prevalence and predictors of urinary tract infections among children with cerebral palsy in makurdi, nigeria.background. children with cerebral palsy (cp) are prone to urinary tract infection (uti). methods/objectives. the prevalence and the predictors of uti among children with cp were compared to age- and sex-matched children without cp at federal medical centre, makurdi, nigeria, from december 2011 to may 2013. results. the age range was between 2 and 15 years with a mean age of 8.63 ± 3.83 years including 30 males and 22 females. uti was confirmed in 20 (38.5%) cp children compared to 2 children (3 ...201324371524
genetic basis for vancomycin-enhanced cephalosporin susceptibility in vancomycin-resistant enterococci revealed using counterselection with dominant-negative thymidylate synthase.antibiotic-resistant enterococci are major causes of hospital-acquired infections. all enterococci are intrinsically resistant to most cephalosporins, antibiotics in the beta-lactam family that impair peptidoglycan synthesis by inactivating the transpeptidases responsible for cross-linking. in addition, clinical isolates of enterococci often possess acquired resistance to vancomycin, a glycopeptide antibiotic that impairs peptidoglycan biosynthesis by a mechanism distinct from that of the beta-l ...201424366749
pathways and roles of wall teichoic acid glycosylation in staphylococcus aureus.the thick peptidoglycan layers of gram-positive bacteria are connected to polyanionic glycopolymers called wall teichoic acids (wta). pathogens such as staphylococcus aureus, listeria monocytogenes, or enterococcus faecalis produce wta with diverse, usually strain-specific structure. extensive studies on s. aureus wta mutants revealed important functions of wta in cell division, growth, morphogenesis, resistance to antimicrobials, and interaction with host or phages. while most of the s. aureus ...201424365646
enterococcus faecalis subverts and invades the host urothelium in patients with chronic urinary tract infection.bacterial urinary tract infections (uti) are a major growing concern worldwide. uropathogenic escherichia coli has been shown to invade the urothelium during acute uti in mice and humans, forming intracellular reservoirs that can evade antibiotics and the immune response, allowing recurrence at a later date. other bacterial species, such as staphylococcus saprophyticus, klebsiella pneumonia and salmonella enterica have also been shown to be invasive in acute uti. however, the role of intracellul ...201324363814
impact of actin on adhesion and translocation of enterococcus faecalis.this study focuses on the impact of actin on adhesion and translocation of enterococcus (e.) faecalis og1rf, e. faecalis symbioflor(®), and e. faecalis v583. insight into the role of actin aggregation in the mediation of bacterial adhesion and translocation was provided by a two-chamber translocation assay, which employed ptk6 cells. determination of translocation rates, cytochalasin d treatment, and laser scanning confocal microscopic observation revealed actin as a predominant brace for entero ...201424362949
residual activity of cetrimide and chlorhexidine on enterococcus faecalis-infected root canals.effective final irrigation regimen is an important step in order to achieve better disinfection and ensure residual antimicrobial effects after root canal preparation. the aim of this study was to compare the residual antimicrobial activity of 0.2% cetrimide, and 0.2% and 2% chlorhexidine in root canals infected with enterococcus faecalis. biofilms of e. faecalis were grown on uniradicular roots for 4 weeks. after root canal preparation, root canals were irrigated with 17% ethylenediaminetetraac ...201424357857
antibacterial efficacy of sodium hypochlorite with a novel sonic agitation device.the aim of this study is to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of 3% sodium hypochlorite (naocl) with sonic agitation devices.201324355950
preliminary ex-vivo and an animal model evaluation of ocimum sanctum's essential oil extract for its antibacterial and anti- inflammatory evaluate the essential oil extract of the au ocimum sanctum for its antibacterial and anti inflammatory efficacy.201324352310
comparative evaluation of bactericidal effects on enterococcus faecalis using diode laser irradiation, sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine gluconate irrigation"- an in vitro study.this in vitro study was performed to evaluate the bactericidal effects of diode laser, 3% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate irrigation on root canals infected with enterococcus faecalis.201324352305
a rare case of quadruple valve infective endocarditis of normal native valves - the advantage of tee.quadruple valve infective endocarditis of apparently normal native valves is a relatively uncommon condition, reported particularly in the setting of intravenous drug use, structural heart disease and immunocompromised state, but its occurrence outside these settings is rare. multiple valve endocarditis is caused by staphylococcus aureus in the majority of cases. although enterococcus faecalis is a common cause of bacterial infective endocarditis overall, it is rarely reported to cause multiple ...201324351949
synergistic antibacterial activity of chlorhexidine and hydrogen peroxide against enterococcus faecalis.the aim of the present study was to compare the in vitro antibacterial activity of common root canal irrigants with a combination technique against intratubular enterococcus faecalis. seventy-five human single-rooted teeth were selected and their crowns and root-ends were removed to obtain specimens 5 mm in length. the specimens were contaminated with e. faecalis and divided into five experimental groups (n = 15). these groups were irrigated with 2% chlorhexidine (chx), 3% hydrogen peroxide (h2o ...201324351914
[bacteriological spectrum and drug susceptibility of pus from severe intra-abdominal infected patients with abdominal trauma].to retrospectively analyze the bacteriological spectrum and drug susceptibility of pus flora from abdominal traumatic patients with severe intra-abdominal infection.201324351598
co-transfer of resistance to high concentrations of copper and first-line antibiotics among enterococcus from different origins (humans, animals, the environment and foods) and clonal lineages.we studied the occurrence of diverse copper (cu) tolerance genes from gram-positive bacteria and their co-transfer with antibiotic resistance genes among enterococcus from diverse sources.201424343895
role of house flies in the ecology of enterococcus faecalis from wastewater treatment facilities.enterococci are important nosocomial pathogens, with enterococcus faecalis most commonly responsible for human infections. in this study, we used several measures to test the hypothesis that house flies, musca domestica (l.), acquire and disseminate antibiotic-resistant and potentially virulent e. faecalis from wastewater treatment facilities (wwtf) to the surrounding urban environment. house flies and sludge from four wwtf (1-4) as well as house flies from three urban sites close to wwtf-1 were ...201424337146
in vitro regulation of ccl3 and cxcl12 by bacterial by-products is dependent on site of origin of human oral fibroblasts.production of chemokines by tissue resident cells is one of the main mechanisms involved in the inflammatory infiltrate formation during inflammation. the specific ability of fibroblasts from different oral tissues such as gingiva, periodontal ligament, and dental pulp from permanent and deciduous teeth in producing the chemokines ccl3 and cxcl12 under stimulation by bacterial products commonly found in endodontic infections was investigated.201424331998
impact of enterococcal colonization and infection in solid organ transplantation recipients from the swiss transplant cohort study.the burden of enterococcal infections has increased over the last decades with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (vre) being a major health problem. solid organ transplantation is considered as a risk factor. however, little is known about the relevance of enterococci in solid organ transplantation recipients in areas with a low vre prevalence.201424330137
prolonged delivery of ciprofloxacin and diclofenac sodium from a polymeric fibre device for the treatment of periodontal vitro analysis of drug release and antimicrobial activity of the coblended crosslinked polymeric fibre device (pfd) were investigated. the fibre loaded with ciprofloxacin and diclofenac sodium was comprised of alginate and glycerol crosslinked with barium cations. the ph dependent drug release was evident with ciprofloxacin and diclofenac sodium diffusing from the fibre at ph 4.0 compared to ph 6.8, where the fibre swelled and eroded resulting in zero-order drug release. agar diffusion studie ...201324324962
[effect of different stress conditions on growth and biofilm formation capability of enterococcus faecalis].to study the changes of growth and biofilm formation capability of enterococcus faecalis (ef) in different stress conditions.201324314278
[anti-allergic effects of the probiotic preparations of enterococcus on experimental allergic rhinitis in mice].the aim of this study was to investigate the anti-allergic effects of lysozyme/heat-treated enterococcus faecalis fk-23 (lfk) and heat-treated enterococcus faecium sp. tn-3 (tn) on experimental allergic rhinitis (ar).201324313204
virulence and antimicrobial resistance in enterococci isolated from urinary tract infections.urinary tract infection (uti) is the most common nosocomial infection among hospitalized patients. meanwhile, most frequent infections involving enterococci affect the urinary tract. the aims of this study were to investigate the susceptibility pattern of isolated enterococci from uti and the prevalence of virulence genes.201324312835
antimicrobial efficacy of photodynamic therapy and sodium hypochlorite on monoculture biofilms of enterococcus faecalis at different stages of the enterococcus faecalis biofilm ages, it is likely that bacteria in mature and old biofilms will become more resistant to commonly used antibacterial irrigants. photodynamic therapy (pdt) has been used to kill resistant bacteria organized in a biofilm. this study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial effectiveness of 1% sodium hypochlorite (naocl), 2.5% naocl, and pdt on e. faecalis biofilm at different stages of development.201424308707
comparison of peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization assays with culture-based matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry for the identification of bacteria and yeasts from blood cultures and cerebrospinal fluid cultures.peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (pna fish) is a molecular diagnostic tool for the rapid detection of pathogens directly from liquid media. the aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate pna fish assays in comparison with culture-based matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof ms) identification, as a reference method, for both blood and cerebrospinal fluid (csf) cultures, during a 1-year investigation. on the basis of the ...201424304149
surgical site infections among high-risk patients in clean-contaminated head and neck reconstructive surgery: concordance with preoperative oral flora.salivary contamination of surgical wounds in clean-contaminated head and neck surgery with free flap reconstruction remains a major cause of infection and leads to significant morbidity. this study investigates the correlation between intraoral flora and surgical site infections (ssis) among high-risk head and neck cancer patients undergoing resection and free flap reconstruction.201324284742
biofilm formation on polystyrene under different temperatures by antibiotic resistant enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium isolated from food.the ability of antibiotic resistant e. faecalis and e. faecium isolated from food to form biofilm at different temperatures in the absence or presence of 0.75% glucose was evaluated. a synergistic effect on biofilm at 10 °c, 28 °c, 37 °c and 45 °c and glucose was observed for e. faecalis and e. faecium.201324294231
low metabolic activity of biofilm formed by enterococcus faecalis isolated from healthy humans and wild mallards (anas platyrhynchos).it is widely known that enterococcus faecalis virulence is related to its biofilm formation. although enterococci are common commensal organisms of the gastrointestinal tract, the difference between commensal and pathogen strains remain unclear. in this study, we compare the biochemical profile of the biofilms formed by two groups of medical and two groups of commensal strains. the medical strains were isolated as pathogens from infections of urinary tract and other infections (wounds, pus and b ...201324294189
frequency of ace, epa and elra genes in clinical and environmental strains of enterococcus faecalis.surface proteins play an important role in the pathogenesis of enterococcal infections. some of them are candidates for a vaccine, e.g., the frequency of endocarditis in rats vaccinated with ace protein was 75 % as 12 opposed to 100 % in those who weren't. however, there are other components of enterococcal cells, such as epa antigens or internalin-like proteins, which may be used in the prophylaxis of infections caused by them. however, also other virulence factors and resistance to antibiotics ...201224293719
decolourisation of acid orange 7 recalcitrant auto-oxidation coloured by-products using an acclimatised mixed bacterial culture.this study focuses on the biodegradation of recalcitrant, coloured compounds resulting from auto-oxidation of acid orange 7 (ao7) in a sequential facultative anaerobic-aerobic treatment system. a novel mixed bacterial culture, bac-zs, consisting of brevibacillus panacihumi strain zb1, lysinibacillus fusiformis strain zb2, and enterococcus faecalis strain zl bacteria were isolated from environmental samples. the acclimatisation of the mixed culture was carried out in an ao7 decolourised solution. ...201424293297
molecular characterization of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in serbia: intensive care unit as the source.the purpose of this study was to evaluate the molecular relatedness of clinical isolates of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (vre) collected from patients of the clinic for infectious and tropical diseases in belgrade. among 40 isolates available for the investigation, 36 were identified as enterococcus faecium, whereas 2 were enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus raffinosus, respectively. pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) typing revealed 21 strain types, comprising 7 clusters which conta ...201324292087
incidence of virulence factors in enterococci from raw and fermented meat and biofilm forming capacity at 25°c and 37°c.twenty-nine enterococcus strains from raw and fermented meat products were screened for the presence of virulence genes, including those for aggregation substances (asa1 and asa373), cytolysin activator (cyla), collagen binding protein (ace), endocarditis antigen (efaa), enterococcal surface protein (esp) and gelatinase (gele). virulence gene occurrence, expression of gelatinase and pheromone aggregation was greater in enterococcus faecalis than in enterococcus faecium strains. all e. faecalis a ...201424291183
characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from infant faeces as potential probiotic starter cultures for fermented sausages.a total of 109 lactic acid bacteria isolated from infant faeces were identified by partial 16s rrna, cpn60 and/or phes sequencing. lactobacillus was the most prevalent genus, representing 48% of the isolates followed by enterococcus (38%). lactobacillus gasseri (21%) and enterococcus faecalis (38%) were the main species detected. a further selection of potential probiotic starter cultures for fermented sausages focused on lactobacillus as the most technologically relevant genus in this type of p ...201424290655
dual defensin strategy for targeting enterococcus faecalis. 201324284170
nutritional control of antibiotic resistance via an interface between the phosphotransferase system and a two-component signaling system.enterococci are ubiquitous inhabitants of the gastrointestinal (gi) tract. however, antibiotic-resistant enterococci are also major causes of hospital-acquired infections. enterococci are intrinsically resistant to cephalosporins, enabling growth to abnormally high densities in the gi tract in patients during cephalosporin therapy, thereby promoting dissemination to other sites where they cause infection. despite its importance, many questions about the underlying basis for cephalosporin resista ...201424277024
investigation of a multiresistance gene cfr that fails to mediate resistance to phenicols and oxazolidinones in enterococcus investigate the basis of susceptibility to phenicols and oxazolidinones of the porcine enterococcus faecalis cppf5 despite the presence of the multiresistance gene cfr.201424272266
antimicrobial activity of essential oils and chloroform alone and combinated with cetrimide against enterococcus faecalis biofilm.the enterococcus faecalis bacteria have been identified as the most commonly recovered species from teeth with persistent endodontic infections. the antimicrobial activity of essential oils and chloroform (chl), alone and in association with various concentrations of cetrimide (ctr), against biofilm of enterococcus faecalis was investigated. solutions of chl, eucalyptus oil (eo) and orange oil (oo) associated with ctr at 0.3%, 0.2%, 0.1%, and 0.05% were used to determine antimicrobial activity b ...201324265917
a proposal for source tracking of fecal pollution in recreational waters by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.this study aimed to identify specific river sources of fecal contamination by applying pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) to environmental water samples from a recreational beach in japan. the genotypes of all enterococcus faecium and enterococcus faecalis strains used as indicators of fecal pollution on the recreational beach and rivers were analyzed by pfge, and the pfge profiles of the strains were classified at a 0.9 similarity level using dendrogram analysis. pfge types of e. faecium i ...201324256972
immunostimulatory cpg motifs in the genomes of gut bacteria and their role in human health and disease.toll-like receptor (tlr) signalling plays an important role in epithelial and immune cells of the intestine. tlr9 recognizes unmethylated cpg motifs in bacterial dna, and tlr9 signalling maintains the gut epithelial homeostasis. here, we carried out a bioinformatic analysis of the frequency of cpg motifs in the genomes of gut commensal bacteria across major bacterial phyla. the frequency of potentially immunostimulatory cpg motifs (all cpg hexamers) or purine-purine-cg-pyrimidine-pyrimidine hexa ...201424255136
comparison of bacteria isolated from emergency department patients versus hospitalized patients.the frequencies and corresponding susceptibilities of bacteria isolated from patients in the emergency department (ed) were compared with those from hospitalized patients.201324249762
friends group: clinical and microbiological characteristics of post-filtering surgery study the clinical and microbiological characteristics as well as the prognostic factors for post-filtering surgery endophthalmitis.201424248809
boosted rat natural xenoantibodies cross-react with enterococcus faecalis by targeting melibiose and l-rhamnose.natural antibodies include a subset described as xenoantibodies considered to be directed at microorganisms and also cross-react with antigens of unrelated species. in this study, we generated t-cell-independent (ti) and t-cell-dependent (td) xenoantibodies in lewis rats with hamster and pig blood injections. ti anti-hamster and anti-pig igm and igg xenoantibodies cross-reacted with enterococcus faecalis but not with escherichia coli isolated from the blood of lewis rats after cecal ligation and ...201424246417
design, synthesis and biological evaluation of α-substituted isonipecotic acid benzothiazole analogues as potent bacterial type ii topoisomerase inhibitors.the discovery and optimisation of a new class of benzothiazole small molecules that inhibit bacterial dna gyrase and topoisomerase iv are described. antibacterial properties have been demonstrated by activity against dna gyrase atpase and potent activity against staphylococcus aureus, enterococcus faecalis, streptococcus pyogenes and haemophilus influenzae. further refinements to the scaffold designed to enhance drug-likeness included analogues bearing an α-substituent to the carboxylic acid gro ...201324239017
[expression of quorum-sensing related genes during enterococcus faecalis biofilm formation].to investigate the relationship between the expression of the quorum-sensing related genes during enterococcus faecalis(ef) biofilm formation.201324238415
characterization of enterococcus faecalis phage ime-ef1 and its endolysin.enterococcus faecalis is increasingly becoming an important nosocomial infection opportunistic pathogen. e. faecalis can easily obtain drug resistance, making it difficult to be controlled in clinical settings. using bacteriophage as an alternative treatment to drug-resistant bacteria has been revitalized recently, especially for fighting drug-resistant bacteria. in this research, an e. faecalis bacteriophage named ime-ef1 was isolated from hospital sewage. whole genomic sequence analysis demons ...201324236180
bacteriocin protein bacl1 of enterococcus faecalis is a peptidoglycan d-isoglutamyl-l-lysine endopeptidase.enterococcus faecalis strains are commensal bacteria in humans and other animals, and they are also the causative agent of opportunistic infectious diseases. bacteriocin 41 (bac41) is produced by certain e. faecalis clinical isolates, and it is active against other e. faecalis strains. our genetic analyses demonstrated that the extracellular products of the bacl1 and baca genes, which are encoded in the bac41 operon, coordinately express the bacteriocin activity against e. faecalis. in this stud ...201324235140
role of intracellular stochasticity in biofilm growth. insights from population balance modeling.there is increasing recognition that stochasticity involved in gene regulatory processes may help cells enhance the signal or synchronize expression for a group of genes. thus the validity of the traditional deterministic approach to modeling the foregoing processes cannot be without exception. in this study, we identify a frequently encountered situation, i.e., the biofilm, which has in the past been persistently investigated with intracellular deterministic models in the literature. we show in ...201324232571
false-positive pneumococcal antigen test in a case of enterococcus faecalis meningitis. 201324231250
biofilm mediates enterococcus faecalis adhesion, invasion and survival into bovine mammary epithelial cells.we proposed in this study that during intramammary infection, biofilm formation may facilitate adherence and colonization of enterococcus faecalis to mammary gland epithelium. this was established by comparing six different ent. faecalis isolates with different biofilm-forming profiles for their adhesive, invasive and survival capabilities to bovine mammary epithelial cell line (mac-t). our results showed increased ability of the biofilm-producer ent. faecalis strains to adhere, invade and survi ...201424224825
rapid kill-novel endodontic sealer and enterococcus faecalis.with growing concern over bacterial resistance, the identification of new antimicrobial means is paramount. in the oral cavity microorganisms are essential to the development of periradicular diseases and are the major causative factors associated with endodontic treatment failure. as quaternary ammonium compounds have the ability to kill a wide array of bacteria through electrostatic interactions with multiple anionic targets on the bacterial surface, it is likely that they can overcome bacteri ...201324223159
reply to "breakthrough bacteremia by linezolid-susceptible enterococcus faecalis under linezolid treatment in a severe polytrauma patient". 201324222609
breakthrough bacteremia by linezolid-susceptible enterococcus faecalis under linezolid treatment in a severe polytrauma patient. 201324222608
lipoteichoic acid of streptococcus mutans interacts with toll-like receptor 2 through the lipid moiety for induction of inflammatory mediators in murine macrophages.streptococcus mutans is a pathogenic gram-positive bacterium that is closely associated with dental caries and subsequent pulpal inflammation. although lipoteichoic acid (lta) is considered a major virulence factor of gram-positive bacteria, little is known about the innate immunity to s. mutans lta. in this study, we purified lta from s. mutans (sm.lta) through n-butanol extraction, hydrophobic interaction column chromatography, and ion-exchange column chromatography to investigate its immunolo ...201424216318
[necrotizing pneumonia due to enterococcus faecalis in an immunocompromised patient of 67 years]. 201324211001
differences in visceral fat and fat bacterial colonization between ulcerative colitis and crohn's disease. an in vivo and in vitro study.crohn's disease (cd) is notably characterized by the expansion of visceral fat with small adipocytes expressing a high proportion of anti-inflammatory genes. conversely, visceral fat depots in ulcerative colitis (uc) patients have never been characterized. our study aims were a) to compare adipocyte morphology and gene expression profile and bacterial translocation in omental (om) and mesenteric (mes) adipose tissue of patients with uc and cd, and b) to investigate the effect of bacterial infect ...201324205244
photoactivated rose bengal functionalized chitosan nanoparticles produce antibacterial/biofilm activity and stabilize dentin-collagen.treatment of infected teeth presents two major challenges: persistence of the bacterial-biofilm within root canals after treatment and compromised structural integrity of the dentin hard-tissue. in this study bioactive polymeric chitosan nanoparticles functionalized with rose-bengal, csrbnp were developed to produce antibiofilm effects as well as stabilize structural-integrity by photocrosslinking dentin-collagen. csrbnp were less toxic to fibroblasts and had significant antibacterial activity e ...201424200522
epidemic escherichia coli st131 and enterococcus faecium st17 in coastal marine sediments from an italian beach.fecal indicator bacteria (fib) are used worldwide to assess water quality in coastal environments, but little is known about their genetic diversity and pathogenicity. this study examines the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, virulence, and genetic diversity of fib isolated from marine sediments from a central adriatic seaside resort. fib, recovered from 6 out of 7 sites, were significantly more abundant at sampling stations 300 m offshore than close to the shore. escherichia coli accounted ...201324195439
prevalence of the aminoglycoside phosphotransferase genes aph(3')-iiia and aph(3')-iia in escherichia coli, enterococcus faecalis, enterococcus faecium, pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella enterica subsp. enterica and staphylococcus aureus isolates in austria.the aminoglycoside phosphotransferase aph(3')-iia primarily inactivates kanamycin and neomycin, whilst aph(3')-iiia also inactivates amikacin. the aim of this study was to determine the frequency of both resistance genes in major human pathogens to obtain their baseline prevalence in the gene pool of these bacterial populations in austria. in total, 10 541 escherichia coli, enterococcus faecalis, enterococcus faecium, pseudomonas aeruginosa, salmonella enterica subsp. enterica and staphylococcus ...201424194558
measuring the effects of bacteria on c. elegans behavior using an egg retention assay.c. elegans egg-laying behavior is affected by environmental cues such as osmolarity and vibration. in the total absence of food c. elegans also cease egg-laying and retain fertilized eggs in their uterus. however, the effect of different sources of food, especially pathogenic bacteria and particularly enterococcus faecalis, on egg-laying behavior is not well characterized. the egg-in-worm (eiw) assay is a useful tool to quantify the effects of different types of bacteria, in this case e. faecali ...201324192811
bactericidal efficacy of photodynamic therapy against enterococcus faecalis in infected root canals: a systematic literature review.the aim was to review the bactericidal efficacy of photodynamic therapy (pdt) against enterococcus faecalis (e. faecalis) in infected root canals.201324192536
microbiological findings of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal compare vaginal culture results between prepubertal girls with and without vulvovaginitis, and obtain an overview of the most commonly encountered microbes.201424191064
focal targeting by human β-defensin 2 disrupts localized virulence factor assembly sites in enterococcus faecalis.virulence factor secretion and assembly occurs at spatially restricted foci in some gram-positive bacteria. given the essentiality of the general secretion pathway in bacteria and the contribution of virulence factors to disease progression, the foci that coordinate these processes are attractive antimicrobial targets. in this study, we show in enterococcus faecalis that seca and sortase a, required for the attachment of virulence factors to the cell wall, localize to discrete domains near the s ...201324191013
sunlight mediated inactivation mechanisms of enterococcus faecalis and escherichia coli in clear water versus waste stabilization pond water.escherichia coli and enterococci have been previously reported to differ in the mechanisms and conditions that affect their sunlight-mediated inactivation in waste stabilization ponds. this study was undertaken to further characterize these mechanisms, using simulated sunlight and single strains of laboratory-grown e. coli and enterococcus faecalis, with a focus on characterizing the contribution of exogenous reactive oxygen species to the inactivation process. we found that direct damage by uvb ...201424188579
ammonia sanitisation of sewage sludge using urea.the aim of the study was to develop a simple, low-cost treatment for sewage sludge using urea as a sanitising agent. sewage sludge was spiked with enterococcus faecalis and salmonella typhimurium, treated with 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2% w/w urea at laboratory scale, and the viability was monitored during 4 months of storage at 4, 10 and 22 °c (only 0.5%). a linear relationship was identified between salmonella spp. inactivation rate and ammonia (nh3) concentration. temperature had a positive impact on s ...201324185072
in vitro evaluation of the minimum bactericidal concentrations of different root-end filling materials.the aim of this study was to evaluate the minimum bactericidal concentrations (mbc) of root-end filling materials proroot mta, mta angelus and irm.201324171975
calcium enriched mixture and mineral trioxide aggregate activities against enterococcus faecalis in presence of dentin.the purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the antibacterial activity of calcium enriched mixture (cem) with proroot mineral trioxide aggregate (mta) against enterococcus faecalis (e. faecalis) in the presence/absence of dentin powder.201324171028
vancomycin-resistant enterococci among haemodialysis patients in portugal: prevalence and molecular characterization of resistance, virulence and clonality.vancomycin-resistant enterococci (vre) among haemodialysis patients has increased rapidly and, to date, there is no report of this incidence in portugal.201424169320
a new antibacterial amino phenyl pyrrolidone derivative from a novel marine gliding bacterium rapidithrix thailandica.a recently described marine gliding bacterium rapidithrix thailandica strain tistr 1741 was isolated from biofilm specimen collected from the andaman sea in thailand. four liters fermentation broth of r. thailandica tistr 1741 cultivated in vy/2 medium were extracted with methanol to yield a novel amino phenyl pyrrolidone derivative compound (1) with antibacterial activities. the chemical structure and physico-chemical properties of 1 were investigated by spectrometry techniques. compound 1 exhi ...201424162950
does cmv infection impact the virulence of enterococcus faecalis? 201324162854
prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of canine urinary tract pathogens.this study aims to describe the incidence and risk factors for positive urinary tract culture, the prevalence of urinary tract pathogens in single organism and mixed cultures and changes in their antimicrobial resistance over 10 years. a retrospective review of computer records detailing canine urine samples submitted between august 1999 and september 2009 for culture and sensitivity in a uk tertiary referral hospital is described. 17.5 per cent of 5923 samples (670 of 4530 dogs) were positive c ...201324158327
expression of the agmatine deiminase pathway in enterococcus faecalis is activated by the agur regulator and repressed by ccpa and pts(man) systems.although the agmatine deiminase system (agdi) has been investigated in enterococcus faecalis, little information is available with respect to its gene regulation. in this study we demonstrate that the presence of exogenous agmatine induces the expression of agu genes in this bacterium. in contrast to the homologous and extensively characterized agdi system of s. mutants, the agubdac operon in e. faecalis is not induced in response to low ph. in spite of this, agmatine catabolism in this bacteriu ...201324155893
evaluation of the antibacterial efficacy of omeprazole with sodium hypochlorite as an endodontic irrigating solution- an invivo study.proton pump inhibitors are used in endodontic disinfection of root canals for elimination of enterococcus faecalis. this invivo study on wistner rats is carried out to determine antimicrobial efficacy of proton pump inhibitor in combination with sodium hypochlorite & mixture of isomer of tetracycline, acid and detergent (mtad) against e. faecalis materials & methods: periapical lesions were induced on the 30 incisor teeth of 30 male wistner rats (10per group). after 28 days, root canals of each ...201324155586
adhesion and virulence factor properties of enterococci isolated from clinical samples in iran.enterococci rank among leading causes of nosocomial bacteremia, urinary tract infections and community acquired endocarditis. the aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of virulence factors in enterococci strains isolated from clinical samples in iranian educational hospitals.201324152500
colon macrophages polarized by commensal bacteria cause colitis and cancer through the bystander effect.intestinal commensal bacteria have recently been shown to trigger macrophages to produce diffusible clastogens (or chromosome-breaking factors) through a bystander effect (bse) that mediates dna damage and induces chromosomal instability in neighboring cells. colon macrophages appear central to colon carcinogenesis and bse through the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (tnf-α) and cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2). the former induces netrin-1, a regulator of intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, and t ...201324151540
photocatalytic antibacterial effects are maintained on resin-based tio2 nanocomposites after cessation of uv irradiation.photocatalysis induced by tio2 and uv light constitutes a decontamination and antibacterial strategy utilized in many applications including self-cleaning environmental surfaces, water and air treatment. the present work reveals that antibacterial effects induced by photocatalysis can be maintained even after the cessation of uv irradiation. we show that resin-based composites containing 20% tio2 nanoparticles continue to provide a pronounced antibacterial effect against the pathogens escherichi ...201324146793
the daf-16/foxo transcription factor functions as a regulator of epidermal innate immunity.the caenorhabditis elegans daf-16 transcription factor is critical for diverse biological processes, particularly longevity and stress resistance. disruption of the daf-2 signaling cascade promotes daf-16 activation, and confers resistance to killing by pathogenic bacteria, such as pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus aureus, and enterococcus faecalis. however, daf-16 mutants exhibit similar sensitivity to these bacteria as wild-type animals, suggesting that daf-16 is not normally activated by ...201324146615
activities of fosfomycin and rifampin on planktonic and adherent enterococcus faecalis strains in an experimental foreign-body infection model.enterococcal implant-associated infections are difficult to treat because antibiotics generally lack activity against enterococcal biofilms. we investigated fosfomycin, rifampin, and their combinations against planktonic and adherent enterococcus faecalis (atcc 19433) in vitro and in a foreign-body infection model. the mic/mbclog values were 32/>512 μg/ml for fosfomycin, 4/>64 μg/ml for rifampin, 1/2 μg/ml for ampicillin, 2/>256 μg/ml for linezolid, 16/32 μg/ml for gentamicin, 1/>64 μg/ml for va ...201424145537
nonclinical and clinical enterococcus faecium strains, but not enterococcus faecalis strains, have distinct structural and functional genomic features.certain strains of enterococcus faecium and enterococcus faecalis contribute beneficially to animal health and food production, while others are associated with nosocomial infections. to determine whether there are structural and functional genomic features that are distinct between nonclinical (nc) and clinical (cl) strains of those species, we analyzed the genomes of 31 e. faecium and 38 e. faecalis strains. hierarchical clustering of 7,017 orthologs found in the e. faecium pangenome revealed ...201424141120
effect of modified nonequilibrium plasma with chlorhexidine digluconate against endodontic biofilms in vitro.nonequilibrium plasma has been reported to effectively kill enterococcus faecalis in endodontic biofilm compared with chlorhexidine digluconate (chx). the purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial in vitro activity of modified nonequilibrium plasma with chx against e. faecalis and multispecies biofilms on bovine dentin discs.201324139270
antimicrobial substantivity of alexidine and chlorhexidine in dentin.the use of irrigating solutions with long-lived activity helps to avoid failure of endodontic therapy. the aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial substantivity against enterococcus faecalis by using as carrier a dentin-volumetric unit exposed to chlorhexidine (chx) and alexidine (alx).201324139264
effect of smear layer against disinfection protocols on enterococcus faecalis-infected dentin.this study examined the effect of the smear layer on the antibacterial effect of different disinfecting solutions in infected dentinal tubules.201324139261
effectiveness of antibiotic medicaments against biofilm formation of enterococcus faecalis and porphyromonas this study we compared the antibacterial effect of triple antibiotic paste (tap), double antibiotic paste (dap), and calcium hydroxide [ca(oh)2] against enterococcus faecalis and porphyromonas gingivalis biofilm.201324139259
in vivo quantitative evaluation of live and dead bacteria in root canal infection by using propidium monoazide with real-time pcr.for selective detection of viable bacteria with molecular methods, propidium monoazide (pma) treatment has been successfully applied to a wide range of bacteria. the purpose of this study was to compare the quantity of live cells with the total amounts of both live and dead cells before and after chemomechanical preparation by using pma in combination with real-time polymerase chain reaction (qpcr).201324139254
antibacterial, physicochemical and mechanical properties of endodontic sealers containing quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine evaluate the antibacterial, physicochemical and mechanical properties of two endodontic sealers incorporating quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine (qpei) nanoparticles at concentrations of 1% and 2% (w/w).201424134748
survival, distribution, and translocation of enterococcus faecalis and implications for pregnant mice.pregnant mothers are susceptible to bacterial infections, which may compromise the health of mothers and offspring. enterococcus faecalis is a ubiquitous species found in food, restaurants, and hospitals where pregnant woman frequently become exposed to this bacterium. however, the survival, distribution, translocation, and corresponding influence of e. faecalis have not been investigated during the pregnancy period, when the mother and fetus are susceptible to bacterial infection. in this study ...201324131236
isolation and biological activities of an endophytic mortierella alpina strain from the antarctic moss schistidium antarctici.the antarctic endophytic fungus (strain ita1-ccma 952) was isolated from the moss schistidium antarctici found in admiralty bay, king george island, antarctica. strain ita1-ccma 952 was assigned to the specie mortierella alpina by phylogenetic analysis based on 18s rrna gene sequences. this strain produces high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (pufas), including y-(gamma) linolenic acid and arachidonic acid, which when combined represents 48.3% of the total fatty acid content. fungal extrac ...201424126742
combined dielectrophoresis-raman setup for the classification of pathogens recovered from the urinary tract.rapid and effective methods of pathogen identifications are of major interest in clinical microbiological analysis to administer timely tailored antibiotic therapy. raman spectroscopy as a label-free, culture-independent optical method is suitable to identify even single bacteria. however, the low bacteria concentration in body fluids makes it difficult to detect their characteristic molecular fingerprint directly in suspension. therefore, in this study, raman spectroscopy is combined with diele ...201324125497
a zn-dependent metallopeptidase is responsible for sensitivity to lsbb, a class ii leaderless bacteriocin of lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bgmn1-5.lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis bgmn1-5 produces a leaderless class ii bacteriocin called lsbb. to identify the receptor for lsbb, a cosmid library of the lsbb-sensitive strain bgmn1-596 was constructed. about 150 cosmid clones were individually isolated and transferred to lsbb-resistant mutants of bgmn1-596. cosmid pazilcos/mn2, carrying a 40-kb insert, was found to restore lsbb sensitivity in lsbb-resistant mutants. further subcloning revealed that a 1.9-kb fragment, containing only one open ...201324123824
pestalotiopens a and b: stereochemically challenging flexible sesquiterpene-cyclopaldic acid hybrids from pestalotiopsis sp.from the endophytic fungus pestalotiopsis sp. isolated from the leaves of the chinese mangrove, rhizophora mucronata, two novel hybrid sesquiterpene-cyclopaldic acid metabolites with an unusual carbon skeleton, named pestalotiopens a and b, were obtained, together with the already known phytotoxin altiloxin b. pestalotiopen b even contains a third, triketide-derived module. the constitutions and the absolute configurations of the new metabolites and of altiloxin b were unambiguously determined b ...201324123472
polymerase chain reaction for enterococcus faecalis in drain fluid: the first screening test for symptomatic colorectal anastomotic leakage. the appeal-study: analysis of parameters predictive for evident anastomotic leakage.with current diagnostic methods, the majority of patients with symptomatic colorectal anastomotic leakage(cal) is identified approximately 1 week after operation.the aim of this study is to determine whether real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) for detection of escherichia coli and enterococcus faecalis on drain fluid can serve as a screening test for cal in the early postoperative phase.201424122105
antimicrobial activity of short- and medium-term applications of polyhexamethylene biguanide, chlorhexidine digluconate and calcium hydroxide in infected immature bovine teeth in compare the antimicrobial activity of polyhexamethylene biguanide (prontosan wound gel, pr) and chlorhexidine digluconate (chx) after short- and medium-term application with the disinfection ability of calcium hydroxide (ca) in a model using immature bovine teeth.201424118966
hydrolysates of glycated and heat-treated peanut 7s globulin (ara h 1) modulate human gut microbial proliferation, survival and adhesion.evaluation of an effect of glycation of ara h 1 on proliferation and survival rate and adhesion of intestinal enterococcus faecalis, escherichia coli and lactobacillus acidophilus.201424118877
survival of enterococcus faecalis during alkaline stress: changes in morphology, ultrastructure, physiochemical properties of the cell wall and specific gene transcripts.the aim of this investigation was to study the biochemical mechanisms employed by the endodontic pathogen enterococcus faecalis to survive alkaline environment during biofilm formation.201324112733
biocide and copper tolerance in enterococci from different sources.antimicrobial resistance in enterococci is a matter of concern. a collection of 272 strains (including 107 enterococcus faecalis and 165 enterococcus faecium strains) isolated from meat and dairy products, seafood, vegetable foods, wildflowers, animal feces (ewe, goat, horse, mule), and hospitals were tested for sensitivity to biocides of different classes (quaternary ammonium compounds, a bisphenol, and a biguanide) and copper sulfate. most isolates were inhibited at 25 mg of benzalkonium chlor ...201324112585
apical extrusion of bacteria when using reciprocating single-file and rotary multifile instrumentation evaluate ex vivo, apical bacterial extrusion associated with two reciprocating single-file systems (waveone and reciproc) compared with a conventional multifile rotary system (biorace).201424111671
isolation and partial characterization of bacteria (pseudoalteromonas sp.) with potential antibacterial activity from a marine costal environment from new caledonia.marine bacteria are a rich source of bioactive metabolites. however, the microbial diversity of marine ecosystem still needs to be explored. the aim of this study was to isolate and characterize bacteria with antimicrobial activities from various marine coastal environment of new caledonia. we obtained 493 marine isolates from various environments and samples of which 63 (12.8%) presented an antibacterial activity against a panel of reference pathogenic strains (staphylococcus aureus, pseudomona ...201424106876
vancomycin-resistant enterococci.vancomycin-resistant enterococci (vre) consist mainly of enterococcus faecalis and e faecium, the latter mostly hospital-acquired. in addition, e gallinarum and e casseliflavus are intrinsically vancomycin-resistant and are community-acquired. vre have become common in many hospitals throughout the world and, once established, are very difficult to eradicate. vre are difficult to treat; therefore, infection control measures in hospitals are of prime importance in preventing the establishment of ...201324094380
a current perspective on daptomycin for the clinical microbiologist.daptomycin is a lipopeptide antimicrobial with in vitro bactericidal activity against gram-positive bacteria that was first approved for clinical use in 2004 in the united states. since this time, significant data have emerged regarding the use of daptomycin for the treatment of serious infections, such as bacteremia and endocarditis, caused by gram-positive pathogens. however, there are also increasing reports of daptomycin nonsusceptibility, in staphylococcus aureus and, in particular, enteroc ...201324092854
solidago, orthosiphon, birch and cranberry extracts can decrease microbial colonization and biofilm development in indwelling urinary catheter: a microbiologic and ultrastructural pilot study.plants extracts are used in urology to manage urinary tract infections. we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a preparation with solidago, orthosiphon, birch and cranberry extracts (cistimev plus(®)) in reducing microbial colonization and biofilm development in patients with indwelling urinary catheters.201424092275
in vitro efficacy of various topical antimicrobial agents in different time periods from contamination to application against 6 multidrug-resistant bacterial strains isolated from burn vitro efficacy evaluation of eleven topical antimicrobials against multidrug-resistant (mdr) bacteria isolated from burn wounds of our patients.201424091332
enhanced expression of fucosyl ga1 in the digestive tract of immune-deficient scid, nude and pigr(-/-) mice.fucosylation of ga1 in murine intestinal epithelia occurs through transcriptional induction of α1,2-fucosyltransferase along with bacterial infection, but the mechanism has not been clearly characterized as to whether it is induced as a result of an immune response to bacteria or of genetic manipulation of the host by bacteria. accordingly, we analysed the expression of fucosyl ga1 (fga1) and fucosyltransferase activity in the digestive tracts of immune-deficient scid, nude and pigr(-/-) mice. i ...201324089533
the two functional enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductases of enterococcus faecalis do not mediate triclosan resistance.enoyl-acyl carrier protein (enoyl-acp) reductase catalyzes the last step of the elongation cycle in the synthesis of bacterial fatty acids. the enterococcus faecalis genome contains two genes annotated as enoyl-acp reductases, a fabi-type enoyl-acp reductase and a fabk-type enoyl-acp reductase. we report that expression of either of the two proteins restores growth of an escherichia coli fabi temperature-sensitive mutant strain under nonpermissive conditions. in vitro assays demonstrated that bo ...201324085780
antibacterial efficacy of mangifera indica l. kernel and ocimum sanctum l. leaves against enterococcus faecalis dentinal biofilm.the enterococcus faecalis biofilm in the root canal makes it difficult to be eradicated by the conventional irrigants with no toxicity to the tissues. hence, plant products with least side effects are explored for their use as irrigants in the root canal therapy.201324082577
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