colonization of enterococcus faecalis in a new sio/sio(2)-microtube in vitro model system as a function of tubule diameter.endodontic pathogens can penetrate deep into dentinal tubules and therefore survive the chemo-mechanical disinfection procedures. bacterial penetration has been mainly studies using sliced infected human teeth which, besides creating artifacts, can hinder the observation of the inner tubules due to the dense and opaque dentin structure. the aim of the present study was to develop a standardized dentin model by using artificial sio/sio2-microtubes of different diameters and lengths to test the pe ...201424703548
cytotoxicity, interaction with dentine and efficacy on multispecies biofilms of a modified salt solution intended for endodontic disinfection in a new in vitro biofilm investigate the cytotoxicity of a modified salt solution (mss) and evaluate the antimicrobial properties of mss on in vitro biofilm models.201524702260
hospital acquired infections among patients admitted in the medical and surgical wards of a non-teaching secondary care hospital in northern investigate the incidence of nosocomial infection (ni) and type of bacteriological isolates among the patients admitted in the medical and surgical wards of a non-teaching secondary care hospital in north india.201424701489
transcriptome analysis of enterococcus faecalis toward its adaption to surviving in the mouse intestinal tract.we have performed a transcriptomic in vivo study with enterococcus faecalis og1rf in the intestine of living mice to identify novel latent and adaptive fitness determinants within e. faecalis. from 2,658 genes that are present in e. faecalis strain og1rf, 124 genes were identified as significantly differentially expressed within the intestinal tract of living mice as compared to exponential growth in bhi broth. the groups of significantly up- or down-regulated genes consisted of 94 and 30 genes, ...201424700373
antimicrobial prenylated benzoylphloroglucinol derivatives and xanthones from the leaves of garcinia goudotiana.bioassay-guided fractionation using antimicrobial assay of the crude acetonic extract of garcinia goudotiana leaves and of its five partitions led to the isolation of two new prenylated benzoylphloroglucinol derivatives, goudotianone 1 (1) and goudotianone 2 (2), in addition to two known compounds including one xanthone, 1,3,7-trihydroxy-2-isoprenylxanthone (3), and one triterpenoid, friedelin (4). their structures were elucidated on the basis of different spectroscopic methods, including extens ...201424690454
the ability of triple antibiotic paste and calcium hydroxide in disinfection of dentinal tubules.the purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the ability of triple antibiotic paste (tap) to calcium hydroxide (ch) in disinfecting dentinal tubules.201424688581
antimicrobial effect of lippia sidoides and thymol on enterococcus faecalis biofilm of the bacterium isolated from root canals.the species lippia sidoides cham. (verbenaceae) is utilized in popular medicine as a local antiseptic on the skin and mucosal tissues. enterococcus faecalis is the bacterium isolated from root canals of teeth with persistent periapical lesions and has the ability to form biofilm, where it is responsible for the failure of endodontic treatments. essential oil of l. sidoides (eols) and its major component, thymol, were evaluated for reducing the cfu in biofilms of e. faecalis in vitro. the essenti ...201424683344
heterologous expression and characterization of tyrosine decarboxylase from enterococcus faecalis r612z1 and enterococcus faecium r615z1.tyrosine decarboxylase (tdc) is responsible for tyramine production and can catalyze phenylalanine to produce β-phenylethylamine. enterococcus strains are a group of bacteria predominantly producing tyramine and β-phenylethylamine in water-boiled salted duck. in this study, the heterologous expression and characterization of two tdcs from enterococcus faecalis r612z1 (612tdc) and enterococcus faecium r615z1 (615tdc) were studied. the recombinant putative proteins of 612tdc and 615tdc were hetero ...201424680070
influence of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of fruit juices enriched with pine bark extract on intestinal microflora.the selective antimicrobial effect of fruit juices enriched with pine bark extract (pbe) (0.5 g/l) has been studied before and after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. pbe (a concentrate of water-soluble bioflavonoids, mainly including phenolic compounds) has been proven to have high stability to the digestion process. pure phenolic compounds such as gallic acid had a high antimicrobial effect on staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli, maintaining the lactic acid bacteria population (≈100% ...201424679746
identification of temporal clusters and risk factors of bacteremia by nosocomial vancomycin-resistant enterococci.this study aimed to evaluate a different methodology for addressing the evolution of nosocomial bacteremia by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (vre) in a hospital setting.201424679566
antimicrobial resistance and in vitro biofilm-forming ability of enterococci spp. isolated from urinary tract infection in a tertiary care hospital in dhaka.the biofilm mode of life conveys a survival advantage to the microorganism associated with it. biofilm on an indwelling urinary catheter consists of adherent microorganisms, their extra cellular products, and host components deposited on the catheter and thus biofilm on urinary catheters results in persistent infections that are resistant to antimicrobial therapy. this study was done during the period of january 2010 to december 2010. fifty nine enterococci isolated from 1203 urine samples were ...201426118165
in vitro comparison of the effects of probiotic, commensal and pathogenic strains on macrophage polarization.macrophages are important with respect to both innate and adaptive immune responses and are known to differentiate into pro-inflammatory m1- or anti-inflammatory m2-phenotypes following activation. in order to study how different bacteria affect macrophage polarization, we exposed murine raw 264.7 macrophages to sixteen different strains representing probiotic strains, pathogens, commensals and strains of food origin. increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (inos) or arginase-1 gene expression ...201424676762
draft genome sequence of a new homofermentative, lactic acid-producing enterococcus faecalis isolate, cbrd01.we report here the draft genome sequence of the novel homofermentative enterococcus faecalis isolate cbrd01, which is capable of high lactic acid productivity and yields, with minimal nutritional requirements. the genome is 2.8 mbp, with 37% g+c, and contains genes for two lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) enzymes found in related organisms.201424675849
application of nanometal oxides in situ in nonwoven polyester fabric for the removal of bacterial indicators of pollution from wastewater.the objective of this study is to investigate and assess the use of in situ deposit nanosilver (nag2o) or nanocopper oxides (ncuo) into nonwoven polyester fabric (nwpf) as a safe and effective antibacterial filter of pollution from domestic wastewater. the bactericidal effect of both nag2o and ncuo was examined against gram-negative bacteria (escherichia coli, salmonella typhi) and gram-positive bacteria (enterococcus faecalis, staphylococcus aureus) using agar diffusion disk method. in addition ...201424672400
antibacterial efficacy of photosensitizer functionalized biopolymeric nanoparticles in the presence of tissue inhibitors in root canal.application of antibacterial nanoparticles to improve root canal disinfection has received strong interest recently. the current study aims to assess the antibacterial effect of a novel photosensitizer (rose bengal functionalized chitosan nanoparticles [csrbnp]) to eliminate bacteria in the presence of various root canal constituents that are known to inhibit the antibacterial efficacy of root canal disinfectants.201424666913
effect of long-term exposure to endodontic disinfecting solutions on young and old enterococcus faecalis biofilms in dentin canals.the purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity on enterococcus faecalis biofilms in dentin canals of short-term and long-term exposure to different endodontic disinfecting solutions by using a dentin infection model and confocal laser scanning microscopy.201424666901
dentin extends the antibacterial effect of endodontic sealers against enterococcus faecalis biofilms.the purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of root canal sealers on enterococcus faecalis biofilms in dentinal tubules by using a novel dentin infection model.201424666900
quorum sensing in gram-positive bacteria: assay protocols for staphylococcal agr and enterococcal fsr systems.a thiolactone/lactone peptide-mediated quorum sensing (qs) system is commonly employed in gram-positive bacteria to control the expression of a variety of phenotypes, including the production of virulence factors and biofilm formation. here, we describe assay protocols for the well-studied qs systems (agr and fsr) of two representative gram-positive pathogens, staphylococcus aureus and enterococcus faecalis. these convenient assay systems are useful for the screening of qs inhibitors as well as ...201424664824
toxicity of magnetic chitosan micro and nanoparticles as carriers for biologically active substances.nanoparticles of inorganic magnetic core surrounded by layers of functional coatings are potential representatives of nanostructures for immobilization of bio-substances. magnetic nanoparticles (mnps) are often bound in aggregates due to a strong magnetic dipole, which has a lot of advantages, such as large surface area for binding biologically active substances. chitosan is a polysaccharide polymer that is non-toxic, hydrophilic, biocompatible and has hydroxy and amino groups in its structure. ...201424664338
antibacterial properties of water-soluble gold(i) n-heterocyclic carbene complexes.the antibacterial properties of water-soluble gold(i) complexes [1-methyl-3-(3-sulfonatopropyl)imidazol-2-ylidene]gold(i) chloride (c1), [1-mesityl-3-(3-sulfonatopropyl)imidazol-2-ylidene]gold(i) chloride (c2), [1-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-3-(3-sulfonatopropyl)imidazol-2-ylidene]gold(i) chloride (c3) and [1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropyl-4-sodiumsulfonatophenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene]gold(i) chloride (c4) and the respective ligands were assessed by agar diffusion and broth macrodilution methods against gram-po ...201424662463
global metabolic response of enterococcus faecalis to oxygen.oxygen and oxidative stress have become relevant components in clarifying the mechanism that weakens bacterial cells in parallel to the mode of action of bactericidal antibiotics. given the importance of oxidative stress in the overall defense mechanism of bacteria and their apparent role in the antimicrobial mode of action, it is important to understand how bacteria respond to this stress at a metabolic level. the aim of this study was to determine the impact of oxygen on the metabolism of the ...201424659768
in vitro activity of photoactivated disinfection using a diode laser in infected root investigate the lethal activity of photoactivated disinfection (pad) on enterococcus faecalis (atcc 29212) and mixed populations of aerobic or anaerobic bacteria in infected root canals using a diode laser after the application of a photosensitizer (ps).201424655313
is the mazef toxin-antitoxin system responsible for vancomycin resistance in clinical isolates of enterococcus faecalis?the current study was conducted to investigate the relationship between vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis (vre) and the presence of mazef toxin-antitoxin (ta) system, which may be useful as target for novel antimicrobial therapy concepts. the susceptibility of e. faecalis was determined by mic, and the presence of the mazef ta system was evaluated by pcr. among 200 e. faecalis isolates 39.5% showed resistance to vancomycin (vre), while 60.5% were susceptible strains (vse). the mazef ta ...201424653969
bacterial isolates associated with pelvic inflammatory disease among female patients attending some hospitals in abuja, nigeria.pelvic inflammatory disease refers to any infection in the female lower reproductive tract that spreads to the upper reproductive tract. the disease comprises a spectrum of inflammatory disorders of the upper female genital tract, including any combination of endometritis, salpingitis, tubo-ovarian abscess and pelvic peritonitis. pid is not a notifiable disease in most countries, so accurate statistics are not available. this situation is not in any way different here in nigeria and more so in t ...201424653811
[in vitro activity of sitafloxacin against clinical isolates in 2012].in vitro activity of sitafloxacin (stfx) and various oral antimicrobial agents against bacterial isolates recovered from clinical specimens between january and december 2012, at different healthcare facilities in japan was evaluated. a total of 1,620 isolates including aerobic and anaerobic organisms were available for the susceptibility testing using the microbroth dilution methods recommended by clinical and laboratory standards institute. the minimum inhibitory concentration of stfx at which ...201324649797
systematic evaluation of commercial susceptibility testing methods for determining the in vitro activity of daptomycin versus staphylococcus aureus and enterococci.we systematically evaluated 5 methods for testing daptomycin versus 48 enterococcus faecalis, 51 enterococcus faecium, and 50 staphylococcus aureus isolates using (i and ii) broth microdilution (bmd) with 50-mg/liter calcium medium supplementation (reference method) and 30-mg/liter calcium medium supplementation (bmd30 method), (iii) etest, and (iv and v) microscan panel 33 using 2 methods to prepare the bacterial inoculum (microscan turbidity and microscan prompt). isolates were categorized as ...201424648560
daptomycin activity tested against 164457 bacterial isolates from hospitalised patients: summary of 8 years of a worldwide surveillance programme (2005-2012).we report the results of 8 years (2005-2012) of the daptomycin surveillance programme worldwide. consecutive non-duplicate bacterial isolates (prevalence design) were collected from patients with documented infections in 410 medical centres and were susceptibility tested by reference broth microdilution methods. a total of 164457 gram-positive isolates were evaluated, including 97542 staphylococcus aureus, 21413 coagulase-negative staphylococci (cons), 29619 enterococci and 15883 β-haemolytic st ...201424636430
green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using alternanthera dentata leaf extract at room temperature and their antimicrobial activity.a green rapid biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles agnps using alternanthera dentata (a. dentata) aqueous extract was demonstrated in this present study. the formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance (spr) at 430nm using uv-visible spectrophotometer. the reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles by a. dentata extract was completed within 10min. synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using uv-visible spectroscopy; fourier transformed infrared ...201424632169
drug-resistant and hospital-associated enterococcus faecium from wastewater, riverine estuary and anthropogenically impacted marine catchment basin.enterococci, ubiquitous colonizers of humans and other animals, play an increasingly important role in health-care associated infections (hais). it is believed that the recent evolution of two clinically relevant species, enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium occurred in a big part in a hospital environment, leading to formation of high-risk enterococcal clonal complexes (hireccs), which combine multidrug resistance with increased pathogenicity and epidemicity. the aim of this study was ...201424629030
antibacterial effect of iranian green-tea-containing mouthrinse vs chlorhexidine 0.2%: an in vitro study.considering the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties of green tea, this study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial effect of mouthrinses containing green tea extract vs 0.2% chlorhexidine on selected microorganisms in vitro.201424624389
inactivation of airborne enterococcus faecalis and infectious bursal disease virus using a pilot-scale ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation scrubber.high microbial concentrations and emissions associated with livestock houses raise health and environmental concerns. a pilot-scale ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (uv-pco) scrubber was tested for its efficacy to inactivate aerosolized enterococcus faecalis and infectious bursal disease virus (ibdv). microbial reduction was determined by the difference in microbial concentrations measured in the upstream and downstream isolators that were connected to the two ends of the uv-pco scrubber. tw ...201424620401
spread of multidrug-resistant enterococcus faecalis within the household setting.advances in veterinary medicine have resulted in the survival of many animals with severe illness or infectious diseases. in addition, increased usage of antimicrobial agents for veterinary purposes has contributed to the worldwide problem of increasing antimicrobial resistance. the objective of this study was to contribute to better understand the potential and implications for the spread of antimicrobial-resistant enterococci between pets receiving antimicrobial treatments and their owners. th ...201424617521
linezolid resistance in vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium isolates in a brazilian hospital. 201424614366
effects of intracanal irrigant mtad combined with nisin at sub-minimum inhibitory concentration levels on enterococcus faecalis growth and the expression of pathogenic genes.exposure to antibiotics is considered to be the major driver in the selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and may induce diverse biological responses in bacteria. mtad is a common intracanal irrigant, but its bactericidal activity remains to be improved. previous studies have indicated that the antimicrobial peptide nisin can significantly improve the bactericidal activity of mtad against enterococcus faecalis. however, the effects of mtad and its modification at sub-minimum inhibitory conc ...201424603760
antibacterial properties and mode of action of new triaryl butene citrate compounds.the aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of newly synthesized triaryl butene analogues of tamoxifen. several compounds were synthesized and converted to citrate salts to ensure greater solubility. four compounds showed significant antibacterial activity at micromolar concentrations against gram-positive and gram-negative foodborne pathogens including listeria monocytogenes, listeria ivanovii, enterococcus faecalis, staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli. two compounds ...201424602786
performance of the eucast disk diffusion method, the clsi agar screen method, and the vitek 2 automated antimicrobial susceptibility testing system for detection of clinical isolates of enterococci with low- and medium-level vanb-type vancomycin resistance: a multicenter study.different antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods to detect low-level vancomycin resistance in enterococci were evaluated in a scandinavian multicenter study (n=28). a phenotypically and genotypically well-characterized diverse collection of enterococcus faecalis (n=12) and enterococcus faecium (n=18) strains with and without nonsusceptibility to vancomycin was examined blindly in danish (n=5), norwegian (n=13), and swedish (n=10) laboratories using the eucast disk diffusion method (n=28) a ...201424599985
comparative evaluation of push-out bond strength of three endodontic sealers with and without amoxicillin-an invitro study.the purpose of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of three different root canal sealers with and without amoxicillin, using a push-out bond strength test.201424596782
antibacterial substances from marine algae isolated from jeddah coast of red sea, saudi arabia.marine algae are known to produce a wide variety of bioactive secondary metabolites and several compounds have been derived from them for prospective development of novel drugs by the pharmaceutical industries. however algae of the red sea have not been adequately explored for their potential as a source of bioactive substances. in this context ulva reticulata, caulerpa occidentalis, cladophora socialis, dictyota ciliolata, and gracilaria dendroides isolated from red sea coastal waters of jeddah ...201424596500
etiological factors of infections in diabetic foot syndrome - attempt to define optimal empirical therapy.diabetic foot syndrome (dfs) represents one of the most frequent reasons for lower limb amputation in developed countries. in most cases, it is associated with bacterial infection, requiring optimal antibiotic therapy.201424596002
analysis of the promoters involved in enterocin as-48 expression.the enterocin as-48 is the best characterized antibacterial circular protein in prokaryotes. it is a hydrophobic and cationic bacteriocin, which is ribosomally synthesized by enterococcal cells and post-translationally cyclized by a head-to-tail peptide bond. the production of and immunity towards as-48 depend upon the coordinated expression of ten genes organized in two operons, as-48abc (where genes encoding enzymes with processing, secretion, and immunity functions are adjacent to the structu ...201424594763
the antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity and selectivity index of leaf extracts of thirteen south african tree species used in ethnoveterinary medicine to treat helminth infections.diseases caused by bacteria remain a major challenge globally and particularly in sub-saharan africa. the plants used in this study have been used in south africa to treat helminth infections in livestock and humans. in a previous study we found a correlation between antifungal and anthelmintic activity in some cases. in this study we examined other potential uses of these thirteen plant species by determining the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the leaf acetone extracts.the antibacter ...201424589020
effectiveness of ktp laser versus 980 nm diode laser to kill enterococcus faecalis in biofilms developed in experimentally infected root canals.this study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial action of ktp (potassium-titanyl-phosphate) laser irradiations (compared with 980 nm diode laser), associated with conventional endodontic procedures, on enterococcus faecalis biofilms. fifty-six dental roots with single canals were prepared with ni-ti rotary instruments, autoclaved, inoculated with an e. faecalis suspension and incubated for 72 h. they were randomly allocated to control and treatment groups. laser parameters were as follows: power ...201524588799
an in vitro study on the effects of nisin on the antibacterial activities of 18 antibiotics against enterococcus faecalis.enterococcus faecalis rank among the leading causes of nosocomial infections worldwide and possesses both intrinsic and acquired resistance to a variety of antibiotics. development of new antibiotics is limited, and pathogens continually generate new antibiotic resistance. many researchers aim to identify strategies to effectively kill this drug-resistant pathogen. here, we evaluated the effect of the antimicrobial peptide nisin on the antibacterial activities of 18 antibiotics against e. faecal ...201424586598
enterococcus infection biology: lessons from invertebrate host models.the enterococci are commensals of the gastrointestinal tract of many metazoans, from insects to humans. while they normally do not cause disease in the intestine, they can become pathogenic when they infect sites outside of the gut. recently, the enterococci have become important nosocomial pathogens, with the majority of human enterococcal infections caused by two species, enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium. studies using invertebrate infection models have revealed insights into the ...201424585051
effects of single- and multi-strain probiotics on biofilm formation and in vitro adhesion to bladder cells by urinary tract pathogens.there is increasing evidence that probiotic bacteria can inhibit and/or prevent urinary tract infections. possible mechanisms include prevention of adhesion of pathogens to the bladder epithelium and inhibition of biofilm formation. currently there is interest in the comparative efficacy of single probiotics vs. strain mixtures. we have therefore tested the inhibitory activity of four single probiotics and four probiotic mixtures towards the urinary tract pathogens escherichia coli nctc 9001 and ...201424583095
photodynamic therapy versus ultrasonic irrigation: interaction with endodontic microbial biofilm, an ex vivo study.photodynamic therapy was introduced as an adjuvant to conventional chemo-mechanical debridement during endodontic treatment to overcome the persistence of biofilms. the aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of photodynamic therapy (pdt) to disrupt an experimental microbial biofilm inside the root canal in a clinically applicable working time.201424583092
recombinant human lipocalin 2 acts as an antibacterial agent to prevent platelet contamination.bacterial contamination of platelet products is the major infectious risk in blood transfusion medicine, which can result in life-threatening sepsis in recipient. lipocalin 2 (lcn2) is an iron-sequestering protein in the antibacterial innate immune response, which inhibit bacterial growth. this study was aimed to evaluate the antibacterial property of lcn2 in preventing bacterial contamination of platelets.201424580532
microwave-assisted preparation of azachalcones and their n-alkyl derivatives with antimicrobial activities.two new azachalcones were prepared by both claisen-schmidt condensation and a simple environmentally trendy microwave-assisted method. ten new n-alkyl (c6,8,10,12,14)-substituted azachalconium bromides (3a-e, 4a-e) were prepared from compounds 1 and 2 with corresponding alkyl halides. the antimicrobial activities of all the compounds were tested against enterococcus faecalis, yersinia pseudotuberculosis, pseudomonas aeruginosa, escherichia coli and staphylococcus aureus micro-organisms.201424571646
daptomycin-loaded polymethylmethacrylate bone cement for joint arthroplasty surgery.antibiotic-loaded acrylic bone cement has been frequently used as an infection prophylaxis or antibiotic-loaded spacer in infected arthroplasty. in addition, daptomycin has been used recently against broad spectrum gram-positive organisms. the goal of this in vitro study is to investigate the bacteriacidal and mechanical properties of daptomycin-incorporated polymethylmethacrylate (pmma) bone cement and evaluate its feasibility for clinical use. daptomycin (0.5, 1, or 2 g) was premixed with 40 g ...201424571555
genome sequencing reveals the environmental origin of enterococci and potential biomarkers for water quality monitoring.enterococci are common members of the gut microbiome and their ease of culturing has facilitated worldwide use as indicators of fecal pollution of waters. however, enterococci were recently shown to persist in environmental habitats, often in the absence of fecal input, potentially confounding water quality assays. toward resolving this issue and providing a more complete picture of natural enterococci diversity, 11 isolates of enterococcus faecalis recovered from freshwater watersheds (environm ...201424571132
cell-recycle continuous fermentation of enterococcus faecalis rky1 for economical production of lactic acid by reduction of yeast extract supplementation.both lactic acid productivity and cell growth were linearly correlated with yeast extract supplementation in batch fermentation. during conventional continuous operation, although fresh feed was introduced into the bioreactor with a significantly low dilution rate (0.04 h(-1)), the amount of yeast extract employed was not enough to maintain the growth of microorganism. however, when the fresh feed contained 100 g/l glucose and 2 g/l yeast extract during cell-recycle continuous operation at a dil ...201424561722
enterococcus faecium and enterococcus faecalis in blood of newborns with suspected nosocomial infection.enterococci are gram-positive cocci saprophyte of the human gastrointestinal tract, diners who act as opportunistic pathogens. they can cause infections in patients hospitalized for a long time or who have received multiple antibiotic therapy. enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium are the most common species in human infections. to evaluate the possibility of rapid detection of these species and their occurrence in the blood of newborns with suspected nosocomial infection, blood samples ...201724553613
antimicrobial activity, acute toxicity and cytoprotective effect of crassocephalum vitellinum (benth.) s. moore extract in a rat ethanol-hcl gastric ulcer model.a decoction of crassocephallum vitellinum (benth.) s. moore (asteraceae) is used in kagera region to treat peptic ulcers. this study seeks to evaluate an aqueous ethanol extract of aerial parts of the plant for safety and efficacy.201424552147
a comparison between antibacterial activity of propolis and aloe vera on enterococcus faecalis (an in vitro study).removing the bacteria, including enterococcus faecalis, from the root canal is one of the important aims in endodontic treatment.we aimed to compare the antibacterial activity of chlorhexidine with two natural drugs. the antibacterial activities of three different propolis extracts (alcohol concentrations: 0, 15, 40%) and aloe vera gel on e. faecalis were compared using three methods: disk diffusion, microdilution and direct contact test. in addition to the above bacterium, the aloe vera gel eff ...201324551800
identification of a conserved branched rna structure that functions as a factor-independent terminator.anti-q is a small rna encoded on pcf10, an antibiotic resistance plasmid of enterococcus faecalis, which negatively regulates conjugation of the plasmid. in this study we sought to understand how anti-q is generated relative to larger transcripts of the same operon. we found that anti-q folds into a branched structure that functions as a factor-independent terminator. in vitro and in vivo, termination is dependent on the integrity of this structure as well as the presence of a 3' polyuridine tra ...201424550474
mechanism for transfer of transposon tn2010 carrying macrolide resistance genes in streptococcus pneumoniae and its effects on genome evolution.the objective of this study was to identify the mechanism responsible for the horizontal transfer of transposon tn2010 in streptococcus pneumoniae, and the genomic alterations introduced by the transfer process.201424532683
antibacterial activity of synthetic curcumin derivatives: 3,5-bis(benzylidene)-4-piperidone (ef24) and ef24-dimer linked via diethylenetriaminepentacetic acid (ef2dtpa).curcumin is well known for its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. however, since systemic absorption and bioavailability of curcumin from gastrointestinal tract is considerably poor, synthetic curcuminoids are being developed as better alternatives. two curcumin derivatives: 3,5-bis(benzylidene)-4-piperidone (ef24) and ef24-dimer linked via diethylenetriaminepentacetic acid (ef2dtpa), were included in this study. we investigated the antibacterial activity of ef24 and ef2dtpa against ...201424532443
calcified iliopsoas abscess caused by enterococcus faecalis. 201424531098
etiology of determine the etiology of peritonitis, as well as the sensitivity of isolated bacteria to antibiotics.201324520754
vellozia flavicans mart. ex schult. hydroalcoholic extract inhibits the neuromuscular blockade induced by bothrops jararacussu venom.snakebite is a significant public health issue in tropical countries. in brazil, some of the most common snake envenomations are from bothrops. bothrops bites trigger local and systemic effects including edema, pain, erythema, cyanosis, infections, and necrosis. vellozia flavicans is a plant from the brazilian "cerrado" (savanna) that is popularly used as an anti-inflammatory medicine. since inflammation develops quickly after bothrops bites, which can lead to infection, the aim of the present s ...201424507387
antimicrobial and enzyme inhibitory activities of the constituents of plectranthus madagascariensis (pers.) benth.plectranthus madagascariensis is used as a traditional medicine in southern africa. in search of compounds and activities supporting the medicinal use, the chemical profile of the methanolic extract was studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (hplc-dad). four major constituents were isolated and identified as rosmarinic acid (1), 7β,6β-dihydroxyroyleanone (2), 7β-acetoxy-6β-hydroxyroyleanone (3) and coleon u quinone (4). the two abietane diterpenoids (2 and 3 ...201424506206
pathogenicity test of bacterial and fungal fish pathogens in cirrihinus mrigala infected with eus disease.the study was conducted for 8 weeks to determine pathogenic effect of different fish pathogens in cirrihinus mrigal (c. mrigala) which was infected with eus disease. the pathogenic organisms (bacteria and fungi) collected from the infected part of the disease fish. isolation and screening of microbes were carried out with the help of a number of biochemical tests. a total of eight bacterial isolates were obtained from the diseased fish. out of eight, six bacteria viz., streptococcus grp q1, aero ...201324506024
[postcataract endophthalmitis caused by enterococcus faecalis].enterococcus faecalis is a major endophthalmitis-causing pathogen and often causes significant visual impairment. we investigated the clinical background, treatment and the visual outcome of patients with e. faecalis endophthalmitis after cataract surgery.201424505932
chemical composition, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of the essential oil from the flowers of tunisian convolvulus althaeoides l.this study describes the chemical composition and evaluates the antibacterial and the cytotoxic effects of the essential oil from the flowers of convolvulus althaeoides. its chemical composition, determined by gc and gc-ms, is reported for the first time. a total of 24 compounds, accounting for 95.5% of the total oil, have been identified. the oil was characterised by a high proportion of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (36.3%), followed by oxygenated sesquiterpenes (34.7%) and oxygenated monoterpene ...201424498906
the structure and competitive substrate inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase from enterococcus faecalis reveal restrictions to cofactor docking.we are addressing bacterial resistance to antibiotics by repurposing a well-established classic antimicrobial target, the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) enzyme. in this work, we have focused on enterococcus faecalis, a nosocomial pathogen that frequently harbors antibiotic resistance determinants leading to complicated and difficult-to-treat infections. an inhibitor series with a hydrophobic dihydrophthalazine heterocycle was designed from the anti-folate trimethoprim. we have examined the poten ...201424495113
metagenomic analysis of the stool microbiome in patients receiving allogeneic stem cell transplantation: loss of diversity is associated with use of systemic antibiotics and more pronounced in gastrointestinal graft-versus-host sequencing of the hypervariable v3 region of the 16s rrna gene isolated from serial stool specimens collected from 31 patients receiving allogeneic stem cell transplantation (sct) was performed to elucidate variations in the composition of the intestinal microbiome in the course of allogeneic sct. metagenomic analysis was complemented by strain-specific enterococcal pcr and indirect assessment of bacterial load by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of urinary indoxyl ...201424492144
γ-alkylidene-γ-lactones and isobutylpyrrol-2(5h)-ones analogues to rubrolides as inhibitors of biofilm formation by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.several molecules have been discovered that interfere with formation of bacterial biofilms, opening a new strategy for the development of more efficient treatments in case of antibiotic resistant bacteria. amongst the most active compounds are some natural brominated furanones from marine algae delisea pulchra that have proven to be able to control pathogenic biofilms. we have recently reported that some rubrolide analogues are able to inhibit biofilm formation of enterococcus faecalis. in the p ...201424484899
[treatment of fournier's gangrene].fournier's gangrene is a necrotizing fasciitis and soft-tissue infection of the perineal region. the clinical course of the disease, in many cases, is fulminant. this case presents a patient with symptoms of fournier's gangrene that developed during hospitalization following a vehicular accident. the disease was diagnosed six days into hospitalization. the patient underwent numerous surgical procedures. escherichia coli and enterococcus faecalis were found in a culture of the surgical wound. bec ...201324483034
in vitro comparison of the antibacterial effect of three intracanal irrigants and diode laser on root canals infected with enterococcus faecalis.bacteria are the primary etiology of pulpal and periradicular pathosis. in endodontically treated teeth with persistent infections only one or a few bacterial species are present of which the most important is enterococcus faecalis. the aim of this study was to compare antibacterial efficacy of canal disinfectants including 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine, mtad (a mixture of doxycycline, citric acid and a detergent (tween 80) and 830 nm diode laser.201425954488
the majority of a collection of u.s. endocarditis enterococcus faecalis isolates obtained from 1974 to 2004 lack capsular genes and belong to diverse, non-hospital-associated lineages.eighty-one endocarditis-derived enterococcus faecalis isolates that were collected from individual patients in the united states between 1974 and 2004 were sequence typed and analyzed for the presence of various genes, including some previously associated with virulence. overall, using our previously described trilocus sequence typing (tlst), 44 different sequence types (sts) were found within this collection; 26 isolates were singletons (a unique tlst sequence type [st(t)]), some st(t)s contain ...201424478487
performance of vitek 2 for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of staphylococcus spp. and enterococcus spp.vitek 2 (biomérieux, inc., durham, nc) is a widely used commercial antimicrobial susceptibility testing system. we compared mic results obtained by vitek 2 to those obtained by the clinical and laboratory standards institute (clsi) broth microdilution (bmd) reference method for 134 staphylococcal and 84 enterococcal clinical isolates. nineteen agents were evaluated, including all those available on vitek 2 for testing staphylococci and enterococci. the resistance phenotypes tested included methi ...201424478467
antimicrobial susceptibility of indicator bacteria isolated from chickens in southeast asian countries (vietnam, indonesia and thailand).to determine the prevalence of indicator bacteria resistant to antimicrobials among poultry in three southeast asian countries (vietnam, indonesia and thailand), we examined the antimicrobial susceptibilities of commensal bacteria isolated from chickens. in total, 125, 117 and 180 isolates of escherichia coli, enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium, respectively, were used to test for antimicrobial susceptibility. bacterial resistance to antimicrobial treatment was most frequently observ ...201424476850
prevalence of aac(6')-ie-aph(2″)-ia resistance gene and its linkage to tn5281 in enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium isolates from tabriz hospitals.high-level gentamicin resistance (hlgr: mic ≥ 500 µg/ml) in enterococci is mediated by aminoglycoside modifying enzymes which is mainly encoded by aac(6')-ie-aph(2″)-ia gene. the aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of aac(6')-ie-aph(2″)-ia gene in clinical isolates of enterococcus facium and enterococcus faecalis collected from hospitals in northwest of iran.201324475324
in vitro alkaline ph resistance of enterococcus faecalis.enterococcus faecalis is a bacterial species often found in root canals with failed endodontic treatment. alkaline pastes are widely used in endodontics because of their biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity, but this microorganism can resist alkalinity. the purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the alkaline ph resistance of e. faecalis for different periods up to 14 days. samples were obtained from the oral cavity of 150 patients from the endodontic clinic. the ph of the experime ...201424474287
enterococcus faecalis strain lz-11 isolated from lanzhou reach of the yellow river is able to resist and absorb cadmium.lanzhou reach of the yellow river is contaminated by cadmium (cd(ii)). the aim of this study was to screen bacterial strains that is able to resist and absorb cadmium from soil sediment and elucidate the molecular mechanism.201424471702
in vivo spread of macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin b (mlsb) resistance--a model study in chickens.the influence of specific and non-specific antibiotic pressure on in vivo spread of macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin b (mlsb) resistance was evaluated in this study. chickens repeatedly inoculated with enterococcus faecalis harbouring the plasmid pamβ1 carrying the erm(b) gene were perorally treated for one week with tylosin, lincomycin (both specific antibiotic pressure) and chlortetracycline (non-specific antibiotic pressure). antibiotic non-treated but e. faecalis inoculated chickens serve ...201424467930
in vitro activity of rifaximin against isolates from patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.rifaximin, a non-absorbable rifamycin derivative, has published clinical efficacy in the alleviation of symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (ibs). small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (sibo) is associated with the pathogenesis of ibs. this study describes for the first time the antimicrobial effect of rifaximin against sibo micro-organisms from humans. fluid was aspirated from the third part of the duodenum from 567 consecutive patients; quantitative cultures diagnosed sibo in 11 ...201424461710
evaluation of the antibacterial efficacy of silver nanoparticles against enterococcus faecalis biofilm.the purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of silver nanoparticles (agnps) as an irrigant or medicament against enterococcus faecalis biofilms formed on root dentin.201424461420
draft genome sequence of enterococcus faecalis strain pf3, isolated from adelie penguin feces from antarctica.enterococcus faecalis is one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections and is a common commensal organism in humans and other animals. in this study, we report a draft genome sequence for the e. faecalis strain pf3, isolated from adélie penguin feces collected from warriner island, antarctica.201424459271
comparison of the antibacterial efficiency of neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts and 3% sodium hypochlorite against e. feacalis - an in vitro study.e. faecalis is the predominant micro-organism recovered from root canal of the teeth where previous endodontic treatment has failed. thorough debridement and complete elimination of micro-organisms are objectives of an effective endodontic treatment. for many years, intracanal irrigants have been used as an adjunct to enhance antimicrobial effect of cleaning and shaping in endodontics. the constant increase in antibiotic-resistant strains and side-effects of synthetic drugs has promoted research ...201324453446
targeting pili in enterococcal pathogenesis.passive protection, the administration of antibodies to prevent infection, has garnered significant interest in recent years as a potential prophylactic countermeasure to decrease the prevalence of hospital-acquired infections. pili, polymerized protein structures covalently anchored to the peptidoglycan wall of many gram-positive pathogens, are ideal targets for antibody intervention, given their importance in establishing infection and their accessibility to antibody interactions. in this work ...201424452680
rapid detection of enterococcus spp. direct from blood culture bottles using enterococcus quickfish method: a multicenter investigation.the performance of a diagnostic method for detection and identification of enterococcus spp. directly from positive blood culture was evaluated in a clinical study. the method, enterococcus quickfish bc, is a second-generation peptide nucleic acid (pna) fluorescence in situ hybridization (fish) test, which uses a simplified, faster assay procedure. the test uses fluorescently labeled pna probes targeting 16s rrna to differentiate enterococcus faecalis from other enterococcus spp. by the color of ...201424439447
transcriptional response of enterococcus faecalis to sunlight.microarrays were used to investigate the transcriptional response of enterococcus faecalis to photostress. e. faecalis are gram-positive bacteria used as indicators of water quality and have been shown to vary diurnally in response to sunlight. e. faecalis in filtered seawater microcosms were exposed to artificial sunlight for 12h and then placed in the dark for 12h. transcript abundance was measured at 0, 2, 6, 12, and 24h in the sunlit microcosm and a dark control using microarrays. culturable ...201424434819
antibiofilm activity of irrigating solutions associated with cetrimide. confocal laser scanning evaluate the antibiofilm activity of sodium hypochlorite (naocl) and chlorhexidine (chx) solutions associated with cetrimide (ctr), and qmix using confocal laser scanning microscopy.201424433253
chemical composition of the essential oil from the leaves of carapa guianensis collected from venezuelan guayana and the antimicrobial activity of the oil and crude extracts.the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of carapa guianensis aubl. (meliaceae) leaves was analyzed by gc-fid and gc-ms. twenty-three components were identified, which made up 93.7% of the oil. the most abundant constituents were bicyclogermacrene (28.5%), alpha-humulene (17.2%), germacrene b (11.9%), and trans-beta-caryophyllene (9.9%). antimicrobial activity of the essential oil, as well as the crude extracts of the leaves obtained by refluxing the dried leaves with n-hexane, dichlorome ...201324427961
detection, partial purification and characterization of bacteriocin produced by lactobacillus brevis fptlb3 isolated from freshwater fish: bacteriocin from lb. brevis fptlb3.lactobacillus brevis fptlb3 was isolated from freshwater fish, capable of producing bacteriocin that had broad spectrum of inhibition (3200 au/ml) against escherichia coli mtcc 1563, enterococcus faecalis mtcc 2729, lactobacillus casei mtcc 1423, lactobacillus sakei atcc 15521 and staphylococcus aureus atcc 25923. the antimicrobial activity of crude supernatant fluid was stable after heating at 121 °c for 60 min and declined thereafter. stability of antimicrobial activity was observed at ph rang ...201324425883
catheter removal versus retention in the management of catheter-associated enterococcal bloodstream infections.enterococci are an important cause of central venous catheter (cvc)-associated bloodstream infections (ca-bsi). it is unclear whether cvc removal is necessary to successfully manage enterococcal ca-bsi.201324421837
seasonal variations in bacterial communities and antibiotic-resistant strains associated with green bottle flies (diptera: calliphoridae).green bottle flies occur frequently around human environments in japan. many species of green bottle flies have been studied with regard to their importance in forensic examinations or clinical therapies, but the bacterial communities associated with this group of flies have not been comprehensively investigated. in this research, 454 pyrosequencing was used to reveal the bacterial communities in green bottle flies collected in different seasons. meanwhile, the bacteria were screened with select ...201424413921
ocular penetration and efficacy of levofloxacin using different drug-delivery techniques for the prevention of endophthalmitis in rabbit eyes with posterior capsule evaluate the effects of different drug-delivery techniques for levofloxacin (lvfx) in ocular penetration and the prevention of endophthalmitis using an aphakic rabbit model with posterior capsule rupture (pcr).201424410272
chitosan-cellulose composite for wound dressing material. part 2. antimicrobial activity, blood absorption ability, and biocompatibility.chitosan (cs), a polysaccharide derived from chitin, the second most abundant polysaccharide, is widely used in the medical world because of its natural and nontoxic properties and its innate ability for antibacterial and hemostasis effects. in this study, the novel composites containing cs and cellulose (cel) (i.e., [cel + cs]), which we have previously synthesized using a green and totally recyclable method, were investigated for their antimicrobial activity, absorption of anticoagulated whole ...201424407857
clonal spread of vancomycin resistance enterococcus faecalis in an iranian referral pediatrics center.vancomycin-resistant enterococci (vre) represent as an immediate threat to public health. since few active compounds are available for vre infections, rapid identification of these isolates are essential. in the absence of any report on the genetic relatedness of enterococcus faecalis especially vancomycin-resistant e. faecalis (vref) isolates in iran, we undertook this study to characterize these isolates using random amplification of polymorphic dna (rapd-pcr) genotyping method. in this study, ...201324396988
antibiotic resistance in enterococcus faecium clinical isolates.the worldwide ratio of enterococcus faecalis-enterococcus faecium infections is currently changing in favor of e. faecium. intrinsic and acquired antimicrobial resistance traits of this latter species can explain this evolution as well as the diffusion of hospital-adapted strains belonging to the clonal complex cc17. like other enterococci, e. faecium is naturally resistant to cephalosporins and aminoglycosides (at low level). because of its high genome plasticity, it can also acquire numerous o ...201424392717
molecular epidemiology of enterococcal bacteremia in australia.enterococci are a major cause of health care-associated infections and account for approximately 10% of all bacteremias globally. the aim of this study was to determine the proportion of enterococcal bacteremia isolates in australia that are antimicrobial resistant, with particular emphasis on susceptibility to ampicillin and the glycopeptides, and to characterize the molecular epidemiology of the enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium isolates. from 1 january to 31 december 2011, 1,079 ...201424391201
comparison between the antibacterial efficacies of three root canal irrigating solutions: antibiotic containing irrigant, chlorhexidine and chlorhexidine + cetrimide.the purpose of this study was to compare the antibacterial efficacy of three root canal irrigating solutions: an antibiotic containing irrigant, chlorhexidine and chlorhexidine + cetrimide.201324390032
phenolic content, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of erica herbacea l.antibacterial and antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid concentrations of aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts from the leaves and flowers of erica herbacea l. were studied. in vitro antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined by macrodilution method. minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) and minimum bactericidal concentration (mbc) have been determined. testing was performed on 30 clinical isolates, including different strains of escherichia coli, enterococcus fae ...201624383325
antimicrobial susceptibility and antibiotic resistance gene transfer analysis of foodborne, clinical, and environmental listeria spp. isolates including listeria monocytogenes.the aims of this study were to assess antibiotic resistance pheno- and genotypes in foodborne, clinical, and environmental listeria isolates, as well as to elucidate the horizontal gene transfer potential of detected resistance genes. a small fraction of in total 524 listeria spp. isolates (3.1%) displayed acquired antibiotic resistance mainly to tetracycline (n = 11), but also to clindamycin (n = 4) and trimethoprim (n = 3), which was genotypically confirmed. in two cases, a tetracycline resist ...201424382842
enterococcus faecalis reconfigures its transcriptional regulatory network activation at different copper levels.a global transcriptional regulatory network was generated in the pathogenic bacterium enterococcus faecalis in order to understand how this organism can activate and coordinate its expression at different copper concentrations. the topological evaluation of the network showed common patterns described in other organisms. integrating microarray experiments allowed the identification of two sub-networks activated at low (0.05 mm cuso4) and high (0.5 mm cuso4) concentrations of copper. the analysis ...201424382465
presence and genetic environment of pleuromutilin-lincosamide-streptogramin a resistance gene lsa(e) in enterococci of human and swine origin. 201424379302
effect of nanosilver gel, chlorhexidine gluconate, and camphorated phenol on enterococcus faecalis biofilm.aim. to assess the effectiveness of nanosilver gel (nsg) in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate (chx) and camphorated phenol (cp) against enterococcus faecalis (e.f) biofilm. methods and materials. two tests were done, methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (mtt) assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy (clsm) analysis, to determine the effectiveness of nsg, chx, and cp on e.f biofilm. polystyrene microtiter 96- and 6-well plates were used for mtt and clsm, respectively. nanosilver gel was in three ...201427355067
study of the antibacterial efficacy of bainiku-ekisu against pathogens.the research was undertaken to determine the bacteriostatic effects of the concentrate of japanese apricot juice (bainiku-ekisu), which is a popular health food in taiwan and japan, on enterococcus faecalis atcc 29212, staphylococcus aureus atcc 25923, and escherichia coli atcc 25922. the results show that e. faecalis, s. aureus, and e. coli could be killed or inhibited by bainiku-ekisu at concentrations between 1.0 and 10.0 mg/ml. the minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) was 1 mg/ml for all s ...201426904733
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