ciprofloxacin resistance in enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from male patients with complicated urinary tract infection.urinary tract infection (uti) is one of the most prevalent bacterial infections, and fluoroquinolone therapy is a well-known standard regimen for uti. the prevalence and risk factor analysis of fluoroquinolone resistance in enterococcal utis are not well documented. the aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility and risk factors for ciprofloxacin resistance in enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from patients with complicated uti.201323789048
ex-vivo effect of intracanal medications based on ozone and calcium hydroxide in root canals contaminated with enterococcus faecalis.this ex vivo study evaluated the antibacterial effect of intracanal medications in root canals contaminated with enterococcus faecalis. fifty single-rooted human teeth were contaminated with e. faecalis (atcc 29212) and incubated at 37°c for 21 days. the specimens were randomly divided into 5 groups according to the intracanal medication used: oz-pg: ozonized propylene glycol; ch/cpmc: calcium hydroxide/camphorated paramonochlorophenol; oz-pg/ch ozonized pg/ch; pc: positive control group (no med ...201323780354
epidemiology and prognostic determinants of bacteraemic catheter-acquired urinary tract infection in a single institution from 1991 to determine the epidemiology of bacteraemic catheter-acquired urinary tract infection (ca-uti) and to identify independent predictors of mortality.201323774535
multicenter study of high-dose daptomycin for treatment of enterococcal infections.enterococci are among the leading pathogens isolated in hospital-acquired infections. current antimicrobial options for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (vre) are limited. prior data suggest that daptomycin at >6 mg/kg of body weight/day may be used to treat enterococcal infections. we retrospectively evaluated the effectiveness and safety of high-dose daptomycin (hd-daptomycin) therapy (>6 mg/kg) in a multicenter cohort of adult patients with enterococcal infections to describe the characterist ...201323774437
antimicrobial activity of binary combinations of natural and synthetic phenolic antioxidants against enterococcus faecalis.this study investigated the antimicrobial activity of 3 natural (thymol, carvacrol, and gallic acid) and 2 synthetic [butylated hydroxyanisole (bha) and octyl gallate] phenolic compounds, individually and in binary combinations, on 4 dairy isolates of enterococcus faecalis with different virulence factors (β-hemolytic, gelatinase, or trypsin activities; acquired resistance to erythromycin or tetracycline; and natural resistance to gentamicin). a checkerboard technique and a microdilution standar ...201323769374
identification, biochemical and structural evaluation of species-specific inhibitors against type i methionine aminopeptidases.methionine aminopeptidases (metaps) are essential enzymes that make them good drug targets in cancer and microbial infections. metaps remove the initiator methionine from newly synthesized peptides in every living cell. metaps are broadly divided into type i and type ii classes. both prokaryotes and eukaryotes contain type i metaps, while eukaryotes have additional type ii metap enzyme. although several inhibitors have been reported against type i enzymes, subclass specificity is scarce. here, u ...201323767698
effect of er:yag laser-activated irrigation solution on enterococcus faecalis biofilm in an ex-vivo root canal model.abstract objective: the purpose of this study was to evaluate mineral content and surface morphology of root canals coated with enterococcus faecalis biofilm after treatment with several endodontic irrigation solutions, with and without er:yag laser-activated irrigation (lai).201323763481
multicenter clinical evaluation of vreselect agar for identification of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium.a chromogenic medium for identification of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium, vreselect, was compared to bile esculin azide agar with 6 μg/ml vancomycin (beav) for the isolation of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (vre) from stool specimens. at 24 to 28 h, vreselect demonstrated 98.7% (confidence interval [ci], 96.1 to 99.7%) sensitivity and 99.0% (ci, 98.0 to 99.6%) specificity versus 85.1% (ci, 79.8 to 89.5%) and 90.1% (ci, 79.8 to 89.5%) sensitivity and speci ...201323761153
preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) electrospun fibers loaded with amoxicillin for controlled release in biomedical applications.amoxicillin (amox) was successfully encapsulated at different concentrations into poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (pcl) by the electrospinning technique, and mats of non-woven fibers were obtained and characterized in terms of morphology, in vitro release and antibacterial properties. the scanning electron microscopy evidenced the nanofibrous structure of the pristine pcl, composed of individual, uniform, and randomly oriented fibres with an average diameter ranging around 0.8 micron. the addition of ...201323755579
the cell wall-targeting antibiotic stimulon of enterococcus faecalis.enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen that is highly resistant to a variety of environmental insults, including an intrinsic tolerance to antimicrobials that target the cell wall (cw). with the goal of determining the cw-stress stimulon of e. faecalis, the global transcriptional profile of e. faecalis og1rf exposed to ampicillin, bacitracin, cephalotin or vancomycin was obtained via microarrays. exposure to the β-lactams ampicillin and cephalotin resulted in the fewest tr ...201423755154
enterococcus faecalis prophage dynamics and contributions to pathogenic traits.polylysogeny is frequently considered to be the result of an adaptive evolutionary process in which prophages confer fitness and/or virulence factors, thus making them important for evolution of both bacterial populations and infectious diseases. the enterococcus faecalis v583 isolate belongs to the high-risk clonal complex 2 that is particularly well adapted to the hospital environment. its genome carries 7 prophage-like elements (v583-pp1 to -pp7), one of which is ubiquitous in the species. in ...201323754962
clinical evaluation of sustained-release metronidazole gel versus metronidazole solution as an intracanal medicament in abscessed primary evaluate the efficacy of metronidazole gel versus metronidazole solution against enterococcus faecalis in abscessed primary molars.201423754205
[analysis of antimicrobial effect of mtad solution in infected root canal system using pcr technique].clinically acceptable antiseptic should possess organolithic-mineralolithic properties and antimicrobial efficacy, and should be non-toxic.201323745336
drosophila host model reveals new enterococcus faecalis quorum-sensing associated virulence factors.enterococcus faecalis v583 is a vancomycin-resistant clinical isolate which belongs to the hospital-adapted clade, cc2. this strain harbours several factors that have been associated with virulence, including the fsr quorum-sensing regulatory system that is known to control the expression of gele and spre proteases. to discriminate between genes directly regulated by fsr, and those indirectly regulated as the result of protease expression or activity, we compared gene expression in isogenic muta ...201323734216
influence of lactic acid bacteria on redox status and on proteolytic activity of buckwheat (fagopyrum esculentum moench) sourdoughs.redox potential and proteolysis determine protein networks in doughs and thus dough rheology as well as the structure of baked goods. namely, gluten-free bakery products needs structural improvements but little is known about these parameters in gluten free dough systems. in this work the influence of lactic acid bacteria (lab) on redox status and proteolysis of buckwheat sourdoughs was investigated. an increase of free thiol groups was detected as redox potential was decreasing during fermentat ...201323728431
antimicrobial susceptibility of organisms causing community-acquired urinary tract infections in gauteng province, south africa.patients with community-acquired urinary tract infections (utis) frequently present to healthcare facilities in south africa (sa).201323725955
solution structures of the linear leaderless bacteriocins enterocin 7a and 7b resemble carnocyclin a, a circular antimicrobial peptide.leaderless bacteriocins are a class of ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides that are produced by certain gram-positive bacteria without an n-terminal leader section. these bacteriocins are of great interest due to their potent inhibition of many gram-positive organisms, including food-borne pathogens such as listeria and clostridium spp. we now report the nmr solution structures of enterocins 7a and 7b, leaderless bacteriocins recently isolated from enterococcus faecalis 710c. these ar ...201323725536
antibacterial effect of diclofenac sodium on enterococcus faecalis.non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsaids) have shown antibacterial activity in some recent studies. the aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of diclofenac against enterococcus faecalis (e. faecalis) as a resistant endodontic bacterium in comparison with ibuprofen, calcium hydroxide and amoxicillin.201323724199
engineering solutions to improve the removal of fecal indicator bacteria by bioinfiltration systems during intermittent flow of stormwater.bioinfiltration systems facilitate the infiltration of urban stormwater into soil and reduce high flow events and flooding. stormwater carries a myriad of pollutants including fecal indicator bacteria (fib). significant knowledge gaps exist about the ability of bioinfiltration systems to remove and retain fib. the present study investigates the ability of model, simplified bioinfiltration systems containing quartz sand and iron oxide-coated quartz sand (iocs) to remove two fib (enterococcus faec ...201323721343
epidemiology of urinary tract infection among spinal cord injured patients in rehabilitation ward at siriraj hospital.a prophylactic antibiotic in retrograde investigations (ix) such as an urodynamic study was suggested by the european association of urology in order to prevent urinary tract infection (uti) in the neurogenic bladder however finding an appropriate antibiotic is questionable since bacterial types and their sensitivities are variable in different settings. therefore, the present study was aimed to find out the epidemiology of uti in spinal cord injured (sci) patients within the rehabilitation ward ...201323720985
partial purification and characterization of a bacteriocin dt24 produced by probiotic vaginal lactobacillus brevis dt24 and determination of its anti-uropathogenic escherichia coli potential.the emergence of antibiotic resistance has increased the interest for finding new antimicrobials in the past decade. probiotic lactic acid bacteria producing antimicrobial proteins like bacteriocin can be excellent agents for development as novel therapeutic agents and complement to conventional antibiotic therapy. uropathogenic escherichia coli, most causative agent of urinary tract infection, has developed resistance to various antibiotics. in the present investigation, antibacterial substance ...201326782739
regulation of the activity of lactate dehydrogenases from four lactic acid bacteria.despite high similarity in sequence and catalytic properties, the l-lactate dehydrogenases (ldhs) in lactic acid bacteria (lab) display differences in their regulation that may arise from their adaptation to different habitats. we combined experimental and computational approaches to investigate the effects of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (fbp), phosphate (pi), and ionic strength (nacl concentration) on six ldhs from four labs studied at ph 6 and ph 7. we found that 1) the extent of activation by f ...201323720742
an in vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial efficacy of curcuma longa, tachyspermum ammi, chlorhexidine gluconate, and calcium hydroxide on enterococcus faecalis.this in vitro study was designed to comparatively evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of curcuma longa (turmeric - t1-10%, t2-20%); tachyspermum ammi (ajwain - a1-10%, a2-20%); chlorhexidine (chx) gluconate gel (hexigel - 1%); and calcium hydroxide (10%) as intracanal medicaments against enterococcus faecalis.201323716967
gassericin a: a circular bacteriocin produced by lactic acid bacteria lactobacillus gasseri.during the recent years extensive efforts have been made to find out bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria (lab) active against various food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, and superior stabilities against heat treatments and ph variations. bacteriocins isolated from lab have been grouped into four classes. circular bacteriocins which were earlier grouped among the four groups of bacteriocins, have recently been proposed to be classified into a different class, making it class v bacteriocins. ...201323712477
de novo assembly and comparative analysis of the enterococcus faecalis genome (kacc 91532) from a korean neonate.using a newly constructed de novo assembly pipeline, finished genome level assembly had been conducted for the probiotic candidate strain e. faecalis kacc 91532 isolated from a stool samples of korean neonates. our gene prediction identified 3,061 genes in the assembled genome of the strain. among these, nine genes were specific only for the e. faecalis kacc 91532, compared with all of the four known reference genomes (ef62, d32, v583, og1rf). we identified genes related to phenotypic characters ...201323711517
effects of enterococcus faecalis lipoteichoic acid on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κb ligand and osteoprotegerin expression in periodontal ligament investigate the influence of enterococcus faecalis lipoteichoic acid (lta) on the key bone resorption-regulating proteins, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κb ligand (rankl) and osteoprotegerin (opg) in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (pdl cells).201423710898
enterococcus faecalis grows on ascorbic acid.we show that enterococcus faecalis can utilize ascorbate for fermentative growth. in chemically defined media, growth yield was limited by the supply of amino acids, and the cells showed a much higher demand for amino acids than when they were grown on glucose.201323709509
effectiveness of ampicillin plus ceftriaxone compared to ampicillin plus gentamicin for treating enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis: a noninferiority question not yet properly investigated. 201323704125
in vitro activity of daptomycin against enterococcus faecalis under various conditions of growth-phases, inoculum and ph.enterococcus faecalis (e. faecalis) has become a major leading cause of nosocomial endocarditis. treatment of such infections remains problematic and new therapeutic options are needed. nine e. faecalis strains were tested: six obtained from patients presenting endocarditis, one with isolated bacteremia, and two reference strains. antibiotics included daptomycin, alone or in combination, linezolid, tigecycline, rifampicin, gentamicin, teicoplanin, ceftriaxone and amoxicillin. time-kill studies i ...201323700464
treatment of high-level gentamicin-resistant enterococcus faecalis endocarditis with daptomycin plus ceftaroline.a recurrent case of left-sided endocarditis caused by high-level aminoglycoside-resistant enterococcus faecalis was successfully treated with ceftaroline and daptomycin. this combination demonstrated excellent synergy in vitro. mechanistically, ceftaroline enhanced binding of daptomycin to the cell membrane and sensitized e. faecalis to killing by human cathelicidin ll-37, a cationic innate host defense peptide. daptomycin plus ceftaroline may be considered in salvage therapy in e. faecalis endo ...201323689728
biodiversity of enterococcus faecalis based on genomic typing.enterococcus faecalis is a common inhabitant of the gastrointestinal tracts of different animals and is also found in other environments, such as plants, soil, food and water. the diverse nature of e. faecalis, which includes pathogenic, commensal and probiotic strains, calls for the development of tools for accurate discrimination and characterization at the strain level. here we studied the genetic relationships among 106 e. faecalis strains isolated from diverse origins and possessing differe ...201323685727
molecular characterization of high-level gentamicin-resistant enterococcus faecalis from chicken meat in korea.because the intrinsically antimicrobial-resistant enterococcus has acquired high-level aminoglycoside resistance genes, treating enterococcal infections is difficult. in this study, of the 101 food-borne enterococcus faecalis isolates collected from retail chicken meat between 2003 and 2010, 11 high-level gentamicin-resistant (hlgr) e. faecalis isolates (mics>2,048 μg/ml) were found. molecular characterization was performed to determine the basis of this resistance. all hlgr e. faecalis isolates ...201323685465
comparison of sealing ability of mta and endosequence bioceramic root repair material: a bacterial leakage compare the sealing ability of proroot mineral trioxide aggregate (mta) to the sealing ability of endosequence bioceramic root repair material (es-bcrr) putty using a bacterial leakage model.201323682382
conservative management of a ruptured mycotic aneurysm.mycotic aneurysms are a well-recognised complication of infective endocarditis. in contrast to many sequelae of endocarditis, they can present late in the course of the disease, despite adequate treatment. we discuss the case of an 82-year-old patient who was successfully treated for enterococcus faecalis endocarditis, but presented late with a hypotensive collapse. ct imaging demonstrated a ruptured mycotic aneurysm. he underwent laparotomy, but the decision was made to treat conservatively to ...201323682082
short-term inactivation rates of selected gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria attached to metal oxide mineral surfaces: role of solution and surface chemistry.metal oxides such as ferric or aluminum oxides can play an important role in the retention of bacteria in granular aquatic environments; however, their role in bacterial inactivation is not well understood. herein, we examined the role of water chemistry and surface chemistry on the short-term inactivation rates of three bacteria when adhered to surfaces. to evaluate the role of water chemistry on the inactivation of attached bacteria, the loss in membrane integrity of bacteria attached to an ir ...201323679056
antimicrobial susceptibility among gram-positive organisms collected from pediatric patients globally between 2004 and 2011: results from the tigecycline evaluation and surveillance trial.the tigecycline evaluation and surveillance trial (test) was designed to monitor global longitudinal changes in bacterial susceptibility to a panel of antimicrobial agents, including tigecycline. in this study, we examine susceptibility among gram-positive isolates collected from pediatric patients globally between 2004 and 2011. a total of 9,422 gram-positive isolates were contributed by 1,255 centers, predominantly from europe and north america. one-third of staphylococcus aureus isolates were ...201323678070
infective endocarditis caused by enterococcus faecalis treated with continuous infusion of ampicillin without adjunctive aminoglycosides.aminoglycosides are useful antimicrobial agents for treating infective endocarditis; however, they occasionally cause troublesome side effects, such as nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. we herein report a case of infective endocarditis caused by enterococcus faecalis that was treated successfully with continuous infusion of ampicillin without adjunctive aminoglycosides. the serum ampicillin concentrations were higher than the minimal inhibitory concentration for the target strain. although the use ...201323676604
volatile metabolites of pathogens: a systematic review.ideally, invading bacteria are detected as early as possible in critically ill patients: the strain of morbific pathogens is identified rapidly, and antimicrobial sensitivity is known well before the start of new antimicrobial therapy. bacteria have a distinct metabolism, part of which results in the production of bacteria-specific volatile organic compounds (vocs), which might be used for diagnostic purposes. volatile metabolites can be investigated directly in exhaled air, allowing for noninva ...201323675295
new antibacterial germacrene from verbesina negrensis.several health benefits have been attributed to members of the verbesina genus, including promotion of urinary and gastrointestinal health. verbesina species are also reported to exhibit antibacterial, antiparasitic, and antioxidant activities. although members of the verbesina genus produce various pharmacologically relevant chemicals as secondary metabolites, including eudesmanes, flavonoids, guanidine alkaloids, acetylenic compounds, and germacrenes, the active compounds required for these be ...201323670623
assessment of pathogenic bacteria in treated graywater and irrigated soils.reuse of graywater (gw) for irrigation is recognized as a sustainable solution for water conservation. one major impediment for reuse of gw is the possible presence of pathogenic microorganisms. the presence and abundance of six pathogens and indicators were investigated in three gw recirculating vertical flow constructed wetland treatment systems and their respective irrigated yard soils. the treated gw and soils were monitored once every two months for six months using real-time quantitative p ...201323666359
genetic variability of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecium and enterococcus faecalis isolates from humans, chickens, and pigs in malaysia.vancomycin-resistant enterococci (vre) have been reported to be present in humans, chickens, and pigs in malaysia. in the present study, representative samples of vre isolated from these populations were examined for similarities and differences by using the multilocus sequence typing (mlst) method. housekeeping genes of enterococcus faecium (n = 14) and enterococcus faecalis (n = 11) isolates were sequenced and analyzed using the mlst databases eburst and goeburst. we found five sequence types ...201323666337
water dispersible magnetite nanoparticles influence the efficacy of antibiotics against planktonic and biofilm embedded enterococcus faecalis cells.the objective of this study was to investigate the potential of magnetic nanoparticles to potentiate, but also to accomplish a sustained and controlled drug release and subsequently improve the efficacy of antibiotics against enterococcus faecalis, one of the most resistant opportunistic pathogens, that poses a threat to chronically infected or immunocompromised patients and is difficult to eradicate from medical devices. to our knowledge, this is the first study trying to investigate the abilit ...201323664902
[evaluation of two different cold plasma treatments on root canal infected with enterococcus faecalis biofilms].to compare the bactericidal efficacy of two different cold plasma (glow discharge and dielectric barrier discharge) treatments on root canal infected with enterococcus faecalis biofilms in vitro.201323662566
fate of pathogenic bacteria in microcosms mimicking human body sites.during the infectious process, pathogens may reach anatomical sites where they are exposed to substances interfering with their growth. these substances can include molecules produced by the host, and his resident microbial population, as well as exogenous antibacterial drugs. suboptimal concentrations of inhibitory molecules and stress conditions found in vivo (high or low temperatures, lack of oxygen, extreme ph) might induce in bacteria the activation of survival mechanisms blocking their div ...201323657544
emergence of mutation-based linezolid-resistant invasive enterococcus faecalis in a haemodialysis patient in norway. 201423656533
high-throughput screening of inhibitors targeting agr/fsr quorum sensing in staphylococcus aureus and enterococcus faecalis.staphylococcus aureus and enterococcus faecalis employ cyclic peptide-mediated quorum sensing (qs) systems, termed agr and fsr respectively, to regulate the expression of a series of virulence genes. to identify quorum sensing inhibitors (qsis) that target agr/fsr systems, an efficient screening system was established. in addition to the gelatinase-induction assay to examine e. faecalis fsr qs, the use of an s. aureus agr reporter strain that carries luciferase and green fluorescence protein gen ...201323649251
analysis of the tolerance of pathogenic enterococci and staphylococcus aureus to cell wall active antibiotics.tolerance refers to the phenomenon that bacteria do not significantly die when exposed to bactericidal antibiotics. enterococci are known for their high tolerance to these drugs, but the molecular reasons why they resist killing are not understood. in a previous study we showed that the superoxide dismutase (sod) is implicated in this tolerance. this conclusion was based on the results obtained with one particular strain of enterococcus faecalis and therefore the objective of the present communi ...201323649229
redox balance via lactate dehydrogenase is important for multiple stress resistance and virulence in enterococcus faecalis.enterococcus faecalis is a highly stress resistant opportunistic pathogen. the intrinsic ruggedness of this bacterium is supposed to be the basis of its capacity to colonize the hostile environments of hospitals and to cause several kinds of infections. we show in this work that general resistance to very different environmental stresses depends on the ability of e. faecalis to maintain redox balance via lactate dehydrogenase (ldh). furthermore, ldh-deficient mutants are less successful than the ...201323649090
incidence, clinical characteristics and 30-day mortality of enterococcal bacteraemia in denmark 2006-2009: a population-based cohort study.enterococci currently account for approximately 10% of all bacteraemias, reflecting remarkable changes in their epidemiology. however, population-based data of enterococcal bacteraemia are scarce. a population-based cohort study comprised all patients with a first episode of enterococcus faecalis or enterococcus faecium bacteraemia in two danish regions during 2006-2009. we used data collected prospectively during clinical microbiological counselling and hospital registry data. we determined the ...201423647880
enterococcus faecalis infection causes inflammation, intracellular oxphos-independent ros production, and dna damage in human gastric cancer cells.achlorhydria caused by e.g. atrophic gastritis allows for bacterial overgrowth, which induces chronic inflammation and damage to the mucosal cells of infected individuals driving gastric malignancies and cancer. enterococcus faecalis (e. faecalis) can colonize achlohydric stomachs and we therefore wanted to study the impact of e. faecalis infection on inflammatory response, reactive oxygen species (ros) formation, mitochondrial respiration, and mitochondrial genetic stability in gastric mucosal ...201323646188
characterisation of the plasmidome within enterococcus faecalis isolated from marginal periodontitis patients in norway.the present study aimed to identify and characterize plasmids in a national collection of oral enterococcus faecalis (n = 106) isolated from patients with marginal periodontitis. plasmid replicon typing was performed by multiplex-pcr and sequencing with specific primers for 18 rep-families and 1 unique sequence. additional plasmid analysis by s1-pfge was performed for comparison. totally 120 plasmid replicon amplicons of seven rep-families were identified in 93 e. faecalis strains, e.g. rep9 (pr ...201323646122
enterococcal rgg-like regulator elrr activates expression of the elra operon.the enterococcus faecalis leucine-rich protein elra promotes virulence by stimulating bacterial persistence in macrophages and production of the interleukin-6 (il-6) cytokine. the elra protein is encoded within an operon that is poorly expressed under laboratory conditions but induced in vivo. in this study, we identify ef2687 (renamed elrr), which encodes a member of the rgg (regulator gene for glucosyltransferase) family of putative regulatory proteins. using quantitative reverse transcription ...201323645602
eep confers lysozyme resistance to enterococcus faecalis via the activation of the extracytoplasmic function sigma factor sigv.enterococcus faecalis is a commensal bacterium found in the gastrointestinal tract of most mammals, including humans, and is one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. one of the hallmarks of e. faecalis pathogenesis is its unusual ability to tolerate high concentrations of lysozyme, which is an important innate immune component of the host. previous studies have shown that the presence of lysozyme leads to the activation of sigv, an extracytoplasmic function (ecf) sigma factor in e. fa ...201323645601
production of tyramine by enterococcus faecalis strains in water-boiled salted duck.the potential to produce biogenic amines was investigated with 15 lactococcus lactis and 15 enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from water-boiled salted duck. the production of biogenic amines from the isolated strains grown in de man rogosa sharpe broth containing precursor amino acids was determined by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. none of the l. lactis strains produced any biogenic amines, whereas 12 strains of e. faecalis produced tyramine and b -ph ...201323643128
nationwide surveillance of bacterial pathogens from patients with acute uncomplicated cystitis conducted by the japanese surveillance committee during 2009 and 2010: antimicrobial susceptibility of escherichia coli and staphylococcus saprophyticus.the japanese surveillance committee conducted the first nationwide surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of uropathogens responsible for female acute uncomplicated cystitis at 43 hospitals throughout japan from april 2009 to november 2010. in this study, the causative bacteria (escherichia coli and staphylococcus saprophyticus) and their susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents were investigated by isolation and culturing of bacteria from urine samples. in total, 387 strain ...201323640203
determination of the mode of action of enterolysin a, produced by enterococcus faecalis b9510.the current study aimed to visualize the damage caused by enterolysin a to the cells of sensitive strains and to find out cleavage site within the peptidoglycan moiety of bacterial cell walls.201323639072
identification of pathogens in mastitis milk samples with fluorescent in situ hybridization.traditionally, the bacteriological examination of mastitis milk samples is performed by culture followed by biochemical tests on the cultured bacteria to allow identification of the causative pathogen. depending on the species involved, this classic identification is time-consuming compared to other techniques such as fluorescent in situ hybridization (fish), a culture-independent method that utilizes oligonucleotides (labeled with a fluorophore) that are specific to a string of target dna/rna. ...201323632662
structure, function, and biology of the enterococcus faecalis cytolysin.enterococcus faecalis is a gram-positive commensal member of the gut microbiota of a wide range of organisms. with the advent of antibiotic therapy, it has emerged as a multidrug resistant, hospital-acquired pathogen. highly virulent strains of e. faecalis express a pore-forming exotoxin, called cytolysin, which lyses both bacterial and eukaryotic cells in response to quorum signals. originally described in the 1930s, the cytolysin is a member of a large class of lanthionine-containing bacterioc ...201323628786
colovesical fistula presenting with epididymitis.this article reports a case of colovesical fistula presenting with epididymitis. a 75-year-old man with a recent conservatively managed localised diverticular perforation presented to hospital with acute pain and swelling of his left testicle and epididymis. on further questioning, the patient reported passing air in his urine. urine cultures grew enterococcus faecalis. ultrasound scan confirmed a diagnosis of bacterial epididymitis and the patient was treated with intravenous antibiotics. subse ...201323616326
screening for polyphenols, antioxidant and antimicrobial activitiesof extracts from eleven helianthemum taxa (cistaceae) used in folk medicine in south-eastern spain.the helianthemum genus contains approximately one hundred taxa. some of them are important medicinal plants used in several countries for many different purposes. however, studies addressing the phytochemistry of many of these species or their biological activities are currently nonexistent.201323615124
the effect of mtadn on 10 enterococcus faecalis isolates and biofilm: an in vitro study.enterococcus faecalis is frequently isolated from both secondary and persistent root canal infections. mtad is an effective intracanal irrigant, but its bactericidal activity requires improvement. the goal of this study was to investigate whether nisin, an antibacterial peptide, improves the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of mtad against e. faecalis clinical isolates.201323611389
effect of enterococcus faecalis lipoteichoic acid on apoptosis in human osteoblast-like cells.enterococcus faecalis is commonly detected in persistent apical periodontitis characterized by unimproved periradicular bone resorption. the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of lipoteichoic acid (lta), a major virulence factor of e. faecalis, on apoptosis of osteoblasts.201323611381
evaluation of biological value and appraisal of polyphenols and glucosinolates from organic baby-leaf salads as antioxidants and antimicrobials against important human pathogenic bacteria.the present investigation has been carried out to investigate the biological role of four different types of baby-leaf salads and to study their potential as natural sources of antioxidants and antimicrobials against several isolates from important human pathogenic bacteria. four single types of salads (green lettuce, red lettuce, rucola and watercress) and two mixtures [(1) red lettuce+green lettuce; (2) green lettuce + red lettuce + watercress + rucola] were assayed. the hplc analysis revealed ...201323603948
in vivo assessment of growth and virulence gene expression during commensal and pathogenic lifestyles of luxabcde-tagged enterococcus faecalis strains in murine gastrointestinal and intravenous infection models.cytolysin and gelatinase are prominent pathogenicity determinants associated with highly virulent enterococcus faecalis strains. in an effort to explore the expression profiles of these virulence traits in vivo, we have employed e. faecalis variants expressing the luxabcde cassette under the control of either the p16s, cytolysin, or gelatinase promoter for infections of galleria mellonella caterpillars and mice. systemic infection of g. mellonella with bioluminescence-tagged e. faecalis mmh594 r ...201323603680
antibacterial serrulatane diterpenes from the australian native plant eremophila microtheca.chemical investigations of the aerial parts of the australian plant eremophila microtheca resulted in the isolation of three serrulatane diterpenoids, 3-acetoxy-7,8-dihydroxyserrulat-14-en-19-oic acid (1), 3,7,8-trihydroxyserrulat-14-en-19-oic acid (2) and 3,19-diacetoxy-8-hydroxyserrulat-14-ene (3) as well as the previously reported compounds verbascoside (4) and jaceosidin (5). acetylation and methylation of the major serrulatane diterpenoid 2 afforded 3,8-diacetoxy-7-hydroxyserrulat-14-en-19- ...201323602054
evaluation of the verigene gram-positive blood culture nucleic acid test for rapid detection of bacteria and resistance determinants.rapid identification of pathogens from blood cultures can decrease lengths of stay and improve patient outcomes. we evaluated the accuracy of the verigene gram-positive blood culture (bc-gp) nucleic acid test for investigational use only (nanosphere, inc., northbrook, il) for the identification of gram-positive bacteria from blood cultures. the detection of resistance genes (meca in staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus epidermidis and vana or vanb in enterococcus faecium and enterococcus fae ...201323596240
bioreduction of sheep carcasses effectively contains and reduces pathogen levels under operational and simulated breakdown conditions.options for the storage and disposal of animal carcasses are extremely limited in the eu after the introduction of the eu animal by-products regulations (abpr; ec/1774/2002), leading to animosity within the livestock sector and the call for alternative methods to be validated. novel storage technologies such as bioreduction may be approved under the abpr provided that they can be shown to prevent pathogen proliferation. we studied the survival of enterococcus faecalis, salmonella spp., e. coli o ...201323590844
detection of antibiotic resistant enterococci and escherichia coli in free range iberian lynx (lynx pardinus).thirty fecal samples from wild specimens of iberian lynx were collected and analyzed for enterococcus spp. (27 isolates) and escherichia coli (18 isolates) recovery. the 45 isolates obtained were tested for antimicrobial resistance, molecular mechanisms of resistance, and presence of virulence genes. among the enterococci, enterococcus faecium and enterococcus hirae were the most prevalent species (11 isolates each), followed by enterococcus faecalis (5 isolates). high percentages of resistance ...201323588135
effects of laser treatment on endodontic pathogen enterococcus faecalis: a systematic review.the effects of laser on eradication of enterococcus faecalis in the root canal are unclear. the purpose of this review was to explore the antimicrobial effects of laser radiation on e. faecalis.201323586978
in situ synthesis and antibacterial activity of copper nanoparticle loaded natural montmorillonite clay based on contact inhibition and ion release.copper nanoparticle based clay composite has been synthesized by in situ reduction of a copper ammonium complex ion and characterized by different analytical instruments. the copper nanoparticles were both intercalated and adsorbed on the surface with diameters of <5nm (for intercalated) and 25-30nm (for adsorbed). the composite showed good stability for over 3 months in air. excellent antimicrobial activity of the composite was observed on escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas ae ...201323584362
[small colony variants of enterococcus faecalis isolated from a patient with native aortic endocarditis]. 201323582315
genetic modifications to temperate enterococcus faecalis phage ef11 that abolish the establishment of lysogeny and sensitivity to repressor, and increase host range and productivity of lytic infection.ef11 is a temperate bacteriophage originally isolated by induction from a lysogenic enterococcus faecalis strain recovered from an infected root canal, and the ef11 prophage is widely disseminated among strains of e. faecalis. because e. faecalis has emerged as a significant opportunistic human pathogen, we were interested in examining the genes and regulatory sequences predicted to be critical in the establishment/maintenance of lysogeny by ef11 as a first step in the construction of the genome ...201323579685
design, synthesis, and antibacterial activity of demethylvancomycin analogues against drug-resistant bacteria.five novel n-substituted demethylvancomycin derivatives were rationally designed and synthesized by using a structure-based approach. the in vitro antibacterial activities against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa), gentamicin-resistant enterococcus faecalis (gre), methicillin-resistant streptococcus pneumoniae (mrs), and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis (vre) were evaluated. one of the compounds, n-(6-phenylheptyl)demethylvancomycin (12 a), was found to exhibit more po ...201323576378
pyelonephritis: what are the present day causative organisms and antibiotic susceptibilities?infections of the lower urinary tract and acute pyelonephritis are commonly encountered in clinical practice. widespread usage of antibiotics and changing susceptibility profiles of uropathogens requires regular review of treatment guidelines to meet these challenges. we aimed to better understand the prevalence of uropathogens and emerging antibiotic resistance in patients with pyelonephritis requiring hospital admission.201323573984
insidious onset of tetraparesis due to cervical epidural abscess from enterococcus faecalis.we report a case of cervical epidural abscess from enterococcus faecalis, which caused an insidious onset of tetraparesis. this 53-year-old female with a history of diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure under hemodialysis presented with pain and progressive weakness of upper and lower extremities without fever. although a recent mri she did at the beginning of symptoms showed no significant pathologies, except for a cervical disc herniation and adjacent spinal degeneration, and stenosis th ...201323573096
antagonistic self-sensing and mate-sensing signaling controls antibiotic-resistance transfer.conjugation is one of the most common ways bacteria acquire antibiotic resistance, contributing to the emergence of multidrug-resistant "superbugs." bacteria of the genus enterococcus faecalis are highly antibiotic-resistant nosocomial pathogens that use the mechanism of conjugation to spread antibiotic resistance between resistance-bearing donor cells and resistance-deficient recipient cells. here, we report a unique quorum sensing-based communication system that uses two antagonistic signaling ...201323569272
comparison of the risk of microbiological contamination between samples of breast milk obtained at home and at a healthcare facility.breast milk is the best food for preterm infants. due to their inadequate suction- swallowing action, the administration of expressed breast milk should be done with an orogastric tube. there is little information available regarding the microbiological safety of expressed breast milk. the aim of this article was to evaluate if there were any differences regarding the contamination of breast milk obtained at a healthcare facility versus at home.201323568067
influence of reciprocating single-file and rotary instrumentation on bacterial reduction on infected root compare the bacterial reduction achieved with reciprocating and rotary systems during root canal preparation.201323566213
response of e. faecalis biofilms to different associations of auxiliary substances during root canal preparation: a confocal laser microscopy analysis.this in vitro study evaluated the effect of different endodontic auxiliary chemical substances over enterococcus faecalis (ef) biofilm through confocal laser scanning microscopy (clsm).201323564394
rapid induction of an immune response in rat peyer's patch after oral administration of enterococcus faecalis strain ec-12.a rapid and sharp immune response induced in peyer's patches (pps) by a single gavage of a heat-killed enterococcus faecalis strain ec-12 (ec-12) was demonstrated. ec-12 was observed inside the pps 2.5 h post administration and induction of tnf-α and cd69 gene expression was observed at the same time. the immune response in pps disappeared 24 h post administration.201323563541
comparison of enterococcus faecium and enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from water and clinical samples: antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic relationships.enterococci are part of the normal intestinal flora in a large number of mammals, and these microbes are currently used as indicators of fecal contamination in water and food for human consumption. these organisms are considered one of the primary causes of nosocomial and environmental infections due to their ability to survive in the environment and to their intrinsic resistance to antimicrobials. the aims of this study were to determine the biochemical patterns and antimicrobial susceptibiliti ...201323560050
ex vivo microbial leakage after using different final irrigation regimens with assess the influence of final irrigation protocols with chlorhexidine in the coronal leakage of enterococcus faecalis in filled root canals.201723559116
antimicrobial resistance of enterococcus species from meat and fermented meat products isolated by a pcr-based rapid screening method.enterococci are predominantly found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals, but species commonly resident on vegetation are known. their presence in large numbers in foods may indicate a lapse in sanitation and their ability to serve as a genetic reservoir of transferable antibiotic resistance is of concern. conventional culture methods for identification of enterococci are slow and sometimes give false results because of the biochemical diversity of the organisms in this genus. thi ...201323558191
microevolutionary events involving narrow host plasmids influences local fixation of vancomycin-resistance in enterococcus populations.vancomycin-resistance in enterococci (vre) is associated with isolates within st18, st17, st78 enterococcus faecium (efm) and st6 enterococcus faecalis (efs) human adapted lineages. despite of its global spread, vancomycin resistance rates in enterococcal populations greatly vary temporally and geographically. portugal is one of the european countries where tn1546 (vana) is consistently found in a variety of environments. a comprehensive multi-hierarchical analysis of vre isolates (75 efm and 29 ...201323555993
expression of the collagen adhesin ace by enterococcus faecalis strain og1rf is not repressed by ers but requires the ers box.expression of adhesin to collagen of enterococcus faecalis (ace), a known virulence factor, is increased by environmental signals such as the presence of serum, high temperature, and bile salts. currently, the enterococcal regulator of survival (ers) of e. faecalis strain jh2-2 is the only reported repressor of ace. here, we show that for strain og1rf, ers is not involved in the regulation of ace. our data showed similar levels of ace expression by og1rf and its δers derivative in the presence o ...201323551253
cd137 expressed on neutrophils plays dual roles in antibacterial responses against gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial infections.severe sepsis and septic shock caused mainly by bacterial infections are life-threatening conditions that urge the development of novel therapies. however, host responses to and pathophysiology of sepsis have not been clearly understood, which remains a major obstacle for the development of effective therapeutics. recently, we have shown that stimulation of a costimulatory molecule, cd137, enhanced survival of mice infected with the gram-positive (g(+)) intracellular bacterium listeria monocytog ...201323545301
a new era for treating enterococcus faecalis endocarditis: ampicillin plus short-course gentamicin or ampicillin plus ceftriaxone: that is the question! 201323543003
enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis: a pilot study of the relationship between duration of gentamicin treatment and outcome.because of the nephrotoxic effects of aminoglycosides, the danish guidelines on infective endocarditis were changed in january 2007, reducing gentamicin treatment in enterococcal infective endocarditis from 4 to 6 weeks to only 2 weeks. in this pilot study, we compare outcomes in patients with enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis treated in the years before and after endorsement of these new recommendations.201323543002
new trends in dentistry: plant extracts against enterococcus faecalis. the efficacy compared to chlorhexidine.enterococcus faecalis is an important pathogen associated with endodontic diseases, and its elimination and control are of paramount importance, as it represents one of the major causes of failure in the treatment of endodontic disease. twenty-five plant extracts obtained from brazilian forests were found to be effective against planktonic e. faecalis and were subjected to two traditional antibacterial assays, the microdilution broth assay (mdba) and the disk diffusion assay (dda), using chlorhe ...201323538423
nasal and perirectal colonization of vancomycin sensitive and resistant enterococci in patients of paediatrics icu (picu) of tertiary health care facilities.enterococci normally inhabit the intestinal tract of humans and are also a potential pathogen in causing nosocomial infections. the increase in antibiotic resistance and transfer of antibiotic resistance gene to staphylococcus aureus (s. aureus) due to co-colonization has increased its importance in research. the aim of the study was to evaluate local epidemiology of nasal and rectal colonization with enterococcus faecalis (e. faecalis) and enterococcus faecium (e. faecium) in patients of paedia ...201323536967
crisprs of enterococcus faecalis and e. hirae isolates from pig feces have species-specific repeats but share some common spacer sequences.clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (crispr) are currently a topic of interest in microbiology due to their role as a prokaryotic immune system. investigations of crispr distribution and characterization to date have focused on pathogenic bacteria, while less is known about crispr in commensal bacteria, where they may have a significant role in the ecology of the microbiota of humans and other animals, and act as a recorder of interactions between bacteria and viruses. a co ...201323535981
effectiveness of a high purity chlorine dioxide solution in eliminating intracanal enterococcus faecalis biofilm.we investigated the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide (clo2) solution in comparison to sodium hypochlorite (naocl) and chlorhexidine gluconate (chx) in the elimination of intracanal enterococcus faecalis biofilm. extracted human teeth were inoculated with e. faecalis. after preparation the canals were irrigated with clo2, naocl, chx or physiologic saline for control. two and five days later bacterial samples were collected and streaked onto columbia agar. cfu/ml were counted. the canal walls wer ...201323529300
antibacterial effect of different root canal sealers on three bacterial species.bacteria persisting in the root canal system may thwart endodontic therapy. it is therefore interesting to know whether clinically available root canal sealers have an antimicrobial effect. the objective of the present in vitro study was to investigate the antibacterial effect of various sealers on the endodontologically detectable species enterococcus faecalis (e. faecalis), fusobacterium nucleatum (f. nucleatum) and porphyromonas gingivalis (p. gingivalis).201323523285
antimicrobial activity of daptomycin tested against gram-positive pathogens collected in europe, latin america, and selected countries in the asia-pacific region (2011).we report the results of the international daptomycin surveillance programs for europe, latin america, and selected asia-pacific nations. a total of 7948 consecutive gram-positive organisms of clinical significance were collected in 2011 and susceptibility tested against daptomycin and various comparator agents by clinical and laboratory standards institute (clinical and laboratory standards institute. m07-a9. methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobic ...201323514757
effect of initial irrigation with sodium hypochlorite on residual antibacterial activity of tetraclean.the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of dentin pretreatment with sodium hypochlorite (naocl) on the antibacterial substantivity of tetraclean in bovine root dentin in vitro. one hundred and forty dentin tubes prepared from bovine incisor teeth were infected with enterococcus faecalis for 14 days. the specimens were divided into five groups as follows: tetraclean; 5.25% naocl/tetraclean; 2% chlorhexidine (chx); infected dentin tubes (positive control); and sterile dentin tubes (nega ...201323513547
a liaf codon deletion abolishes daptomycin bactericidal activity against vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis.the genetic bases for antibiotic tolerance are obscure. daptomycin (dap) is a lipopeptide antibiotic with bactericidal activity against enterococci. using time-kill assays, we provide evidence for the first time that a deletion of isoleucine in position 177 of liaf, a member of the three-component regulatory system liafsr involved in the cell envelope response to antimicrobials, is directly responsible for a dap-tolerant phenotype and is likely to negatively affect response to dap therapy.201323507277
comparative evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of syzygium aromaticum, ocimum sanctum and cinnamomum zeylanicum plant extracts against enterococcus faecalis: a preliminary evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of ocimum sanctum, cinnamomum zeylanicum, syzygium aromaticum and 3% sodium hypochlorite (naocl) against enterococcus faecalis in planktonic suspension and biofilm phenotypes.201323506110
bacteria isolated from dugongs (dugong dugon) submitted for postmortem examination in queensland, australia, 2000-2011.microbial infection may contribute to disease in a significant proportion of marine mammal mortalities, but little is known about infectious bacterial species and their prevalence in dugongs (dugong dugon). this study represents a survey of the species of bacteria and fungi isolated from dugongs submitted to the university of queensland's school of veterinary science for postmortem examination. thirty-six dugongs were included in the survey, with 23 species of bacteria and four species of fungus ...201323505701
evaluation of the antibacterial activity of three gutta-percha solvents against enterococcus faecalis.enterococcus faecalis (e. faecalis) is implicated as the common etiological agent of root canal treatment failure. the study was aimed to compare the antibacterial efficacy and to assess the minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) of 3 gutta-percha solvents-rc solve, endosolv-e, and xylene against e. faecalis.201323504811
antimicrobial effect of alexidine and chlorhexidine against enterococcus faecalis infection.a previous study demonstrated that alexidine has greater affinity for the major virulence factors of bacteria than chlorhexidine. the aim of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of 1% alexidine with that of 2% chlorhexidine using enterococcus faecalis-infected dentin blocks. sixty bovine dentin blocks were prepared and randomly divided into six groups of 10 each. e. faecalis was inoculated on 60 dentin blocks using the luppens apparatus for 24 h and then the dentin blocks were so ...201323492900
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