identification and antimicrobial resistance of enterococcus spp. isolated from the river and coastal waters in northern fecal streptococci commonly inhabit the intestinal tract of humans and warm blooded animals, and daily detection of all pathogenic bacteria in coastal water is not practical, thus these bacteria are used to detect the fecal contamination of water. the present study examined the presence and the antibiotic resistance patterns of enterococcus spp. isolated from the babolrud river in babol and coastal waters in babolsar. seventy samples of water were collected in various regions of the babolrud ...201425525617
evaluation of photodynamic therapy using a diode laser and different photosensitizers against enterococcus faecalis.photodynamic therapy (pdt) has been proven to be effective in disinfecting root canals. the aim of this present study was to evaluate the effects of pdt on the viability of enterococcus faecalis using methylene blue (mb) and malachite green (mg) as photosensitizers. solutions containing e. faecalis (atcc 29212) were prepared and harvested by centrifugation to obtain cell suspensions, which were mixed with mb and mg. samples were individually irradiated by the diode laser at a distance of 1mm for ...201425523956
effects of the probiotic enterococcus faecium ncimb 10415 on selected lactic acid bacteria and enterobacteria in co-culture.enterococcus faecium ncimb 10415 is used as a probiotic for piglets and has been shown to modify the porcine intestinal microbiota. however, the mode of action of this probiotic modification is still unclear. one possible explanation is the direct growth inhibiting or stimulating effect of the probiotic on other indigenous bacteria. therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the growth interactions of the probiotic with different indigenous porcine bacteria in vitro. reference strain ...201525519527
prevalence of enterococcus faecalis and porphyromonas gingivalis in infected root canals and their susceptibility to endodontic treatment procedures: a molecular study.because apical periodontitis is recognizably an infectious disease, elimination or reduction of intracanal bacteria is of utmost importance for optimum treatment outcome.201425518530
effect of a surfactant on the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite solutions.the objective of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite (naocl) associated with a surfactant. seventy single-rooted extracted human teeth were inoculated with enterococcus faecalis, and incubated for 21 days (37 °c). the groups were distributed according to the irrigation solution used during root canal preparation: 5%, 2.5% and 1% naocl; 5%, 2.5% and 1% hypoclean®, a solution containing a surfactant (cetrimide) associated with naocl. three microbiolo ...201625517777
antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine, peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite/etidronate irrigant solutions against enterococcus faecalis evaluate the antimicrobial effect of 2.5% sodium hypochlorite alone (naocl) and associated with 9% hebp (naocl/hebp), 2% peracetic acid (paa) and 2% chlorhexidine (chx), on the viability of enterococcus faecalis biofilms attached to dentine.201525515403
[clinical efficacy of the antimicrobial drug furamag in nosocomial urinary tract infections].to evaluate the efficacy of the combined drug furamag (furasidine potassium and magnesium hydroxycarbonate) in combination with the third-generation cephalosporin cefotaxime versus cephalosporin monotherapy for nosocomial urinary tract infections (nuti).201425509895
[enterococcal infections: from simple to most complex].enterococci are microorganisms with a remar- kable ability to adapt to their environment. two species have a significant clinical implication, enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium. the risk factors for colonization and infection must be recognized, including prior treatment with antibiotics such as cephalosporins or quinolones. because of their native resistance to several classes of antibiotics and the increase of acquired resistance to penicillins, the initial empiric treatment of a ...201425507892
disinfection of gutta-percha cones using three reagents and their residual effects.the purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorehexidine and mtad in disinfecting gutta-percha cones and to analyze the surface topography of gutta-percha cones after the rapid chemical disinfection procedure.201425506147
photodynamic therapy in root canals contaminated with enterococcus faecalis using curcumin as photosensitizer.the aim of the study was to evaluate the photodynamic therapy (pdt) effect on root canals contaminated with enterococcus faecalis using a light emitting diode (led) light and a curcumin solution (cur) as photosensitizer (ps). eighty root canals from uniradicular human teeth were prepared with protaper universal rotary system and contaminated with e. faecalis for 21 days. they were divided as: gia-pdt (cur, pre-irradiation for 5 + 5 min of irradiation); gib-pdt (cur, pre-irradiation for 5 + 10 mi ...201525502831
efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy for root canals infected with enterococcus faecalis.effective decontamination of root canal systems is a constant concern in clinical practice. in this article, we compare the performance of photodynamic therapy (pdt) and sodium hypochlorite (naocl) in reducing the amount of enterococcus faecalis in root canals. relevant studies were identified by searching electronic databases, including web of science, pubmed, bvs (medline, scielo, lilacs and bbo), scopus, and cochrane, and by manually searching the references of identified studies. the terms u ...201425500925
removal of total and antibiotic resistant bacteria in advanced wastewater treatment by ozonation in combination with different filtering techniques.elimination of bacteria by ozonation in combination with charcoal or slow sand filtration for advanced sewage treatment to improve the quality of treated sewage and to reduce the potential risk for human health of receiving surface waters was investigated in pilot scale at the sewage treatment plant eriskirch, baden-wuerttemberg/germany. to determine the elimination of sewage bacteria, inflowing and leaving wastewater of different treatment processes was analysed in a culture-based approach for ...201525497174
community-acquired methicillin-resistant staphylococcus epidermidis pyelonephritis in a child: a case report.staphylococcus epidermidis is currently the most frequent pathogen of opportunistic and nosocomial infections worldwide. most cases of staphylococcus epidermidis infections are associated with indwelling medical devices and/or immunocompromised conditions. community-acquired urinary tract infections are rare, particularly among pediatric populations, and clinicians often do not consider staphylococcus epidermidis as a uropathogen.201425488491
transfer of tetracycline resistance genes with aggregation substance in food-borne enterococcus faecalis.enterococcus faecalis has the ability to conjugate with the aid of aggregation substance (as) and inducible sex pheromones to exchange genetic elements in food matrix. to evaluate the food safety condition and the transferable factor, 250 tetracycline-resistant food-borne e. faecalis were collected in korea. among the isolates, a majority of tetracycline-resistant isolates (49.6 %) harbored both the tet(m) and tet(l) genes together, followed by tet(m) (19.6 %), and tet(l) (6.8 %) alone. also, we ...201525487115
outcome of aortic valve replacement for active infective endocarditis in patients on chronic hemodialysis.the high risk of morbidity and mortality for patients on hemodialysis who are undergoing cardiac surgery is increased for those with active infective endocarditis (aie). this retrospective observational single-center study evaluated the impact of chronic hemodialysis on the outcome of aortic valve replacement in patients with aortic aie.201525483000
biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using ethanolic petals extract of rosa indica and characterization of its antibacterial, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities.the present study was aimed at biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (agnps) using ethanolic extract of rose (rosa indica) petals and testing their potential antibacterial activity using selective human pathogenic microbes, anticancer activity using human colon adenocarcinoma cancer cell line hct 15 as well as anti-inflammatory activity using rat peritoneal macrophages in vitro. the biologically synthesized agnps were also characterized by uv-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (se ...201525481491
the use of the replication region of plasmid prs7 from oenococcus oeni as a putative tool to generate cloning vectors for lactic acid bacteria.a chimeric plasmid, prs7rep (6.1 kb), was constructed using the replication region of prs7, a large plasmid from oenococcus oeni, and pem64, a plasmid derived from pij2925 and containing a gene for resistance to chloramphenicol. prs7rep is a shuttle vector that replicates in escherichia coli using its pij2925 component and in lactic acid bacteria (lab) using the replication region of prs7. high levels of transformants per µg of dna were obtained by electroporation of prs7rep into pediococcus aci ...201525479060
in vitro activity of amazon plant extracts against enterococcus faecalis.previous studies analyzing 2,200 plant extracts indicated anti-enterococcal activity in 25 extracts obtained from brazilian forests' plants. in the present study, these extracts were subjected to microdilution broth assay (mdba) and disk diffusion assay (dda) using planktonic enterococcus faecalis atcc(®) 29212™ and were submitted to phytochemical analysis in tlc and hplc. three extracts obtained from ipomoea alba (mic < 40 μg/ml), diclinanona calycina (mic ≤ 40 μg/ml) and moronobea coccinea (40 ...201425477906
atomic force microscopy visualization of injuries in enterococcus faecalis surface caused by er,cr:ysgg and diode visualize by atomic force microscopy the alterations induced on enterococcus. faecalis surface after treatment with 2 types of laser: erbium chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (er,cr:ysgg) laser and diode laser.201525475770
the influence of the wooden equipment employed for cheese manufacture on the characteristics of a traditional stretched cheese during ripening.the influence of the wooden equipment used for the traditional cheese manufacturing from raw milk was evaluated on the variations of chemico-physical characteristics and microbial populations during the ripening of caciocavallo palermitano cheese. milk from two farms (a, extensive; b, intensive) was processed in traditional and standard conditions. chemical and physical traits of cheeses were affected by the farming system and the cheese making technology, and changed during ripening. content in ...201525475270
an agmatine-inducible system for the expression of recombinant proteins in enterococcus faecalis.scientific interest in enterococcus faecalis has increased greatly over recent decades. some strains are involved in food fermentation and offer health benefits, whereas others are vancomycin-resistant and cause infections that are difficult to treat. the limited availability of vectors able to express cloned genes efficiently in e. faecalis has hindered biotechnological studies on the bacterium's regulatory and pathogenicity-related genes. the agmatine deiminase (agdi) pathway of e. faecalis, i ...201425471381
antibacterial effect of calcium hydroxide combined with chlorhexidine on enterococcus faecalis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.enterococcus faecalis (e. faecalis) is the most frequently isolated strain in failed endodontic therapy cases since it is resistant to calcium hydroxide (ch). whether a combination of ch and chlorhexidine (chx) is more effective than ch alone against e. faecalis is a matter of controversy. thus, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature.201725466470
photoactivation of curcumin and sodium hypochlorite to enhance antibiofilm efficacy in root canal test the effect of ultrasonic or light activated curcumin and sodium hypochlorite against enterococcus faecalis biofilms in vitro.201525462576
penicillin-resistant, ampicillin-susceptible enterococcus faecalis of hospital origin: pbp4 gene polymorphism and genetic diversity.despite the spread of penicillin-resistant, ampicillin-susceptible enterococcus faecalis (prasef) isolates in diverse countries, the mechanisms leading to this unusual resistance phenotype have not yet been investigated. the aim of this study was to evaluate whether polymorphism in the pbp4 gene is associated with penicillin resistance in prasef isolates and to determine their genetic diversity. e. faecalis isolates were recovered from different clinical specimens of hospitalized patients from f ...201425445645
[enterococcal infections: from simple to most complex].enterococci are microorganisms with a remar- kable ability to adapt to their environment. two species have a significant clinical implication, enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium. the risk factors for colonization and infection must be recognized, including prior treatment with antibiotics such as cephalosporins or quinolones. because of their native resistance to several classes of antibiotics and the increase of acquired resistance to penicillins, the initial empiric treatment of a ...201425438375
the question of pathogen quantification in disinfected graywater.graywater (gw) reuse for irrigation is recognized as a sustainable solution for water conservation. one of the major impediments to gw reuse is the presence of pathogenic microorganisms. this study monitored three similar on-site gw treatment systems bi-monthly over the course of a year to compare the presence of pathogens and indicators in raw, biologically treated, and biologically treated and disinfected [by chlorine and ultraviolet light (uv)] gw. the systems were designed to allow the testi ...201525437766
in-vitro screening of malaysian honey from different floral sources for antibacterial activity on human pathogenic bacteria.different researches on therapeutic effects of honey have been conducted in different regions; however the study on the potential antibacterial activity of malaysian honey is still limited. in this study, antibacterial activities of different monofloral honey samples were tested against several common human pathogenic bacteria.201425435614
assessment of the in vitro synergy of daptomycin plus linezolid against multidrug-resistant enterococci.the widespread incidence of enterococci resistant to ampicillin, vancomycin and aminoglycosides, the first-line anti-enterococcal antibiotics, has made the treatment of severe enterococcal infections difficult and alternatives should be explored. we investigated the activity of daptomycin combined with linezolid against three enterococcus faecalis and four enterococcus faecium strains resistant to standard drugs used for therapy. minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics) were determined by the br ...201427873692
vancomycin-resistant enterococci: troublemaker of the 21st century.the emergence of multidrug-resistant and vancomycin-resistant enterococci during the last decade has made it difficult to treat nosocomial infections. although various enterococcal species have been identified, only two (enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium) are responsible for the majority of human infections. vancomycin is an important therapeutic alternative against multidrug-resistant enterococci but is associated with a poor prognosis. resistance to vancomycin dramatically reduces ...201427873678
effect of zirconium oxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles on physicochemical properties and antibiofilm activity of a calcium silicate-based material.the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibiofilm activity against enterococcus faecalis, compressive strength. and radiopacity of portland cement (pc) added to zirconium oxide (zro2), as radiopacifier, with or without nanoparticulated zinc oxide (zno). the following experimental materials were evaluated: pc, pc + zro2, pc + zro2 + zno (5%), and pc + zro2 + zno (10%). antibiofilm activity was analyzed by using direct contact test (dct) on enterococcus faecalis biofilm, for 5 h or 15 h ...201425431798
enterococcus faecalis pcf10-encoded surface proteins prga, prgb (aggregation substance) and prgc contribute to plasmid transfer, biofilm formation and virulence.enterococcus faecalis pcf10 transfers at high frequencies upon pheromone induction of the prgq transfer operon. this operon codes for three cell wall-anchored proteins - prga, prgb (aggregation substance) and prgc - and a type iv secretion system through which the plasmid is delivered to recipient cells. here, we defined the contributions of the prg surface proteins to plasmid transfer, biofilm formation and virulence using the caenorhabditis elegans infection model. we report that a combination ...201525431047
antimicrobial bioassay-guided fractionation of a methanol extract of eupatorium triplinerve.eupatorium triplinerve vahl (asteraceae), popularly known as japana, is widely used in folk medicine, due its analgesic, anticoagulant, antianorexic, antiparasitic, anthelmintic, sedative, antifungal, and antibacterial properties.201525430540
in vitro activity of heather [calluna vulgaris (l.) hull] extracts on selected urinary tract pathogens.calluna vulgaris l. hull (ericaceae) has been used for treatment of urinary tract infections in traditional medicine. in this study we analyzed in vitro antibacterial activity of the plant extracts on different strains of escherichia coli, enterococcus faecalis and proteus vulgaris, as well as the concentrations of total phenols and flavonoids in the extracts. minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) and minimum bactericidal concentration (mbc) were determined. the concentrations of total phenols ...201425428676
in vitro and in vivo activity of hyperimmune globulin preparations against multiresistant nosocomial pathogens.we compared different immunoglobulin preparations containing igg (intraglobin/intratect) or a mixture of igg, iga, and igm (pentaglobin) to assess the opsonic and protective efficacy of human immunoglobulin preparations against multiresistent nosocomial pathogens.201525428225
bacterial leakage in root canals filled with resin-based and mineral trioxide aggregate-based sealers.sealing ability is one of the most important features of endodontic sealers. the purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the sealing ability of a resin-based sealer with a mineral trioxide aggregate-based sealer.201425426153
comparative structural and functional analysis of staphylococcus aureus glucokinase with other bacterial glucokinases.glucokinase is classified in bacteria based upon having atp binding site and 'repressor/open reading frames of unknown function/sugar kinases' motif, the sequence of glucokinase gene (jn645812) of staphylococcus aureus atcc12600 showed presence of atp binding site and 'repressor/open reading frames of unknown function/sugar kinases' motif. we have earlier observed glucokinase of s. aureus has higher affinity towards the substrate compared to other bacterial glucokinase and under anaerobic condit ...201425425757
mechanical reduction of the intracanal enterococcus faecalis population by hyflex cm, k3xf, protaper next, and two manual instrument systems: an in vitro comparative the present study, the effectiveness of three rotary and two manual nickel titanium instrument systems on mechanical reduction of the intracanal enterococcus faecalis population was evaluated.201625424649
definitive structural assessment of enterococcal diheteroglycan.enterococcus faecalis is one of most important nosocomial and often multi-antibiotic resistant pathogens responsible for infections that are difficult to treat. previously, a cell-wall polysaccharide termed diheteroglycan (dhg) was isolated and characterized as a promising vaccine candidate. however, the configuration of its lactic acid (la) residue attached to the galactofuranoside unit was not assessed, although it influences conformation of dhg chain in terms of biological recognition and imm ...201525421964
blood stream infections in renal transplant recipients: a single-center study.bacteremias among renal transplant recipients are more frequent as a result of immunosuppression. they are considered extremely high-risk because they are correlated with decreased allograft and recipient survival.201425420856
mechanisms of linezolid resistance in staphylococci and enterococci isolated from two teaching hospitals in shanghai, china.linezolid is one of the most effective treatments against gram-positive pathogens. however, linezolid-resistant/intermediate strains have recently emerged in worldwide. the purpose of this study was to analyse the prevalence and resistance mechanisms of linezolid-resistant/intermediate staphylococci and enterococci in shanghai, china.201425420718
effects of adsorbed and templated nanosilver in mesoporous calcium-silicate nanoparticles on inhibition of bacteria colonization of dentin.mesoporous calcium-silicate nanoparticles (mcsns) are advanced biomaterials for controlled drug delivery and mineralization induction. nanosilver-incorporated mcsns (ag-mcsns) were prepared in the present study using both the adsorption and template methods. both versions of ag-mcsns showed characteristic morphology of mesoporous materials and exhibited sustained release of ions over time. in antibacterial testing against planktonic enterococcus faecalis, ag-mcsns showed significantly better ant ...201425419127
molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance of enterococcus species from gut microbiota of chilean altiplano camelids.enterococcus is one of the major human pathogens able to acquire multiple antibiotic-resistant markers as well as virulence factors which also colonize remote ecosystems, including wild animals. in this work, we characterized the enterococcus population colonizing the gut of chilean altiplano camelids without foreign human contact.201425405007
role of secondary metabolites in establishment of the mutualistic partnership between xenorhabdus nematophila and the entomopathogenic nematode steinernema carpocapsae.xenorhabdus nematophila engages in a mutualistic partnership with the nematode steinernema carpocapsae, which invades insects, migrates through the gut, and penetrates into the hemocoel (body cavity). we showed previously that during invasion of manduca sexta, the gut microbe staphylococcus saprophyticus appeared transiently in the hemocoel, while enterococcus faecalis proliferated as x. nematophila became dominant. x. nematophila produces diverse secondary metabolites, including the major water ...201525398871
anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant activities of leaf extracts of combretum vendae (combretecacea) and the isolation of an anti-bacterial compound.combretum vendae a.e. van wyk (combretaceae) is used for the treatment of bacterial related infections and oxidative related diseases by indigenous people of south africa. dried leaves extracts of c. vendae were investigated for bioactivity against a variety of bacterial strains and their antioxidant potential evaluated.201425395708
australian enterococcal sepsis outcome progamme, 2011.from 1 january to 31 december 2011, 29 institutions around australia participated in the australian enterococcal sepsis outcome programme (aesop). the aim of aesop 2011 was to determine the proportion of enterococcal bacteraemia isolates in australia that are antimicrobial resistant, with particular emphasis on susceptibility to ampicillin and the glycopeptides, and to characterise the molecular epidemiology of the enterococcus faecalis and e. faecium isolates. of the 1,079 unique episodes of ba ...201425391408
estimation of cultivable bacterial diversity in the cloacae and pharynx in eurasian griffon vultures (gyps fulvus).in this work, we describe the biodiversity of cloacal and pharynx culture-based bacteria (commensal and pathogenic), in 75 eurasian griffon vultures (gyps fulvus) from two geographic areas. we address the question of whether the cultivable microbiota of vultures is organised into assemblages occurring by chance. in addition, we assess bacterial diversity in both anatomic regions and geographic areas. bacterial diversity was represented by 26 gram-negative and 20 gram-positive genera. the most co ...201525388757
comparative prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in community-acquired urinary tract infection cases from representative states of northern and southern india.urinary tract infections (utis) are amongst the most common infections described in outpatient settings. increased antimicrobial resistance (amr) of urinary tract pathogens is a matter of global public health concern. treatment of uti depends on both prevalence and antimicrobial resistance (amr) of causative bacteria at any specific geographical location.201425386432
an in vitro comparison of the antibacterial efficacy of triphala with different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite.the antimicrobial efficacy of root canal irrigant plays an important role in increasing the success of root canal treatment (rct). the aim of the present experimental study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of triphala (a plant-derived solution) with 0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5% concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (naocl), against enterococcus faecalis (e. faecalis).201425386211
enterococcus faecalis 6-phosphogluconolactonase is required for both commensal and pathogenic interactions with manduca sexta.enterococcus faecalis is a commensal and pathogen of humans and insects. in manduca sexta, e. faecalis is an infrequent member of the commensal gut community, but its translocation to the hemocoel results in a commensal-to-pathogen switch. to investigate e. faecalis factors required for commensalism, we identified e. faecalis genes that are upregulated in the gut of m. sexta using recombinase-based in vivo expression technology (rivet). the rivet screen produced 113 clones, from which we identif ...201525385794
the polyamine n-acetyltransferase-like enzyme pmve plays a role in the virulence of enterococcus faecalis.we previously showed that the mutant strain of enterococcus faecalis lacking the transcriptional regulator slya is more virulent than the parental strain. we hypothesized that this phenotype was due to overexpression of the second gene of the slya operon, ef_3001, renamed pmve (for polyamine metabolism and virulence of e. faecalis). pmve shares strong homologies with n(1)-spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase enzymes involved in the metabolism of polyamines. in this study, we used an e. faecalis ...201525385793
the two-component system grvrs (etars) regulates ace expression in enterococcus faecalis og1rf.expression of ace (adhesin to collagen of enterococcus faecalis), encoding a virulence factor in endocarditis and urinary tract infection models, has been shown to increase under certain conditions, such as in the presence of serum, bile salts, urine, and collagen and at 46 °c. however, the mechanism of ace/ace regulation under different conditions is still unknown. in this study, we identified a two-component regulatory system grvrs as the main regulator of ace expression under these stress con ...201525385790
an in vivo comparison of internal bacterial colonization in two dental implant systems: identification of a pathogenic reservoir.the aim of this study was to compare internal bacterial colonization in two implant systems, one screw root form (srf) with an external hexagon connection and one plateau root form (prf) with a morse taper internal connection.201525385682
identification of peptidoglycan-associated proteins as vaccine candidates for enterococcal infections.infections by opportunistic bacteria have significant contributions to morbidity and mortality of hospitalized patients and also lead to high expenses in healthcare. in this setting, one of the major clinical problems is caused by gram-positive bacteria such as enterococci and staphylococci. in this study we extract, purify, identify and characterize immunogenic surface-exposed proteins present in the vancomycin resistant enterococci (vre) strain enterococcus faecium e155 using three different e ...201425369230
antibacterial efficacy of aqueous ozone in root canals infected by enterococcus endodontics, the elimination of resistant bacteria such as enterococcus faecalis plays an important role for treatment success in root canals. therefore, new alternative irrigants (instead of sodium hypochlorite) have been researched to achieve ideal endodontic treatment.201425368798
bacteriocin protein bacl1 of enterococcus faecalis targets cell division loci and specifically recognizes l-ala2-cross-bridged peptidoglycan.bacteriocin 41 (bac41) is produced from clinical isolates of enterococcus faecalis and consists of two extracellular proteins, bacl1 and baca. we previously reported that bacl1 protein (595 amino acids, 64.5 kda) is a bacteriolytic peptidoglycan d-isoglutamyl-l-lysine endopeptidase that induces cell lysis of e. faecalis when an accessory factor, baca, is copresent. however, the target of bacl1 remains unknown. in this study, we investigated the targeting specificity of bacl1. fluorescence micros ...201525368300
effect of photodynamic therapy (pdt) on enterococcus faecalis biofilm in experimental primary and secondary endodontic determine the antibacterial effect of photodynamic therapy on enterococcus faecalis (e. faecalis) biofilms in experimentally infected human root canals in primary infections and endodontic retreatments.201425366394
activity of oritavancin against gram-positive clinical isolates responsible for documented skin and soft-tissue infections in european and us hospitals (2010-13).to assess oritavancin activity in vitro against clinically relevant gram-positive pathogens causing skin and soft-tissue infections (sstis) in european and us hospitals.201525362568
a liar deletion restores susceptibility to daptomycin and antimicrobial peptides in multidrug-resistant enterococcus faecalis.daptomycin is a lipopeptide antibiotic that is used clinically against many gram-positive bacterial pathogens and is considered a key frontline bactericidal antibiotic to treat multidrug-resistant enterococci. emergence of daptomycin resistance during therapy of serious enterococcal infections is a major clinical issue. in this work, we show that deletion of the gene encoding the response regulator, liar (a member of the liafsr system that controls cell envelope homeostasis), from daptomycin-res ...201525362197
genomic annotation for the temperate phage efc-1, isolated from enterococcus faecalis kbl101.the temperate phage efc-1 was newly isolated from a mitomycin-c-induced lysate of enterococcus faecalis kbl101. efc-1 has an isometric head and a long tail. the phage belongs to the family siphoviridae according to its genomic structure and morphology. the phage efc-1 has 40,286 base pairs of double-stranded dna and a g+c content of 35.05 %. bioinformatic analysis of the phage revealed 60 putative open reading frames (orfs). the genome of the temperate phage efc-1 was not significantly similar t ...201525359106
healthcare-associated infective endocarditis: a case series in a referral hospital from 2006 to infective endocarditis (hca-ie), a severe complication of medical care, shows a growing incidence in literature.201425352503
[study of association between parvimonas micra and pulp dominant pathogens in the infected root canals with chronic periradicular periodontitis].to study the prevalence of parvimonas micra (pm) and the associations between pm and pulp dominant pathogens in order to reflect the colonization of pm in the infected root canals with chronic periradicular periodontitis.201425351224
baseline activity of telavancin against gram-positive clinical isolates responsible for documented infections in u.s. hospitals (2011-2012) as determined by the revised susceptibility testing method.telavancin had mic50 and mic90 values of 0.03 and 0.06 μg/ml (100.0% susceptible), respectively, against methicillin-resistant and -susceptible staphylococcus aureus. telavancin was active against vancomycin-susceptible enterococcus faecalis (mic50/90, 0.12/0.12 μg/ml; 100% susceptible) and enterococcus faecium (mic50/90, 0.03/0.06 μg/ml), while higher mic values were obtained against vancomycin-resistant e. faecium (mic50/90, 1/2 μg/ml) and e. faecalis (mic50/90, >2/>2 μg/ml). streptococci show ...201525348529
riboflavin-shuttled extracellular electron transfer from enterococcus faecalis to electrodes in microbial fuel cells.great attention has been focused on gram-negative bacteria in the application of microbial fuel cells. in this study, the gram-positive bacterium enterococcus faecalis was employed in microbial fuel cells. bacterial biofilms formed by e. faecalis zer6 were investigated with respect to electricity production through the riboflavin-shuttled extracellular electron transfer. trace riboflavin was shown to be essential for transferring electrons derived from the oxidation of glucose outside the peptid ...201425345758
engineering acetyl coenzyme a supply: functional expression of a bacterial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the cytosol of saccharomyces cerevisiae.the energetic (atp) cost of biochemical pathways critically determines the maximum yield of metabolites of vital or commercial relevance. cytosolic acetyl coenzyme a (acetyl-coa) is a key precursor for biosynthesis in eukaryotes and for many industrially relevant product pathways that have been introduced into saccharomyces cerevisiae, such as isoprenoids or lipids. in this yeast, synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-coa via acetyl-coa synthetase (acs) involves hydrolysis of atp to amp and pyrophosphat ...201425336454
oxidative stress enhances cephalosporin resistance of enterococcus faecalis through activation of a two-component signaling system.enterococcus faecalis is a low-gc gram-positive bacterium, a normal resident of the gastrointestinal (gi) tract, and an important hospital-acquired pathogen. an important risk factor for hospital-acquired enterococcal infections is prior therapy with broad-spectrum cephalosporins, antibiotics that impair cell wall biosynthesis by inhibiting peptidoglycan cross-linking. enterococci are intrinsically resistant to cephalosporins; however, environmental factors that modulate cephalosporin resistance ...201525331701
central line associated blood stream infection rate after intervention and comparing outcome with national healthcare safety network and international nosocomial infection control consortium data.benchmarking of central line associated blood stream infection (clabsi) rates remains a problem in developing countries due to the variations in surveillance practices and/or infection risk as non-availability of national data.201425328774
distribution of human-specific bacteroidales and fecal indicator bacteria in an urban watershed impacted by sewage pollution, determined using rna- and dna-based quantitative pcr assays.the identification of fecal pollution sources is commonly carried out using dna-based methods. however, there is evidence that dna can be associated with dead cells or present as "naked dna" in the environment. furthermore, it has been shown that rrna-targeted reverse transcription-quantitative pcr (rt-qpcr) assays can be more sensitive than rrna gene-based qpcr assays since metabolically active cells usually contain higher numbers of ribosomes than quiescent cells. to this end, we compared the ...201525326295
assessing outcomes of adult oncology patients treated with linezolid versus daptomycin for bacteremia due to vancomycin-resistant enterococcus.the incidence and severity of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus blood stream infections continue to rise and is a significant burden in the healthcare setting. literature thus far is minimal regarding treatment outcomes in patients with malignancy and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus bacteremia. appropriate antibiotic selection is vital to treatment success due to high rates of resistance, limited antimicrobials and mortality in this patient population. we conducted this study to determine whet ...201625326010
pyranoside-into-furanoside rearrangement: new reaction in carbohydrate chemistry and its application in oligosaccharide synthesis.great interest in natural furanoside-containing compounds has challenged the development of preparative methods for their synthesis. herein a novel reaction in carbohydrate chemistry, namely a pyranoside-into-furanoside (pif) rearrangement permitting the transformation of selectively o-substituted pyranosides into the corresponding furanosides is reported. the discovered process includes acid-promoted sulfation accompanied by rearrangement of the pyranoside ring into a furanoside ring followed b ...201425319316
optimizing therapy for vancomycin-resistant enterococcal bacteremia in children.uncertainties exist regarding the optimal treatment for vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (vre) bloodstream infections, particularly in settings in which ampicillin cannot be used.201425313503
the type i toxin-antitoxin par locus from enterococcus faecalis plasmid pad1: rna regulation by both cis- and trans-acting elements.the pad1 par determinant was the first type i toxin-antitoxin system identified in gram-positive bacteria and has recently been shown to be the prototype of a family of loci that is widespread in these organisms. all family members have (i) convergently transcribed toxin message and regulatory rnas, (ii) three non-contiguous complementary regions for potential interaction, and (iii) intramolecular structures within the toxin message that modulate translation and transcript stability. therefore, ...201525312777
enterococcus faecalis zinc-responsive proteins mediate bacterial defence against zinc overload, lysozyme and oxidative stress.two enterococcus faecalis genes encoding the p-type atpase ef1400 and the putative sapb protein ef0759 were previously shown to be strongly upregulated in the presence of high concentrations of zinc. in the present work, we showed that a zn(2+)-responsive dna-binding motif (zim) is present in the promoter regions of these genes. both proteins were further studied with respect to their involvement in zinc homeostasis and invasion of the host. ef0759 contributed to intramacrophage survival by an a ...201425312746
antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of polysaccharides, essential oil, and fatty oil extracted from laurus nobilis growing in evaluate the antibacterial activity of the extracts of laurus nobilis against three gram-positive bacteria (staphylococcus aureus atcc 25923, enterococcus faecalis atcc 29212 and staphylococcus epidermidis cip 444) and two gram-negative bacteria (escherichia coli atcc 35218 and pseudomonas aeruginosa atcc 27853). also, the antibiofilm activity has been investigated against the biofilm produced by staphylococcus epidermidis cip 444.201425312182
novel in vitro methodology for induction of enterococcus faecalis biofilm on apical resorption areas.teeth with periapical lesion usually present external root resorption around the apical foramen. these areas facilitate adhesion and co-aggregation of microorganisms developing biofilms. up to the present moment, there is no methodology in the literature that enables the in vitro evaluation of endodontic irrigants and intracanal dressings on biofilms located in apical external root resorptions of human teeth.201425307923
ceftobiprole and ampicillin increase daptomycin susceptibility of daptomycin-susceptible and -resistant vre.the synergistic combination of daptomycin plus ampicillin has proven to be effective against vre including daptomycin-non-susceptible strains. ceftobiprole is a cephalosporin with broad binding affinity for enterococcal pbp subtypes including pbp5. given the synergy between β-lactams and daptomycin against vre, it was of interest to determine whether ceftobiprole offered any synergistic advantage with daptomycin compared with ampicillin.201525304643
comparison of the antibacterial efficacy of manuka honey against e.faecalis and e.coli - an in vitro compare the antibacterial efficacy of manuka honey against e.faecalis and e.coli.201425302263
a delicate balance: maintaining mutualism to prevent disease.the intestinal microbial ecosystem is complex, and few of the principles that contribute to homeostasis in health are well understood. pham et al. (2014) show that a network including the epithelial interleukin-22 receptor protects against infection with the opportunistic pathogen enterococcus faecalis through promotion of host-microbiota mutualism.201425299326
viability and antibacterial efficacy of four root canal disinfection techniques evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy.several disinfection techniques have been recently introduced with the main objective of improving root canal disinfection in the inaccessible areas of the root canal system. this in vitro study was done to evaluate the antimicrobial effect and viability of enterococcus faecalis biofilms using conventional irrigation, endoactivator (dentsply, tulsa dental, usa), diode laser irradiation and photon-initiated photoacoustic streaming (pips).201425298645
antibacterial effect of triantibiotic mixture versus calcium hydroxide in combination with active agents against enterococcus faecalis biofilm.the aim of the present study was to compare the antibacterial effect of calcium hydroxide (ch), triantibiotic mixture (tam), and ch in combination with chlorhexidine (chx), sodium hypochlorite (naocl) or colchicine (col) against enterococcus faecalis (e. faecalis) in surface and deep dentinal tubules. seventy five fresh single-rooted human teeth were infected and divided into five experimental groups (n=15). the experimental groups were treated with ch+distilled water, ch+chx, ch+naocl, ch+col+d ...201425297855
a novel role for d-alanylation of lipoteichoic acid of enterococcus faecalis in urinary tract infection.enterococci are the third most common cause of healthcare-associated infections, which include urinary tract infections, bacteremia and endocarditis. cell-surface structures such as lipoteichoic acid (lta) have been poorly examined in e. faecalis, especially with respect to urinary tract infections (utis). the dlt operon is responsible for the d-alanylation of lta and includes the gene dlta, which encodes the d-alanyl carrier protein ligase (dcl). the involvement of lta in uti infection by e. fa ...201425296179
in vitro activity of oritavancin against gram-positive pathogens isolated in canadian hospital laboratories from 2011 to 2013.gram-positive pathogens isolated in 15 canadian hospital laboratories between 2011 and 2013 were tested for susceptibility to oritavancin and comparative antimicrobial agents using the clinical and laboratory standards institute broth microdilution method. oritavancin demonstrated in vitro activity equivalent to, or more potent than, vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, and tigecycline against the isolates of methicillin-susceptible staphylococcus aureus (n=1460; oritavancin mic90, 0.06 μg/ml; 99. ...201425294303
large vegetation in a 60-year-old man with enterococcus faecalis cardiac implantable electronic device infection. 201425293687
complete genome assembly of enterococcus faecalis 29212, a laboratory reference strain.enterococcus faecalis is a nonmotile gram-positive coccus, found both as a commensal organism in healthy humans and animals and as a causative agent of multiple diseases, in particular endocarditis. we sequenced the genome of e. faecalis atcc 29212, a commonly used reference strain in laboratory studies, to complete "finished" annotated assembly (3 mb).201425291775
infantile subdural empyema: the role of brain sonography and percutaneous subdural tapping in a resource-challenged region.this study explored the outcome of children with patent anterior fontanelles who were treated with trans-fontanelle ultrasound scan (tfuss), which is more affordable and available than ct scan and mri in the diagnosis of childhood intracranial pathologies and treatment of subdural empyema, in developing countries.201425288836
effects of storage temperature on tyramine production by enterococcus faecalis r612z1 in water-boiled salted ducks.tyramine production by enterococcus faecalis r612z1 in water-boiled salted ducks was evaluated during storage at different temperatures. the results showed that e. faecalis r612z1 could produce tyramine in meat samples when the storage temperature was no less than 4°c. the e. faecalis r612z1 counts of the meat samples reached 10(8) cfu/g on day 7 at 4°c and on day 4 at 10°c. however, the tyramine content of the meat samples stored at 10°c increased to 23.73 μg/g (on day 10), which was greater th ...201425285502
mapping of the modular closthioamide architecture reveals crucial motifs of polythioamide antibiotics.closthioamide, the first known secondary metabolite from an anaerobic microorganism (clostridium cellulolyticum), represents a highly potent antibiotic that is active against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (mrsa) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis (vre) at nanomolar concentrations. to unveil structure-activity relationships of the unusual polythioamide natural product we have designed a synthetic grid to access analogues with altered terminal aromatic moieties, diverse p ...201425284750
a comparative evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of 'activ points' and 'combi points' as intra-canal medicaments against enterococcus faecalis: an ex vivo study.enterococcus faecalis has been found to be one of the most predominant bacterial species associated with failed endodontic cases. the ability of this microbe to form biofilms; penetrate into dentinal tubules; survival in low ph, high salinity and high temperatures and resistance to many intracanal medicaments, makes it one of the most resistant pathogen of all the root canal flora. studies have shown that chlorhexidine is relatively more effective against e. faecalis as compared to other intra c ...201425284521
new antibacterial xanthone from the marine sponge-derived micrococcus sp. eg45.microluside a [4 (19-para-hydroxy benzoyloxy-o-β-d-cellobiosyl), 5 (30-para-hydroxy benzoyloxy-o-β-d-glucopyranosyl) xanthone (1)] is a unique o-glycosylated disubstituted xanthone isolated from the broth culture of micrococcus sp. eg45 cultivated from the red sea sponge spheciospongia vagabunda. the structure of microluside a was determined by 1d- and 2d-nmr techniques as well as high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. the antimicrobial activity evaluation showed that 1 exhibited antibacteria ...201425283555
comparative evaluation of calcium hypochlorite and sodium hypochlorite associated with passive ultrasonic irrigation on antimicrobial activity of a root canal system infected with enterococcus faecalis: an in vitro study.the purpose of this study was to compare in vitro the effectiveness of calcium hypochlorite (ca[ocl]2) and sodium hypochlorite (naocl) associated with passive ultrasonic irrigation in root canals of bovine teeth infected with enterococcus faecalis.201425282371
biohybrid polymer-antimicrobial peptide medium against enterococcus faecalis.antimicrobial peptides (amps) are conserved evolutionary components of the innate immune system that are being tested as alternatives to antibiotics. slow release of amps using biodegradable polymers can be advantageous in maintaining high peptide levels for topical treatment, especially in the oral environment in which dosage retention is challenged by drug dilution with saliva flow and by drug inactivation by salivary enzymatic activity. enterococcus faecalis is a multidrug resistant nosocomia ...201425279943
evolution of the resistance to antibiotics of bacteria involved in urinary tract infections: a 7-year surveillance study.we conducted a retrospective analysis on the identification and antibiogram of all bacteria isolated from urine samples with microbiological confirmation of urinary tract infection (uti) in a spanish reference hospital over a 7-year period.201425278389
commensal bacteria directly suppress in vitro degranulation of mast cells in a myd88-independent manner.the intestine harbors a substantial number of commensal bacteria that provide considerable benefits to the host. epidemiologic studies have identified associations between alterations in the composition of the intestinal microbiota and the development of allergic disease. however, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these effects remain to be determined. here, we show that heat-killed commensal bacteria suppressed degranulation of mast cells in vitro in a myd88-independent manner. i ...201425273132
positively charged imidazolium-based ionic liquid-protected silver nanoparticles: a promising disinfectant in root canal synthesize and characterize silver nanoparticles (ag nps) with different surface charges in order to evaluate their cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity in the absence and presence of dentine compared with naocl and chx.201525269666
selection of potential probiotic enterococcus faecium isolated from portuguese fermented food.four enterococcus faecium strains isolated from fermented products were evaluated for potential use as probiotic strains. in addition to efaafm gene, commonly found in e. faecium food isolates, none of the isolates possessed virulence genes and none had positive reactions for the production of tyramine, histamine, putrescine and cadaverine in the screening medium used. all of these four isolates proved to be resistant to 65 °c. e. faecium 119 did not show antimicrobial activity against any of th ...201425268323
a comparative study on sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate, calcium enriched cement and bone cement in furcal perforations.the aim of this study was to compare the bacterial leakage of mineral trioxide aggregate (mta), calcium enriched cement (cem), and bone cement (bc) as repair materials in furcal perforations.201425267149
antimicrobial activity of a sodium hypochlorite/etidronic acid irrigant solution.the aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of a 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (naocl)/9% etidronic acid (hebp) irrigant solution on enterococcus faecalis growing in biofilms and a dentinal tubule infection model.201425266466
in vitro evaluation of antibacterial effect of ah plus incorporated with quaternary ammonium epoxy silicate against enterococcus faecalis.the purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial effect of ah plus (dentsply, detrey, konstanz, germany) incorporated with quaternary ammonium epoxy silicate (qaes) against enterococcus faecalis.201425260732
a widely used in vitro biofilm assay has questionable clinical significance for enterococcal endocarditis.biofilm formation may play an important role in the pathogenesis of infections caused by enterococcus faecalis, including endocarditis. most biofilm studies use a polystyrene dish assay to quantify biofilm biomass. however, recent studies of e. faecalis strains in tissue and animal models suggest that polystyrene dish results need to be interpreted with caution. we evaluated 158 clinical e. faecalis isolates using a polystyrene dish assay and found variation in biofilm formation, with many isola ...201425255085
intestinal translocation of clinical isolates of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis and esbl-producing escherichia coli in a rat model of bacterial colonization and liver ischemia/reperfusion injury.the objectives of this study were to develop a rat model of gastrointestinal colonization with vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis (vre) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (esbl)-producing e. coli and to evaluate intestinal translocation to blood and tissues after total and partial hepatic ischemia. methods - we developed a model of rat colonization with vre and esbl-e coli. then we studied four groups of colonized rats: group i (with hepatic pedicle occlusion causing complete liver isc ...201425255079
measurement of cytokine levels in cerebrospinal fluid over time in neonatal enterococcal meningitis.enterococcus faecalis is rarely involved in neonatal meningitis. several studies have indicated that the cytokines related to bacterial infection may induce nerve cell damage; therefore, the cytokine levels in cerebrospinal fluid (csf) could represent a valuable hallmark for rapid recognition of the disease and evaluation of the degree of neurological involvement. we analyzed cytokine levels in the csf of a neonate with e. faecalis meningitis over time. tumor necrosis factor-α (tnf-α) tended to ...201425252071
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