protection of enterococcus faecalis in mixed cultures with carbapenemase-producing escherichia coli and bacteroide fragilis: effect of the bacterial load.this study explores effects of ph and inoculum size on imipenem versus tigecycline activity against e. coli, b. fragilis and e. faecalis, both in individual and mixed cultures.201324080888
ireb, a ser/thr kinase substrate, influences antimicrobial resistance in enterococcus faecalis.enterococcus faecalis is a gram-positive bacterium that is a major cause of hospital-acquired infections, in part due to its intrinsic resistance to cephalosporins. the mechanism that confers intrinsic cephalosporin resistance in enterococci remains incompletely defined. previously, we have shown that the ser/thr protein kinase and phosphatase pair irek and irep act antagonistically to regulate cephalosporin resistance in e. faecalis. we hypothesize that irek senses antibiotic-induced cell wall ...201324080657
high-dose daptomycin therapy for left-sided infective endocarditis: a prospective study from the international collaboration on endocarditis.the use of daptomycin in gram-positive left-sided infective endocarditis (ie) has significantly increased. the purpose of this study was to assess the influence of high-dose daptomycin on the outcome of left-sided ie due to gram-positive pathogens. this was a prospective cohort study based on 1,112 cases from the international collaboration on endocarditis (ice)-plus database and the ice-daptomycin substudy database from 2008 to 2010. among patients with left-sided ie due to staphylococcus aureu ...201324080644
icesluvan, a 94-kilobase mosaic integrative conjugative element conferring interspecies transfer of vanb-type glycopeptide resistance, a novel bacitracin resistance locus, and a toxin-antitoxin stabilization system.a 94-kb integrative conjugative element (icesluvan) transferable to enterococcus faecium and enterococcus faecalis from an animal isolate of streptococcus lutetiensis consists of a mosaic of genetic fragments from different gram-positive bacteria. a variant of icesluvan was confirmed in s. lutetiensis from a patient. a complete tn5382/tn1549 with a vanb2 operon is integrated into a streptococcal icesde3396-like region harboring a putative bacteriophage exclusion system, a putative agglutinin rec ...201324078615
microwave-assisted synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of ag/zno nanoparticles supported bentonite clay.composites of silver-zinc oxide nanoparticles supported on bentonite clay were synthesized by the microwave-assisted synthesis method for use as an antibacterial material. silver nitrate was used as the precursor of silver nanoparticles while zinc oxide nanoparticles were commercially sourced. the composites were characterized by powder x-ray diffraction (xrd), transmission electron microscope (tem), fourier transform infrared (ftir) and bet surface area measurements. xrd spectra showed peaks of ...201324076479
production of microbial medium from defatted brebra (milletia ferruginea) seed flour to substitute commercial peptone investigate and optimize microbial media that substitute peptone agar using brebra seed defatted flour.201324075344
enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis: focus on clinical aspects.enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (ie) is a disease of increasing importance, with more patients infected, increasing frequency of health-care associated infections and increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistances. the typical clinical presentation is a subacute course with fever, malaise and generalized aches, difficult to distinguish from other more common diseases. of paramount importance is transthoracic- and transesophageal-echocardiography to establish the diagnosis. at the ...201324073680
first isolation of oleate-dependent enterococcus faecalis small-colony variants from the umbilical exudate of a paediatric patient with oleate-dependent enterococcus faecalis isolate representing small-colony variants (scvs) was isolated from the umbilical exudate of a 31-month-old japanese male patient in nagano children's hospital, azumino, japan. the patient had been suffering from recurrent omphalitis since early infancy. the initial e. faecalis scv isolate formed small colonies on sheep blood agar plates and tiny colonies on chocolate and modified drigalski agar, although no visible growth was observed in hk-semi solid m ...201324072765
emergence of enterococcus species in the infectious microorganisms cultured from patients with endophthalmitis in south investigate the microorganisms in culture-proven endophthalmitis and their susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents commonly used in south korea.201424072645
evaluation of the toxicity and antimicrobial activity of hydroethanolic extract of arrabidaea chica (humb. & bonpl.) b. verl.arrabidaea chica (bignoniaceae) is a vine native to the amazon rainforest, popularly known as "crajiru" and whose infusion and decoction of the leaves are used to treat diseases such as gastric ulcers, inflammations, infections, anemia, herpes, jaundice among others. it is also used as a natural dye. this work aimed to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo toxicity, antimicrobial activity including analysis of chemical constitution of the hydroethanolic extract of the leaves of arrabidaea chica (hea ...201324070833
molecular characterization of rifr mutations in enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium.mutation rate is an important factor affecting the appearance and spread of acquired antibiotic resistance. the frequencies and types of enterococci mutations were determined in this study. the mics of rifampicin in enterococci and their rifampicin-resistant mutants were determined by the clinical and laboratory standards institute (clsi) agar dilution method. the enterococcus faecalis isolates a15 and 18165 showed no significant differences in mutation frequencies or mutation rates. in enteroco ...201424070269
comparative analysis of tunisian wild crataegus azarolus (yellow azarole) and crataegus monogyna (red azarole) leaf, fruit, and traditionally derived syrup: phenolic profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the aqueous-acetone extracts.quantitative and qualitative analyses of the yellow and red azarole phenolic extracts prepared from leaf, fruit peel/pulp, and syrup were comparatively investigated. the yellow azarole was found significantly richer in polyphenols than the red-fruit species. hyperoside was the main phenolic in both yellow and red azarole leaves and only in yellow fruits, whereas procyanidin b2 was the major compound in red fruits. yellow azarole leaf and fruit peel extracts exhibited the strongest antioxidant ac ...201324070066
an encapsulated drug delivery system for recalcitrant urinary tract of the hallmarks of urinary tract infection, a serious global disease, is its tendency to recur. uropathogenic bacteria can invade cells lining the bladder, where they form longer-term intracellular reservoirs shielded from antibiotics, re-emerging at a later date to initiate flare-ups. in these cases, only lengthy systemic antibiotic treatment can eradicate all the reservoirs. yet, long courses of antibiotics are not ideal, as they can lead to side effects and an increase in antibiotic resi ...201324068180
technological characterisation, antibiotic susceptibility and antimicrobial activity of wild-type leuconostoc strains isolated from north italian traditional cheeses.genotypic and technological properties, antibiotic susceptibility and antimicrobial activity of 35 leuconostoc strains, isolated from different italian raw milk cheeses, were investigated. rapd-pcr was used to study genetic variability and to distinguish closely related strains. the results showed a high degree of heterogeneity among isolates. all the strains had weak acidifying activity and showed low proteolytic and lipolytic activities. reduction activity, was generally low. all the leuconost ...201324067095
bioactive nanofibrous scaffolds for regenerative we report the synthesis, materials characterization, antimicrobial capacity, and cytocompatibility of novel antibiotic-containing scaffolds. metronidazole (met) or ciprofloxacin/(cip) was mixed with a polydioxanone (pds)polymer solution at 5 and 25 wt% and processed into fibers. pds fibers served as a control. scanning electron microscopy (sem), fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ftir), tensile testing, and high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) were used to assess fiber morpho ...201324056225
enterococcal sex pheromones: signaling, social behavior, and enterococcus faecalis, lateral transfer of conjugative plasmids that encode antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants can be induced by peptide sex pheromones. the tetracycline-resistance plasmid pcf10 represents a paradigm for illustrating important conserved features of a large family of pheromone-responsive enterococcal plasmids. the pheromone is released into the growth medium by plasmid-free recipient cells and sensed by plasmid-containing donors. the activity of the pheromone is ...201324050179
life-threatening bacteremia and pyonephrosis caused by enterococcus hirae. 201324035432
interference in pheromone-responsive conjugation of a high-level bacitracin resistant enterococcus faecalis plasmid of poultry origin.the current study reports on contact interference of a high-level bacitracin- resistant pheromone-responsive plasmid of enterococcus faecalis strain 543 of poultry origin during conjugative transfer of bcr antimicrobial resistance genes using a polyclonal antiserum aggregation substance(44-560) (as). after induction with pheromones produced by the recipient strain e. faecalis jh2-2, clumping of the donor e. faecalis strain 543 was observed as well as high transfer frequencies of bcr in short tim ...201324030654
in vitro efficacy of fosfomycin-based combinations against clinical vancomycin-resistant enterococcus isolates.vancomycin-resistant (vr) enterococci (vre) are increasingly important nosocomial pathogens, commonly causing catheter-related urinary tract infections or vascular catheter-related bloodstream infections. in this study, 10 enterococcus faecium and 9 enterococcus faecalis different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genome-type vr clinical isolates were detected. the potential role of fosfomycin-based combination regimens for biofilm-related vre infection is in vitro evaluated. anti-vre activities ...201324029433
endogenous endophthalmitis caused by enterococcus faecalis in a cat.a three-year-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat was presented for loss of vision associated with hyperthermia, lethargy and anorexia. ophthalmic examination revealed a bilateral panuveitis. cytological examination of aqueous and vitreous humours was performed and revealed a suppurative inflammation associated with numerous cocci. enterococcus faecalis was identified by bacterial culture from aqueous and vitreous humour. no primary infection site was identified. active uveitis resolved afte ...201424028653
additive effect of enterococcus faecium on enterococcal bloodstream infections: a 14-year study in a swiss tertiary hospital.we investigated whether an increase in enterococcal bloodstream infections (bsis) depends on the emergence of enterococcus faecium in an area with low vancomycin-resistant enterococci prevalence. from 1999 to 2012, a linear increase in e. faecium bsi rates (0.009 per 1,000 patient-days per year; p < .001) was noted. enterococcus faecalis bsi rates remained stable.201324018931
risk factors for and epidemiology of community-onset vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis in southeast michigan.given the known link between vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis (vref) and vancomycin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (vrsa), the recent increase in prevalence of vref in southeast michigan has raised concerns about the presence of a large "community" reservoir of vref. efforts to control its spread face some important challenges.201324011554
culture independent raman spectroscopic identification of urinary tract infection pathogens: a proof of principle study.urinary tract infection (uti) is a very common infection. up to every second woman will experience at least one uti episode during her lifetime. the gold standard for identifying the infectious microorganisms is the urine culture. however, culture methods are time-consuming and need at least 24 h until the results are available. here, we report about a culture independent identification procedure by using raman microspectroscopy in combination with innovative chemometrics. we investigated, for t ...201324010860
correlations between income inequality and antimicrobial resistance.the aim of this study is to investigate if correlations exist between income inequality and antimicrobial resistance. this study's hypothesis is that income inequality at the national level is positively correlated with antimicrobial resistance within developed countries.201324009734
isolation, identification, and antibiogram of enterococci isolated from patients with urinary tract infection.enterococci, though commensals in adult feces are important nosocomial pathogens. the most common nosocomial infection caused by these organisms is urinary tract infection.201424005591
zebrafish as a novel vertebrate model to dissect enterococcal pathogenesis.enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for a wide range of life-threatening nosocomial infections, such as septicemia, peritonitis, and endocarditis. e. faecalis infections are associated with a high mortality and substantial health care costs and cause therapeutic problems due to the intrinsic resistance of this bacterium to antibiotics. several factors contributing to e. faecalis virulence have been identified. due to the variety of infections caused by this organism, n ...201324002065
functional diversity of tandem substrate-binding domains in abc transporters from pathogenic bacteria.the atp-binding cassette (abc) transporter glnpq is an essential uptake system for amino acids in gram-positive pathogens and related nonpathogenic bacteria. the transporter has tandem substrate-binding domains (sbds) fused to each transmembrane domain, giving rise to four sbds per functional transporter complex. we have determined the crystal structures and ligand-binding properties of the sbds of glnpq from enterococcus faecalis, streptococcus pneumoniae, and lactococcus lactis. the tandem sbd ...201323994008
[evaluation on antimicrobial efficacy of fufang bingpeng irrigant: an in vitro study].to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of fufang bingpeng irrigant and bingpeng irrigant on four endodontic pathogen bacteria.201323991570
calpastatin prevents nf-κb-mediated hyperactivation of macrophages and attenuates colitis.calpain enzymes proteolytically modulate cellular function and have been implicated in inflammatory diseases. in this study, we found that calpain levels did not differ between intestinal tissues from inflammatory bowel disease (ibd) patients and healthy controls, but ibd tissues showed increased levels of the endogenous calpain inhibitor, calpastatin (cast). to investigate the role of cast in the immune system during ibd, mice were x-ray irradiated, reconstituted with either cast-knockout (ko) ...201323986533
antibiotic-resistance and virulence genes in enterococcus isolated from tropical recreational waters.the prevalence of enterococci harboring tetracycline- and vancomycin-resistance genes, as well as the enterococcal surface protein (esp) has mostly been determined in clinical settings, but their prevalence in tropical recreational waters remains largely unknown. the present study determined the prevalence of tetm (tetracycline-resistance), vana and vanb (vancomycin-resistance) in the bacterial and viral fractions, enterococci and their induced phages isolated from tropical recreational marine a ...201323981868
biological evaluation of hyperforin and its hydrogenated analogue on bacterial growth and biofilm production.bacterial biofilms are organized communities of microorganisms, embedded in a self-produced matrix, growing on a biotic surface and resistant to many antimicrobial agents when associated with a medical device. these biofilms require the development of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of infectious disease, including the potential use of natural products. one interesting natural product example is hypericum, a plant genus that contains species known to have antimicrobial properties ...201323981190
reduction in enteroccocus faecalis counts - a comparison between rotary and reciprocating compare the chemomechanical reduction and regrowth of enterococcus faecalis between rotary and reciprocating systems in root canal preparation.201423980811
efficacy of endodontic applications of ozone and low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma on root canals infected with enterococcus faecalis.this study aimed to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasma (ltapp) design and gaseous ozone delivery system with 2.5% naocl on enterococcus faecalis in root canal walls and dentine tubules. the samples were divided into ltapp (n = 12), ozone (n = 12), naocl (positive control, n = 12) and saline (negative control, n = 6) groups. microbial samples were collected using paper points and dentin chips from root canals. antimicrobial efficacy was assessed by c ...201423980743
marked elevation of interleukin-6 in mild encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (mers) associated with acute focal bacterial nephritis caused by enterococcus faecalis.this report describes two cases of mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with reversible splenial lesion (mers) associated with acute focal bacterial nephritis (afbn). the patients, who presented with fever and delirious behavior, exhibited hyponatremia and markedly elevated interleukin (il)-6 in cerebrospinal fluid (csf) and serum. enterococcus faecalis was detected in the urine culture. after ampicillin treatment, their consciousness improved without neurological sequelae. moreover, a diffusion-wei ...201423978488
library screen identifies enterococcus faecalis ccpa, the catabolite control protein a, as an effector of ace, a collagen adhesion protein linked to virulence.the enterococcus faecalis cell wall-anchored protein ace is an important virulence factor involved in cell adhesion and infection. expression of ace on the cell surface is affected by many factors, including stage of growth, culture temperature, and environmental components, such as serum, urine, and collagen. however, the mechanisms that regulate or modulate ace display are not well understood. with interest in identifying genes associated with ace expression, we utilized a whole-cell enzyme-li ...201323974022
virulence and antibiotic resistance of enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates recovered from three states of mexico. detection of linezolid resistance.the virulence of enterococcus faecalis is associated with three proteins involved in biofilm production: ace, agg, and esp. isolates also vary with respect to drug resistance. the present study investigated four characteristics of clinical isolates of e. faecalis recovered from three hospitals in mexico, including biofilm production, the presence of biofilm-related genes, antibiotic susceptibility, and clonal diversity.201323973462
glycopeptide antibiotic analogs efficient against vancomycin-resistant bacteria: a patent evaluation (wo2013022763).the patent claims the preparation of vancomycin analogs equally active against bacterial strains that are primarily sensitive or resistant to this antibiotic. the pseudopeptide core of new compounds carries the amidine group that replaces the carboxamide linking group in the d ring-bearing amino acid residue of the glycopeptide. an elegant method of synthesis of amidine containing glycopeptides via thioamides was developed. the key glycopeptide thioamide analogs were prepared by total multistep ...201323972226
antimicrobial activity of alexidine alone and associated with n-acetylcysteine against enterococcus faecalis biofilm.the purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of alexidine (alx), alone and combined with n-acetylcysteine (nac), in eradicating two enterococcus faecalis strain biofilms. the biofilms of e. faecalis atcc 29212 and the clinical isolate e. faecalis d1 were grown in the mbec-high-throughput device for 24 h and were exposed to five twofold dilutions of alx (2%-0.007 8%) alone and combined with 100 mg⋅ml(-1) nac, for 1 and 5 min. eradication was defined as 100% kill of biofilm bacteria. the s ...201323970139
mortality in kittens is associated with a shift in ileum mucosa-associated enterococci from enterococcus hirae to biofilm-forming enterococcus faecalis and adherent escherichia coli.approximately 15% of foster kittens die before 8 weeks of age, with most of these kittens demonstrating clinical signs or postmortem evidence of enteritis. while a specific cause of enteritis is not determined in most cases, these kittens are often empirically administered probiotics that contain enterococci. the enterococci are members of the commensal intestinal microbiota but also can function as opportunistic pathogens. given the complicated role of enterococci in health and disease, it woul ...201323966487
lipoteichoic acid of enterococcus faecalis induces the expression of chemokines via tlr2 and pafr signaling pathways.enterococcus faecalis is one of the most common opportunistic pathogens responsible for nosocomial infections, and its lta is known as an important virulence factor causing inflammatory responses. as chemokines play a key role in inflammatory diseases by triggering leukocyte infiltration into the infection site, we purified eflta and investigated its effect on the expression of chemokines, ip-10, mip-1α, and mcp-1, in murine macrophages. eflta induced the expression of these chemokines at the mr ...201323964117
influence of various herbal irrigants as a final rinse on the adherence of enterococcus faecalis by fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscope.the aim of this study was to assess the antibacterial efficacy of three different herbal irrigants against enterococcus faecalis.201323956540
quantitative evaluation of apical extrusion of intracanal bacteria using k3, mtwo, race and protaper rotary systems: an in vitro study.this aim of this study was to evaluate the number of bacteria extruded apically during root canal preparation using four rotary instrumentation techniques.201323956529
cold-shock rna-binding protein cspr is also exposed to the surface of enterococcus faecalis.cspr has been characterized recently as a cold-shock rna-binding protein in enterococcus faecalis, a natural member of the gastro-intestinal tract capable of switching from a commensal relationship with the host to an important nosocomial pathogen. in addition to its involvement in the cold-shock response, cspr also plays a role in the long-term survival and virulence of e. faecalis. in the present study, we demonstrated that anti-cspr immune rabbit serum protected larvae of galleria mellonella ...201323955430
the crystal structure of d-mandelate dehydrogenase reveals its distinct substrate and coenzyme recognition mechanisms from those of 2-ketopantoate reductase.d-mandelate dehydrogenases (d-mandhs), belonging to a new d-2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase family, catalyze the conversion between benzoylformate and d-mandelate using nad as a coenzyme. we determined the first d-mandh structure, that of mandh2 from enterococcus faecalis iam10071. the overall structure showed mandh2 has a similar fold to 2-ketopantoate reductase (kpr), which catalyzes the conversion of 2-ketopantoate to d-pantoate using nadp as a coenzyme. they share conserved catalytic residues, i ...201323954635
comparative antibacterial efficacies of hydrodynamic and ultrasonic irrigation systems in ensure root canal treatment success, endodontic microbiota should be efficiently reduced. the in vitro bactericidal effects of a hydrodynamic system and a passive ultrasonic irrigation system were compared.201323953293
organism-adapted specificity of the allosteric regulation of pyruvate kinase in lactic acid bacteria.pyruvate kinase (pyk) is a critical allosterically regulated enzyme that links glycolysis, the primary energy metabolism, to cellular metabolism. lactic acid bacteria rely almost exclusively on glycolysis for their energy production under anaerobic conditions, which reinforces the key role of pyk in their metabolism. these organisms are closely related, but have adapted to a huge variety of native environments. they include food-fermenting organisms, important symbionts in the human gut, and ant ...201323946717
enterococcus faecalis endogenous endophthalmitis from valvular endocarditis.we report a case of a 74-year-old female, with a mitral heart valve, who presented with pain and blurred vision in the right eye for 2 days. her visual acuity was light perception (lp) in the right eye and 20/40 in the left eye. slit lamp examination showed corneal edema and hypopyon, and a view of the right fundus was impossible. echography showed vitreous condensation. one day after presentation, the patient developed acute lung edema requiring hospitalization, so she was not submitted to vitr ...201323936701
[peripheral venous catheter-related e. faecalis sepsis with fatal outcome].a 82 year-old man was admitted with a facial herpes zoster reactivation and a zoster-related meningoencephalitis. he was treated with aciclovir over a peripheral venous catheter that was placed in the right elbow pit. the meningoencephalitis subsided without neurological deficits, but the patient developed a catheter-associated phlebitis. an oral cephalosporin was prescribed and the patient discharged. after developing a fever and general discomfort he was readmitted to hospital three days later ...201323934591
distribution of antimicrobial-resistant lactic acid bacteria in natural cheese in determine and compare the extent of contamination caused by antimicrobial-resistant lactic acid bacteria (lab) in imported and domestic natural cheeses on the japanese market, lab were isolated using deman, rogosa and sharpe (mrs) agar and mrs agar supplemented with six antimicrobials. from 38 imported and 24 japanese cheeses, 409 lab isolates were obtained and their antimicrobial resistance was tested. the percentage of lab resistant to dihydrostreptomycin, erythromycin, and/or oxytetracycli ...201323930694
rv3168 phosphotransferase activity mediates kanamycin resistance in mycobacterium tuberculosis.tuberculosis is a worldwide epidemic disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis, with an estimated one-third of the human population currently affected. treatment of this disease with aminoglycoside antibiotics has become less effective owing to antibiotic resistance. recent determination of the crystal structure of the m. tuberculosis rv3168 protein suggests a structure similar to that of enterococcus faecalis aph(3')-iiia, and that this protein may be an aminoglycoside phosphotransferase. to ...201323928847
antibacterial activity of the recombinant antimicrobial peptide ib-amp4 from impatiens balsamina and its synergy with other antimicrobial agents against drug resistant bacteria.ib-amp4 is an antimicrobial peptide of impatiens balsamina (balsaminaceae). ib-amp4 was produced as a recombinant peptide and in this study its antimicrobial activity against human bacterial pathogens was investigated. ib-amp4 was bactericidal against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria with mic values between 0.49 and 3.5 microm in sensitive species. a genuine synergistic effect was achieved when ib-amp4 was employed in combination with the plant monoterpene thymol against drug-resist ...201323923648
american crows as carriers of vancomycin-resistant enterococci with vana gene.we studied the vana-carrying vancomycin-resistant enterococci (vre) isolated from american crows in the united states during the winter 2011/2012. faecal samples from crows were cultured selectively for vre and characterized. pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) and multilocus sequence typing (mlst) were used to examine epidemiological relationships of vana-containing vre. isolates were tested in vitro for their ability to horizontally transfer the vancomycin resistance trait. vre with the va ...201423919480
interdigitated silver-polymer-based antibacterial surface system activated by oligodynamic iontophoresis - an empirical characterization study.there is a pressing need to control the occurrences of nosocomial infections due to their detrimental effects on patient well-being and the rising treatment costs. to prevent the contact transmission of such infections via health-critical surfaces, a prophylactic surface system that consists of an interdigitated array of oppositely charged silver electrodes with polymer separations and utilizes oligodynamic iontophoresis has been recently developed. this paper presents a systematic study that em ...201423917746
effectiveness of a new method of disinfecting the root canal, using er, cr:ysgg laser to kill enterococcus faecalis in an infected tooth model.some lasers have demonstrated to provide effective disinfection when used as adjunctive device to the conventional treatment. the aim of this in vitro study was to determine the effectiveness of the erbium, chromium:yttrium scandium gallium garnet (er, cr:ysgg) laser by measuring its bactericidal effect inside the root canal experimentally colonized with enterococcus faecalis. the laser was tested at different irradiation times (30 and 60 s) and energy of impulses (75 and 25 mj). a total of 52 s ...201523917414
direction of aminoacylated transfer rnas into antibiotic synthesis and peptidoglycan-mediated antibiotic resistance.prokaryotic aminoacylated-transfer rnas often need to be efficiently segregated between translation and other cellular biosynthetic pathways. many clinically relevant bacteria, including streptococcus pneumoniae, staphylococcus aureus, enterococcus faecalis and pseudomonas aeruginosa direct some aminoacylated-trna species into peptidoglycan biosynthesis and/or membrane phospholipid modification. subsequent indirect peptidoglycan cross-linkage or change in membrane permeability is often a prerequ ...201323907010
abundance and diversity of plasmid-associated genes among clinical isolates of enterococcus faecalis.enterococcus faecalis, a normal compound of the human intestinal microbiome, plays an important role in hospital-acquired infections. plasmids make a significant contribution to the acquisition of the novel traits such as antimicrobial resistance and virulence by this pathogen. the study investigated the plasmid content and the diversity of plasmid-associated genes in a group of 152 hospital isolates of e. faecalis. the majority of plasmids visualized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of s1 nu ...201323906674
presence of virulence factors in enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium susceptible and resistant to vancomycin.despite the increasing importance of enterococcus as opportunistic pathogens, their virulence factors are still poorly understood. this study determines the frequency of virulence factors in clinical and commensal enterococcus isolates from inpatients in porto alegre, brazil. fifty enterococcus isolates were analysed and the presence of the gele, asa1 and esp genes was determined. gelatinase activity and biofilm formation were also tested. the clonal relationships among the isolates were evaluat ...201323903974
pcr and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for detection of persistent enterococcus faecalis in cerebrospinal fluid following treatment of postoperative ventriculitis.we describe the use of pcr and electrospray ionization followed by mass spectrometry (pcr/esi-ms) to evaluate "culture-negative" cerebrospinal fluid (csf) from a 67-year-old man who developed postoperative bacterial ventriculitis following a suboccipital craniotomy for resection of an ependymoma in the 4th ventricle. csf samples were obtained on seven occasions, beginning in the operating room at the time of insertion of a right ventriculoperitoneal shunt (vps) and continuing until his death, 6 ...201323903548
effects of bacterial products on the activity of odontoblast-like cells and their formation of type 1 study how products released from different bacteria in a deep carious lesion affect the metabolic activity of odontoblast-like cells and their ability to produce the major organic component of dentine, collagen 1.201423902462
antibacterial activity of quinoxalines, quinazolines, and 1,5-naphthyridines.several phenyl substituted naphthalenes and isoquinolines have been identified as antibacterial agents that inhibit ftsz-zing formation. in the present study we evaluated the antibacterial of several phenyl substituted quinoxalines, quinazolines and 1,5-naphthyridines against methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant staphylococcusaureus and vancomycin-sensitive and vancomycin-resistant enterococcusfaecalis. some of the more active compounds against s. aureus were evaluated for their effec ...201323891185
oral application of bacterial lysate in infancy diminishes the prevalence of atopic dermatitis in children at risk for atopy.numerous interventions such as avoidance of food allergens, prolonged breast feeding and supplementation of pro-and/or prebiotics have been tried as primary prevention of atopic dermatitis. recent data suggest that prevention of infantile eczema is possible in a subgroup of children by feeding bacterial lysates early in life. bacterial lysates of escherichia coli and enterococcus faecalis were found to impair allergic immune responses in rats. an interventional trial in 606 infants at risk for a ...201423886978
daptomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis diverts the antibiotic molecule from the division septum and remodels cell membrane phospholipids.treatment of multidrug-resistant enterococci has become a challenging clinical problem in hospitals around the world due to the lack of reliable therapeutic options. daptomycin (dap), a cell membrane-targeting cationic antimicrobial lipopeptide, is the only antibiotic with in vitro bactericidal activity against vancomycin-resistant enterococci (vre). however, the clinical use of dap against vre is threatened by emergence of resistance during therapy, but the mechanisms leading to dap resistance ...201323882013
comparison of efficacy of pulverization and sterile paper point techniques for sampling root canals.the purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of the pulverization and sterile paper point techniques for sampling root canals using 5.25% naocl/17% edta and 1.3% naocl/mtad (dentsply, tulsa, ok) as irrigation regimens.201323880277
correlative bacteriologic and micro-computed tomographic analysis of mandibular molar mesial canals prepared by self-adjusting file, reciproc, and twisted file systems.this ex vivo study evaluated the disinfecting and shaping ability of 3 protocols used in the preparation of mesial root canals of mandibular molars by means of correlative bacteriologic and micro-computed tomographic (μμct) analysis.201323880274
antimicrobial effect of a modified vanadium chloroperoxidase on enterococcus faecalis biofilms at root canal ph.previous research showed an antimicrobial effect of vanadium chloroperoxidase (vcpo) on in vitro enterococcus faecalis biofilms. the current study aimed to optimize the use of this enzyme at the root canal ph using a modified vcpo (mvcpo) that was adapted to function at a higher ph and to explore the biocompatibility of mvcpo.201323880272
the biological performance of calcium hydroxide-loaded microcapsules.calcium hydroxide (ca[oh]2) microcapsules were synthesized for use in controlled release. the aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity, antibacterial properties, and influence on gene expression of bone-related markers of 2 different formulas of ca(oh)2 microcapsules.201323880271
linezolid-resistant clinical isolates of enterococci and staphylococcus cohnii from a multicentre study in china: molecular epidemiology and resistance mechanisms.genetic characterisation of linezolid-resistant gram-positive cocci in a multicentre study in china has not been reported previously. to study the mechanism underlying the resistance of linezolid-resistant isolates, nine enterococcus faecalis, one enterococcus faecium and three staphylococcus cohnii isolates with various levels of resistance were collected from five hospitals across china in 2009-2012. the nine e. faecalis isolates were classified into seven sequence types, indicating that these ...201323880167
effect of culture media and nutrients on biofilm growth kinetics of laboratory and clinical strains of enterococcus faecalis.enterococcus faecalis is a bacterial pathogen that is often associated with endodontic infections. biofilm formation is a key virulence attribute in the pathogenicity of e. faecalis. in the present study, we comprehensively examined the effect of various culture media and nutrients on the development of e. faecalis biofilms.201323880095
antimicrobial resistance pattern in enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from expressed prostatic secretions of patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis.enterococcus faecalis is one of the most common pathogens linked to chronic bacterial prostatitis (cbp). owing to a limited number of previous studies addressing this topic, we aimed to determine the drug resistance patterns of e. faecalis strains isolated from cbp patients.201323878692
root-end filling with cement-based materials: an in vitro analysis of bacterial and dye ideal property of a root-end filling material is its apical sealing ability. the aim of this in vitro study was to assess bacterial and dye microleakage of white and gray mineral trioxide aggregate (wmta and gmta), portland cement and calcium-enriched mixture (cem) cement used as root-end filling material, and to assess the agreement between these two test methods.201323878563
antibiotic resistance in enterococcus faecalis isolated from hospitalized patients.enterococci are gram-positive cocci that often occur in pairs (diplococci) or short chains. be-side developing high level of antibiotic resistance, these bacteria can cause wide range of disease in human, thus to help provide an effective treatment for infections caused by this genus, this study was conceived to provide information on enterococcus faecalis antibiotic resistance to widely used antibiotics in hospitalized patients.201323875089
contribution of individual ebp pilus subunits of enterococcus faecalis og1rf to pilus biogenesis, biofilm formation and urinary tract infection.the endocarditis and biofilm-associated pilus (ebp) operon is a component of the core genome of enterococcus faecalis that has been shown to be important for biofilm formation, adherence to host fibrinogen, collagen and platelets, and in experimental endocarditis and urinary tract infection models. here, we created single and double deletion mutants of the pilus subunits and sortases; next, by combining western blotting, immunoelectron microscopy, and using ebpr in trans to increase pilus produc ...201323874774
use of rapid-scan epr to improve detection sensitivity for spin-trapped radicals.the short lifetime of superoxide and the low rates of formation expected in vivo make detection by standard continuous wave (cw) electron paramagnetic resonance (epr) challenging. the new rapid-scan epr method offers improved sensitivity for these types of samples. in rapid-scan epr, the magnetic field is scanned through resonance in a time that is short relative to electron spin relaxation times, and data are processed to obtain the absorption spectrum. to validate the application of rapid-scan ...201323870255
kinetic characterization of arginine deiminase and carbamate kinase from streptococcus pyogenes m49.streptococcus pyogenes (group a streptococcus, gas) is an important human pathogen causing mild superficial infections of skin and mucous membranes, but also life-threatening systemic diseases. s. pyogenes and other prokaryotic organisms use the arginine deiminase system (ads) for survival in acidic environments. in this study, the arginine deiminase (ad), and carbamate kinase (ck) from s. pyogenes m49 strain 591 were heterologously expressed in escherichia coli dh5α, purified, and kinetically c ...201323867361
comparison of the antibacterial effect and smear layer removal using photon-initiated photoacoustic streaming aided irrigation versus a conventional irrigation in single-rooted canals: an in vitro study.the er:yag laser with photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (pips) technique was reported to be effective in root canal disinfection. this study attempted to further investigate the antibacterial efficacy and smear layer removal ability of pips in comparison with conventional syringe irrigation in vitro.201323863104
spread of multidrug-resistant enterococcus to animals and humans: an underestimated role for the pig farm environment.the aim of this study was to discover the potential role of the pig farm environment in the spread of multidrug-resistant (mdr) enterococcus strains, including high-risk clones, to animals and humans.201323861310
identification, characterization, and application of a virulence factor (efesta) from enterococcus faecalis.although virulence factors from pathogenic bacteria have been proposed as promising industrial enzymes, characterization and application of these enzymes have been still unexplored. the objective of this study was to identify and characterize virulence factors from pathogenic bacteria for industrial applications. here, a virulence factor (efesta) from enterococcus faecalis was identified and characterized using sds-page, enzyme assays, and molecular modeling. in addition, it has been shown that ...201323860564
effectiveness of artocarpus lakoocha extract, poloxamer 407, on enterococcus faecalis in vitro.the antiviral activities of artocarpus lakoocha (a. lakoocha) extract have been reported in a number of studies; however, data regarding its antibacterial capability are limited. the aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of a. lakoocha extract, poloxamer 407, on enterococcus faecalis (e. faecalis).201323857911
enterococcus faecalis fk-23 affects alveolar-capillary permeability to attenuate leukocyte influx in lung after influenza virus infection.infection with influenza a virus, one of the most common life-threatening viruses, causes the accumulation of inflammatory cells in the lung, which is directly correlated with influenza-associated morbidity and mortality. in this study, we investigated the potential of lysozyme-treated enterococcus faecalis fk-23 (lfk) to prevent influenza in influenza virus-infected mice. c57bl/6n mice were orally administered lfk and intranasally infected with influenza virus a/puerto rico/8/34 (h1n1) at letha ...201323853748
[an in vitro evaluation of the effect of carboxymethyl chitosan and its composites against enterococcus faecalis in the root canal].to evaluate the bacteriostasis effect of carboxymethyl chitosan and its composites on intracanal e. faecalis.201323852053
antimicrobial resistance and virulence traits of enterococcus faecalis from primary endodontic determine the phenotypic and molecular characteristics of enterococcus faecalis recovered from primary endodontic infections in brazilian patients.201323851130
enterococcus faecalis strains from food, environmental, and clinical origin produce ace-inhibitory peptides and other bioactive peptides during growth in bovine skim milk.enterococcus faecalis isolates from food and environmental origin were evaluated for their angiotensin-converting enzyme (ace)-inhibitory activity (ace-ia) after growth in bovine skim milk (bsm). most (90% active) but not all (10% inactive) e. faecalis strains produced bsm-derived hydrolysates with high ace-ia. known ace-inhibitory peptides (ace-ip) and an antioxidant peptide were identified in the e. faecalis hydrolysates by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spec ...201323845432
proteomics as a quality control tool of pharmaceutical probiotic bacterial lysate products.probiotic bacteria have a wide range of applications in veterinary and human therapeutics. inactivated probiotics are complex samples and quality control (qc) should measure as many molecular features as possible. capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (ce/ms) has been used as a multidimensional and high throughput method for the identification and validation of biomarkers of disease in complex biological samples such as biofluids. in this study we evaluate the suitability of ce/ ...201323840518
antimicrobial activity of a uv-stable bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (blis) produced by enterococcus faecium strain dsh20 against vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (vre) strains.the narrow spectrum of action of most bacteriocins is an important limitation for their application as antimicrobial agents. the current study describes a novel bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (blis) that display extended spectrum antimicrobial activity against vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (vre) strains.201423838264
bacterial contamination of unused, disposable non-sterile gloves on a hospital orthopaedic ward.non-sterile disposable gloves are used on large hospital wards, however their potential role as a vehicle for pathogen transmission has not been explored in this setting.201323837081
genetic basis for in vitro and in vivo resistance to lincosamides, streptogramins a, and pleuromutilins (lsap phenotype) in enterococcus opposed to enterococcus faecalis, which is intrinsically resistant to lincosamides, streptogramins a, and pleuromutilins (lsap phenotype) by production of the abc protein lsa(a), enterococcus faecium is naturally susceptible. since this phenotype may be selected for in vivo by quinupristin-dalfopristin (q-d), the aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of acquired lsap resistance in e. faecium. six lsap-resistant in vitro mutants of e. faecium hm1070 as well as three diff ...201323836170
differential efficacy of endodontic obturation procedures: an ex vivo means of a double-chamber model, different root canal filling materials and procedures were compared. briefly, the root canals of single-rooted human teeth, extracted for periodontal reasons, were instrumented and obturated by gutta-percha/pulp canal sealer ewt (pcs) or by resilon, in association with different sealers (real seal, relyx unicem or meta). obturation was achieved by traditional continuous wave of condensation technique (tcwct), a modified version of it (mcwct), or single cone te ...201423836051
construction and potential application of controlled autolytic systems for lactobacillus casei in cheese manufacture.the rapid release of intracellular enzymes into the curd by the autolysis of lactic acid bacteria starters is universally recognized as a critical biological process to accelerate cheese ripening. lactobacillus casei is typically the dominant nonstarter lactic acid bacterium in the ripening cheese. in this study, two controlled autolytic systems were established in l. casei bl23, based on the exploitation of the autolysins sourced from lactococcus lactis (acma) and enterococcus faecalis (atla). ...201323834793
dentinal tubule disinfection with 2% chlorhexidine, garlic extract, and calcium hydroxide against enterococcus faecalis by using real-time polymerase chain reaction: in vitro compare the efficacy of garlic extract with 2% chlorhexidine (chx) and calcium hydroxide ca(oh)2 in disinfection of dentinal tubules contaminated with enterococcus faecalis by using real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr).201323833449
fitness costs of various mobile genetic elements in enterococcus faecium and enterococcus determine the fitness effects of various mobile genetic elements (mges) in enterococcus faecium and enterococcus faecalis when newly acquired. we also tested the hypothesis that the biological cost of vancomycin resistance plasmids could be mitigated during continuous growth in the laboratory.201323833178
effects of photodynamic therapy on gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial biofilms by bioluminescence imaging and scanning electron microscopic analysis.the aim of this study was to test photodynamic therapy (pdt) as an alternative approach to biofilm disruption on dental hard tissue, we evaluated the effect of methylene blue and a 660 nm diode laser on the viability and architecture of gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial biofilms.201323822168
high genetic diversity of enterococcus faecium and enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing from a hospital in malaysia.little is known on the genetic relatedness and potential dissemination of particular enterococcal clones in malaysia. we studied the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of enterococcus faecium and enterococcus faecalis and subjected them to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) and multilocus sequence typing (mlst). e. faecium and e. faecalis displayed 27 and 30 pulsotypes, respectively, and 10 representative e. faecium and e. faecalis isolates (five each) yielded few different sequence types ( ...201323819125
lysins: the arrival of pathogen-directed anti-infectives.lysins represent a novel class of anti-infectives derived from bacteriophage. lysins are bacterial cell-wall hydrolytic enzymes that selectively and rapidly kill (≥3 log c.f.u. in 30 min) specific gram-positive bacteria providing a targeted therapeutic approach with minimal impact on unrelated commensal flora. the potential for bacterial resistance to lysins is considered low due to targeting of highly conserved peptidoglycan components. through cutting-edge genetic engineering, lysins can be as ...201323813275
relapsing endocarditis caused by enterococcus faecalis forming small colony variants.small colony variants (scvs) are subpopulations of a bacterial strain that differ in morphology, growth rate, metabolism, and antibiotic sensitivity from the parent line. they are associated with chronic and difficult-to-treat infections. scv endocarditis is very rare and usually associated with intracardiac devices. herein, we report a case of endocarditis caused by scv-forming enterococcus faecalis that affected the native heart without any known predisposition.201323808721
resistance mechanisms and epidemiology of multiresistant pathogens in europe and efficacy of tigecycline in observational studies.antimicrobial drug resistance is a growing problem in europe and, even with differences in epidemiology, it is of great concern. the treatment of complicated skin and soft-tissue infections (csstis) and complicated intra-abdominal infections (ciais) is hindered further by pathogens that are resistant to methicillin, carbapenems, third-generation cephalosporins and glycopeptides.201323772046
efficacy of tigecycline for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections in real-life clinical practice from five european observational studies.tigecycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic approved for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections (ciais). the efficacy of tigecycline when administered as monotherapy or in combination with other antibacterials in the treatment of ciais in routine clinical practice is described.201323772043
role of the mannose receptor in phagocytosis of enterococcus faecalis strain ec-12 by antigen-presenting cells.the aim of this study was to clarify the phagocytic mechanisms of a heat-killed cell preparation of enterococcus faecalis strain ec-12 (ec-12) by antigen-presenting cells (apcs). fluorescein isothiocyanate (fitc)-labeled ec-12 was cocultured with peritoneal macrophage and the amount of ec-12 phagocytosed by peritoneal macrophages was measured using a microplate fluorometer. peritoneal macrophages from toll-like receptor (tlr)2-, tlr7-, and myd88-deficient knockout (ko) mice exhibited similar lev ...201323801521
quantitative detection of staphylococcus aureus, enterococcus faecalis and pseudomonas aeruginosa in human oral epithelial cells from subjects with periodontitis and periodontal health.epithelial cells in oral cavities can be considered reservoirs for a variety of bacterial species. a polymicrobial intracellular flora associated with periodontal disease has been demonstrated in buccal cells. important aetiological agents of systemic and nosocomial infections have been detected in the microbiota of subgingival biofilm, especially in individuals with periodontal disease. however, non-oral pathogens internalized in oral epithelial cells and their relationship with periodontal sta ...201323800598
analysis of genetic lineages and their correlation with virulence genes in enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates from root canal and systemic infections.enterococcus faecalis is a member of the mammalian gastrointestinal microbiota but has been considered a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. in the oral cavity, it is commonly detected from root canals of teeth with failed endodontic treatment. however, little is known about the virulence and genetic relatedness among e. faecalis isolates from different clinical sources. this study compared the presence of enterococcal virulence factors among root canal strains and clinical isolates f ...201323791252
bacterial colonization of microbial biofilms in oral squamous cell carcinoma.the purpose of this prospective clinical study was to identify the bacterial spectra on the surface of oral squamous cell carcinomas (oscc) in comparison to oral mucosa of patients with a higher risk to emerge an oscc and a control group to determine their susceptibility to various common antibiotics.201423793404
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