antimicrobial activity and hydrophobicity of edible whey protein isolate films formulated with nisin and/or glucose oxidase.the use of edible antimicrobial films has been reported as a means to improve food shelf life through gradual releasing of antimicrobial compounds on the food surface. this work reports the study on the incorporation of 2 antimicrobial agents, nisin (n), and/or glucose oxidase (go), into the matrix of whey protein isolate (wpi) films at ph 5.5 and 8.5. the antimicrobial activity of the edible films was evaluated against listeria innocua (atcc 33090), brochothrix thermosphacta (ncib10018), escher ...201323488765
ex vivo antimicrobial efficacy of strong acid electrolytic water against enterococcus faecalis observe the antimicrobial effect of strong acid electrolytic water (saew) against an enterococcus faecalis (e. faecalis) biofilm when used as a root canal irrigant.201323488685
antibacterial effects of two different types of laser and aqueous ozone against enterococcus faecalis in root canals.the purpose of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effects of two different types of laser and aqueous ozone in human root canals infected by enterococcus faecalis.201323484588
isolated pulmonary valve endocarditis in a patient with aplastic anaemia.a 42-year-old female patient of aplastic anaemia on maintenance blood transfusion presented with a 3-week history of fever, cough, dyspnoea and pedal oedema. upon examination she  was found to have severe pallor, temperature of 101°f, tachycardia, bilateral pitting pedal oedema, raised jugular venous pressure, ejection systolic murmur (grade 2/6) in pulmonary area and petechiae over extensor aspect of both lower limbs. blood investigations revealed low haemoglobin, thrombocytopaenia and mild inc ...201323483061
substituted 1,6-diphenylnaphthalenes as ftsz-targeting antibacterial agents.bacterial cell division occurs in conjunction with the formation of a cytokinetic z-ring structure comprised of ftsz subunits. agents that disrupt z-ring formation have the potential, through this unique mechanism, to be effective against several of the newly emerging multidrug-resistant strains of infectious bacteria. several 1-phenylbenzo[c]phenanthridines exhibit notable antibacterial activity. based upon their structural similarity to these compounds, a distinct series of substituted 1,6-dip ...201323481648
predominant role of host proteases in myocardial damage associated with infectious endocarditis induced by enterococcus faecalis in a rat model.infective endocarditis (ie) remains a life-threatening infectious disease with high morbidity and mortality. the objectives of the present study are to assess the host proteolytic activities of the vegetations and their cytotoxic potential in a rat model of experimental ie. rats were infected with a strain of enterococcus faecalis of particularly low virulence and weak protease expression. we tested the presence of proteases released by infiltrated leukocytes (matrix metalloproteinases and elast ...201323478315
vancomycin resistant enterococci: from the hospital effluent to the urban wastewater treatment plant.vancomycin is an important antibiotic to treat serious nosocomial enterococci infections. human activities, in particular those related with clinical practices performed in hospitals, can potentiate the transfer and selection of clinically-relevant resistant bacteria such as vancomycin resistant enterococci (vre). indeed, previous studies demonstrated the occurrence of vre in urban wastewater treatment plants and related environments (e.g. sewage, rivers). in this study, the occurrence of vre in ...201323474261
draft genome sequence of enterococcus faecalis pc1.1, a candidate probiotic strain isolated from human feces.enterococcus faecalis is commonly isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of healthy infants and adults, where it contributes to host health and well-being. we describe here the draft genome sequence of e. faecalis pc1.1, a candidate probiotic strain isolated from human feces.201323469340
east north central region has the highest prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis in the united states. 201323466924
undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatase confers low-level resistance to bacitracin in enterococcus faecalis.undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatases (uppps) have been implicated in bacitracin resistance in some bacterial genera and the aim of this study was to determine the role of uppps in mediating low-level bacitracin resistance in enterococcus faecalis.201323460607
ahrc and eep are biofilm infection-associated virulence factors in enterococcus faecalis.enterococcus faecalis is part of the human intestinal microbiome and is a prominent cause of health care-associated infections. the pathogenesis of many e. faecalis infections, including endocarditis and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (cauti), is related to the ability of clinical isolates to form biofilms. to identify chromosomal genetic determinants responsible for e. faecalis biofilm-mediated infection, we used a rabbit model of endocarditis to test strains with transposon insert ...201323460519
diversity of streptococcus mutans strains in bacterial interspecies interactions.biofilms are matrix-enclosed microbial population adhere to each other and to surfaces. compared to planktonic bacterial cells, biofilm cells show much higher levels of antimicrobial resistance. we aimed to investigate streptococcus mutans strain diversity in biofilm formation and chlorhexidine (chx) resistance of single s. mutans and dual s. mutans-enterococcus faecalis biofilms. four clinical s. mutans strains (c180-2, c67-1, hg723 and ua159) formed 24-h biofilms with or without an e. faecalis ...201423456658
occurrence, genetic diversity, and persistence of enterococci in a lake superior 2012, the u.s. epa suggested that coastal and great lakes states adopt enterococci as an alternative indicator for the monitoring of recreational water quality. limited information, however, is available about the presence and persistence of enterococci in lake superior. in this study, the density, species composition, and persistence of enterococci in sand, sediment, water, and soil samples were examined at two sites in a lake superior watershed from may to september over a 2-year period. th ...201323455345
effect of high-intensity focused ultrasound on enterococcus faecalis planktonic suspensions and this study, the effect of high-intensity focused ultrasound (hifu) on enterococcus faecalis on both planktonic suspensions and biofilms was investigated. e. faecalis persist in secondary dental infections as biofilms. glass-bottom petri dishes with biofilms were centered at the focal point of the hifu wave generated by a 250-khz transducer. specimens were subjected to hifu exposure at different periods of 30, 60 and 120 s. the viable bacteria, removal effect and bacterial viability of biofilm ...201323453374
topical linezolid 0.2% for the treatment of vancomycin-resistant or vancomycin-intolerant gram-positive bacterial report the successful use of topical linezolid 0.2% in the treatment of gram-positive bacterial keratitis.201323453280
[microbial and pharmacological characteristics of vancogenx].prosthetic joint infection is a feared complication in total hip arthroplasty. the use of antibiotic-impregnated bone cement is the important part of preventive and therapeutic strategies. at present a number of commercial bone cements are available and support of their use by the results of experimental trials and clinical studies has varied. in relation to this issue we studied essential microbiological and pharmacological characteristics of vancogenx in comparison with gentamicin-loaded bone ...201323452425
[detection of virulence genes in aminoglycoside susceptible and resistant enterococcus faecalis].enterococcus spp. is an important cause of nosocomial infections a number of virulence factors that may enhance its ability to colonize have been described. enterococcus is capable of acquiring resistance genes, including high-level resistance (hlr) to aminoglycoside antibiotics.201323450405
virulence, bacterocin genes and antibacterial susceptibility in enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from water wells for human consumption.the objectives of this study were to detect genes for virulence and bacteriocins in addition to studying the antimicrobial susceptibility of 78 strains of e. faecalis isolated from water wells for human consumption. the virulence and bacteriocin genes of 78 e. faecalis were amplified by pcr and visualized in agarose gels. the antimicrobial susceptibility was determined through diffusion agar tests and the mic through microdilution. it was observed that the major percentage of virulence genes in ...201323449751
engineering of a functional thermostable kanamycin resistance marker for use in moorella thermoacetica atcc39073.a transformation system for moorella thermoacetica atcc39073 was developed using thermostable kanamycin resistant gene (kanr) derived from the plasmid pjh1 that streptococcus faecalis harbored. when kanr with its native promoter was introduced into uracil auxotrophic mutant of m. thermoacetica atcc39073 together with a gene to complement the uracil auxotrophy as a selection marker, it did not give kanamycin resistance due to poor transcription level of kanr. however, the use of glyceraldehyde-3- ...201323448690
antibiofilm activity, ph and solubility of endodontic evaluate antibiofilm activity against enterococcus faecalis, ph and solubility of ah plus, sealer 26, epiphany se, sealapex, activ gp, mta fillapex (mta-f) and an experimental mta-based sealer (mta-s).201323441819
biochemical and genetic characterization of the enterococcus faecalis oxaloacetate decarboxylase complex.enterococcus faecalis encodes a biotin-dependent oxaloacetate decarboxylase (oad), which is constituted by four subunits: e. faecalis carboxyltransferase subunit oada (termed ef-a), membrane pump ef-b, biotin acceptor protein ef-d, and the novel subunit ef-h. our results show that in e. faecalis, subunits ef-a, ef-d, and ef-h form a cytoplasmic soluble complex (termed ef-ahd) which is also associated with the membrane. in order to characterize the role of the novel ef-h subunit, coexpression of ...201323435880
comparative potencies of contemporary generic vancomycin lot: in vitro assay results from nine products and a reference reagent-grade sample.numerous studies of generic vancomycin (gv) lots have emerged since the 1980s, casting some doubt on product quality. publications question the in vivo activity, even when concurrent in vitro and chemical assays meet regulatory guidelines. this study assessed contemporary gv lots by an in vitro assay capable of measuring small variations from target-benchmark (bm) activity. nine gv lots (hospira [6 lots; 0.5- or 1.0-g vials], akorn [1 lot; 1.0-g vial], app [2 lots; 1.0-g vials]) were obtained fr ...201323434498
evaluation of enterococcus-infecting phages as indices of fecal microbial source tracking tool satisfies all the characteristics of an ideal indicator of human fecal pollution. for this reason, the potential of enterococcus faecalis phages (enterophages) as markers of this type of contamination was tested by using eight enterococcus type strains as the possible hosts. the prevalence of enterophages in animal feces and domestic sewage were determined, as were the inactivation rates in raw sewage at 4 °c and surface and tap waters at 22 °c. enterophages wer ...201323428549
photoelectrocatalytic disinfection of water and wastewater: performance evaluation by qpcr and culture techniques.photoelectrocatalytic oxidation (pec) was evaluated as a disinfection technique using water and secondary treated wastewater spiked with escherichia coli and enterococcus faecalis. pec experiments were carried out using a tio(2)/ti-film anode and a zirconium cathode under simulated solar radiation. bacterial inactivation was monitored by culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qpcr). inactivation rates were enhanced when the duration of the treatment was prolonged and when the bacter ...201323428546
dietary plant phenolic improves survival of bacterial infection in manduca sexta caterpillars.plant phenolics are generally thought to play significant roles in plant defense against herbivores and pathogens. many plant taxa, including solanaceae, are rich in phenolic compounds and some insect herbivores have been shown to acquire phenolics from their hosts to use them as protection against their natural enemies. here we demonstrate that larvae of an insect specialist on solanaceae, the tobacco hornworm, manduca sexta l. (lepidoptera: sphingidae), acquire the plant phenolic chlorogenic a ...201323420018
high-level aminoglycoside resistance and virulence characteristics among enterococci isolated from recreational beaches in malaysia.we report the first study on the occurrence of high-level aminoglycoside-resistant (hlar) enterococci in coastal bathing waters and beach sand in malaysia. none of the encountered isolates were resistant to high levels of gentamicin (500 μg/ml). however, high-level resistance to kanamycin (2,000 μg/ml) was observed in 14.2 % of tested isolates, the highest proportions observed being among beach sand isolates. high-level resistance to kanamycin was higher among enterococcus faecalis and enterococ ...201323417753
microbiological survey of imported produce available at retail across canada.increasing consumption and year-round consumer demand for fresh, minimally processed green vegetables have been observed in canada and other developed countries. however, in the past two decades, produce has been increasingly implicated in outbreaks and correspondingly recognized as a vector for the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms. to this end, we examined the microbiological quality of imported produce available at retail across canada during a period of limited domestic availability. ...201323416548
high rates of multidrug resistance in enterococcus faecalis and e. faecium isolated from inpatients and outpatients in taiwan.longitudinal national data on resistance in enterococcus faecalis and e. faecium from different sources in taiwan are rare. the present study analyzed data from the taiwan surveillance of antimicrobial resistance program to address this issue. between 2002 and 2010, a total of 1696 e. faecalis and 452 e. faecium isolates were studied. although these 2 species together comprised similar percentages of all enterococci in each study year (94.1-97.2%, p = 0.19), the proportion of e. faecium increase ...201323414747
comparison of antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation and conjugative transfer of staphylococcus and enterococcus isolates from international space station and antarctic research station concordia.the international space station (iss) and the antarctic research station concordia are confined and isolated habitats in extreme and hostile environments. the human and habitat microflora can alter due to the special environmental conditions resulting in microbial contamination and health risk for the crew. in this study, 29 isolates from the iss and 55 from the antarctic research station concordia belonging to the genera staphylococcus and enterococcus were investigated. resistance to one or mo ...201323411852
inactivation of enterococcus faecalis, pseudomonas aeruginosa and escherichia coli present in treated urban wastewater by coagulation-flocculation and photo-fenton processes.the purpose of the current study is to evaluate the inactivation of three different kinds of bacteria usually present in municipal wastewater treatment effluents (enterococcus faecalis, pseudomonas aeruginosa and escherichia coli) using a coagulation-flocculation-decantation (cfd) process combined with photo-fenton treatment at ph 5. different concentrations of fe(3+)-h2o2 (0.4/25, 5/25 and 15/25 mg l(-1)), and h2o2 (25 mg l(-1)) were evaluated for 210 minutes under artificial solar irradiation ...201323411627
complete genome sequence of the probiotic enterococcus faecalis symbioflor 1 clone dsm, we report the complete and annotated genome sequence of the probiotic enterococcus faecalis symbioflor 1 clone dsm 16431, included in a commercial probiotic product used for more than 50 years without any reports of infection. this sequence will provide new insights into the biology of this nonpathogenic and probiotic microorganism.201323405346
formation of haloacetonitriles and haloacetamides during chlorination of pure culture bacteria.the increasing reuse of organic nitrogen-rich wastewater raises concerns regarding the formation of nitrogenous disinfection by-products (n-dbps), such as haloacetonitriles and haloacetamides. previous research mainly focused on n-dbps formation from dissolved organic matter in wastewater. in this study, dichloroacetonitrile (dcan) and dichloroacetamide (dcacam) formation from particles in the secondary effluents of a domestic wastewater treatment plant during chlorination was assessed to accoun ...201323402924
towards antibacterial endodontic sealers using quaternary ammonium change and characterize the antibacterial properties of endodontic sealers by incorporating low concentrations of insoluble antibacterial nanoparticles (iabn).201323402669
a small amount of singlet oxygen generated via excited methylene blue by photodynamic therapy induces the sterilization of enterococcus faecalis.the present study aimed to clarify the relationship between the amount of singlet oxygen ((1)o(2)) generated from excited methylene blue (mb) and the bactericidal effects on enterococcus faecalis.201323402518
dentin inhibits the antibacterial effect of new and conventional endodontic irrigants.this in vitro study aimed to compare the antibacterial effect of a new irrigant, qmix, with that of conventional irrigation solutions in the presence or absence of dentin powder.201323402517
comparative analysis of enterococcus faecalis biofilm formation on different substrates.the aim of this study was to compare enterococcus faecalis biofilm formation on different substrates.201323402505
effectiveness of curcumin against enterococcus faecalis evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of curcumin against enterococcus faecalis biofilm formed on tooth substrate in vitro. sodium hypochlorite (naocl) and chlorhexidine (chx) served as standards for comparison.201323394209
assessment of the sealing abilities of several root canal sealers and filling evaluate the sealing abilities of two root canal sealers (epoxy resin-based ah plus(®) and polydimethylsiloxane-based guttaflow(®)) and of five root filling techniques (lateral condensation, matched taper single gutta-percha point, laterally condensed-matched taper gutta-percha point, thermafil(®) and continuous wave of condensation), using a bacterial leakage model.201323394208
comparative in vitro inhibition of urinary tract pathogens by single- and multi-strain probiotics.multi-species probiotic preparations have been suggested as having a wide spectrum of application, although few studies have compared their efficacy with that of individual component strains at equal concentrations. we therefore tested the ability of 4 single probiotics and 4 probiotic mixtures to inhibit the urinary tract pathogens escherichia coli nctc 9001 and enterococcus faecalis nctc 00775.201323392622
editorial commentary: enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis: is it time to abandon aminoglycosides? 201323392395
ampicillin plus ceftriaxone is as effective as ampicillin plus gentamicin for treating enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis.the aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the ampicillin plus ceftriaxone (ac) and ampicillin plus gentamicin (ag) combinations for treating enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (efie).201323392394
[prosthetic valve endocarditis 6 months after transcatheter aortic valve implantation].susceptibility to endocarditis after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (tavi) has not yet been described. we report the first case of acute aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis in a patient undergoing transapical tavi, successfully treated with surgery. in november 2009, an 83-year-old woman underwent tavi (23 mm edwards sapien) with an uneventful postoperative course. after 6 months, her blood cultures tested positive for enterococcus faecalis and a prosthetic aortic valve endocarditis wa ...201323389317
detection and new genetic environment of the pleuromutilin-lincosamide-streptogramin a resistance gene lsa(e) in methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus of swine investigate the genetic basis of pleuromutilin resistance in porcine methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) and to map the genetic environment of the identified plasmid-borne resistance gene.201323386262
effects of biofilm growth on plasmid copy number and expression of antibiotic resistance genes in enterococcus faecalis.biofilm growth causes increased average plasmid copy number as well as increased copy number heterogeneity in enterococcus faecalis cells carrying plasmid pcf10. in this study, we examined whether biofilm growth affected the copy number and expression of antibiotic resistance determinants for several plasmids with diverse replication systems. four different e. faecalis plasmids, unrelated to pcf10, demonstrated increased copy number in biofilm cells. in biofilm cells, we also observed increased ...201323380728
virulence traits and antibiotic resistance among enterococci isolated from eurasian otter (lutra lutra).enterococci are ubiquitous microorganisms found as part of the normal intestinal microbiota of many animals such as the free-ranging eurasian otter (lutra lutra linnaeus, 1758). in this work, twenty-nine enterococci isolated from fecal samples of eurasian otters free-living in reservoirs and associated river stretches in south portugal were identified and typed by conventional/molecular methods and screened for virulence factors and antibiotic resistance. identification allocated the isolates to ...201323375652
development of a peptide antagonist against fsr quorum sensing of enterococcus faecalis.enterococcus faecalis fsr quorum sensing (qs) involves an 11-residue cyclic peptide named gelatinase biosynthesis-activating pheromone (gbap) that autoinduces two pathogenicity-related extracellular proteases in a cell density-dependent fashion. to identify anti-pathogenic agents that target fsr qs signaling, peptide antagonists of gbap were created by our unique drug design approach based on reverse alanine scanning. first of all, a receptor-binding scaffold (rbs), [ala(4,5,6,8,9,11)]z-gbap, wa ...201323362999
evidence for bacteria-independent hatching of trichuris muris eggs.hatching of infective larvae from embryonated eggs in the intestine is an essential first step in trichuris infections. there are three isolates of the murine parasitic nematode trichuris muris: e, e-j (the e isolate maintained in japan), and s. incubation of t. muris embryonated eggs with the intestinal bacteria escherichia coli and staphylococcus aureus induced in vitro hatching of the eggs, but enterococcus faecalis failed to induce hatching. bacteria-induced in vitro hatching of embryonated ...201323358735
chimeric beta-defensin analogs, including the novel 3ni analog, display salt-resistant antimicrobial activity and lack toxicity in human epithelial cell lines.human beta-defensins (hbds) are crucial peptides for the innate immune response and are thus prime candidates as therapeutic agents directed against infective diseases. based on the properties of wild-type hbd1 and hbd3 and of previously synthesized analogs (1c, 3i, and 3n), we have designed a new analog, 3ni, and investigated its potential as an antimicrobial drug. specifically, we evaluated the antimicrobial activities of 3ni versus those of hbd1, hbd3, 1c, 3i, and 3n. our results show that 3n ...201323357761
update of dalbavancin spectrum and potency in the usa: report from the sentry antimicrobial surveillance program (2011).dalbavancin (dal) is an investigational lipoglycopeptide with a prolonged serum half-life allowing once weekly dosing. dal potency was assessed in the 2011 sentry antimicrobial surveillance program among 1555 isolates sampled from all 9 us census regions. monitored gram-positive cocci included staphylococcus aureus (sa; 1,036/50.4% mrsa), coagulase-negative staphylococci (cons; 115), enterococcus faecalis (25), e. faecium (31), streptococcus pyogenes (155), streptococcus agalactiae (153), and vi ...201323357293
microparticles containing propolis and metronidazole: in vitro characterization, release study and antimicrobial activity against periodontal pathogens.ethylcellulose microparticles containing metronidazole and propolis extractive solution were prepared and evaluated in vitro against periodontal pathogens. scanning electron microscopy, particle size analysis, drug entrapment efficiency and drug release of microparticles were determined. the antimicrobial activity of microparticles was evaluated against microorganisms of periodontal importance (enterococcus faecalis, streptococcus pyogenes, streptococcus mutans, staphylococcus aureus, klebsiella ...201423356908
the efficacy of passion fruit juice as an endodontic irrigant compared with sodium hypochlorite solution: an in vitro assess the effectiveness of several concentrations of two forms of passion fruit juice (pfj) in the elimination of enterococcus faecalis and to compare the antibacterial property of pfj with sodium hypochlorite (naocl) as an intracanal irrigant.201423355285
glucose triggers atp secretion from bacteria in a growth-phase-dependent manner.atp modulates immune cell functions, and atp derived from gut commensal bacteria promotes the differentiation of t helper 17 (th17) cells in the intestinal lamina propria. we recently reported that enterococcus gallinarum, isolated from mice and humans, secretes atp. we have since found and characterized several atp-secreting bacteria. of the tested enterococci, enterococcus mundtii secreted the greatest amount of atp (>2 μm/10(8) cells) after overnight culture. glucose, not amino acids and vita ...201323354720
independent risk factors for the co-colonization of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus in the region most endemic for vancomycin-resistant staphylococcus aureus the majority of cases of vancomycin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (vrsa), vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis (vr e. faecalis) served as the vana donor to s. aureus. previous studies that evaluated the risk factors for co-colonization with vre and mrsa did not differentiate between vr e. faecalis and vr e. faecium. this study aimed to identify variables associated with vr e. faecalis and mrsa co-colonization. a retrospective case-control study from january 2008 to december 2009 was c ...201323354672
the antibacterial activity of sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine against enterococcus faecalis: a review on agar diffusion and direct contact methods.complete debridement and disinfection of the root canal system are fundamental requirements for successful endodontic treatment. despite the morphological challenges of the internal root anatomy, root canal irrigants play an important role in the optimization of the root canal preparation, which is essentially a chemo-mechanical procedure. enterococcus faecalis is one of the most resistant microorganisms that dominants the microbial ecosystem of persistent periradicular lesions in retreatment ca ...201323349569
antimicrobial activity, antibiotic susceptibility and virulence factors of lactic acid bacteria of aquatic origin intended for use as probiotics in aquaculture.the microorganisms intended for use as probiotics in aquaculture should exert antimicrobial activity and be regarded as safe not only for the aquatic hosts but also for their surrounding environments and humans. the objective of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial/bacteriocin activity against fish pathogens, the antibiotic susceptibility, and the prevalence of virulence factors and detrimental enzymatic activities in 99 lactic acid bacteria (lab) (59 enterococci and 40 non-enterococci ...201323347637
tn6198, a novel transposon containing the trimethoprim resistance gene dfrg embedded into a tn916 element in listeria characterize tn6198, a novel conjugative transposon from the clinical listeria monocytogenes strain tth-2007, which contains the tetracycline and trimethoprim resistance genes tet(m) and dfrg, respectively, and to assess its transferability in vitro and in situ.201323344576
biosorption and biodegradation of acid orange 7 by enterococcus faecalis strain zl: optimization by response surface methodological approach.reactive dyes account for one of the major sources of dye wastes in textile effluent. in this study, decolorization of the monoazo dye, acid orange 7 (ao7) by the enterococcus faecalis strain zl that isolated from a palm oil mill effluent treatment plant has been investigated. decolorization efficiency of azo dye is greatly affected by the types of nutrients and the size of inoculum used. in this work, one-factor-at-a-time (method and response surface methodology (rsm) was applied to optimize th ...201323334551
antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of 7-hydroxy-calamenene-rich essential oils from croton cajucara benth.croton cajucara is a shrub native to the amazon region locally known as "sacaca". two morphotypes are known: white and red "sacaca". the essential oils (eo) obtained by hydrodistillation from leaves of the red morphotype were, in general, rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene (28.4%-37.5%). the effectiveness of these eo regarding the antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms was initially investigated by the drop test method, showing significant inhibition zones. among the microorganisms te ...201323325101
cyclooxygenase-2 generates the endogenous mutagen trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in enterococcus faecalis-infected macrophages.infection of macrophages by the human intestinal commensal enterococcus faecalis generates dna damage and chromosomal instability in mammalian cells through bystander effects. these effects are characterized by clastogenesis and damage to mitotic spindles in target cells and are mediated, in part, by trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-hne). in this study, we investigated the role of cox and lipoxygenase (lox) in producing this reactive aldehyde using e. faecalis-infected macrophages and interleukin (i ...201323321929
polymicrobial endocarditis: chronic q fever and enterococcus faecalis coinfection. 201323318110
biofilm biomass disruption by natural substances with potential for endodontic use.this study evaluated the in vitro effects of four natural substances on the biomass of bacterial biofilms to assess their potential use as root canal irrigants. the following substances and their combinations were tested: 0.2% farnesol; 5% xylitol; 20% xylitol; 0.2% farnesol and 5% xylitol; 0.2% farnesol, 5% xylitol, and 0.1% lactoferrin; 5% xylitol and 0.1% lactoferrin; and 20 mm salicylic acid. the crystal violet assay was used to evaluate the effects of these substances on the biomass of biof ...201323306623
in vitro activity of telavancin and comparators against selected groups of gram-positive cocci.telavancin is a novel, rapidly cidal, dual-action glycopeptide. this study examined its in vitro activity against relevant gram-positive pathogens, comprising 99 meticillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa), 40 meticillin-susceptible s. aureus (mssa), 79 coagulase-negative staphylococci (cons), 45 enterococcus faecalis, 60 enterococcus faecium, 40 β-haemolytic streptococci and 60 streptococcus pneumoniae. except with vana enterococci, telavancin mics were tightly clustered and unimodal. tel ...201323298432
efar is a major regulator of enterococcus faecalis manganese transporters and influences processes involved in host colonization and infection.metal ions, in particular manganese, are important modulators of bacterial pathogenicity. however, little is known about the role of manganese-dependent proteins in the nosocomial pathogen enterococcus faecalis, a major cause of bacterial endocarditis. the present study demonstrates that the dtxr/mntr family metalloregulator efar of e. faecalis controls the expression of several of its regulon members in a manganese-dependent way. we also show that efar inactivation impairs the ability of e. fae ...201323297382
ex vivo killing of enterococcus faecalis and mixed plaque bacteria in planktonic and biofilm culture by modified photoactivated compare the efficacy of conventional and modified photoactivated disinfection (pad) against enterococcus faecalis and mixed plaque bacteria in suspension and biofilms.201323289964
development of a chemically defined medium for the production of enterolysin a from enterococcus faecalis b9510.this study aimed to develop a simplified chemically defined medium that could sustain the growth and bacteriocin (enterolysin a) production by enterococcus faecalis b9510.201323279366
efficiency of the intestinal bacteria in the degradation of the toxic pesticide, chlorpyrifos.chlorpyrifos (cp) is the most commonly used pesticide throughout the world. its widespread use in agriculture and its potential toxicity to humans from ingestion of cp contaminated food have raised concerns about its risk to health. human intestinal microflora has the ability to degrade pesticides, but the exact mechanisms involved and the metabolite end-products formed are not well understood. the primary objective of this work was to analyse the in vitro degradation of cp by five model intesti ...201328324568
molecular recognition of live methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus cells using dna generate dna-aptamers binding to methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa).201325436184
oral administration of ec-12 increases the baseline gene expression of antiviral cytokine genes, ifn-γ and tnf-α, in splenocytes and mesenteric lymph node cells of weaning piglets.weaning piglets are continuously exposed to various viruses. the antiviral effects of lactic acid bacteria (lab) have been confirmed mainly in humans and mice, while few studies have been conducted in livestock. in this study, we evaluated the effect of oral administration of enterococcus faecalis strain ec-12 (ec-12) on the gene expressions of antiviral cytokines in weaning piglets. piglets were allocated to the ec-12-administered group (e group) and the no-treatment control group (c group). th ...201324936371
australian group on antimicrobial resistance enterococcus surveillance programme annual report, 2010, 15 institutions around australia conducted a period prevalence study of key resistances in isolates of enterococcus species associated with a range of clinical disease amongst in- and outpatients. each institution collected up to 100 consecutive isolates and tested these for susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobials using standardised methods. vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecium and enterococcus faecalis were characterised by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. multilocus seque ...201324890955
an in vitro comparison of antimicrobial effcacy of three root canal irrigants-biopure mtad, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite as a final rinse against e. faecalis.this study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (naocl), 2% chlorhexidine (chx) and biopure mtad when used as a fnal rinse against enterococcus faecalis.201324685785
phenotypic and molecular antibiotic resistance profile of enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium isolated from different traditional fermented foods.a collection of 55 enterococci (41 enterococcus faecium and 14 e. faecalis strains) isolated from various traditional fermented foodstuffs of both animal and vegetable origins, and water was evaluated for resistance against 15 antibiotics. lower incidence of resistance was observed with gentamicin, ampicillin, penicillin and teicoplanin. however, a high incidence of antibiotic resistance was detected for rifampicin (12 out of 14 of isolates), ciprofloxacin (9/14), and quinupristin/dalfopristin ( ...201323259502
mutations in msra and msrb, encoding epimer-specific methionine sulfoxide reductases, affect expression of glycerol-catabolic operons in enterococcus faecalis differently.this study aims to define the cellular roles of methionine sulfoxide reductases a and b, evolutionarily highly conserved enzymes able to repair oxidized methionines in proteins. msra and msrb mutants were exposed to an internal oxidative stress by growing them under aerobic conditions on glycerol. interestingly, the msr mutants behave completely differently under these conditions. the msra mutant is inhibited, whereas the msrb mutant is stimulated in its growth in comparison with the parent stra ...201323258264
pseudo-outbreak of vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus (vre) colonization in a neonatal intensive care unit using spectra vre surveillance medium.from november 2011 through march 2012, we surveyed 272 babies in our neonatal intensive care unit for rectal colonization with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (vre). using spectra vre medium (remel diagnostics, lenexa, ks), we identified one neonate colonized with vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecium. in addition, 55 (13%) of the surveillance cultures yielded false-positive results with vancomycin-susceptible enterococcus faecalis. during the same time period, 580 rectal swabs were collect ...201323254135
moxifloxacin as postoperative prophylaxis for enterococcus faecalis-induced endophthalmitis after cataract surgery in aphakic rabbits.the development of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery often results in significant vision loss. inhibition of bacterial proliferation in the anterior chamber using antibiotic eye drops is important to prevent endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. we aimed to determine the sensitivity of fluoroquinolones against enterococcus faecalis ocular isolates and the efficacy of fluoroquinolones to prevent e. faecalis-induced endophthalmitis in aphakic rabbits.201323249386
cost-effectiveness analysis, prevention of atopic dermatitis by oral application of bacterial lysate in newborns/small children.the aim of this analysis was to determine the cost-effectiveness compared to placebo of prophylactic treatment with sterile bacterial lysate (escherichia coli and enterococcus faecalis) (verum) of newborns/small children with heredity for atopy [atopic dermatitis (ad)]. infants were followed from the age of 5 weeks until 3 years of age. during this time, the number of children with ad who were treated with verum or placebo was observed at eight visits. cost-effectiveness analyses were performed ...201323242758
establishment of an optimized ex vivo system for artificial root canal infection evaluated by use of sodium hypochlorite and the photodynamic establish a refined model of artificially infected root canals and confirm its suitability as a sensitive ex vivo method to assess the efficacy of disinfecting agents. disinfection was evaluated using sodium hypochlorite (naocl), either blocked or unblocked by sodium thiosulphate, and a recently promoted method of disinfection, the antibacterial photodynamic therapy (pdt).201323240861
identification of fitness determinants in enterococcus faecalis by differential proteomics.enterococcus (e.) faecalis is found as commensal in healthy humans, in a variety of fermented foods. it can serve as probiotic but also as pathogen causing endocarditis, bacteremia and urinary tract infections. we have employed a proteomic study with e. faecalis strain og1rf under different growth conditions and in contact to mouse intestinal cells to identify novel latent and adaptive fitness determinants. these relate to changes in catabolic pathways (buda), protein biosynthesis (asns), cellul ...201323239053
enterococcus faecium isolated from lombo, a portuguese traditional meat product: characterisation of antibacterial compounds and factors affecting bacteriocin production.strain st211ch, identified as a strain of enterococcus faecium, isolated from lombo produced a bacteriocin that inhibited the growth of enterococcus spp., listeria spp., klebsiella spp., lactobacillus spp., pseudomonas spp., staphylococcus spp. and streptococcus spp. the mode of action of the bacteriocin named as bacteriocin st211ch was bactericidal against enterococcus faecalis atcc19443. as determined by tricine-sds-page, the approximate molecular mass of the bacteriocin was 8.0 kda. loss in a ...201223234731
immunomodulatory effects of heat-killed enterococcus faecalis th10 on murine macrophage cells.the objective of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of heat-killed enterococcus faecalis th10 (hk-th10) and its signal transduction on murine macrophage raw264 cells. raw264 cells produced nitric oxide (no) following hk-th10 treatment. in order to investigate the mechanisms underlying hk-th10-stimulated no production, we further measured no production in raw264 cells treated with toll-like receptor (tlr) 4 inhibitor peptide, nf-κb inhibitor, tlr1-sirna, tlr2-sirna, and tl ...201223233442
comparison of rosco neo-sensitabs with oxoid paper disks in eucast disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility testing on mueller-hinton agar.this study compared neo-sensitabs with oxoid paper disks using the european committee on antimicrobial susceptibility testing (eucast) disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility test on mueller-hinton agar. the eucast-recommended quality control strains (escherichia coli atcc 25922, pseudomonas aeruginosa atcc 27853, staphylococcus aureus atcc 29213 and enterococcus faecalis atcc 29212) (part i) and clinical isolates (part ii) were investigated. in part i of the study, 27 combinations of antimi ...201323232977
cold plasma therapy of a tooth root canal infected with enterococcus faecalis biofilms in vitro.complete sterilization of an infected root canal is an important challenge in endodontic treatment. traditional methods often cannot achieve high-efficiency sterilization because of the complexity of the root canal system. the objective of the study was to investigate in vitro the feasibility of using a cold plasma treatment of a root canal infected with enterococcus faecalis biofilms.201323228267
streptococcus gordonii collagen-binding domain protein cbda may enhance bacterial survival in instrumented root canals ex vivo.the surface-associated collagen-binding protein ace of enterococcus faecalis has been implicated as a virulence factor that contributes to bacterial persistence in endodontic infections. the purpose of this study was to determine if proteins with amino acid sequence similarity to ace found in more abundant oral streptococci could play a similar role in potentially enhancing endodontic infections.201323228255
detection and enumeration of e. coli o157:h7 in water samples by culture and molecular methods.the performances of three chromogenic agars were evaluated for the recovery of escherichia coli o157:h7 from spiked dechlorinated tap, ground and surface water, and treated drinking water samples. the chromogenic agars: chromagar o157 (chrom), rainbow agar o157 (rb) and hicrome ec o157 (hc) were compared to cefixime-tellurite sorbitol macconkey (ct-smac), commonly used for the isolation of e. coli o157:h7. confirmation of suspect e. coli o157:h7 colonies were performed by colony real-time pcr (c ...201323220187
persistence of bacteria like pseudomonas aeruginosa in non-healing venous ulcers.there is evidence that chronic inflammation due to bacterial wound colonization delays wound healing.201223220150
antibiotic resistance genes and virulence factors in enterococcus faecium and enterococcus faecalis from diseased farm animals: pigs, cattle and poultry.eighty enterococcal isolates (e. faecium, n = 38, e. faecalis, n = 42) from diseased farm animals (swine, cattle, poultry) in lithuania have been studied for the prevalence of antibiotic resistance and for resistance and virulence genetic determinants. 86% of e. faecium and 71% of e. faecalis isolates were multidrug resistant (resistant to three or more unrelated antibiotics). resistance to aminoglycosides, tetracycline and erythromycin was found most frequently in both species (61%, 69%) and wa ...201223214361
qualitative comparison of sonic or laser energisation of 4% sodium hypochlorite on an enterococcus faecalis biofilm grown in vitro.the effectiveness of sonic activation, laser activation and syringe irrigation of 4% sodium hypochlorite in removing an enterococcus faecalis biofilm was compared. biofilms were grown in extracted human single rooted teeth using a flow cell apparatus. after 4 weeks' growth, teeth were subjected to each treatment using 4% sodium hypochlorite and radicular dentinal surfaces of the root canals were analysed by scanning electron microscopy. results showed that sonic activation and syringe irrigation ...201223211068
twenty-five years of shared life with vancomycin-resistant enterococci: is it time to divorce?twenty-five years ago, isolation of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecium (vrem) was reported both in the uk and in france. since then, vrem has spread worldwide in hospitals. hospital outbreaks appeared to be related to the evolution since the end of 1980s of a subpopulation of e. faecium highly resistant to ampicillin and fluoroquinolones (the so-called clonal complex cc17) that later acquired resistance to vancomycin. cc17 isolates are presumably better adapted than other e. faecium isola ...201323208830
characterization of recombinant fad-independent catabolic acetolactate synthase from enterococcus faecalis v583.the catabolic acetolactate synthase (cals) of enterococcus faecalis v583 was cloned, expressed in escherichia coli, and purified to homogeneity. the purified protein had a molecular weight of 60 kda. the cals of e. faecalis is highly homologous with other calss, while sharing low homology with its anabolic counterparts. the cals of e. faecalis exhibits optimum activity at a temperature of 37°c and ph 6.8. based on the enzyme characterization, the apparent k(m) for pyruvate was calculated to be 1 ...201323199739
[emergence of linezolid-resistant enterococcus faecalis strains from two inpatients in a pediatric ward].we report herein on the isolation of three linezolid-resistant enterococcus faecalis strains in 2011 from two pediatric inpatients at kitasato university hospital, japan. three linezolid resistant strains were isolated from two patients who shared the same room of a pediatric inpatient ward. two linezolid resistant strains were isolated from patient a who had been treated with a total of 17,600mg of linezolid during 60 days of hospitalization (strains 1 and 2). the linezolid resistant e. faecali ...201223198574
the efficacy of sequential therapy using pazufloxacin followed by oral fluoroquinolones for treatment of pyelonephritis.the efficacy of sequential therapy of pazufloxacin (pzfx), which is a parenteral fluoroquinolone, followed by oral fluoroquinolones [tosufloxacin tosilate (tflx) or levofloxacin (lvfx)] for treatment of pyelonephritis, was evaluated. patients with pyelonephritis who had fever (≥37.5 °c), pyuria (≥10 white blood cells/high-power field), and bacteriuria (≥10(4) colony-forming units/ml) were eligible for this study. pzfx (500 mg) was given intravenously twice a day for at least 3 days. if the patie ...201323188166
recurrent endophthalmitis after trabeculectomy for glaucoma: importance of timely filtering bleb coverage for the report the occurrence of endophthalmitis after trabeculectomy for glaucoma that was treated by vitrectomy without bleb closure and recurred 3 times after an initial clinically inapparent period of about 2 years.201223185177
antimicrobial photodynamic therapy using visible light plus water-filtered infrared-a (wira).the aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (apdt) using visible light together with water-filtered infrared-a (vis+wira) to eradicate single species of planktonic bacteria and micro-organisms during initial oral bacterial colonization in situ. a broadband vis+wira radiator with a water-filtered spectrum in the range 580-1400 nm was used for irradiation. toluidine blue (tb) was utilized as a photosensitizer at concentrations of 5, 10, 25 and 5 ...201323180476
enterococcus and streptococcus spp. associated with chronic and self-medicated urinary tract infections in vietnam.urinary tract infections (uti) are one of the most common infections among women worldwide. e. coli often causes more than 75% of acute uncomplicated uti, however, little is known about how recurrent utis and indiscriminate use of antimicrobials affect the aetiology of utis. this study aimed to establish the aetiology of uti in a population of recurrent and self-medicated patients referred from pharmacies to a hospital in hanoi, vietnam and to describe genotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility ...201223176582
enterococcus faecalis internalization in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (huvec).initial enterococcus faecalis-endothelial cell molecular interactions which lead to enterococci associating in the host endothelial tissue, colonizing it and proliferating there can be assessed using in vitro models. cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (huvec) have been used to study other gram-positive bacteria-cell interactions; however, few studies have been aimed at establishing the relationship of e. faecalis with endothelial cells. the aggregation substance (as) family of adhes ...201323174630
zaaps program results for 2010: an activity and spectrum analysis of linezolid using clinical isolates from 75 medical centres in 24 countries.the zyvox® annual appraisal of potency and spectrum (zaaps) program monitors the in vitro activities of linezolid and comparator agents for gram-positive organisms in latin america, europe, canada, and the asia-pacific. for the 2010 program a total of 6305 gram-positive strains were collected from 75 medical centres on five continents (24 countries). reference broth microdilution susceptibility tests were performed on organisms from the following groups: staphylococcus aureus (2875), coagulase n ...201223174097
resistance profiles of urinary tract infections in general practice--an observational study.guideline recommendations on therapy in urinary tract infections are based on antibiotic resistance rates. due to a lack of surveillance data, little is known about resistance rates in uncomplicated urinary tract infection (uti) in general practice in germany. in a prospective observational study, urine cultures of all women presenting with urinary tract infections in general practice were analysed. resistance rates against antibiotics recommended in german guidelines on uti are presented.201223171154
evaluation of the bactericidal effect of nd:yag, er:yag, er,cr:ysgg laser radiation, and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (apdt) in experimentally infected root recent years, various laser systems have been introduced into the field of laser-assisted endodontic therapy. the aim of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal effect of nd:yag, er:yag, er,cr:ysgg laser radiation, and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (apdt) in experimentally infected root canals compared with standard endodontic treatment of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (naclo) irrigation.201223168798
presence of the vanc1 gene in a vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis strain isolated from ewe bulk tank milk. 201323161771
neonatal outcome of preterm infants born to mothers with abnormal genital tract colonisation and chorioamnionitis: a cohort study.we hypothesised that abnormal genital tract colonisation leading to an in utero inflammation/infection process, contributes to the risk of respiratory distress syndrome (rds), patent ductus arteriosus (pda), intra ventricular haemorrhage (ivh), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (bpd), retinopathy of prematurity (rop) and necrotizing enterocolitis (nec) in preterm infants.201323158015
[daptomycin for the treatment of gram-positive infections after cardiac surgery].surgical infection remains a main cause of death after heart surgery, despite advances in pharmacological therapy. daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic, useful in gram-positive organisms resistant to standard treatment, including vancomycin. the aim of this study was to describe the use of daptomycin regarding efficacy, efficiency and safety in patients with gram-positive infections after heart surgery using a retrospective analysis on 49 adult patients.201323149592
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