[clinical features of enterococcal septicemia and antimicrobial susceptibilities for clinical isolates of enterococci in nagoya university hospital].enterococci are important causative organisms of nosocomial infections as well as methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas aeruginosa. enterococcal bacteremia has been increased in nagoya university hospital from april 1983 to march 1990. we analyzed the clinical backgrounds, portal of entry and mortality for the patients with enterococcal septicemia. thirty-four cases with enterococcal septicemia (24 enterococcus faecalis, 10 enterococcus faecium) were subjected in this study ...19911761891
synthesis and antimicrobial activities of some new tetrahydro-2h-1,3,5-thiadiazine-2-thione derivatives of cefadroxil.eleven new 7-[2-(dihydro-5-substituted-6-thioxo-2h-1,3,5-thiadiazine-3( 4h)-yl)-2- (4-hydroxyphenyl)acetamido]-3-methyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of cefadroxil monohydrate, formaldehyde and substituted potassium dithiocarbamate. their structures have been elucidated by spectral data and elementary analysis. the title compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity in vitro against gram-positive bacteria (staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus faecalis ...19911763954
detection of penicillin-binding proteins immunologically related to penicillin-binding protein 5 of enterococcus hirae atcc 9790 in enterococcus faecium and enterococcus faecalis.penicillin-binding protein (pbp) 5 of enterococcus hirae atcc 9790 belongs to the class of the high-molecular mass, low-affinity pbps which have been correlated with penicillin resistance in most enterococcus species. polyclonal antibodies were raised against pbp 5 and used to detect immunologically related membrane proteins in e. faecium and e. faecalis strains. several strains of both species were found to have a membrane protein of similar molecular mass to e. hirae pbp 5 which reacted with t ...19911769542
[common pathogens in burn infection and changes in their drug sensitivity].this paper reports common pathogens in burn infection and changes in their drug sensitivity from 1985 to 1988. gram negative rods constituted 55.7% of all pathogens, while 40.5% were gram positive cocci. the former group consisted of 173 strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa (28.5%), 55 proteus (9.1%), 33 serratia (5.4%), 23 klebsiella (3.8%) 19, acinetobacter (3.1%), 18 enterobacter (3.0%) and 17 e. coli (2.8%). among gram-positive cocci, staphylococcus aureus accounted for 32.8%, staphylococcus ep ...19911773380
epidemiology of an endemic strain of beta-lactamase-producing enterococcus faecalis.three previously reported beta-lactamase-producing (bla+) enterococci with distinct but related antibiotic resistance phenotypes, plasmid profiles, and plasmid restriction endonuclease digestion patterns were isolated at the west haven veterans administration medical center in connecticut (wh245, wh257, wh571) in july 1986 and march 1987. in this study, we analyzed the whole-cell dna of these isolates by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of large chromosomal fragments generated by smai dige ...19911774257
detection of high-level aminoglycoside resistance in enterococci other than enterococcus faecalis.the ability of six screening methods to detect high-level aminoglycoside resistance in enterococcal species other than enterococcus faecalis was investigated. the 85 enterococcus isolates, which included 55 e. faecium, 11 e. gallinarum, 9 e. casseliflavus, 5 e. raffinosus, 4 e. avium, and 1 e. mundtii, were tested by using aminoglycoside-supplemented brain heart infusion agar (bhi), remel ef synergy quad plates, high-content aminoglycoside diffusion disks, standard (prepared in-house) microdilut ...19911774267
inability of cephalothin testing to predict cefprozil susceptibility.the 30-micrograms cefprozil disk and the cephalosporin class (30-micrograms cephalothin) disk were compared for their abilities to predict cefprozil susceptibility by agar disk diffusion testing. high error (5.02% major and 14.11% minor) rates were encountered with the cephalothin disk and were most frequently observed for escherichia coli and enterococcus faecalis. the cefprozil disks resulted in rates of 0.05% very major, 0% major, and 3.72% minor errors. thus, the 30-micrograms cefprozil disk ...19911774280
factors influencing determination of high-level aminoglycoside resistance in enterococcus faecalis.the ability of seven methods to detect high-level gentamicin (58 strains) and streptomycin resistance (56 strains) among 107 enterococcus faecalis isolates was investigated at the university of chicago medical center and the university of nebraska medical center. methods included a standard agar screen plate, high-content disk diffusion, remel (lenexa, kans.) ef synergy quad plates, standard microdilution panels prepared in house, pasco mic gram-positive panels (difco laboratories, detroit, mich ...19911774318
platelet aggregation by strains of enterococci.the platelet aggregation capability of whole cells of enterococcus faecalis, e. faecium and e. avium was tested. the optimum ratios of bacteria to platelets in e. faecalis (strain smu-37), e. faecium (strain smu-138) and e. avium (strain smu-197) were 1.0, 1.2 and 2.0, respectively. during the platelet aggregation induced by the three strains of enterococci, 65-69% of total serotonin was released. the aggregation was totally inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetate (10 mm) and apyrase (1 mg/ml), ...19911775097
purification, characterization, and biological effects of a second bacteriocin from enterococcus faecalis ssp. liquefaciens s-48 and its mutant strain b-48-28.enterococcus faecalis ssp. liquefaciens s-48 (producer of the peptide antibiotic as-48) and its mutant b-48-28 (as-48-) secrete the bacteriocin bc-48. this substance has been purified to homogeneity from culture supernatants of strain b-48-28; it consists of a protein (80 kda) stable from ph. 5.5 to 9.0 and sensitive to temperatures above 45 degrees c and to proteases. its inhibitory spectrum is restricted to strains of enterococcus faecalis. bc-48 inhibits protein synthesis but does not affect ...19911777854
enterococcus faecalis: specific and non-specific interactions with human polymorphonuclear previous studies we have demonstrated that the ability of enterococcus faecalis to adhere to and to be internalized in human urinary tract epithelial cells, girardi heart cells and human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmns), was dependent on whether the strain had been isolated from urinary tract infections (uti) or endocarditis (en) respectively. these properties were further modified by growth of the organism in human serum. in the present report, using competition assays we show that adhesi ...19911778438
factors influencing the synthesis of an extracellular proteinase by enterococcus faecalis subsp. liquefaciens.studies were conducted on optimum temperature, ph and the requirement for an energy source, amino acids, casein, zn2+ and ca2+ during the synthesis of an extracellular acid proteinase by enterococcus faecalis var. liquefaciens. synthesis was monitored using cells grown to mid-logarithmic phase and resuspended at high density in fresh growth medium. proteinase production was optimal at 30 degrees c and ph 7.0. proteinase synthesis, being energy-dependent, occurred only in glycolysing cells. the s ...19911780008
interpretive criteria of antimicrobial disk susceptibility tests with flomoxef.320 recently isolated pathogens, 20 strains from each of 16 species, were investigated using mueller-hinton agar and din as well as nccls standards. the geometric mean of the agar dilution mics of flomoxef were 0.44 mg/l for staphylococcus aureus, 0.05 mg/l (klebsiella oxytoca) to 12.6 mg/l (enterobacter spp.) for enterobacteriaceae, 33.1 mg/l for acinetobacter anitratus, 64 mg/l for enterococcus faecalis, and more than 256 mg/l for pseudomonas aeruginosa. for disk susceptibility testing of flom ...19911783442
in vitro activity of flomoxef and cefazolin in combination with vancomycin.207 clinical isolates from strains of patients from the university children's hospital of kiel were investigated for their in vitro activity with the agar dilution method against flomoxef and cefazolin (alone and partially in combination with vancomycin). staphylococci were also tested with other cephalosporins (cefoxitin, cefamandole, cefotaxime, cefotetan and latamoxef). flomoxef and cefazolin always acted more vigorously on staphylococci than the other cephalosporins. resistance of staphyloco ...19911783443
the in vitro activity of flomoxef compared to four other cephalosporins and imipenem.the antibacterial activity of the oxacephalosporin flomoxef was evaluated in comparison to cefpirome, cefuzoname, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and imipenem against fresh clinical isolates. flomoxef is an antibiotic with strong antibacterial activity against staphylococci including methicillin-resistant strains and streptococci with the exception of enterococcus faecalis and enterococcus faecium. it is very active against gram-negative cocci and rods including gram-positive and gram-negative anaerobe ...19911783444
application of the polymerase chain reaction to study the m protein(-like) gene family in beta-hemolytic streptococci.evaluation of homologous regions of published m protein (emm) gene sequences from group a streptococci (gas; streptococcus pyogenes) was used to design three primer pairs for polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and three oligonucleotide probe sequences internal to the amplified products. one set of primers and corresponding probe should detect and lead to amplification of emm(-like) genes of virtually every type ("all m"), another ("sor-m") should only amplify emm(-like) genes from gas negative for ...19911784271
[bacteriological quality of groundwaters in cemeteries].groundwater samples collected by piezometers from three cemeteries in geologically distinct areas of s. paulo and santos, brazil, were analysed in order to determine their hygienic and sanitary conditions. fecal coliformes, fecal streptococci, sulfite reducer clostridia and salmonella were searched for the purpose of evaluating sanitary conditions, and total coliforms, heterotrophic bacteria, proteolitic and lipolitic microorganisms for evaluating hygienic conditions. in some samples, nitrate le ...19911784962
the bacteriology of cholelithiasis--china versus japan.cholelithiasis differs considerably from area to area in the world. calcium bilirubinate stones or brown pigment stones are said to predominate in the orient, however, this situation may differ within the orient. in order to compare cases in china and japan, 102 consecutive cases of cholelithiasis operated on in shenyang, china were analyzed for the composition of gallstones and bacterial species isolated from bile in relation to the location and composition of gallstones. in shenyang, calcium b ...19911787607
enterococci highly resistant to penicillin: characterizing isolates from singapore hospitals. 19911788591
growth inhibition of listeria spp. on camembert cheese by bacteria producing inhibitory substances.bacterial strains exhibiting antimicrobial activity towards other bacteria are quite common in nature. during the past few years several genera have been shown to exert inhibitory action against listeria. spp. in the present work strains of enterococcus, lactobacillus and lactococcus were tested for their influence on the development of listeria spp. on camembert cheese. partial or complete inhibition of growth of listeria spp. was observed using various inhibitory bacteria. complete inhibition ...19911790105
in vitro activity of the new glycopeptide ly264826 versus vancomycin against clinical isolates of enterococci. 19911794373
serum dependent expression of enterococcus faecalis adhesins involved in the colonization of heart cells.our previous studies have shown that the adhesive ability of enterococcus faecalis is dependent on the strain and is further modified by growth in serum. the data reported here demonstrate that e. faecalis adherence is mediated by carbohydrate residues present on the bacterial cell surface. some of these (d-mannose and d-glucose) are expressed by strains isolated from both urinary tract infections (uti) and endocarditis (en) when the cells are grown in brain-heart infusion broth (bhib), and medi ...19911795630
[susceptibilities of clinical bacterial isolates to antimicrobial agents, 1989. a study mainly focused on imipenem. the research group for testing imipenem susceptibilities of clinical isolates].we investigated susceptibilities of clinical bacterial isolates to imipenem (ipm) and other antimicrobial agents at hospital laboratories throughout japan from september to december of 1989. the susceptibility testing was carried out according to the 1-dilution or 3-dilution disc technique in which susceptibilities are classified into 4 grades: (+++), (++), (+) and (-). ipm showed markedly high in vitro activities against streptococcus pneumoniae, neisseria gonorrhoeae, moraxella catarrhalis, es ...19911798067
time-kill kinetic studies of ampicillin/sulbactam for beta-lactamase-producing enterococci.beta-lactamase-producing (bla+) enterococci have now been reported from several geographic areas. most of these strains also demonstrate high-level aminoglycoside resistance, making therapy of serious infections due to bla+ enterococci difficult. using time-kill kinetic studies, we evaluated the activity of ampicillin-sulbactam (am/sb) against five clinical bla+ enterococcus faecalis isolates from three geographically distinct areas. am at fourfold minimum inhibitory concentrations (mic) concent ...19911802536
crossover assessment of serum bactericidal activity and pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin alone and in combination in healthy elderly better define the pharmacokinetics and serum bactericidal activity (sba) of ciprofloxacin and other antimicrobial agents in the elderly, six healthy (greater than 65 years) volunteers with normal renal function were given ciprofloxacin alone orally, ciprofloxacin plus rifampin orally, ciprofloxacin plus clindamycin orally, rifampin alone orally (three volunteers), and, for comparison of sba against gram-positive cocci, vancomycin intravenously. mean peak ciprofloxacin concentrations and other ...19911804008
interaction of imipenem with erythromycin and tetracycline assessed by microdilution checkerboard techniques.microdilution methodology was used to study the interaction of imipenem with erythromycin and tetracycline, a combination therapy that might be used for the treatment of serious pelvic inflammatory disease. the combination of imipenem and erythromycin showed no antagonism for escherichia coli and haemophilus influenzae but was antagonistic for staphylococcus aureus, enterococcus faecalis, and group b streptococci; the combination of imipenem and tetracycline was antagonistic for all strains exce ...19911804015
[phlegmon of the mouth floor with extremely severe course].a case of the 38-years old patient with a severe streptococcal phlegmon fundi oris and secondary deficiency of gamma-globulins was reported. the patient was successfully treated by surgery, proper antibiotico-therapy and immunoregulation.19911808588
bacteria in the apical 5 mm of infected root canals.ten freshly extracted teeth which had carious pulpal exposures and periapical lesions contiguous with the root apex were placed inside an anaerobic chamber and the apical 5 mm of the root canals cultured. in addition to anaerobic incubation, duplicate cultures were incubated aerobically. fifty strains of bacteria from the 10 root canals were isolated and identified. the most prominent bacteria cultured from the 10 root canals were actinomyces, lactobacillus, black-pigmented bacteroides, peptostr ...19911809801
clinical results of a multicenter study with sulbactam/ampicillin for the treatment of patients with lower respiratory and urinary tract infections.a total of 124 patients with lower respiratory tract (44) or urinary tract infections (80) were enrolled in an open, multicenter study to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of sulbactam/ampicillin, administered at the dosage of 3 g/die by intramuscular route. pretreatment pathogens from patients with lower respiratory tract infections included: streptococcus alpha-haemolyticus in 8 cases, streptococcus beta-haemolyticus in 2 cases, staphylococcus albus in 7 cases, haemophilus influenzae in 7 ...19911809811
distribution, antibiotic susceptibility and tolerance of bacterial isolates in culture-positive cases of endocarditis in the netherlands.during a two-year period data were collected nationwide in the netherlands on 438 episodes of bacterial endocarditis (be) in 432 patients. of the strains isolated in these patients 419 were available for analysis. of these, 326 were isolated in native valve endocarditis (nve) and 93 in prosthetic valve endocarditis (pve). viridans streptococci, staphylococci and enterococci together constituted 87% of the isolates. more than 46% of the viridans streptococci consisted of streptococcus sanguis. en ...19911810724
species identification and antibiotic resistance patterns of the hundred and forty isolates were identified using the gpi card (vitek systems) and a conventional biochemical scheme. agar dilution susceptibility testing was performed and isolates were screened for beta-lactamase production. the gpi card was accurate in identifying enterococcus faecalis, but discrepant results were obtained for seven (29.1%) of the 24 non-enterococcus faecalis isolates. ampicillin resistance was present in 2.9% of isolates and there were no beta-lactamase producers. there w ...19911810727
comparative in vitro activity of the new glycopeptide sk&f 104662 against problematic gram-positive bacteria.the in vitro activity of the new glycopeptide antibiotic sk&f 104662 against problematic gram-positive microorganisms was determined using the agar dilution technique. for comparison, ampicillin, oxacillin, vancomycin, erythromycin and gentamicin were tested. sk&f 104662 was found to have high activity against staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (both methicillin sensitive and resistant strains), enterococcus faecalis, enterococcus faecium, listeria monocytogenes, corynebacte ...19911810738
antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin administered intravenously in a pharmacodynamic in vitro model.the antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria was evaluated in an in vitro model by simulating its pharmacokinetics following a single 100 or 200 mg administration intravenously. the one compartment open model described by grasso and coworkers was used for these experiments. ciprofloxacin concentrations in the model were reproduced by calculations based on the concentration-time curve in human volunteers as reported by wise and others. the maximum r ...19911813438
bacteriology of community acquired urinary tract infection. analysis of 1048 cases.urine samples from 1048 cases clinically suspected to have urinary tract infection were examined for bacteriological culture and antibiotic sensitivity. of 1048 cultures, 530 (50.5%) were sterile, 163 (15.5%) showed the presence of nonpathogenic bacteria and 11 (1%) revealed nonsignificant bacteriuria with escherichia coli. significant bacteriuria (more than 10(5)/ml) was found in the remaining 344 (32.8%) cases. escherichia coli was the predominant pathogen isolated from 170 (16.2%) samples; kl ...19911814873
susceptibility of enterococcus faecalis to twelve antibiotics, time-kill assays, and high-level aminoglycoside resistance in a university hospital in argentina.a total of 201 enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from different body sites were tested to (i) establish their antibiotic susceptibility pattern; (ii) determine the percentage of strains highly resistant (mic greater than 2,000 micrograms/ml) to five aminoglycosides and (iii) know if the combination of penicillin or ampicillin plus an aminoglycoside is reliably synergistic for the strains with low-level resistance (mics ranged from the break point of susceptibility for each aminoglycoside to ...19911815269
ciprofloxacin versus gentamicin/clindamycin for postpartum open, randomized, comparative study of intravenous ciprofloxacin versus gentamicin and clindamycin was performed on women with postpartum endometritis. ciprofloxacin alone successfully eradicated the infections in 35 of 49 patients (71%), while the combination of gentamicin/clindamycin cured 41 of 48 (85%) (p = .15). the microbiology and antibiotic sensitivity of the endometrial isolates confirmed the poor activity of ciprofloxacin against anaerobic bacteria and less-than-optimal activity aga ...19911816396
[the antimicrobial efficiency of aqueous solutions of calcium hydroxide on streptococcus mutans, streptococcus faecalis and candida albicans, in vitro].calcium hydroxide preparations ca(oh)2 are used as water solutions, putly, liner, cement or artificial material. the therapeutic effect of each medicaments depends on physical and chemical characteristic of additional components. the aim of the paper is to research the sensitivity of streptococcus faecalis and candida albicans to different water solution concentrations of calcium hydroxide. as solid plates, bacto-mitis-salivarius agar was used for s. mutans, torlak blood agar for s. faecalis and ...19911819950
antimicrobial efficacy of iodoformized zinc oxide-eugenol sealer on micro-organisms of root canal.iodoformized zinc oxide-eugenol was tested for its antibacterial effect against the aerobic and anaerobic bacteria obtained from the root canals of deciduous teeth; the bacteria were staph aureus, strep viridans, strep faecalis, bacteroides melaninogenicus and also mixed culture obtained from infected non-vital anterior teeth. the sensitivity was checked on bhi- agar plates employing well-method. iodoformized zinc oxide eugenol paste was found to be effective for both the aerobic and anaerobic b ...19911820426
extracellular proteinase from enterococcus faecalis subsp. liquefaciens. i. growth and extracellular proteinase production under different culture conditions.growth and extracellular proteinase production by enterococcus faecalis subsp. liquefaciens was studied on several culture media and under different incubation conditions. the organisms grew well and developed extracellular proteinase activity on proteinaceous media, but when it grew on collins basal medium (lacking of protein), growth was poor and proteinase activity was not detected. the activation energy for growth was estimated to be 116 kj/mol, the optimum being at 37 degrees c. proteinase ...19911821866
extracellular proteinase from enterococcus faecalis subsp. liquefaciens. ii. partial purification and some technological important extracellular proteinase from enterococcus faecalis subsp. liquefaciens has been purified 780-fold by a method including gel filtration on sephadex g-50 and affinity chromatography with gramicidin j as ligand. approximately 15% of the original enzyme activity was recovered. a purification of 14,800-fold, with 11.4% yield, may be reached using chromatofocusing as final step in the purification procedure. the molar mass of the enzyme has been estimated to be approximately 30 kda by sephadex gel ...19911821867
[the na(+)-atpase and na+ circulation of streptococcus faecalis]. 19911828479
teicoplanin monotherapy of serious infections caused by gram-positive bacteria: a re-evaluation of patients with endocarditis or staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia from a european open trial.we have examined case records for patients who received teicoplanin alone for endocarditis or staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia. all patients with streptococcal endocarditis were cured (viridans group 14/14; group d 4/4). cure rates for other organisms were: enterococcus faecalis 3/5; s. aureus 5/10 and coagulase negative staphylococci 2/3. doses for six patients who failed because of poor response were 3.3-4.2 mg/kg. teicoplanin treatment cured 41/48 patients with s. aureus bacteraemia; treatme ...19911829076
bacteriolytic effect of teicoplanin.the glycopeptide antibiotic teicoplanin belongs to the same group as vancomycin and ristocetin and is a valuable tool for studying the autolytic system of sensitive gram-positive bacteria. teicoplanin, at a concentration of 1 microgram ml-1, caused rapid lysis of exponential phase cells of streptococcus faecalis. bacillus spp. were most sensitive to the antibiotic; effective lysis occurred at 0.1 microgram teicoplanin ml-1. the bacteriolytic effect depended on the antibiotic concentration, the g ...19911830328
[prevalence of high-level enterococcus faecalis resistance to gentamycin]. 19911833740
in-vitro activity of trospectomycin against enterococci isolated from blood and other clinical materials. 19911834622
[the invitro activity of teicoplanin and vancomycin against gram positive microorganisms (corrected)].the in vitro activities of teicoplanin and vancomycin against 288 gram positive cocci were determined by broth macrodilution method. mic 90 values for teicoplanin were lmcg/ml for coagulase positive staphylococci (n = 115), 4 mcg/ml for coagulase negative staphylococci (n = 93), 0.50 mcg/ml for s. faecalis (n = 50) and 0.125 mcg/ml for s. pyogenes (n = 30). mic 90 values for vancomycin were lmcg/ml 1 mcg/ml, 1 mcg/ml and 0.25 mcg/ml respectively. we were not able to detect in vitro resistance ag ...19911839050
[evaluation of the effectiveness of ofloxacin in the treatment of respiratory tract].ofloxacine (tarivid-hoechst) was used in 30 patients with infections of the respiratory system, including 12 with pneumonias, 18 with chronic bronchitis. the agent was given in oral form, in a 200 mg tablet every 12 hours for 7 to 10 days. therapeutical and tolerance was analyzed being on clinical radiological, biochemical and bacteriological findings. complete remission was found in 21 patients, in 7 more a significant clinical and radiological improvement was found. altogether in 93.3% of the ...19911843882
nucleotide sequence of the gelatinase gene (gele) from enterococcus faecalis subsp. liquefaciens.the gene coding for gelatinase (also called metalloendopeptidase ii; microbial proteinase, ec of enterococcus faecalis subsp. liquefaciens strain og1-10 was cloned in an escherichia coli-enterococcus shuttle vector, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. the dna sequence encodes one large open reading frame (orf) with 509 amino acid residues. the orf contains a signal sequence in its n-terminal region, whereas the n-terminal amino acid sequence determined from the purified extrace ...19911846126
natural transfer of conjugative transposon tn916 between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.the conjugative streptococcal transposon tn916 was found to transfer naturally between a variety of gram-positive and gram-negative eubacteria. enterococcus faecalis hosting the transposon could serve as a donor for alcaligenes eutrophus, citrobacter freundii, and escherichia coli at frequencies of 10(-6) to 10(-8). no transfer was observed with several phototrophic species. mating of an e. coli strain carrying tn916 yielded transconjugants with bacillus subtilis, clostridium acetobutylicum, ent ...19911846142
inducible transfer of conjugative transposon tn1545 from enterococcus faecalis to listeria monocytogenes in the digestive tracts of gnotobiotic mice.transfer of conjugative transposon tn1545 from enterococcus faecalis to listeria monocytogenes was studied in vitro and in vivo. tn1545 transferred following filter mating at a frequency of 2.5 x 10(-7) transconjugants per donor colony. a 20-fold increase in transfer frequency was observed when matings were performed in the presence of a subinhibitory concentration of tetracycline. the frequency of in vivo transfer of tn1545, expressed as the number of transconjugants per donor cell extracted fr ...19911849709
the conjugative transposon tn925: enhancement of conjugal transfer by tetracycline in enterococcus faecalis and mobilization of chromosomal genes in bacillus subtilis and e. faecalis.the effects of tetracycline on transfer of the conjugative, tetracycline-resistance transposon. tn925, as well as the ability of the transposon to promote the transfer of chromosomal genes was examined in enterococcus faecalis and bacillus subtilis. to test for chromosomal transfer, multiply-marked strains of each organism, each carrying a single chromosomal copy of tn925, were mated on filters with suitable recipient strains, under conditions where transformation and transduction were precluded ...19911850085
short-term treatment of acute urinary tract infection in girls. copenhagen study group of urinary tract infections in children.the efficiency of treatment of acute urinary tract infections with sulfamethizole for 3 days, sulfamethizole for 10 days, and pivmecillinam for 3 days was compared in a randomized multicentre study comprising 264 girls aged 1-15 years. for ethical reasons children with complicated diseases were not included. in these treatment groups no significant growth after treatment was found in 81%, 77%, and 74%, respectively (ns). new bacteria after treatment were found less frequently after sulfamethizol ...19911853170
tetracycline resistance heterogeneity in enterococcus faecium.the tetracycline (tet) determinants, which encode resistance either to tetracyclines without minocycline (tcr) or to tetracyclines including minocycline (tcr-mnr), of 30 wild-type clinical isolates of enterococcus faecium were identified and localized. the tet determinants were transferred by conjugation into a plasmid-free enterococcus faecalis recipient at frequencies of 10(-6) to 10(-9) transconjugants per donor, as follows: tcr, 6 strains; tcr-mnr, 14 strains; both tcr and tcr-mnr, 6 strains ...19911854161
bacteriology of the anal wound after open hemorrhoidectomy. qualitative and quantitative analysis.the purpose of this study is to analyze the size of the bacterial colonies in anal wounds after open hemorrhoidectomy. twenty patients were studied during predetermined postoperative time periods. material was collected from the surface and from within the tissue of each patient's three open wounds, intraoperatively, on the 6th, 13th and 20th postoperative days for bacteriologic examination in aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic media. the bacterium most commonly identified was escherichia c ...19911855423
shuttle vectors containing a multiple cloning site and a lacz alpha gene for conjugal transfer of dna from escherichia coli to gram-positive bacteria.the mobilizable shuttle cloning vectors, pat18 and pat19, are composed of: (i) the replication origins of puc and of the broad-host-range enterococcal plasmid pam beta 1; (ii) an erythromycin-resistance-encoding gene expressed in gram- and gram+ bacteria; (iii) the transfer origin of the incp plasmid rk2; and (iv) the multiple cloning site and the lacz alpha reporter gene of puc18 (pat18) and puc19 (pat19). these 6.6-kb plasmids contain ten unique cloning sites that allow screening of derivative ...19911864514
antibiotic prophylaxis for biliary tract surgery: selection of patient and hundred and three patients undergoing biliary surgery have been entered in a randomized prospective trial for antibiotic prophylaxis. fifty six received piperacillin (2 gr) and 47 tobramycin (100 mg). cultures were taken from bile at operation and a clinical and microbiological assessment for infection was carried out postoperatively. overall infection rate was significantly lower in the piperacillin group (p less than 0.05). the positive bile culture and wound infection rates were also lowe ...19911869388
[personal experience with prevention and therapy of infection after 53 liver transplantations].an attempt was made to reduce the risk of infection following liver transplantation by means of selective bowel decontamination with tobramycin, polymyxin e and amphotericin b, as well as short-term systemic antibiotics with cephotaxim and tobramycin. after 53 consecutive orthotopic hepatic transplants performed in 51 patients between 1985 and 1987, a total of eight pneumonias occurred as the clinically most significant infection. two pneumonias were caused by cytomegalovirus, one by pneumocysti ...19911870362
antimicrobial contact activity of econazole sulfosalicylate.the aim of this investigation was to compare the contact action of econazole sulfosalicylate (e-ssa) on mycetes (candida albicans, cryptococcus neoformans, aspergillus fumigatus, trichophyton rubrum, t. cutaneum, pityrosporum sp.), gram-positive bacteria (staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus faecalis) and gram-negative bacteria (escherichia coli, citrobacter freundii) with that exerted by econazole nitrate (e-nit). the results show e-ssa activity greater than e-nit (in particular against mycetes ...19911875229
selected faecal bacteria and nutrients essential for antagonism of salmonella typhimurium in anaerobic continuous flow few as five of the species of bacteria commonly found in human faeces--escherichia coli, enterobacter aerogenes, enterococcus faecalis, bacteroides ovatus and fusobacterium varium--when grown together in anaerobic continuous flow cultures exerted antagonistic effects on salmonella typhimurium as great as those given by mixed bacteria from extracts of human faeces. in a single culture, the population of s. typhimurium was c. 10(8) cfu/ml but in mixed cultures with the five antagonistic bacteri ...19911875391
[influence of cefodizime on intestinal bacterial flora].effects of cefodizime (cdzm), a new injectable cephem antibiotic, on the intestinal bacterial flora were studied in tetra-contaminated mice and in pediatric patients. cdzm was intramuscularly administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg once a day for 5 consecutive days to mice contaminated with 4 different species of organisms: escherichia coli, enterococcus faecalis, bacteroides fragilis and bifidobacterium breve. for 3 species except e. faecalis, bacterial populations in feces were markedly reduced af ...19911880920
in vitro antibacterial activities of the fluoroquinolones pd 117596, pd 124816, and pd 127391.three new aminopyrrolidine-substituted fluorocyclopropyl quinolones--pd 117596, pd 124816, and pd 127391--were tested for in vitro antibacterial activity against 349 bacterial strains, which are primarily clinical isolates. the minimum inhibitory concentrations (mic) in micrograms/ml required for greater than or equal to 90% of strains were 0.03-0.06 for staphylococci (26 strains); 0.06-0.25 for streptococcus pyogenes, s. agalactiae, s. pneumoniae, and enterococcus faecalis (80); less than or eq ...19911889177
in vitro activity of sparfloxacin (at-4140 and ci-978), a new quinolone antimicrobial agent, against haemophilus and gram-positive cocci.sparfloxacin (at-4140 and ci-978) was evaluated for activity against 194 clinical isolates of staphylococci, streptococci, enterococcus faecalis, anaerobic gram-positive cocci, and haemophilus sp. the mic of sparfloxacin for greater than 93% of the strains tested was less than or equal to 0.5 microgram/ml. sparfloxacin demonstrated increased activity against enterococci, staphylococci, pneumococci, and anaerobic cocci when compared with ciprofloxacin.19911889186
salivary-agglutinin-mediated adherence of streptococcus mutans to early plaque bacteria.interspecies binding is important in the colonization of the oral cavity by bacteria. streptococcus mutans can adhere to other plaque bacteria, such as streptococcus sanguis and actinomyces viscosus, and this adherence is enhanced by saliva. the salivary and bacterial molecules that mediate this interaction were investigated. salivary agglutinin, a mucinlike glycoprotein known to mediate the aggregation of many oral streptococci in vitro, was found to mediate the adherence of s. mutans to s. san ...19911894355
diagnostic and genetic studies in 43 patients with classic cystinuria.we present results for laboratory screening and diagnostic tests--cyanide-nitroprusside test, semi-quantitative thin-layer chromatography, and quantitative amino acid column chromatography--of 43 patients with classic cystinuria. we report the efficaciousness of the cyanide-nitroprusside test and of thin-layer chromatography, as compared with quantitative amino acid chromatography, for detecting heterozygotes for type ii or iii cystinuria. the quantitative results for aminoaciduria in 57 blood r ...19911899064
chemical mechanism and rate-limiting steps in the reaction catalyzed by streptococcus faecalis nadh peroxidase.the ph dependence of the kinetic parameters v, v/knadh, and v/kh2o2 has been determined for the flavoenzyme nadh peroxidase. both v/knadh and v/kh2o2 decrease as groups exhibiting pk's of 9.2 and 9.9, respectively, are deprotonated. the v profile decreases by a factor of 5 as a group exhibiting a pk of 7.2 is deprotonated. primary deuterium kinetic isotope effects on nadh oxidation are observed on v only, and the magnitude of dv is independent of h2o2 concentration at ph 7.5. dv/knadh is ph inde ...19911899199
ampicillin remains inadequate therapy for enterococcal endocarditis. 19911899297
relative contributions of host and microbial factors in bacterial study the relative contributions of host and microbial factors in bacterial translocation, germfree mice were mono-associated with either proteus mirabilis, escherichia coli, or enterococcus faecalis. germfree mice included t-cell-deficient nude mice and normal littermates, natural killer cell-deficient beige mice and normal littermates, and triply immunodeficient mice with beige, t-cell, and b-cell mutations and their littermates. each bacterial species colonized the cecum in similarly high ...19911899560
[antibiotic associated recurrent diarrhea cured with fecal streptococci]. 19911900554
spontaneous contrast in the pericardial sac caused by gas-forming organisms.purulent pericarditis is a life-threatening disease associated with a variety of microorganisms. the case presented herein has unusual manifestations of contrast echoes on two-dimensional echocardiography. to our knowledge, this is the first reported case of pericarditis caused by gas-forming group d streptococcus and klebsiella pneumoniae with pyopericardium, resulting in contrast echoes on the two-dimensional echocardiographic image.19911900698
molecular characterization of the enterococcus faecalis cytolysin activator.the gene encoding component a (cyla), the activator protein of the enterococcus faecalis cytolysin, has been localized on pad1, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. cyla consists of a 1,236-bp open reading frame encoding a 412-amino-acid polypeptide. a search of the national biomedical research foundation data base revealed significant homology between the inferred amino acid sequence of component a and subtilisin bpn'. component a activation of the cytolysin precursor (component l) was o ...19911900808
separation of the poly(glycerophosphate) lipoteichoic acids of enterococcus faecalis kiel 27738, enterococcus hirae atcc 9790 and leuconostoc mesenteroides dsm 20343 into molecular species by affinity chromatography on concanavalin a.this study shows for the first time microheterogeneity of 1,3-linked poly(glycerophosphate) lipoteichoic acids. the lipoteichoic acids investigated were those of enterococcus faecalis kiel 27738 (i), enterococcus hirae (streptococcus faecium) atcc 9790 (ii), and leuconostoc mesenteroides dms 20343 (iii). lipoteichoic acids ii and iii are partially substituted by mono-, di-, tri-, and tetra-alpha-d-glucopyranosyl residues with (1----2) interglycosidic linkages. lipoteichoic acid i is substituted ...19911901041
evidence for clonal spread of a single strain of beta-lactamase-producing enterococcus (streptococcus) faecalis to six hospitals in five states.beta-lactamase-producing (bla+) enterococci have been reported in three state and two countries. pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to compare 14 bla+ enterococcus (streptococcus) faecalis isolated from hospitalized patients in seven states and three continents. the restriction endonuclease digestion patterns of isolates from connecticut, massachusetts, lebanon, and argentina were all markedly different, indicating that these were different strains. however, isolates from delaware, texas, ...19911901330
fleroxacin combined with rifampin.we determined the effect of the combination of rifampin and fleroxacin against enterobacteriaceae and streptococcal species. none of the 65 isolates tested by checkerboard assay demonstrated synergy, 12% of isolates showed an additive effect; 86.7% were indifferent, and only 1 isolate showed antagonism. the mean fic was 1.2. when using 2 and 8 micrograms/ml of rifampin, fleroxacin mics of 285 isolates of enterobacteriaceae, pseudomonas aeruginosa, haemophilus influenzae, staphylococci, streptoco ...19911901534
comparative antimicrobial activity of ceftibuten against multiply-resistant microorganisms from study the activity of ceftibuten, we obtained multiply-resistant isolates from approximately 20 hospitals in belgium. against enterobacteriaceae, all of the tested comparative compounds were more active than cefaclor, and ceftibuten and tigemonam were the most active of the agents tested. ceftibuten mic50s were less than or equal to 1 microgram/ml for most enteric bacilli species and 85% of strains were susceptible (less than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml). this level of activity compared favor ...19911901535
antimicrobial resistance among enterococci. 19911901693
in vitro activity of a new 'higher-lactam' antibacterial agent ly vitro activity of the new bicyclic pyrazolidinone ly 193239 (eli lilly) was evaluated against 52 clinical isolates of haemophilus influenzae (4 were beta-lactamase producers), 32 enterococcus faecalis, 14 neisseria gonorrhoeae (1 beta-lactamase-positive) and 19 neisseria meningitidis. activity was best against neisseria spp. and h. influenzae, including penicillinase-producing strains. results of the time-kill study against a non-enzyme-mediated penicillin resistant strain of n. meningitidis ...19911902004
[isolated tricuspid endocarditis. apropos of a case caused by streptococcus d bovis and faecalis occurring after coloscopy].a 59-year-old chronic alcoholic male, with no cardiac past history, was hospitalised with septicemia 5 months after the endoscopic removal of 2 benign intestinal polyps. the diagnosis of tricuspid endocarditis was possible only 2 months later on the basis of echocardiography requested because of the onset of a tricuspid systolic murmur. blood cultures revealed the presence in succession of streptococcus d fecalis then bovis. antibiotics, changed several times because of the onset of complication ...19911902645
chromosomally mediated beta-lactamase production and gentamicin resistance in enterococcus faecalis.we have analyzed four distinct strains of multiply resistant, beta-lactamase-producing enterococci isolated during an outbreak of colonization with these strains on an infant-toddler surgical ward at the children's hospital in boston, mass. all four strains were resistant to erythromycin, penicillin, and tetracycline and to high levels of gentamicin and streptomycin. one strain was also resistant to chloramphenicol. plasmid profiles revealed four different plasmid patterns, with the number of id ...19911902647
vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis in a bone-marrow transplant recipient.since 1988 a number of reports on the emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci have been published. we describe an additional case of colonization of and subsequent infection with a vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecalis in a bone-marrow transplant recipient, who had never before received vancomycin therapy. the strain was resistant to most antibiotics tested, including low-level resistance to gentamicin and cross-resistance to teicoplanin. it was sensitive to amoxicillin and the lipope ...19911902979
influence of bacteria on clostridium perfringens infections in young chickens.when monoflora chickens with lactobacillus acidophilus or streptococcus faecalis were inoculated with clostridium perfringens either in broth culture or resuspended in gifu anaerobic medium broth or supernatant fluid, few or no chickens died. approximately 50% of germ-free chickens died after inoculation of c. perfringens culture, whereas no conventional birds died after inoculation of broth culture. c. perfringens in the contents of duodenum from germ-free chickens numbered about 10(4) colony-f ...19911903033
[comparative studies of the filtration behavior of bacteria and organic particles in porous groundwater conductors. fundamentals and methods].in subsurface aquatic environments two groups of micro-organisms are observed: allochthonous bacteria and viruses, which as contaminants are eliminated from water after some time, and autochthonous groundwater micro-organisms, which belong to the natural subsurface environment and may reach very high abundances under favourable conditions--especially in the presence of a high nutrient supply. the migration of micro-organisms is controlled by flow length dependent transport processes (advection-- ...19911903038
role of neisseria gonorrhoeae and chlamydia trachomatis in intraabdominal abscess formation in the rat.our concept of the pathogenesis of acute salpingitis and advanced pelvic infection, such as tuboovarian abscess, is evolving. although neisseria gonorrhoeae and chlamydia trachomatis are thought to play a significant role in acute pelvic inflammatory disease, other microorganisms, such as aerobes and anaerobes, have repeatedly been reported to play a significant role, also, particularly in the patient with advanced disease. a study was designed to evaluate the pathogenesis, and particularly any ...19911903166
[continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration and hemodiafiltration in a newborn infant with acute kidney insufficiency].a boy of 10 days old with acute renal failure was treated with continuous arterio-venous hemofiltration and continuous arterio-venous hemodiafiltration over a period of 14 days. hemodynamically both technics were well tolerated. fluid overload was treated effectively by continuous fluid withdrawal and during continuous arterio-venous hemodiafiltration there was an adequate solute removal. one bleeding episode was observed during controlled general heparinization and was probably related to throm ...19911903218
identification of a region that influences host range of the streptococcal conjugative plasmid pip501.pip501 is a member of a group of conjugative plasmids that are self-transmissible to a wide variety of streptococci as well as to other gram-positive bacteria. several pip501 restriction fragment deletion derivatives have been isolated and characterized. in this paper we describe one such derivative (pva1702) which was conjugally proficient but had a limited host range. the loss of host range ability was seen as decreased conjugal transfer from enterococcus faecalis to streptococcus sanguis and ...19911903546
purification and partial characterization of lactacin f, a bacteriocin produced by lactobacillus acidophilus 11088.lactacin f, a bacteriocin produced by lactobacillus acidophilus 11088 (nck88), was purified and characterized. lactacin f is heat stable, proteinaceous, and inhibitory to other lactobacilli as well as enterococcus faecalis. the bacteriocin was isolated as a floating pellet from culture supernatants brought to 35 to 40% saturation with ammonium sulfate. native lactacin f was sized at approximately 180 kda by gel filtration. column fractions having lactacin f activity were examined by electron mic ...19911903624
identification of a new genetic determinant for cell aggregation associated with lactose plasmid transfer in lactococcus lactis.derivatives of the lactose miniplasmid pmg820 were constructed in which a staphylococcal erm gene was inserted and in which this was accompanied by subsequent deletion of the lactose genes. the resulting plasmids were thus marked with both erythromycin resistance and lactose utilization genes in pf1132 or solely erythromycin resistance in pf1133. these plasmids retained the normal conjugation properties characteristic of lactose plasmid plp712, including the generation by intermolecular rearrang ...19911903626
effect of oral spiramycin on the faecal and oral bacteria in human volunteers.six healthy adult volunteers were treated with 1 g of oral spiramycin twice daily for five days, and their oral and faecal microbial flora were studied. mean saliva and serum concentrations of the antibiotic never exceeded 2.1 +/- 1.1 mg/l. the number of volunteers whose oral cavity was colonized by enterobacteriaceae, group d streptococci, staphylococci, and fungi remained unchanged following treatment. the mean count of anaerobic faecal bacteria was 10.3 +/- 0.6 log10 cfu/g initially. this did ...19911903789
synergistic bactericidal activity of rat serum with vancomycin against enterococci.animal models of infectious diseases may not predict clinical efficacy when species-related factors come into play. recently, unexpected bactericidal activity of vancomycin alone against enterococci was observed in a rat model of endocarditis. a factor or factors in rat serum, but not rabbit or human serum, enhanced in vitro killing by vancomycin in four of five clinical isolates of enterococci. bactericidal activity was maintained on dilution of rat serum to 5.0% and after exposure of serum to ...19911903800
gentamicin-resistant, streptomycin-susceptible enterococcus (streptococcus) faecalis bacteremia. 19911903802
in vitro activity of rp 59500, a semisynthetic injectable pristinamycin, against staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci.the in vitro activity of rp 59500, a semisynthetic pristinamycin, was compared with the activities of vancomycin, oxacillin, ampicillin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and rifampin against five staphylococcus species, five streptococcus species, and four enterococcus species. for staphylococci, mics were 0.13 to 1 microgram/ml and the mics for 90% of the strains tested (mic90s) were 0.13 to 0.5 microgram/ml; there were no differences between oxacillin-susceptible and -resistant strains. for streptoc ...19911903912
heme-dependent catalase activity of lactobacilli.the heme-dependent catalase in lactobacillus pentosus, l. sake, l. delbrueckii and enterococcus faecalis was studied. the catalase was formed by cells grown aerobically in the presence of hematin or for lactobacilli when grown without added hematin, after incubation of buffered cells in the presence of hematin. the kinetics of the production of catalase revealed maximum activity for l. pentosus and e. faecalis at late stationary and late logarithmic growth phase, respectively. the physiological ...19911904757
inactivation of metronidazole by enterococcus faecalis.the in-vitro inactivation of metronidazole by different clinical isolates of enterococcus faecalis was investigated by means of association experiments in which ent. faecalis strains and bacteroides fragilis group strains were cultured in the same liquid medium. all of the tested ent. faecalis strains (20 isolates) were able to protect the b. fragilis group strains against the killing effect of metronidazole at a concentration four or eight times higher than the normal mic. different strains of ...19911904851
mannitol-specific phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system of enterococcus faecalis: molecular cloning and nucleotide sequences of the enzyme iiimtl gene and the mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, expression in escherichia coli, and comparison of the gene products with similar enzymes.enzyme iiimtl is part of the mannitol phosphotransferase system of enterococcus faecalis. it is phosphorylated in a reaction sequence requiring enzyme i and heat-stable phosphocarrier protein (hpr). the phospho group is transferred from enzyme iiimtl to enzyme iimtl, which then catalyzes the uptake and concomitant phosphorylation of mannitol. the internalized mannitol-1-phosphate is oxidized to fructose-6-phosphate by mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase. in this report we describe the cloning of ...19911904856
growth characteristics of enterococci isolated from laban rayeb.eleven strains of enterococcus (streptococcus) faecalis isolated from laban rayeb, a type of fermented milk, had been studied when grew in milk. enterococcus (streptococcus) faecalis strains 19 and 22 were the most active strains in the production of lactic acid, acetaldehyde and diacetyl. both strains exhibited a high proteolytic activity besides a good clean flavour. based on the obtained results, enterococcus (streptococcus) faecalis 19 and 22 could be used to bring about the lactic fermentat ...19911904991
improved electroporation and cloning vector system for gram-positive bacteria.a protocol for transformation of intact enterococcus faecalis cells by electroporation was developed through a systematic examination of the effects of changes in various parameters, including (i) growth conditions; (ii) composition of the electroporation solution; (iii) electroporation conditions, such as field strength and resistance; (iv) size, concentration, and purity of dna used for transformation; and (v) conditions used to select for transformants. key features of this protocol include t ...19911905518
activity of antiseptics against biofilms of mixed bacterial species growing on silicone part of a programme to establish the relative merits of antiseptics that are used as bladder instillations to control urinary tract infections in patients with indwelling catheters, the activity of five such formulations were tested against dense (10(9) cfu/cm2) mixed biofilms composed of citrobacter diversus, pseudomonas aeruginosa and enterococcus faecalis growing on silicone discs. all three species were resistant to chlorhexidine (200 mg/l) and povidone-iodine (1% v/v) in the biofilm mode ...19911905626
genetic transformation of various species of enterococcus by electroporation.a transformation system for enterococcus faecalis was developed which uses untreated (i.e., non-protoplasted) cells and the electroporation technique. the optimized protocol resulted in transformation efficiencies of up to 4 x 10(6) transformants per microgram of plasmid dna. all strains of e. faecalis tested could be transformed by this method, albeit with differing transformation efficiencies. using the protocol optimized for e. faecalis we successfully transformed enterococcus faecium, e. hir ...19911905659
[phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase systems in enterococcus faecalis].a wild-type strain of enterococcus faecalis and its mutants resistant to 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2dg) were examined for the presence of phosphoenolpyruvate:carbohydrate phosphotransferase systems (ptss) with 12 carbohydrates, which were utilized by the organism, as the substrates. the wild-type strain possessed a constitutive mannose-pts, which was reactive with glucose, mannose, glucosamine, 2dg and fructose. this activity was absent in the mutants. no independent glucose- or fructose-pts was found ...19911905762
hepatic abscess caused by a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. 19911905800
unidirectional theta replication of the structurally stable enterococcus faecalis plasmid pam beta 1.numerous bacterial replicons remain poorly characterized due to difficulties in localization of the replication origin. we have circumvented this problem in the characterization and fine mapping of the origin of plasmid pam beta 1 by exploiting the bacillus subtilis termination signal, terc. in terc-containing derivatives, theta-form molecules with two invariant endpoints accumulate. the endpoints, which correspond to plasmid origin and terc, were mapped with single-nucleotide precision. analysi ...19911906000
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