antimicrobial efficacy of er,cr:ysgg laser-activated irrigation compared with passive ultrasonic irrigation and rinsendo(®) against intracanal enterococcus faecalis.the aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of active irrigation techniques: erbium, chromium: yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet (er,cr:ysgg) laser-activated irrigation (lai), passive ultrasonic irrigation (pui), rinsendo(®), and conventional syringe irrigation, against intracanal enterococcus faecalis.201425251217
antibacterial power of sodium hypochlorite combined with surfactants and acetic acid.the aim of this ex vivo study was to compare the antibacterial power of 1% naocl with 1% acetic acid, 5.25% naocl and two commercially available naocl modified with surfactants in bovine root dentin. a total of 120 dentin tubes prepared from intact bovine incisors were infected for 21 days with enterococcus faecalis and randomly divided into six groups as follows: 5.25%naocl; hypoclean; chlor-xtra; 1% naocl with 1% acetic acid; infected dentin tubes (positive control); and sterile dentin tubes ( ...201425250491
peritonitis in a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patient by two different species of enterococci: a rare finding.peritonitis in a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patient by two different species of enterococci is a rare condition. we report a case of peritonitis from which vancomycin sensitive enterococcus faecalis and vancomycin resistant enterococcusc faecium were isolated. it also emphasizes the effectiveness of linezolid for the treatment of vancomycin resistant enterococcal infection.201425249726
an abc transporter is required for secretion of peptide sex pheromones in enterococcus faecalis.enterococci are leading causes of hospital-acquired infection in the united states and continue to develop resistances to new antibiotics. many enterococcus faecalis isolates harbor pheromone-responsive plasmids that mediate horizontal transfer of even large blocks of chromosomal genes, resulting in hospital-adapted strains over a quarter of whose genomes consist of mobile elements. pheromones to which the donor cells respond derive from lipoprotein signal peptides. using a novel bacterial killi ...201425249282
oligomerization of esculin improves its antibacterial activity and modulates antibiotic this particular study, the antibacterial activity of esculin and oligomer fractions was assessed. mic values of esculin and its oligomer fractions as well as of some antibiotics against gram-positive and gram-negative strains and against escherichia coli multiresistant variants were determined by the standard broth microdilution method. both esculin and oligoesculin fractions exhibited antibacterial effect against reference strains; staphylococcus aureus, enterococcus faecalis, salmonella ent ...201525248728
transcriptomic response of enterococcus faecalis v583 to low hydrogen peroxide levels.enterococcus faecalis is a gram-positive commensal bacterium inhabiting the gastrointestinal tracts of human and other mammals, but is also increasingly recognized as an opportunistic human pathogen. oxidative stress is one of the major challenges encountered by enterococci, both in their natural environment and during infection. in this paper, we evaluated the transcriptomic response of e. faecalis to oxidative stress, and showed that transcript abundance was reduced for 93 genes and increased ...201525245959
monotreme lactation protein is highly expressed in monotreme milk and provides antimicrobial protection.monotremes (platypus and echidna) are the descendants of the oldest ancestor of all extant mammals distinguished from other mammals by mode of reproduction. monotremes lay eggs following a short gestation period and after an even briefer incubation period, altricial hatchlings are nourished over a long lactation period with milk secreted by nipple-less mammary patches located on the female's abdomen. milk is the sole source of nutrition and immune protection for the developing young until weanin ...201425245409
in vitro assessment of the recurrent doses of topical gaseous ozone in the removal of enterococcus faecalis biofilms in root evaluate the potential antibacterial effect of recurrent doses of topical gaseous ozone on the enterococcus faecalis biofilms0 growth in human root canals in vitro.201425244266
efficacy of a combined nanoparticulate/calcium hydroxide root canal medication on elimination of enterococcus faecalis.the purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ca(oh)2 with or without a silver nanoparticle suspension to eliminate enterococcus faecalis from root canals. a total of 66 extracted human single-rooted teeth contaminated with e. faecalis were treated with 10% ca(oh)2 alone, ca(oh)2 with nanosilver or sterile water (as a negative control). samples were obtained with paper points and gates-glidden burs at 1 and 7 days after root canal preparation and the number of colony-forming units (c ...201425244219
[development of an enterococcus faecalis periapical biofilm model for in vitro morphological study].this study aims to develop and observe a model system of the periapical biofilm structure of enterococcus faecalis (e. faecalis).201425241529
recurrent linezolid-resistant enterococcus faecalis infection in a patient with has been reported that lzd-resistant enterococcus in the gastrointestinal tract of mice colonizes persistently and shows variable minimum inhibitor concentration (mic) values. however, the colonization characteristics of enterococcus with lzd resistance in patients remain elusive. here, we report the case of a patient with recurrent pneumonia due to infection with lzd-resistant enterococcus faecalis strains. the colonization characteristics of the strains isolated from this patient were analy ...201525236388
plasma components and platelet activation are essential for the antimicrobial properties of autologous platelet-rich plasma: an in vitro study.autologous platelet concentrates are successfully adopted in a variety of medical fields to stimulate bone and soft tissue regeneration. the rationale for their use consists in the delivery of a wide range of platelet-derived bioactive molecules that promotes wound healing. in addition, antimicrobial properties of platelet concentrates have been pointed out. in this study, the effect of the platelet concentration, of the activation step and of the presence of plasmatic components on the antimicr ...201425232963
ebpa vaccine antibodies block binding of enterococcus faecalis to fibrinogen to prevent catheter-associated bladder infection in mice.enterococci bacteria are a frequent cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infections, the most common type of hospital-acquired infection. treatment has become increasingly challenging because of the emergence of multiantibiotic-resistant enterococcal strains and their ability to form biofilms on catheters. we identified and targeted a critical step in biofilm formation and developed a vaccine that prevents catheter-associated urinary tract infections in mice. in the murine model, formation ...201425232179
highly diverse microbiota in dental root canals in cases of apical periodontitis (data of illumina sequencing).chronic apical periodontitis (cap) is a frequent condition that has a considerable effect on a patient's quality of life. we aimed to reveal root canal microbial communities in antibiotic-naive patients by applying illumina sequencing (illumina inc, san diego, ca).201425227214
antibacterial effect of triantibiotic mixture, chlorhexidine gel, and two natural materials propolis and aloe vera against enterococcus faecalis: an ex vivo study.the aim of this ex vivo study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of triantibiotic paste, 0.2% chlorhexidine gel, propolis and aloe vera on enterococcus faecalis in deep dentin.201425225560
carbamidocyclophanes f and g with anti-mycobacterium tuberculosis activity from the cultured freshwater cyanobacterium nostoc sp.two new (1 and 2) and three known (3-5) carbamidocyclophanes were isolated from a cultured freshwater cyanobacterium nostoc sp. (uic 10274) obtained from a sample collected at des plaines, illinois. their planar structures and stereoconfigurations were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis including 1d/2d nmr experiments, hresims as well as cd spectroscopy. carbamidocyclophane f (1) showed potent anti-mycobacterium tuberculosis activity in the microplate alamar blue assay and low-oxygen ...201425225453
antibacterial properties of root canal lubricants: a comparison with commonly used irrigants.the aim was to assess in vitro the antibacterial activity of 10 root canal lubricants. k-y jelly personal lubricant, rc-prep, file-eze, file-rite, endoprep gel, endosure prep crème 15%, prep-rite, glyde, slickgel es and alpha glide were selected and compared in their antimicrobial properties to seven irrigants. serial dilutions of each agent in tryptic soy broth were inoculated with either enterococcus faecalis or pseudomonas aeruginosa and incubated at 37c for 24 h. during incubation bacterial ...201425223525
control of listeria monocytogenes in fresh cheese using protective lactic acid the past years, there has been a particular focus on the application of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (lab) in controlling the growth of pathogenic bacteria in foods. the aim of this study was to select lab strains with antimicrobial activity, previously isolated from a traditional azorean artisanal cheese (pico cheese), in order to identify those with the greatest potential in reducing listeria monocytogenes in fresh cheese. eight bacteriocin producer strains identified as la ...201425222327
construction of a chimeric lysin ply187n-v12c with extended lytic activity against staphylococci and streptococci.developing chimeric lysins with a wide lytic spectrum would be important for treating some infections caused by multiple pathogenic bacteria. in the present work, a novel chimeric lysin (ply187n-v12c) was constructed by fusing the catalytic domain (ply187n) of the bacteriophage lysin ply187 with the cell binding domain (146-314aa, v12c) of the lysin plyv12. the results showed that the chimeric lysin ply187n-v12c had not only lytic activity similar to ply187n against staphylococcal strains but al ...201525219798
the cyclic dinucleotide c-di-amp is an allosteric regulator of metabolic enzyme function.cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-amp) is a broadly conserved second messenger required for bacterial growth and infection. however, the molecular mechanisms of c-di-amp signaling are still poorly understood. using a chemical proteomics screen for c-di-amp-interacting proteins in the pathogen listeria monocytogenes, we identified several broadly conserved protein receptors, including the central metabolic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase (lmpc). biochemical and crystallographic studies of the l ...201425215494
draft genome sequence of an enterococcus faecalis strain isolated from a neonatal blood sepsis patient.herein, we report the draft genome sequence of enterococcus faecalis ed-ngs-1009, cultivated from a blood sample taken from a neonatal sepsis patient at the royal infirmary in edinburgh, scotland, united kingdom.201425212626
healthcare-associated infective endocarditis: a case series in a referral hospital from 2006 to 2011.background: healthcare-associated infective endocarditis (hca-ie), a severe complication of medical care, shows a growing incidence in literature. objective: to evaluate epidemiology, etiology, risk factors for acquisition, complications, surgical treatment, and outcome of hca-ie. methods: observational prospective case series study (2006-2011) in a public hospital in rio de janeiro. results: fifty-three patients with hca-ie from a total of 151 cases of infective endocarditis (ie) were included. ...201425211203
driving forces of vancomycin-resistant e. faecium and e. faecalis blood-stream infections in children.rates of invasive vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (vre) in the usa remains on the rise. efforts to control vancomycin use and nosocomial transmission have had limited success in halting the spread of this pathogen. the role of antibiotic exposure remains a topic of controversy. we evaluated the association between emergence of vre-blood-stream infections (bsi), aggregate and individual-patient vancomycin- exposure, and clonal transmission of vre at an academic pediatric tertiary care hospital.201425206975
antimicrobial efficacy of endodontic irrigants against enterococcus faecalis and escherichia coli: an in vitro evaluate the relative antimicrobial efficacy of five different commonly used antimicrobial agents with regard to reduction in the number of enterococcus faecalis and escherichia coli as compared to normal saline. an agar disk diffusion in vitro method was used to test the efficacy of the root canal irrigants against these two microorganisms. the root canal irrigants used were: 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (naocl), 10% citric acid, 17% ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (edta), 3% hydrogen peroxid ...201325206218
bimix antimicrobial scaffolds for regenerative endodontics.eliminating and/or inhibiting bacterial growth within the root canal system has been shown to play a key role in the regenerative outcome. the aim of this study was to synthesize and determine in vitro both the antimicrobial effectiveness and cytocompatibility of bimix antibiotic-containing polydioxanone-based polymer scaffolds.201425201643
structure of the double-stranded dna-binding type iv secretion protein tran from enterococcus.conjugative transfer through type iv secretion multiprotein complexes is the most important means of spreading antimicrobial resistance. plasmid pip501, frequently found in clinical enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium isolates, is the first gram-positive (g+) conjugative plasmid for which self-transfer to gram-negative (g-) bacteria has been demonstrated. the pip501-encoded type iv secretion system (t4ss) protein tran localizes to the cytoplasm and shows specific dna binding. the spec ...201425195751
the effect of sodium hypochlorite on enterococcus faecalis when grown on dentine as a single- and multi-species biofilm.enterococcus faecalis is often involved in the aetiology of apical periodontitis after endodontic treatment. this project aimed to establish, on dentine in vitro, a multi-species biofilm containing e. faecalis, and to determine if the organism had an increased resistance to sodium hypochlorite compared with an axenic biofilm. biofilms were established on dentine discs in flow cells with either e. faecalis alone (axenic) or together with fusobacterium nucleatum and streptococcus sanguinis. follow ...201425195495
daptomycin in the treatment of prosthetic joint infection by enterococcus faecalis: safety and efficacy of high-dose and prolonged therapy.enterococci are implicated in less than 2.3% of prosthetic joint infections. these infections can be difficult to treat and therapeutic failures are not uncommon. in these situations, daptomycin is a safe and effective alternative. we present a clinical case with a successful response to the prolonged use of high-dose daptomycin.201425192907
development of an antibacterial root canal filling system containing antibacterial monomer 12-methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinum bromide (mdpb)-containing experimental, chemically cured primer was prepared to develop a new resin-based root canal filling system. this study investigated the antibacterial effects of the mdpb-containing primer (experimental primer [ep]) against enterococcus faecalis and assessed the in vitro bonding and sealing abilities of the filling system, consisting of ep and a bis-gma-based sealer resin. antibacterial effects of ep were evaluat ...201425192898
time-dependent antibacterial effects of aloe vera and zataria multiflora plant essential oils compared to calcium hydroxide in teeth infected with enterococcus the present in vitro study, we investigated the time-related antimicrobial efficacy of aloe vera and zataria multiflora (z. multiflora) plant essential oils compared to calcium hydroxide ([ca[oh]2 ) to eliminate enterococcus faecalis (e. faecalis) from root canals.201625187255
using mineral trioxide aggregate powder as an apical barrier: a bacterial leakage study.mineral trioxide aggregate (mta) has been used successfully for the treatment of necrotic immature teeth as part of a 2-step apical barrier. recently, some researchers have used mta powder instead of wet-mix mta. it has also been used in a single-step approach in order to decrease the number of patient appointments. the aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial microleakage of mta powder in comparison with wet-mix mta, in single or 2-step barrier approaches. this ex vivo study was carried ...201425184718
antimicrobial activity of some essential oils against oral multidrug-resistant enterococcus faecalis in both planktonic and biofilm evaluate some essential oils in treatment of intractable oral infections, principally caused by biofilm of multidrug-resistant enterococcus faecalis (e. faecalis), such as persistent endodontic infections in which their treatment exhibits a real challenge for dentists.201425182948
antibacterial validation of electrogenerated hypochlorite using carbon-based electrodes.this proof-of-concept study explores the novel use of carbon-based electrodes for the electrochemical generation of hypochlorite and compares the antimicrobial efficacy against commercial hypochlorite solution. antimicrobial concentrations of hypochlorite were generated using pad-printed carbon and carbon fibre electrodes, yielding up to 0·027% hypochlorite in 60 min and 0·1% hypochlorite in 15 min, respectively, in a nondivided assembly. the minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) of the electro ...201425179583
control of tyramine and histamine accumulation by lactic acid bacteria using bacteriocin forming lactococci.the aim of this study was to evaluate the competitive effects of three bacteriocin producing strains of lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis against two aminobiogenic lactic acid bacteria, i.e. the tyramine producing strain enterococcus faecalis ef37 and the histamine producing strain streptococcus thermophilus pri60, inoculated at different initial concentrations (from 2 to 6 log cfu/ml). the results showed that the three l. lactis subsp. lactis strains were able to produce bacteriocins: in particu ...201425173915
enterococcus faecalis infection and reactive oxygen species down-regulates the mir-17-92 cluster in gastric adenocarcinoma cell culture.chronic inflammation due to bacterial overgrowth of the stomach predisposes to the development of gastric cancer and is also associated with high levels of reactive oxygen species (ros). in recent years increasing attention has been drawn to micrornas (mirnas) due to their role in the pathogenesis of many human diseases including gastric cancer. here we studied the impact of infection by the gram-positive bacteria enterococcus faecalis (e. faecalis) on global mirna expression as well as the effe ...201425170597
vapor-induced transfer of bacteria in the absence of mechanical disturbances.transfer of bacteria through water vapor generated at moderate temperatures (30-50°c) in passive solar stills, has scarcely been reported. the objective of this research was to investigate whether bacteria in highly humid atmospheres can get transferred through water vapor in the absence of other transfer media to find their way to the distillate. to achieve this objective, passive solar reactors were chosen as the medium for experimentation, and distillation experiments were conducted by spikin ...201425169809
the influence of urinary ph on antibiotic efficacy against bacterial determine the effects of ph on the activity of clinically relevant antibiotics against bacterial uropathogens. numerous factors affect antibiotic efficacy within the urinary tract including ph. because human urine can substantially vary from acidic (ph 4.5) to alkaline (ph 8) conditions and can be easily clinically manipulated, it would be a great advantage to better understand the role of ph in antibiotic treatment of urinary tract infection.201425168568
what's new in the treatment of enterococcal endocarditis?enterococcus spp. are among the common pathogens causing infective endocarditis (ie). despite major medical advances and new potent antimicrobial agents, the mortality has not significantly improved for several decades. the usual lack of bactericidal activity of penicillin or ampicillin, the toxicity from the combination of penicillin plus aminoglycosides, and the increased reports of high-level resistance to aminoglycosides have led to the exploration of other regimens for treatment of enteroco ...201425165018
evaluation of enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates with 'penicillin-resistant, ampicillin-susceptible' phenotype as reported by vitek-2 compact has been recently reported that ampicillin susceptibility cannot accurately predict piperacillin and imipenem susceptibilities in penicillin-resistant, ampicillin-susceptible (pen-r, amp-s) enterococcus faecalis isolates, contrary to the current clinical and laboratory standards institute (clsi) recommendations. this has important therapeutic implications. such isolates were noted after the use of vitek-2 compact system ast-gp67 susceptibility cards in a singapore general hospital and they we ...201425158809
structures of new phenolics isolated from licorice, and the effectiveness of licorice phenolics on vancomycin-resistant enterococci.licorice, which is the underground part of glycyrrhiza species, has been used widely in asian and western countries as a traditional medicine and as a food additive. our continuous investigation on the constituents of roots and stolons of glycyrrhiza uralensis led to the isolation of two new phenolics, in addition to 14 known compounds. structural studies including spectroscopic and simple chemical derivatizations revealed that both of the new compounds had 2-aryl-3-methylbenzofuran structures. ...201425157467
relationships between the antibacterial activity of sodium hypochlorite and treatment time and biofilm age in early enterococcus faecalis determine the relationships between the antibacterial activity of naocl and treatment time and biofilm age in early enterococcus faecalis biofilms using a linear fitting procedure.201525156394
a propidium monoazide-quantitative pcr method for the detection and quantification of viable enterococcus faecalis in large-volume samples of marine waters.the development of rapid detection assays of cell viability is essential for monitoring the microbiological quality of water systems. coupling propidium monoazide with quantitative pcr (pma-qpcr) has been successfully applied in different studies for the detection and quantification of viable cells in small-volume samples (0.25-1.00 ml), but it has not been evaluated sufficiently in marine environments or in large-volume samples. in this study, we successfully integrated blue light-emitting diod ...201425149448
bacterial removal promoted by 2 single-file systems: wave one and one shape.different single-file systems are available for endodontic treatment; however, comparative studies are scarce. thus, the present study evaluated bacterial reduction promoted by 2 single-file systems: wave one (dentsply maillefer, ballaigues, switzerland) and one shape (micromega, besancon, france).201425149120
in vitro assembly of catalase.most aerobic organisms contain catalase, which functions to decompose hydrogen peroxide. typical catalases are structurally complex homo-tetrameric enzymes with one heme prosthetic group buried in each subunit. it is not known how catalase in the cell is assembled from its constituents. the bacterium enterococcus faecalis cannot synthesize heme but can acquire it from the environment to form a cytoplasmic catalase. we have in e. faecalis monitored production of the enzyme polypeptide (kata) depe ...201425148685
wide distribution of virulence genes among enterococcus faecium and enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates.enterococcus, a gram-positive facultative anaerobic cocci belonging to the lactic acid bacteria of the phylum firmicutes, is known to be able to resist a wide range of hostile conditions such as different ph levels, high concentration of nacl (6.5%), and the extended temperatures between 5(°)c and 65(°)c. despite being the third most common nosocomial pathogen, our understanding on its virulence factors is still poorly understood. the current study was aimed to determine the prevalence of differ ...201425147855
riboswitches. a riboswitch-containing srna controls gene expression by sequestration of a response regulator.the ethanolamine utilization (eut) locus of enterococcus faecalis, containing at least 19 genes distributed over four polycistronic messenger rnas, appears to be regulated by a single adenosyl cobalamine (adocbl)-responsive riboswitch. we report that the adocbl-binding riboswitch is part of a small, trans-acting rna, eutx, which additionally contains a dual-hairpin substrate for the rna binding-response regulator, eutv. in the absence of adocbl, eutx uses this structure to sequester eutv. eutv i ...201425146291
nosocomial infection caused by vancomycin-susceptible multidrug-resistant enterococcus faecalis over a long period in a university hospital in japan.compared with other developed countries, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (vre) are not widespread in clinical environments in japan. there have been no vre outbreaks and only a few vre strains have sporadically been isolated in our university hospital in gunma, japan. to examine the drug susceptibility of enterococcus faecalis and nosocomial infection caused by non-vre strains, a retrospective surveillance was conducted in our university hospital. molecular epidemiological analyses were perform ...201425145983
a comparison of conventional methods for the quantification of bacterial cells after exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles.due to potential interference of nanoparticles on bacterial quantification, there is a challenge to develop a fast, accurate and reproducible method for bacterial quantification. currently various bacterial quantification methods are used by researchers performing nanoparticles study, but there has been no efficacy evaluation of these methods. here we study interference of nanoparticles on three most commonly used conventional bacterial quantification methods, including colony counting to determ ...201425138641
molecular characterization of streptococcus agalactiae isolates harboring small erm(t)-carrying plasmids.among 1,827 group b streptococcus (gbs) strains collected between 2006 and 2013 by the french national reference center for streptococci, 490 (26.8%) strains were erythromycin resistant. the erm(t) resistance gene was found in six strains belonging to capsular polysaccharides ia, iii, and v and was carried by the same mobilizable plasmid, which could be efficiently transferred by mobilization to gbs and enterococcus faecalis recipients, thus promoting a broad dissemination of erm(t).201425136004
a simple and effective method to synthesize fluorescent nanoparticles using tryptophan and light and their lethal effect against bacteria.a simple, environmentally friendly and cost-effective method was used to synthesize silver nanoparticles using tryptophan and light. to prepare the nanoparticles, the following components were used: deionized water, silver nitrate, light and tryptophan. the effects of the tryptophan concentration and light exposure time on the formation of tryptophan silver nanoparticles (tnnps) were studied. the synthesized tnnps were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (tem), absorption and fl ...201425129701
antibacterial phototoxic effects of synthetic asymmetric and glycosylated curcuminoids in aqueous formulations: studies on curcumin and curcuminoids. liv.the aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro phototoxic potential of synthetic asymmetric and glycosylated curcuminoids on planktonic model bacteria by counting the colony forming units. the gram-positive enterococcus faecalis and the gram-negative escherichia coli were exposed to aqueous solutions of the curcuminoids (⩽2.5 μm) in the presence or absence of selected pharmaceutical excipients (pluronic f127, peg 400 and hpγcd) in combination with a low irradiation dose (5 j/cm(2); λmax: 450 ...201425129700
mutational analysis of critical residues of fad-independent catabolic acetolactate synthase from enterococcus faecalis v583.catabolic acetolactate synthase (cals) from enterococcus faecalis is a fad-independent enzyme, which catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of pyruvate to produce acetolactate. mutational and kinetic analyses of variants suggested the importance of h111, q112, and q411 residues for catalysis in cals. the wild-type and variants were expressed as equally soluble proteins and co-migrated to a size of 60 kda on sds-page. importantly, h111 in cals, which is widely present as phenylalanine in man ...201525128823
incorporation of exogenous fatty acids protects enterococcus faecalis from membrane-damaging agents.enterococcus faecalis is a commensal bacterium of the mammalian intestine that can persist in soil and aquatic systems and can be a nosocomial pathogen to humans. it employs multiple stress adaptation strategies in order to survive such a wide range of environments. within this study, we sought to elucidate whether membrane fatty acid composition changes are an important component for stress adaptation. we noted that e. faecalis og1rf was capable of changing its membrane composition depending up ...201425128342
enterococcus faecalis activates caspase-1 leading to increased interleukin-1 beta secretion in macrophages.recent studies of inflammasome activation have focused on the pathogenesis of diverse inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. inflammasome activation results in caspase-1 activation, which is required for processing of prointerleukin (il)-1 beta to its secreted form as well as a proinflammatory cell death (ie, pyroptosis). the purpose of this study was to analyze whether enterococcus faecalis associated with endodontic infection induces inflammasome activation.201425127933
quantification of polyphenols and evaluation of antimicrobial, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous and acetone-water extracts of libidibia ferrea, parapiptadenia rigida and psidium guajava.vast numbers of plant species from northeastern brazil have not yet been phytochemically or biologically evaluated.201425124277
glycopeptide use is associated with increased mortality in enterococcus faecalis bacteraemia--authors' response. 201425118271
whole-animal chemical screen identifies colistin as a new immunomodulator that targets conserved pathways.the purpose of this study was to take advantage of the nematode caenorhabditis elegans to perform a whole-animal chemical screen to identify potential immune activators that may confer protection against bacterial infections. we identified 45 marketed drugs, out of 1,120 studied compounds, that are capable of activating a conserved p38/pmk-1 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway required for innate immunity. one of these drugs, the last-resort antibiotic colistin, protected against infections ...201425118236
bacteriophages as an alternative strategy for fighting biofilm development.the ability of microbes to form biofilms is an important element of their pathogenicity, and biofilm formation is a serious challenge for today's medicine. fighting the clinical complications associated with biofilm formation is very difficult and linked to a high risk of failure, especially in a time of increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics. bacterial species most commonly isolated from biofilms include coagulase-negative staphylococci, staphylococcus aureus, enterococcus faecalis, ent ...201425115107
antibiotic prophylaxis for transrectal prostate biopsy-a new strategy.fluoroquinolones are extensively used as prophylaxis for transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate (trubp). emerging fluoroquinolone resistance and selection of multiresistant organisms warrant new prophylactic strategies. pivmecillinam and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid have mutual synergistic activity and the combination of these agents has a broad coverage of the majority of microorganisms causing infectious complications after trubp and may be a valuable future prophylactic regimen.201425114164
mckittrick-wheelock syndrome complicated by enterococcus faecalis endocarditis: a unique combination. 201525112151
platelet-rich plasma affects bacterial growth in vitro.platelet-rich plasma (prp), a blood derivative rich in platelets, is a relatively new technique used in tissue regeneration and engineering. the increased quantity of platelets makes this formulation of considerable value for their role in tissue healing and microbicidal activity. this activity was investigated against five of the most important strains involved in nosocomial infections (escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas aeruginosa, klebsiella pneumoniae and streptococcus faec ...201425108654
prophages in enterococcal isolates from renal transplant recipients: renal failure etiologies promote selection of strains.infections caused by commensal bacteria may be fatal for the patients under immunosuppressive therapy. this results also from difficulty in identification of high risk strains. enterococcal infections are increasingly frequent but despite many studies on virulence traits, the difference between commensal and pathogenic strains remains unclear. prophages are newly described as important elements in competition between strains during colonization, as well as pathogenicity of the strains. here we e ...201425105126
draft genome sequence of linezolid-resistant enterococcus faecalis clinical isolate hs0914.we report the draft genome sequence of linezolid-resistant enterococcus faecalis strain hs-0914 isolated from a teaching hospital in shanghai, china. the draft genome sequence is composed of 61 contigs for 2,816,079 bp. ribosomal rna mutations and cfr, which mediates linezolid resistance, are not present.201425103766
influence of ultrasonic activation on photodynamic therapy over root canal system infected with enterococcus faecalis--an in vitro study.the purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the influence of ultrasonic activation on photodynamic therapy over root canal system infected with enterococcus faecalis.201425102161
development of a multiplex real-time pcr assay for the rapid diagnosis of neonatal late onset sepsis.the diagnosis of late onset sepsis (los), a severe condition with high prevalence in preterm infants, is hampered by the suboptimal sensitivity and long turnaround time of blood culture. detection of the infecting pathogen directly in blood by pcr would provide a much more timely result. unfortunately, pcr-based assays reported so far are labor intensive and often lack direct species identification. therefore we developed a real-time multiplex pcr assay tailored to los diagnosis which is easy-to ...201425102109
influence of first-line antibiotics on the antibacterial activities of acetone stem bark extract of acacia mearnsii de wild. against drug-resistant bacterial isolates.background. this study was aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of the acetone extract of a. mearnsii and its interactions with antibiotics against some resistant bacterial strains. methods. the antibacterial susceptibility testing was determined by agar diffusion and macrobroth dilution methods while the checkerboard method was used for the determination of synergy between the antibiotics and the extract. results. the results showed that the susceptibility of the different bacterial i ...201425101132
[neonatal bacteremia--frequency, spectrum of organisms and correlation between clinical symptoms and laboratory data for early onset sepsis].improved obstetrical management and evidence-based peripartum antimicrobial therapy in the last decades reduce the frequency of early-onset neonatal sepsis (eons) and improve the outcome. the spectrum of the microrganisms is different according to regions, countries and periods of time. appropriate diagnosis and treatment improve the outcome. however dissociation often occurs between clinical manifestation, laboratory and microbiological findings.201425098106
inspecting the potential physiological and biomedical value of 44 conserved uncharacterised proteins of streptococcus pneumoniae.the major gram-positive coccoid pathogens cause similar invasive diseases and show high rates of antimicrobial resistance. uncharacterised proteins shared by these organisms may be involved in virulence or be targets for antimicrobial therapy.201425096389
beneficial effects of heat-treated enterococcus faecalis fk-23 on high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis in mice.a high-fat diet (hfd) is one of the causes of hepatic steatosis. we previously demonstrated that enterococcus faecalis fk-23 (fk-23), a type of lactic acid bacteria, exhibits an anti-obesity effect in mice fed a hfd. in the present study, we examined the effects of fk-23 on hfd-induced hepatic steatosis. male c57bl/6 mice were divided into four groups and given one of four treatments: standard diet (sd); standard diet supplemented with fk-23 (sd+fk); hfd; or hfd supplemented with fk-23 (hfd+fk). ...201425089585
endophthalmitis caused by enterococcus faecalis: clinical features, antibiotic sensitivities, and report the clinical features, antibiotic sensitivities, and visual acuity outcomes of endophthalmitis caused by enterococcus faecalis.201425089354
antibacterial peptide nisin: a potential role in the inhibition of oral pathogenic bacteria.although the antimicrobial peptide nisin has been extensively studied in the food industry for decades, its application in the oral cavity remains to develop and evaluate its feasibility in treating oral common diseases. nisin is an odorless, colorless, tasteless substance with low toxicity and with antibacterial activities against gram-positive bacteria. these biologic properties may establish its use in promising products for oral diseases. this article summarizes the antibacterial efficiency ...201425088158
influence of working length and apical preparation size on apical bacterial extrusion during reciprocating evaluate the influence of reciprocating single-file instrumentation with different working lengths (wl) and apical preparation sizes on apical bacterial extrusion.201525087922
role of efrab efflux pump in biocide tolerance and antibiotic resistance of enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium isolated from traditional fermented foods and the effect of edta as efrab inhibitor.enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium isolated from various traditional fermented foods of both animal and vegetable origins have shown multidrug resistance to several antibiotics and tolerance to biocides. reduced susceptibility was intra and inter-species dependent and was due to specific and unspecific mechanisms such as efflux pumps. efrab, a heterodimeric abc transporter efflux pump, was detected in 100% of multidrug resistant (mdr) e. faecalis strains and only in 12% of mdr e. fae ...201425084670
disinfection efficacy of photon-induced photoacoustic streaming on root canals infected with enterococcus faecalis: an ex vivo 2010, one of the authors proposed that lasers could be used to enhance the decontaminating action of sodium hypochlorite (naocl). the authors conducted a study to compare the disinfection efficacy of laser-activated irrigation (lai) by using a photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (pips) tip with conventional irrigation and specifically lai's ability to remove bacterial film formed on root canal walls.201425082933
antibiofilm activity of three irrigation protocols activated by ultrasonic, diode laser or er:yag laser in investigate the impact of three irrigation protocols, activated by three different methods, on mature biofilms of enterococcus faecalis in vitro.201525080240
identification of polyketide inhibitors targeting 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase in the shikimate pathway of enterococcus faecalis.due to the emergence of resistance toward current antibiotics, there is a pressing need to develop the next generation of antibiotics as therapeutics against infectious and opportunistic diseases of microbial origins. the shikimate pathway is exclusive to microbes, plants and fungi, and hence is an attractive and logical target for development of antimicrobial therapeutics. the gram-positive commensal microbe, enterococcus faecalis, is a major human pathogen associated with nosocomial infections ...201425072253
antibiofilm effects of endodontic sealers containing quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine nanoparticles.this study evaluated the antibiofilm effects of 2 endodontic sealers incorporated with quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine (qpei) nanoparticles at a 2% concentration (w/w).201425069926
effective analysis of the use of peracetic acid after instrumentation of root canals contaminated with enterococcus faecalis.the aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of peracetic acid (paa) in cleaning root canals contaminated with enterococcus faecalis.201425069922
potential for nosocomial transmission of enterococcus faecalis from surfaces in dental assess the potential for nosocomial transmission of enterococcus faecalis during root canal treatment by measuring its occurrence on surfaces in dental operatories in relation to the efficacy of disinfection routines.201525066305
antibacterial efficiency of vermiculite/chlorhexidine nanocomposites and results of the in vivo test of harmlessness of vermiculite.clay minerals have been proposed as very useful materials for modulating drug delivery. these are the commonly used materials in pharmaceutical production both as inorganic carriers or active agents. we focused on the development of suitable long-acting material for local treatment of oral infection where clay minerals act as inorganic drug carriers. organovermiculites with antibacterial activity were prepared by ion exchange reactions using different concentrations of chlorhexidine diacetate. t ...201425063143
vang element insertions within a conserved chromosomal site conferring vancomycin resistance to streptococcus agalactiae and streptococcus anginosus.three vancomycin-resistant streptococcal strains carrying vang elements (two invasive streptococcus agalactiae isolates [gbs-ny and gbs-nm, both serotype ii and multilocus sequence type 22] and one streptococcus anginosus [sa]) were examined. the 45,585-bp elements found within sa and gbs-ny were nearly identical (together designated vang-1) and shared near-identity over an ~15-kb overlap with a previously described vang element from enterococcus faecalis. unexpectedly, vang-1 shared much less h ...201425053786
proteome phenotyping of δrela mutants in enterococcus faecalis v583.the (p)ppgpp synthetase rela contributes to stress adaptation and virulence in enterococcus faecalis v583. a 2-dimensional electrophoresis proteomic analysis of 2 rela mutants, i.e., δrela carrying a complete deletion of the rela gene, and δrelasp that is deleted from only its 3' extremity, showed that 31 proteins were deregulated in 1 or both of these mutants. mass spectrometry identification of these proteins showed that 10 are related to translation, including 5 ribosomal proteins, 3 proteins ...201425050451
nitric oxide levels regulate the immune response of drosophila melanogaster reference laboratory strains to bacterial infections.studies on the innate immune response against microbial infections in drosophila melanogaster involve mutant strains and their reference strains that act as experimental controls. we used five standard d. melanogaster laboratory reference strains (oregon r, w1118, canton-s, cinnabar brown, and yellow white [yw]) and investigated their response against two pathogenic bacteria (photorhabdus luminescens and enterococcus faecalis) and two nonpathogenic bacteria (escherichia coli and micrococcus lute ...201425047850
effect of dentin powder on the antimicrobial properties of hyperpure chlorine-dioxide and its comparison to conventional endodontic disinfecting agents.previously we found that the high purity chlorine-dioxide(clo2) has a very potent disinfectant efficacy on oral pathogenic microorganisms and as a root canal irrigant it is able to eliminate the experimental enterococcus faecalis(e. faecalis) infection from the root canal system. this study examines whether the presence of dentin powder influences the antibacterial efficacy of clo 2.201425046882
changes in the treatment of enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis in spain in the last 15 years: from ampicillin plus gentamicin to ampicillin plus ceftriaxone.the aim of this study was to assess changes in antibiotic resistance, epidemiology and outcome among patients with enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (efie) and to compare the efficacy and safety of the combination of ampicillin and gentamicin (a+g) with that of ampicillin plus ceftriaxone (a+c). the study was a retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort of efie patients treated in our centre from 1997 to 2011. thirty patients were initially treated with a+g (ampicillin 2 g/4 h and ...201425040215
novel nonribosomal peptide synthetase (nrps) genes sequenced from intertidal mudflat bacteria.nonribosomal peptide synthetases (nrps) are actively sought out, due to pharmacologically important activities of their metabolites. in marine environment, the most prevalent nonribosomal peptide antibiotic producers are sponges inhabiting microorganisms. conversely, strains from marine sediments and more especially from intertidal mudflats have not been extensively screened for the presence of new nrps. in this study, for the first time, a collection of one hundred intertidal mudflat bacterial ...201425039651
thermal treatment for pathogen inactivation as a risk mitigation strategy for safe recycling of organic waste in agriculture.thermal treatment at temperatures between 46.0°c and 55.0°c was evaluated as a method for sanitization of organic waste, a temperature interval less commonly investigated but important in connection with biological treatment processes. samples of dairy cow feces inoculated with salmonella senftenberg w775, enterococcus faecalis, bacteriophage ϕx174, and porcine parvovirus (ppv) were thermally treated using block thermostats at set temperatures in order to determine time-temperature regimes to ac ...201425035917
the surface rhamnopolysaccharide epa of enterococcus faecalis is a key determinant of intestinal colonization.enterococcus faecalis is a commensal bacterium of the human intestine and a major opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised and elderly patients. the pathogenesis of e. faecalis infection relies in part on its capacity to colonize the gut. following disruption of intestinal homeostasis, e. faecalis can overgrow, cross the intestinal barrier, and enter the lymph and bloodstream. to identify and characterize e. faecalis genes that are key to intestinal colonization, our strategy consisted in scr ...201525035517
antimicrobial effects of four intracanal medicaments on enterococcus faecalis: an in vitro study.the aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of four intracanal medicaments on enterococcus faecalis (e. faecalis).201425031593
a microleakage study of gutta-percha/ah plus and resilon/real self-etch systems after different irrigation protocols.the development and maintenance of the sealing of the root canal system is the key to the success of root canal treatment. the resin-based adhesive material has the potential to reduce the microleakage of the root canal because of its adhesive properties and penetration into dentinal walls. moreover, the irrigation protocols may have an influence on the adhesiveness of resin-based sealers to root dentin.201425025557
using color histograms and spa-lda to classify this work, a new approach is proposed to verify the differentiating characteristics of five bacteria (escherichia coli, enterococcus faecalis, streptococcus salivarius, streptococcus oralis, and staphylococcus aureus) by using digital images obtained with a simple webcam and variable selection by the successive projections algorithm associated with linear discriminant analysis (spa-lda). in this sense, color histograms in the red-green-blue (rgb), hue-saturation-value (hsv), and grayscale cha ...201425023972
revised reference broth microdilution method for testing telavancin: effect on mic results and correlation with other testing methodologies.the reference broth microdilution (bmd) antimicrobial susceptibility testing method for telavancin was revised to include dimethyl sulfoxide (dmso) as a solvent and diluent for frozen-form panel preparation, following the clsi recommendations for water-insoluble agents. polysorbate 80 (p-80) was also added to the test medium to minimize proven drug losses associated with binding to plastic surfaces. four hundred sixty-two gram-positive isolates, including a challenge set of organisms with reduce ...201425022579
role of the bacterial vaccine solco-urovac® in treatment and prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections of bacterial origin.urinary tract infections (uti) represent a serious medical problem with considerably high rate of morbidity. recurrent episodes of urinary tract infection (ruti) may commonly develop in the way of relapse or reinfection. for patients, ruti is always associated with costs, discomfort and decreased quality of life. standard treatment of ruti is through antibiotics and usually such treatment is required repeatedly. repeat course of antibiotics leads to increase of resistance of uropathogenic strain ...201425020163
susceptibility of methacrylate-based root canal filling to degradation by bacteria found in endodontic present a case of endodontic failure obturated with a methacrylate-based root filling material, resilon/realseal (rs). to determine if rs is susceptible to biodegradation by endodontically relevant microbes by a method known to show rs degradation.201425019109
erythromycin- and copper-resistant enterococcus hirae from marine sediment and co-transfer of erm(b) and tcrb to human enterococcus erythromycin-, copper- and cadmium-resistant isolate of enterococcus hirae from marine sediment was shown to harbor the plasmid pre25 and to co-transfer erm(b) and tcrb to enterococcus faecalis jh2-2. these data highlight the scope for antibiotic resistance selection by the marine environment through heavy metals and its possible involvement in antibiotic-resistant enterococcal infections.201425017384
bacterial entombment by intratubular mineralization following orthograde mineral trioxide aggregate obturation: a scanning electron microscopy study.the time domain entombment of bacteria by intratubular mineralization following orthograde canal obturation with mineral trioxide aggregate (mta) was studied by scanning electron microscopy (sem). single-rooted human premolars (n=60) were instrumented to an apical size #50/0.06 using profile and treated as follows: group 1 (n=10) was filled with phosphate buffered saline (pbs); group 2 (n=10) was incubated with enterococcus faecalis for 3 weeks, and then filled with pbs; group 3 (n=20) was obtur ...201425012869
comment on: glycopeptide use is associated with increased mortality in enterococcus faecalis bacteraemia. 201425011652
[antibiotic resistance and siderophore production in enterococci].enterococci belong to the normal bacterial flora of the gastrointensinal tract of humans. enterococci are regarded as harmless commensal, and are even believed to have probiotic characteristics. however, they can cause variety of infections, including endocarditis, bloodstream infections and urinary tract infections. during the past several decades, enterococci, and particularly enterococcus faecalis and e. faecium, have been identified as an important cause of nosocomial infections. enterococci ...201425007507
antibacterial activity of various root canal sealers and root-end filling materials in dentin blocks infected ex vivo with enterococcus faecalis.the aim was to investigate the antibacterial activity of the root-end filling materials mta and irm, different endodontic sealers and calcium hydroxide [ca(oh)₂] in experimentally infected dentinal tubules.201425005627
a in-vitro comparative study on bacterial leakage of mineral trioxide aggregate, calcium enriched cement and bone cement in furcal perforations.the aim of this study was to compare the bacterial leakage of mineral trioxide aggregate (mta), calciem enriched cement (cem), and bone cement (bc) as repair materials in furcal perforations.201425001012
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