relatively unexplored compared to other members of the genus. the thermal stability of the inhibitory factor and its sensitivity to proteolytic enzymes indicate that it is most likely a bacteriocin. both isolates grew at compar ...201222986201
sodium chloride and potassium sorbate: a synergistic combination against enterococcus faecalis biofilms: an in vitro study.incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is a major cause of post-treatment disease. this study aimed to investigate the disinfecting property of organic acid salts and sodium chloride (nacl), in a double-hurdle strategy, on enterococcus faecalis biofilms. first of all, the high-throughput resazurin metabolism assay (rma) was used to test a range of organic acid salts. then, to gain more insight into the efficacy of sorbate salt solutions, 48-h e. faecalis biofilms were evaluated in colo ...201222985004
validation of adenosine triphosphate to audit manual cleaning of flexible endoscope channels.compliance with cleaning of flexible endoscope channels cannot be verified using visual inspection. adenosine triphosphate (atp) has been suggested as a possible rapid cleaning monitor for flexible endoscope channels. there have not been published validation studies to specify the level of atp that indicates inadequate cleaning has been achieved.201322980510
infection of apical dentin and root-end cavity disinfection.the purpose of this study was to assess enterococcus faecalis penetration into the dentin of the apical 3 mm and bacterial death after the application of either chlorhexidine or laser to root-end cavities.201222980184
effectiveness of endodontic disinfecting solutions against young and old enterococcus faecalis biofilms in dentin canals.enterococcus faecalis is a species commonly isolated from persistent root canal infections. the purpose of this study was to compare the antibacterial effects of different disinfecting solutions on young and old e. faecalis biofilms in dentin canals using a novel dentin infection model and confocal laser scanning microscopy (clsm).201222980181
chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of different parts of seseli rigidum.the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of the balkan endemic species seseli rigidum waldst. & kit. (apiaceae) was investigated. the monoterpene alpha-pinene was predominant in the volatile oil from aerial parts (57.4%) and fruit (23.3%). in the essential oil of the aerial parts limonene (6.7%), camphene (5.8%) and sabinene (5.5%) were also present in high amounts, and in the fruit oil, beta-phellandrene (17.4%) and sabinene (12.9%). on the contrary, the root ess ...201222978237
coordination of thiosemicarbazones and bis(thiosemicarbazones) to bismuth(iii) as a strategy for the design of metal-based antibacterial agents.complexes [bi(2fo4ph)cl(2)] (1), [bi(2ac4ph)cl(2)] (2), [bi(2bz4ph)cl(2)] (3), [bi(h(2)gy3dh)cl(3)] (4), [bi(h(2)gy4et)(oh)(2)cl] (5), and [bi(h(2)gy4ph)cl(3)] (6) were prepared with pyridine-2-carbaldehyde 4-phenylthiosemicarbazone (h2fo4ph), 1-(pyridin-2-yl)ethanone 4-phenylthiosemicarbazone (h2ac4ph), phenyl(pyridin-2-yl)methanone 4-phenylthiosemicarbazone (h2bz4ph), as well as with glyoxaldehyde bis(thiosemicarbazone) (h(2)gy4dh) and its 4-et (h(2)gy4et) and 4-ph (h(2)gy4ph) derivatives. the ...201222976983
antimicrobial efficacy of a high-power diode laser, photo-activated disinfection, conventional and sonic activated irrigation during root canal evaluate the antimicrobial effect of a diode laser irradiation, photo-activated disinfection (pad), conventional and sonic activated irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (naocl) on enterococcus faecalis.201322970886
structural and functional characterization of vang d-ala:d-ser ligase associated with vancomycin resistance in enterococcus faecalis.d-alanyl:d-lactate (d-ala:d-lac) and d-alanyl:d-serine ligases are key enzymes in vancomycin resistance of gram-positive cocci. they catalyze a critical step in the synthesis of modified peptidoglycan precursors that are low binding affinity targets for vancomycin. the structure of the d-ala:d-lac ligase vana led to the understanding of the molecular basis for its specificity, but that of d-ala:d-ser ligases had not been determined. we have investigated the enzymatic kinetics of the d-ala:d-ser ...201222969085
complete genome sequence of the porcine isolate enterococcus faecalis d32.the complete and annotated genome sequence of enterococcus faecalis d32, a commensal strain isolated from a danish pig, suggests putative adaptation to the porcine host and absence of distinct virulence-associated traits.201222965105
combination therapy with ampicillin and daptomycin for treatment of enterococcus faecalis endocarditis. 201222964255
ceramide, cerebroside and triterpenoid saponin from the bark of aerial roots of ficus elastica (moraceae).three compounds, ficusamide (1), ficusoside (2) and elasticoside (3), were isolated from the bark of aerial roots of ficus elastica (moraceae), together with nine known compounds, including four triterpenes, three steroids and two aliphatic linear alcohols. the chemical structures of the three compounds were established by extensive 1d and 2d nmr spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and by comparison with published data. the growth inhibitory effect of the crude extract and isolated compounds was eva ...201222963707
identification and imaging of peptides and proteins on enterococcus faecalis biofilms by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry.the heptapeptide arhphph was identified from biofilms and planktonic cultures of two different strains of enterococcus faecalis, v583 and atcc 29212, using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (maldi-ms). arhphph was also imaged at the boundary of cocultured, adjacent e. faecalis and escherichia coli (atcc 25922) biofilms, appearing only on the e. faecalis side. arhphph was proteolyzed from κ-casein, a component in the growth media, by e. faecalis microbes. additionally, ...201222962657
lack of direct effects of agrochemicals on zoonotic pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria.agrochemicals, fecal indicator bacteria (fib), and pathogens frequently contaminate water simultaneously. no significant direct effects of fertilizer, atrazine, malathion, and chlorothalonil on the survival of escherichia coli, enterococcus faecalis, salmonella enterica, human polyomaviruses, and adenovirus were detected, supporting the assertion that previously observed effects of agrochemicals on fib were indirect.201222961900
the lysozyme-induced peptidoglycan n-acetylglucosamine deacetylase pgda (ef1843) is required for enterococcus faecalis virulence.lysozyme is a key component of the innate immune response in humans that provides a first line of defense against microbes. the bactericidal effect of lysozyme relies both on the cell wall lytic activity of this enzyme and on a cationic antimicrobial peptide activity that leads to membrane permeabilization. among gram-positive bacteria, the opportunistic pathogen enterococcus faecalis has been shown to be extremely resistant to lysozyme. this unusual resistance is explained partly by peptidoglyc ...201222961856
carnosic acid is an efflux pumps modulator by dissipation of the membrane potential in enterococcus faecalis and staphylococcus aureus.bacterial resistance to antibiotics has become a serious problem of public health. along with the controlled permeability by the cell-wall, active efflux systems can provide resistance by extruding antibiotics. carnosic acid is capable to potentiate the antimicrobial activity of several antibiotics. however, the underlying molecular mechanism governing this effect remains unclear. the present study aims to investigate the effect of carnosic acid on the transport of ethidium bromide, on the perme ...201322961443
killer toxin from a novel killer yeast pichia kudriavzevii ry55 with idiosyncratic antibacterial activity.the killer phenomenon of yeast may have technological implications in many areas like beverage fermentation, food technology, biological control in agriculture, and in medicine. in the present study the killer phenomenon in pichia kudriavzevii (p. kudriavzevii ry55) is being reported for the first time. the p. kudriavzevii ry55 toxin exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against several pathogens of human health significance such as escherichia coli, enterococcus faecalis, klebsiella sp., s ...201322961241
device-associated infection rates, device utilization, and antimicrobial resistance in long-term acute care hospitals reporting to the national healthcare safety network, evaluate national data on healthcare-associated infections (hais), device utilization, and antimicrobial resistance in long-term acute care hospitals (ltachs).201222961018
municipal wastewater treatment plants as pathogen removal systems and as a contamination source of noroviruses and enterococcus faecalis.municipal wastewater treatment plants play a crucial role in reducing the microbial and pathogen load of human wastes before the end-products are discharged to surface waters (final effluent) or land spread (biosolids). this study investigated the occurrence frequency of noroviruses, enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium in influent, final effluent and biosolids from four secondary wastewater treatment plants in northwestern ireland (plants a-d) and observed the seasonal and spatial var ...201222960482
antimicrobial resistance profiles of enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium isolated from artisanal food of animal origin in argentina.enterococci are part of the indigenous microbiota of human gastrointestinal tract and food of animal origin. enterococci inhabiting non-human reservoirs play a critical role in the acquisition and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance determinants. the aim of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance in enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium strains recovered from artisanal food of animal origin. samples of goat cheese (n = 42), cow cheese (n = 40), artisanal salami ( ...201222953740
the structure of enterococcus faecalis thymidylate synthase provides clues about folate bacterial metabolism.drug resistance to therapeutic antibiotics poses a challenge to the identification of novel targets and drugs for the treatment of infectious diseases. infections caused by enterococcus faecalis are a major health problem. thymidylate synthase (ts) from e. faecalis is a potential target for antibacterial therapy. the x-ray crystallographic structure of e. faecalis thymidylate synthase (efts), which was obtained as a native binary complex composed of efts and 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (5-fthf), ha ...201222948925
structure and mode of peptide binding of pheromone receptor prgz.we present the crystal structure of the pheromone receptor protein prgz from enterococcus faecalis in complex with the heptapeptide ccf10 (lvtlvfv), which is used in signaling between conjugative recipient and donor cells. comparison of prgz with homologous oligopeptide-binding proteins (appa and oppa) explains the high specificity of prgz for hydrophobic heptapeptides versus the promiscuity of peptide binding in the homologous proteins.201222948145
antibiotic-resistant enterococcus faecalis in abattoir pigs and plasmid colocalization and cotransfer of tet(m) and erm(b) genes.this study was conducted to determine plasmid colocalization and transferability of both erm(b) and tet(m) genes in enterococcus faecalis isolates from abattoir pigs in canada. a total of 124 e. faecalis isolates from cecal contents of abattoir pigs were examined for antibiotic susceptibility. high percentages of resistance to macrolides and tetracyclines were found. two predominant multiresistance patterns of e. faecalis were examined by pcr and sequencing for the presence of genes encoding ant ...201222947466
activity of oritavancin against methicillin-resistant staphylococci, vancomycin-resistant enterococci and β-haemolytic streptococci collected from western european countries in determine the activity of oritavancin against methicillin-resistant staphylococci, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (vre) and β-haemolytic streptococci recently isolated from acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections or bacteraemia in western europe.201322941898
mechanisms for photoinactivation of enterococcus faecalis in seawater.field studies in fresh and marine waters consistently show diel fluctuations in concentrations of enterococci, indicators of water quality. we investigated sunlight inactivation of enterococcus faecalis to gain insight into photoinactivation mechanisms and cellular responses to photostress. e. faecalis bacteria were exposed to natural sunlight in clear, filtered seawater under both oxic and anoxic conditions to test the relative importance of oxygen-mediated and non-oxygen-mediated photoinactiva ...201222941072
non-tuberculous mycobacteria and their surface lipids efficiently induced il-17 production in human t cells.interleukin-17 (il-17) is produced by a subset of cd4(+) t helper (th) lymphocytes known as th17 cells. in humans, il-1β, enhanced by il-6 and il-23 is crucial for differentiation of these cells. il-17 evokes inflammation and is involved in host defence against microorganisms, although little is known about its role in diseases caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria. the genus mycobacterium contains both obligate and opportunistic pathogens as well as saprophytes, and the mycobacterial cell enve ...201222939918
genome sequence of enterococcus hirae (streptococcus faecalis) atcc 9790, a model organism for the study of ion transport, bioenergetics, and copper homeostasis.enterococcus hirae atcc 9790 is a gram-positive lactic acid bacterium that has been used in basic research for over 4 decades. here we report the sequence and annotation of the 2.8-mb genome of e. hirae and its endemic 29-kb plasmid ptg9790.201222933757
enterococcus septicemia due to a pacemaker lead infection.pacemaker lead infections are rare but potentially life threatening. we report the case of an 80-year-old pacemaker-dependent female patient with complete heart block, who presented with subfebrile temperatures and chills due to a pacemaker lead infection by enterococcus faecalis.201222929569
antibacterial activity of a plant extract and its potential for disinfecting gutta-percha cones.this study evaluated the antibacterial activity of rosmarinus officinalis extract and its potential for disinfecting guttapercha (gp) cones. in the first experiment, a hydro-alcoholic extract of rosmarinus officinalis (leaves) in a dilution ratio of 10% m/v was tested against enterococcus faecalis by using the disk diffusion method. positive and negative controls were 70% cereal alcohol and antibiotics, respectively. the procedures were performed in triplicate, and the diameters of the zones of ...201222928375
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