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effect of stage of lactation on the immune competence of goat mammary gland.the present research was undertaken to evaluate the effect of stage of lactation on immune competence of the goat mammary gland. the prevalence and etiology of intramammary infections and cytokine pattern were studied in individual caprine milk during lactation. a total of 1,200 caprine milk samples were collected during early, mid, and late lactation (less than 40 d, from 110 to 130 d, and more than 200 d in lactation, respectively) and analyzed for milk quality, bacterial cell load, and cytoki ...201626947302
antimicrobial activities of chicken β-defensin (4 and 10) peptides against pathogenic bacteria and fungi.host defense peptides (hdps) are small cationic peptides found in several organisms. they play a vital role in innate immunity response and immunomodulatory stimulation. this investigation was designed to study the antimicrobial activities of β-defensin peptide-4 (savbd-4) and 10 (savbd-4) derived from chickens against pathogenic organisms including bacteria and fungi. ten bacterial strains and three fungal species were used in investigation. the results showed that the savbd-10 displayed a high ...201525941665
efficient co-displaying and artificial ratio control of α-amylase and glucoamylase on the yeast cell surface by using combinations of different anchoring domains.recombinant yeast strains that display heterologous amylolytic enzymes on their cell surface via the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (gpi)-anchoring system are considered as promising biocatalysts for direct ethanol production from starchy materials. for the effective hydrolysis of these materials, the ratio optimization of multienzyme activity displayed on the cell surface is important. in this study, we have presented a ratio control system of multienzymes displayed on the yeast cell surface by u ...201525432675
effects of streptococcus bovis isolated from bovine rumen on the fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of tanzania grass silage.this study aimed to evaluate the effects of streptococcus bovis on the fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of tanzania grass silage. tanzania grass was chopped and left untreated (u) or treated with streptococcus bovis jb1 at 1 × 10(6) colony-forming units per gram (cfu/g) of fresh forage or streptococcus bovis hc5 at 1 × 10(6) cfu/g of fresh forage and packed into sixtuplicate laboratory silos. the largest number of enterobacteria, molds and yeast (m&y) occurred in untreated silage ...201627073806
divergent utilization patterns of grass fructan, inulin, and other nonfiber carbohydrates by ruminal microbes.fructans are an important nonfiber carbohydrate in cool season grasses. their fermentation by ruminal microbes is not well described, though such information is needed to understand their nutritional value to ruminants. our objective was to compare kinetics and product formation of orchardgrass fructan (phlein; phl) to other nonfiber carbohydrates when fermented in vitro with mixed or pure culture ruminal microbes. studies were carried out as randomized complete block designs. all rates given ar ...201626601577
effects of nitrate addition to a diet on fermentation and microbial populations in the rumen of goats, with special reference to selenomonas ruminantium having the ability to reduce nitrate and nitrite.this study investigated the effects of dietary nitrate addition on ruminal fermentation characteristics and microbial populations in goats. the involvement of selenomonas ruminantium in nitrate and nitrite reduction in the rumen was also examined. as the result of nitrate feeding, the total concentration of ruminal volatile fatty acids decreased, whereas the acetate : propionate ratio and the concentrations of ammonia and lactate increased. populations of methanogens, protozoa and fungi, as esti ...201525439583
the causative agents in infective endocarditis: a systematic review comprising 33,214 cases.infective endocarditis (ie) incidence remains high with considerable fatality rates; guidelines for prophylaxis against ie are currently under review in some settings which highlights the importance of maintaining up-to-date epidemiological estimates about the most common microbial causes. the objective of this systematic review, following prisma guidelines, was to identify the most common microbial causes of ie in recent years. medline was searched from january 1, 2003 to march 31, 2013 for all ...201627170145
failure of early diagnosis of infective endocarditis in japan--a retrospective descriptive analysis.infective endocarditis (ie) is a severe disease with high morbidity and mortality, and these can be exacerbated by delay in diagnosis. we investigated ie diagnosis in japan with the emphasis on the delay in diagnosis and its cause and implications. we conducted a retrospective study on 82 definite ie patients at kobe university hospital from april 1, 2008, through march 31, 2013. we reviewed charts of the patients for data such as causative pathogens, prescription of inappropriate antibiotic use ...201425501088
comparison of clinical features of left-sided infective endocarditis involving previously normal versus previously abnormal valves.native valve infective endocarditis (ie) in patients with normal valves has increased in the last decades. whether patients with normal valves present a similar prognosis to those with pathologic valves is unresolved. our aim is to describe epidemiologic and clinical differences between patients with left-sided ie and normal valves and those with native pathologic valves. we analyzed 945 consecutive episodes of ie, 435 of which involved left-sided nonprosthetic ie. they were classified into 2 gr ...201424878130
exploring the in vitro thrombolytic potential of streptokinase-producing β-hemolytic streptococci isolated from bovine milk.the aim of this study was to isolate and characterize streptokinase-producing β-hemolytic streptococcus sp. from bovine milk. a total of 50 milk samples were collected randomly from different breeds of cow and goat (vellore, tamil nadu, india). the samples were characterized and screened for streptokinase-producing isolates using microbial and biochemical analysis. about 97 colonies were isolated from milk samples showing hemolytic patterns of α (19.6%), β (24.7%) and γ (55.6 %). out of 20β-hemo ...201526377134
construction of isogenic mutants in streptococcus gallolyticus based on the development of new mobilizable vectors.streptococcus gallolyticus is an emerging cause of infective endocarditis that has been epidemiologically linked to colorectal cancer. s. gallolyticus is poorly transformable using electroporation and no defined mutant has been published yet. hence, we used mobilization to introduce plasmid dna from streptococcus agalactiae into s. gallolyticus using the transfer origin of the conjugative element tngbs1 (orittngbs1), followed by a classical homologous recombination technique. two isogenic mutant ...201324157486
genomics, evolution, and molecular epidemiology of the streptococcus bovis/streptococcus equinus complex (sbsec).the streptococcus bovis/streptococcus equinus complex (sbsec) is a group of human and animal derived streptococci that are commensals (rumen and gastrointestinal tract), opportunistic pathogens or food fermentation associates. the classification of sbsec has undergone massive changes and currently comprises 7 (sub)species grouped into four branches based on sequences identities: the streptococcus gallolyticus, the streptococcus equinus, the streptococcus infantarius and the streptococcus alactol ...201525233845
fulminant neonatal sepsis due to streptococcus alactolyticus - a case report and review.group d streptococci have rarely been associated with neonatal infections. we report a case of fulminant respiratory distress syndrome (rds) caused by streptococcus alactolyticus in a term neonate. gram staining revealed gram-positive cocci and culture grew group d streptococci in samples taken from trachea, ear, and nasopharynx. streptococcus alactolyticus was identified using automated microbial identification system (vitek 2). histopathology showed massive pulmonary inflammation with intra-al ...201424475920
ceftaroline activity tested against viridans group streptococci from us hospitals.a total of 840 clinically relevant viridans group streptococci (vgs) isolates (1/patient episode) were collected from 71 us medical centers in 2013-2014. these organisms were tested for susceptibility by reference broth microdilution methods against ceftaroline and selected comparator agents. all isolates were speciated by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (maldi-tof) mass spectrometry and were primarily from skin/soft tissue (32.6%) and bloodstream (32.3%) infections. c ...201626658313
antiprotozoal effect of saponins in the rumen can be enhanced by chemical modifications in their structure.the antiprotozoal effect of saponins is transitory, as when saponins are deglycosylated to the sapogenin by rumen microorganisms they become inactive. we postulated that the substitution of the sugar moiety of the saponin with small polar residues would produce sapogen-like analogs which might be resistant to degradation in the rumen as they would not be enzymatically cleaved, allowing the antiprotozoal effect to persist over time. in this study, we used an acute assay based on the ability of pr ...201728382023
isolation of streptococci from a fatal case of myocarditis in a captive brown bear (ursus arctos).a 10-yr-old, male brown bear ( ursus arctos ) from bursa zoo in turkey died without any apparent signs. severe purulent pericarditis and myocarditis with mild ascites, lung edema, and moderate liver congestion were observed during necropsy. microscopically, there were severe neutrophilic infiltrations in the myocardium and thoracic lymph nodes. a member of the streptococcus bovis - streptococcus equinus complex (sbsec) was isolated and identified phenotypically.201728363068
species identification of streptococcus bovis group isolates causing bacteremia: a comparison of two maldi-tof ms systems.this study compared two maldi-tof ms systems (biotyper and vitek ms) on clinical streptococcus bovis group isolates (n=66). the vitek ms gave fewer misidentifications and a higher rate of correct identifications than the biotyper. only the identification of s. lutetiensis by the vitek ms was reliable. additional optimization of the available system databases is needed.201728262370
[presence of streptococcus bovis in urine samples from patients experiencing symptoms of urinary tract].given the relevance of proper clinical validation of streptococcus bovis, we here consider revising its presence in urine samples in order to determine its relative frequency and the pattern of antibiotic susceptibility. the susceptibility to antibiotics of 91 isolates of s. bovis from urine samples was retrospectively reviewed over a period of 4 years (2012-2015). the mean age of patients was 55 years, 81% of whom were women and 37.4% were hospitalized patients suffering from urological disease ...201627838157
significant correlation between the infant gut microbiome and rotavirus vaccine response in rural ghana.rotavirus (rv) is the leading cause of diarrhea-related death in children worldwide and 95% of rv-associated deaths occur in africa and asia where rv vaccines (rvvs) have lower efficacy. we hypothesize that differences in intestinal microbiome composition correlate with the decreased rvv efficacy observed in poor settings.201727803175
streptococcus bovis new taxonomy: does subspecies distinction matter?bacteremia with streptococcus bovis/equinus complex strains is associated with hepatobiliary disease, colorectal lesions (cl), and infective endocarditis (ie). this study addressed the clinical significance of subspecies distinction of previously designated s. bovis blood culture isolates according to the updated nomenclature. during 2002-2013, all blood culture isolates previously designated as s. bovis were recultured and identified using 16s rrna gene sequencing and maldi-tof (bruker biotyper ...201727796646
relative significances of ph and substrate starch level to roles of streptococcus bovis s1 in rumen acidosis.to clarify the relative importance of ph and substrate starch level in fermentation characteristics and regulatory mechanism of streptococcus bovis s1 in rumen acidosis, an in vitro fermentation of three levels of soluble starch (1, 3 and 9 g/l) was established with ph in the media were maintained constant at 5.5 or 6.5. the results showed that the dominant product of s. bovis s1 was lactate at both ph, the production depended on the starch level, and more lactate was produced at ph 6.5 than tha ...201627655587
effects of glucose and starch on lactate production by newly isolated streptococcus bovis s1 from saanen goats.when ruminants are fed high-concentrate diets, streptococcus bovis proliferates rapidly and produces lactate, potentially causing rumen acidosis. understanding the regulatory mechanisms of the metabolism of this species might help in developing dietary strategies to alleviate rumen acidosis. s. bovis strain s1 was newly isolated from the ruminal fluid of saanen dairy goats and then used to examine the effects of glucose and starch on bacterial metabolism and gene regulation of the organic acid-p ...201627474714
phylogenetic, epidemiological and functional analyses of the streptococcus bovis/streptococcus equinus complex through an overarching mlst scheme.the streptococcus bovis/streptococcus equinus complex (sbsec) comprises seven (sub)species classified as human and animal commensals, emerging opportunistic pathogens and food fermentative organisms. changing taxonomy, shared habitats, natural competence and evidence for horizontal gene transfer pose difficulties for determining their phylogeny, epidemiology and virulence mechanisms. thus, novel phylogenetic and functional classifications are required. an sbsec overarching multi locus sequence t ...201627329036
streptococcus bovis endocarditis: epidemiological differences depending on geographical source. 201627297864
induction of subacute ruminal acidosis affects the ruminal microbiome and epithelium.subacute ruminal acidosis (sara) negatively impacts the dairy industry by decreasing dry matter intake, milk production, profitability, and increasing culling rate and death loss. six ruminally cannulated, lactating holstein cows were used in a replicated incomplete latin square design to determine the effects of sara induction on the ruminal microbiome and epithelium. experimental periods were 10 days with days 1-3 for ad libitum intake of control diet, followed by 50% feed restriction on day 4 ...201627242724
streptococcus bovis/s. equinus complex septicemia in a group of calves following intramuscular vaccination.organisms previously classified as streptococcus bovis (i.e., the s. bovis/s. equinus complex) are common in cattle feces, but may also act as opportunistic pathogens. in the current work, streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli, a member of this complex, was associated of a cluster of calves that died within hours of injection with a modified live viral vaccine. within 12 h of vaccination of 46 calves at a cow/calf operation, 4 calves had died, 3 calves were ill, and 1 unvaccinated cow was dead. ...201627216720
associated factors in streptococcus bovis bacteremia and colorectal cancer.reports suggest that between 25% and 80% of patients with streptococcus bovis/gallolyticus bacteremia have concomitant colorectal tumors. this retrospective study was aimed to identify associations between clinical characteristics and a finding of colorectal neoplasm in patients with s. bovis bacteremia who had colonoscopy examination. we retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with s. bovis bacteremia from kaohsiung chang gung memorial hospital, kaohsiung, taiwan, between january 2004 ...201627185602
clinical interest of streptococcus bovis isolates in urine.streptococcus bovis includes variants related to colorectal cancer and non-urinary infections. its role as urinary pathogen is unknown. our objective was to assess the presence of urinary infection by s. bovis, analysing the patients and subsequent clinical course.201627084880
simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (ssf) of jackfruit seed powder (jfsp) to l-lactic acid and to polylactide polymer.a newly isolated amylolytic lactic acid bacterium, streptococcus equinus, was used for the production of l-lactic acid from jackfruit seed powder (jfsp) by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (ssf). after optimization of shake flask fermentation by a response surface box-behnken design, the maximum lactate titer was 109g/l from 200g/l jackfruit seed powder. amberlite ira67, a weak base resin, was used to recover pure lactic acid from fermented broth and subsequently used for the synth ...201627005791
streptococcus bovis septic arthritis and osteomyelitis: a report of 21 cases and a literature review.the streptococcus bovis group (sbg) is a well-known cause of endocarditis, but its role in osteoarticular infections (oais) has not been well described.201626992635
an update on the streptococcus bovis group: classification, identification, and disease associations.the streptococcus bovis group has undergone significant taxonomic changes over the past 2 decades with the advent of new identification methods with higher discriminatory power. although the current classification system is not yet embraced by all researchers in the field and debate remains over the performance of molecular techniques for identification to the species level within the group, important disease associations for several members of the group have been clarified. here, we provide a b ...201626912760
native valve streptococcus bovis endocarditis and refractory transfusion dependent iron deficiency anaemia associated with concomitant carcinoma of the colon: a case report and review of the literature.streptococcus bovis is found as a commensal organism in human gut and may become opportunistically pathogenic. infective endocarditis is one of the commonest modes of presentation of this infection. the association between streptococcus bovis endocarditis and colorectal cancer is well recognized. we report a case of streptococcus bovis endocarditis along with a refractory iron deficiency anaemia associated with concomitant carcinoma of ascending colon in a 63-year-old male. cooccurrence of these ...201626881154
diagnosis and treatment of childhood meningitis caused by streptococcus bovis group.streptococcus bovis is a rare, but important cause of bacterial meningitis in children. since its discovery in the early 1970s, the pathogen has undergone multiple taxonomic changes producing four distinct subspecies today, the most prevalent of which is s. gallolyticus subsp pasteurianus in infants and children. while initially reported as sporadic case reports, there is a growing body of literature documenting invasive disease primarily in neonates and infants clinically indistinguishable from ...201626879740
streptococcus bovis endocarditis: update from a multicenter registry.infective endocarditis (ie) due to streptococcus bovis has been classically associated with elderly patients, frequently involving >1 valve, with large vegetations and high embolic risk, which make it a high-risk group. our aim is to analyze the current clinical profile and prognosis of s bovis ie episodes, in comparison to those episodes caused by viridans group streptococci and enterococci.201626699595
an improved selex technique for selection of dna aptamers binding to m-type 11 of streptococcus pyogenes.streptococcus pyogenes is a clinically important pathogen consisting of various serotypes determined by different m proteins expressed on the cell surface. the m type is therefore a useful marker to monitor the spread of invasive s. pyogenes in a population. serotyping and nucleic acid amplification/sequencing methods for the identification of m types are laborious, inconsistent, and usually confined to reference laboratories. the primary objective of this work is to develop a technique that ena ...201626678795
streptococcus bovis bacteremia in neonates in a predominantly hispanic population.streptococcus bovis bacteremia has been associated with gastrointestinal diseases, especially colon cancer, neoplastic colon polyps, and other malignancies of the gi tract in adults. sporadic cases of s. bovis disease have also been reported in neonates and young infants. although uncommon, s. bovis infection can cause fulminant neonatal sepsis and meningitis.201526579502
streptococcus bovis infectious endocarditis and occult gastrointestinal neoplasia: experience with 25 consecutive patients treated surgically.to assess the prevalence of gastrointestinal neoplasia in patients with streptococcus bovis infectious endocarditis we performed a retrospective cohort analysis of all episodes of s. bovis infectious endocarditis treated at our institution between january 2000 through december 2014. twenty-five patients were identified for this purpose. 12/25 patients received colonoscopy and 1/25 of the patients was assessed with ct colonography. of the 13 who underwent colonic assessment, 11 were diagnosed wit ...201526473016
[streptococcus gallolyticus (ex s. bovis) bacteremia and its relationship with colonic or hepatobiliary disease and endocarditis].bacteremia due to streptococcus bovis (now s. gallolyticus) has been traditionally associated to colon or hepatobiliar disease and endocarditis but there is no information on this matter in chile.201526436787
colonic carriage of streptococcus bovis and colorectal neoplasia: a prospective 17-year longitudinal case-control study.patients with streptococcus bovis infective endocarditis have an increased prevalence of advanced colonic neoplasia; however, an association with fecal carriage of the organism is unclear. s. bovis has been shown to promote colonic neoplasia in preclinical studies. the aim of this study was to examine the effect of s. bovis fecal carriage on the long-term risk of colonic neoplasia.201526340165
streptococcus gallolyticus meningitis in adults: report of five cases and review of the literature.we describe the incidence and patient characteristics of streptococcus gallolyticus meningitis. we identified s. gallolyticus meningitis in a nationwide cohort of patients with community-acquired bacterial meningitis, and performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all reported adult cases in the literature. five cases were identified (0.3%) in a cohort of 1561 episodes of bacterial meningitis. in one patient, bowel disease (colon polyps) was identified as a predisposing condition for s.  ...201526314916
effect of diet fermentability and unsaturated fatty acid concentration on recovery from diet-induced milk fat depression.diet-induced milk fat depression is caused by highly fermentable and high-unsaturated fatty acid (fa) diets, and results in reduced milk fat concentration and yield, reduced de novo fa, and increased trans isomers of the alternate biohydrogenation pathways. the hypothesis of the current experiment was that a diet higher in fermentability and lower in unsaturated fa (ufa) would accelerate recovery compared with a high-ufa and lower-fermentability diet. eight ruminally cannulated and 9 noncannulat ...201526298764
commentary on "streptococcus bovis bacteremia: association with gastrointestinal and liver disease in a predominantly hispanic population". 201526192940
streptococcus bovis bacteremia: association with gastrointestinal and liver disease in a predominantly hispanic population.streptococcus bovis bacteremia has been associated with gastrointestinal diseases, especially colon cancer, neoplastic colon polyps, and other malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract. studies have suggested an association with chronic liver parenchymal and biliary tract disorders. we report a series of patients with s. bovis bacteremia in a county hospital in a us city on the border of mexico to examine the demographic and clinical associations.201526192939
prosthetic endocarditis caused by streptococcus bovis group. 201526136389
c-terminal-oriented immobilization of enzymes using sortase a-mediated technique.in the present study, sortase a-mediated immobilization of enzymes was used for the preparation of immobilized enzymes. thermobifida fusca yx β-glucosidase (bgl) or streptococcus bovis 148 α-amylase (amya) were produced with c-terminal sortase a recognition sequences. the resulting fusion proteins were successfully immobilized on nanoparticle surfaces using sortase a. some properties (activity, stability, and reusability) of the immobilized fusion proteins were evaluated. both immobilized bgl an ...201526098063
late-onset streptococcus pasteurianus sepsis in a preterm baby in a neonatal intensive care unit.apnea, cyanosis, lethargy and prolongation in capillary filling time developed on the postnatal 37(th) day in a preterm baby who was born at the 30(th) gestational week with a birth weight of 1 300 g. acute phase reactants and immature/total neutrophil count ratio were found to be high. the patient who was diagnosed with sepsis was successfully treated with meropenem which was started empirically. in his blood culture streptococcus pasteurianus grew. s. pasteurianus is in the subgroup of strepto ...201426078653
differences between endocarditis caused by streptococcus bovis and enterococcus spp. and their association with colorectal cancer.streptococcus bovis group and enterococcus spp. share phenotypic characteristics and intestinal habitat. both have been associated with endocarditis and colorectal neoplasm (crn). we studied all cases of endocarditis diagnosed between 1988 and 2014 in our centre and caused by s. bovis (109, 48.8 % of the bacteremia) and by enterococcus spp. (36, 3.4 % of the bacteremia). patients were seen until death or during a long-term follow-up, in order to rule out a concomitant crn. the 109 cases of s. bo ...201526017665
association of streptococcus bovis presence in colonic content with advanced colonic lesion.to prospectively examine the association between presence of streptococcus bovis (s. bovis) in colonic suction fluid and the endoscopic findings on colonoscopy.201525987793
the clinical epidemiology and malignancies associated with streptococcus bovis biotypes in 506 cases of bloodstream infections.to determine the incidence of streptococcus bovis (sb) biotypes causing bacteraemia and associated malignancies.201525982024
pulmonary endarterectomy for pulmonary hypertension from septic emboli.pulmonary endarterectomy (pea) can significantly increase long-term survival in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension; however, the role of pea for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension due to pulmonary valve endocarditis is controversial. a critically ill 61-year-old man with intractable right ventricular heart failure was found to have chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension due to streptococcus bovis pulmonary valve endocarditis and underwent successful pul ...201525952218
draft genome sequence of streptococcus equinus (streptococcus bovis) hc5, a lantibiotic producer from the bovine rumen.streptococcus equinus (streptococcus bovis) hc5 is a bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacterium with simple growth requirements. the draft genome sequence of s. equinus hc5 consists of 1,846,241 bp, with a g+c content of 37.04%. in silico analysis indicated that s. equinus hc5 might be useful to control bacteria that are detrimental to livestock animals.201525745007
neonatal invasive streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus infection with delayed central nervous system complications.group d streptococci are known to cause newborn septicemia and meningitis, but the streptococcus bovis group strains rarely cause serious neonatal infections in korea. central nervous system (cns) complications of neonatal s. bovis group infection have rarely been reported. in adults, s. bovis group strains cause bacteremia and endocarditis, and are associated with gastrointestinal malignancy. however, only a few studies have reported meningitis and septicemia in infants. here, we describe a cas ...201525729397
streptococcus bovis endocarditis: analysis of cases between 2005 and 2014.streptococcus bovis is a classical etiology of endocarditis and is associated with colonic lesions. no series of cases from brazil has been described.201525636194
streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus infection in twin infants.streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus, previously known as streptococcus bovis biotype ii.2, is an uncommon pathogen in neonates. nevertheless, it can cause severe neonatal sepsis and meningitis often clinically indistinguishable from those caused by group b streptococci and has been associated with considerable morbidity. we report the first known cases of s. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus infection in twin infants.201525609731
renal involvements in reported cases of streptococcus bovis endocarditis. 201525528307
is streptococcus bovis a urinary pathogen?the streptococcus bovis group (sbg) comprises several microorganisms associated with human infections. they have been associated with bacteremia, endocarditis, biliary tract infection, meningitis, and colorectal cancer, but their role as urinary pathogens is not well known. the objective of this investigation was to discover the incidence and clinical significance of the bacteriuria associated with this complex. a retrospective analysis of all adult patients with bacteriuria caused by sbg during ...201525416160
draft genome sequences of streptococcus bovis strains atcc 33317 and jb1.we report the draft genome sequences of streptococcus bovis strain atcc 33317 (cvm42251) isolated from cow dung and strain jb1 (cvm42252) isolated from a cow rumen in 1977. the strains were sequenced using the genome sequencer flx 454 system. the genome sizes are approximately 2 mb and 2.2 mb, respectively.201425301652
[streptococcus bovis endocarditis as a sign of colon cancer: case report].streptococcus bovis is labeled in the literature as a cause of bacteremia and endocarditis, which are often associated with gastrointestinal malignancy.201425233695
[a case of streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus infective endocarditis with colon adenoma].an 80-year-old japanese man had a fall presented with a 3-week history of right lumbago exacerbated by body movement as well as a 1-week history of anomalous behavior and appetite loss. he visited our hospital complaining of difficulty in standing up. he had a history of mitral prolapse due to an unknown rupture of the chordae tendineae 3 years earlier, which resulted in moderate mitral valve regurgitation and atrial fibrillation. upon visiting the hospital, he had petechial hemorrhage and jaund ...201425199383
childhood meningitis caused by streptococcus bovis group: clinical and biologic data during a 12-year period in france.bacterial meningitis (bm) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children. sporadic cases of streptococcus bovis have been described in neonates and infants. to assess the epidemiologic, clinical and biologic characteristics of this meningitis, we used the french surveillance network for bm in children.201525144798
streptococcus bovis endocarditis as first clinical expression of an occult colorectal neoplasm. 201525060213
acute septicemia caused by streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus in turkey poults.streptococcus gallolyticus, previously known as streptococcus bovis biotypes i and ii/2, is a well-known cause of sepsis and meningitis in humans and birds. the present case report describes an outbreak of fatal septicemia associated with s. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (s. bovis biotype ii/2) in 11 turkey flocks in pennsylvania between 2010 and 2013. affected poults were 2-3 wk of age. major clinical observation was sudden increase in mortality among turkey poults without any premonitory cl ...201425055641
streptococcus bovis bacteremia as the initial presentation of carcinoma of the gallbladder.there is a well known association between streptococcus bovis infection and the presence of a coexisting colonic adenocarcinoma. association of s. bovis with other malignancies has only been rarely reported. we report a 77-year-old male who presented with with streptococcus bovis bacteremia in the setting of acute cholecystitis. given the association of colon adenocarcinoma and streptococcus bovis bacteremia, colonoscopy was performed prior to cholecystectomy to evaluate a possible coexisting co ...201424902466
in vitro thrombolytic activity of purified streptokinase extracted from streptococcus equinus vit_vb2 isolated from bovine milk.streptokinase (sk) is an extracellular enzyme secreted by various strains of β-hemolytic streptococci. the main focus of the current study is to evaluate the in vitro thrombolytic activity of purified sk extracted from streptococcus equinus vit_vb2 (accession no. jx406835) isolated from milk sample. the growth rate of s. equinus vit_vb2 strain was studied with ph and biomass content which has positive significant effect on enzyme yield. a temperature of 10 °c and ph of 6 was found to be optimum ...201524897956
ruminal bacterial community shifts in grain-, sugar-, and histidine-challenged dairy heifers.ruminal bacterial community composition (bcc) and its associations with ruminal fermentation measures were studied in dairy heifers challenged with combinations of grain, fructose, and histidine in a partial factorial study. holstein-friesian heifers (n=30) were randomly allocated to 5 triticale grain-based treatment groups: (1) control (no grain), (2) grain [fed at a dry matter intake (dmi) of 1.2% of body weight (bw)], (3) grain (0.8% of bw dmi) + fructose (0.4% of bw dmi), (4) grain (1.2% of ...201424881800
streptococcus viridians bacteraemia and colonic adenocarcinoma.even though streptococcus bacteraemia is an infrequent presentation of colonic malignancies, there is a well-established link between streptococcus bovis bacteraemia and colonic malignancies. most of the physicians are well aware of this correlation and further workup is pursued in most of the cases. however, many physicians may not be aware that other species of streptococcus viridians, other than s. bovis, can be associated with colonic malignancies. in this case report, we present a case of s ...201424876211
analysis of bacterial communities and bacterial pathogens in a biogas plant by the combination of ethidium monoazide, pcr and ion torrent sequencing.the present study investigated the changes of bacterial community composition including bacterial pathogens along a biogas plant, i.e. from the influent, to the biogas reactor and to the post-digester. the effects of post-digestion temperature and time on the changes of bacterial community composition and bacterial pathogens were also studied. microbial analysis was made by ion torrent sequencing of the pcr amplicons from ethidium monoazide treated samples, and ethidium monoazide was used to cle ...201424852413
streptococcus bovis infection and colorectal neoplasia: a meta-analysis.a meta-analysis was conducted to determine the risk associated with streptococcus bovis infection and the occurrence of colorectal neoplasia (crn). the level of risk remains unknown.201424824513
infective endocarditis caused by streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus and colon cancer.a 56-year-old man presented to our department with a 2-month history of fever and chills. he had received a mitral valvuloplasty 3 years ago. he had been administered levofloxacin for 2 months. we discontinued levofloxacin and repeated the blood cultures. bacterial blood cultures were positive and transoesophageal echocardiography revealed vegetation attached to the posterior mitral leaflet. we started the patient on intravenous antibiotic therapy for infectious endocarditis by streptococcus gal ...201424798358
inhibition of fructan-fermenting equine faecal bacteria and streptococcus bovis by hops (humulus lupulus l.) β-acid.the goals of this study were to determine if β-acid from hops (humulus lupulus l.) could be used to control fructan fermentation by equine hindgut micro-organisms, and to verify the antimicrobial mode of action on streptococcus bovis, which has been implicated in fructan fermentation, hindgut acidosis and pasture-associated laminitis (pal) in the horse.201424775300
streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus meningitis in an infant.streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus was formerly classified as s. bovis biotype ii/2, which is recognized as a rare cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis. since the taxonomy classification change, there have not been many reports of meningitis due to s. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus. moreover, the pathogenesis of late onset s. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus meningitis in infants is unclear. here we report a case of meningitis in a 5-week-old infant with preceding diarrhea. s. b ...201424730635
prognostic implications of diabetes in patients with left-sided endocarditis: findings from a large cohort study.patients with diabetes mellitus (dm) have a higher incidence of infections, and those with bacteremia are more prone to develop sepsis and infective endocarditis (ie). nevertheless, data concerning the impact of dm on the prognosis of patients with ie are limited and sometimes contradictory. we examined the impact of dm on the inhospital outcome of left-sided ie in a large cohort of patients. we studied 594 consecutive episodes of left-sided ie diagnosed at 3 tertiary care centers. they were div ...201424646468
bacteraemia due to streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus is associated with digestive tract malignancies and resistance to macrolides and clindamycin.this study was intended to delineate the association between digestive tract malignancies and bacteraemia due to streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies pasteurianus.201424637236
novel bartonella infection in northern and southern sea otters (enhydra lutris kenyoni and enhydra lutris nereis).since 2002, vegetative valvular endocarditis (vve), septicemia and meningoencephalitis have contributed to an unusual mortality event (ume) of northern sea otters in southcentral alaska. streptococcal organisms were commonly isolated from vegetative lesions and organs from these sea otters. bartonella infection has also been associated with bacteremia and vve in terrestrial mammals, but little is known regarding its pathogenic significance in marine mammals. our study evaluated whether streptoco ...201424629902
keeping track of migratory pulmonary lesions.tricuspid valve endocarditis (tve) is rarely considered in the differential diagnosis of a febrile patient who does not use intravenous drugs.we describe the case of a 62-year-old male patient with a 3-month history of remittent fever and 13% weight loss. the patient denied intravenous drugs use or recent invasive procedures. his medical history included type 2 diabetes, alcohol abuse and smoking. clinical evaluation revealed systemic inflammatory syndrome with unremarkable physical examination. ...201424563045
susceptibility of 45 streptococcus bovis isolates to five antibiotic agents. 201424560425
identification of ligand specificity determinants in lantibiotic bovicin hj50 and the receptor bovk, a multitransmembrane histidine kinase.lantibiotic bovicin hj50 is produced by streptococcus bovis hj50 and acts as the extracellular signal to autoregulate its own biosynthesis through bovk/r two-component system. bovicin hj50 shows a linear n-terminal and glubolar c-terminal structure, and the sensor histidine kinase bovk contains eight transmembrane segments lacking any extensive surface-exposed sensory domain. the signal recognition mechanism between bovicin hj50 and bovk is still unknown. we performed saturated alanine scanning ...201424526683
[streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus isolated from cerebrospinal fluid in a pediatric patient].streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus is known to cause bacterial meningitis in adults, and most of the few pediatric cases observed occurred in neonates. we report the case of a 9-month old boy with a history of repeated hospitalizations due to respiratory diseases, who presented meningitis and bacteremia by streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasterianus. to our knowledge, this is the first reported case in santa fe to this date.201424401779
recurrent streptococcus bovis meningitis in strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection after kidney transplantation: the dilemma in a non-endemic area. 201424394478
characterization of the core rumen microbiome in cattle during transition from forage to concentrate as well as during and after an acidotic challenge.this study investigated the effect of diet and host on the rumen bacterial microbiome and the impact of an acidotic challenge on its composition. using parallel pyrosequencing of the v3 hypervariable region of 16s rrna gene, solid and liquid associated bacterial communities of 8 heifers were profiled. heifers were exclusively fed forage, before being transitioned to a concentrate diet, subjected to an acidotic challenge and allowed to recover. samples of rumen digesta were collected when heifers ...201324391765
novel real-time pcr assays using taqman minor groove binder probes for identification of fecal carriage of streptococcus bovis/streptococcus equinus complex from rectal swab specimens.real-time pcr based on the recn and gyrb genes was developed to detect four streptococcus bovis/streptococcus equinus complex (sbec) subspecies from rectal swab specimens. the overall prevalence was 35.2%: streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (11.1%), s. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (13%), streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli (20.4%), and s. infantarius subsp. infantarius (11.1%). to conclude, these real-time pcr assays provide a reliable molecular method to detect sbec pathogenic ...201424391203
a giant pseudoaneurysm of the forearm as unusual complication of bacterial endocarditis.a 59-year-old man with fever was diagnosed with endocarditis due to streptococcus bovis. two weeks after antibiotic therapy was started, he presented with red and painful swelling of the forearm without any sign of systemic inflammation. a giant hematoma connected to the radial artery was detected with ultrasound. surgical intervention with the removal of multiple, sterile clots from the hematoma was performed, and the multiple lacerations of the artery detected were corrected. this is the first ...201324191229
a case-control study: are urological procedures risk factors for the development of infective endocarditis?to evaluate the association between urological procedures and the development of infective endocarditis (ie), as there are case-reports linking urological procedures to ie but evidence of a causal relationship is lacking and no major guidelines advise prophylaxis to prevent development of ie during transurethral urological procedures. no case-control study has been undertaken to examine the relationship between urological procedures and the development of ie.201424180426
prevalence and comparison of streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius and streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus in raw and fermented dairy products from east and west africa.streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (sii) and streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus are members of the streptococcus bovis/streptococcus equinus complex (sbsec) associated with human infections. sbsec-related endocarditis was furthermore associated with rural residency in southern europe. sbsec members are increasingly isolated as predominant species from fermented dairy products in europe, asia and africa. african variants of sii displayed dairy adaptations to lactose metabolis ...201324131584
streptococcus bovis group and biliary tract infections: an analysis of 51 cases.streptococcus bovis is a well-known cause of endocarditis, but its role in other infections has not been well described. we analysed prospectively all patients with biliary tract infections caused by s. bovis group during the period 1988-2011. we selected those cases associated with cholangitis and cholecystitis, defined according to tokyo guidelines. identification of the strains was performed using the api 20 strep and the gp card of the vitek 2 system, and was confirmed by molecular methods. ...201424033711
splenic abscess caused by streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus as presentation of a pancreatic cancer.splenic abscesses caused by streptococcus bovis are rarely reported in the literature and are mainly seen in patients with endocarditis and associated colonic neoplasia/carcinoma. we report the first case of splenic abscess caused by streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (streptococcus bovis biotype ii/2) as presentation of a pancreatic cancer.201324025909
streptococcus bovis bacteraemia: an evaluation of the long-term effect on cardiac outcomes.streptococcus bovis can lead to bacteraemia, septicaemia, and ultimately endocarditis. the objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term implications of s. bovis endocarditis on cardiac morbidity and mortality.201424022385
is colonoscopy necessary in cases of infection by streptococcus bovis biotype ii?the association of colorectal neoplasia (crn) with streptococcus bovis biotype i (sbi) infection is well recognized. however, this is not the case for streptococcus bovis biotype ii (sbii). we conducted this study in order to analyze the relationship between sbii and crn. we analyzed all cases of bacteremia due to sbi (n = 99) and sbii (n = 36) diagnosed in our hospital (during the period 1988-2011) that were followed up with colonoscopy. in addition, we reviewed the literature (during the perio ...201423934596
correlation among streptococcus bovis, endocarditis and septicemia in a patient with advanced colon cancer: a case report.one of the bacterial agents that has been found to be associated with colorectal cancer is streptococcus bovis, with 13% of infective endocarditis cases caused by this pathogenic species.201323855909
the itinerary of streptococcus gallolyticus infection in patients with colonic malignant disease.bacteria constitute about 90% of all cells in the human body. the densest and most complex bacterial community is in the large intestine. this population is quite stable in healthy intestines, but intestinal disease distorts the ecological balance and induces dysbiosis. results of studies have indicated that the epithelial and metabolic changes that occur with colorectal cancer provide a competitive advantage to a subset of intestinal bacteria. strikingly, however, streptococcus gallolyticus gal ...201323831427
progress in the development of vaccines against rumen methanogens.vaccination against rumen methanogens offers a practical approach to reduce methane emissions in livestock, particularly ruminants grazing on pasture. although successful vaccination strategies have been reported for reducing the activity of the rumen-dwelling organism streptococcus bovis in sheep and s. bovis and lactobacillus spp. in cattle, earlier approaches using vaccines based on whole methanogen cells to reduce methane production in sheep have produced less promising results. an anti-meth ...201323739467
late streptococcus bovis infection of total knee replacement complicated by infective endocarditis and associated with colonic ulcers.streptococcus bovis is rare cause of late infections after total knee replacement (tkr). this report presents a case of confirmed late septic arthritis following tkr caused by s bovis that was further complicated with infective endocarditis resulting in aortic valve insufficiency in an immunecompetent patient. as an association between s bovis and gastrointestinal malignancies is suggested, a workup for such malignancies was performed that revealed non-malignant ulcers in patient's ascending col ...201323744853
streptococcus bovis/streptococcus equinus complex fecal carriage, colorectal carcinoma, and infective endocarditis: a new appraisal of a complex connection.the proportion of group d streptococcal infective endocarditis (ie) (predominantly due to streptococcus gallolyticus) and the incidence of colorectal cancer are higher in france than in most european countries. we assumed that this could be explained by a high group d streptococci (gds) fecal carriage rate. the aims of this study were to re-assess the gds fecal carriage rate in france and its relationship with colorectal cancer. consecutive adult subjects who were to undergo a complete colonosco ...201323558362
association of streptococcus bovis endocarditis and advanced colorectal neoplasia: a case-control study.to study the association between streptococcus bovis (s. bovis) endocarditis and advanced colorectal neoplasia.201323551389
competence for natural genetic transformation in the streptococcus bovis group streptococci s. infantarius and s. macedonicus.natural genetic transformation is common among many species of the genus streptococcus, but it has never, or rarely, been reported for the streptococcus pyogenes and s. bovis groups of species, even though many streptococcal competence genes and the competence regulators sigx, comr, and coms are well conserved in both groups. to explore the incidence of competence in the s. bovis group, 25 isolates of s. infantarius and s. macedonicus were surveyed by employing culture in chemically defined medi ...201323543718
comparative genome analysis of streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius cj18, an african fermented camel milk isolate with adaptations to dairy environment.streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (sii) belongs to the streptococcus bovis/streptococcus equinus complex associated with several human and animal infections. sii is a predominant bacterium in spontaneously fermented milk products in africa. the genome sequence of sii strain cj18 was compared with that of other streptococcus species to identify dairy adaptations including genome decay such as in streptococcus thermophilus, traits for its competitiveness in spontaneous milk fermentation ...201323521820
the diagnostic utility of transthoracic echocardiography for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis in the real world of the italian registry on infective endocarditis.the choice of the imaging modality (transthoracic [tte] vs. transesophageal echocardiography [tee]) for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis (ie) depends on different variables. aim of the present study is to provide updated data on the diagnostic sensitivity and the clinical usefulness of tte vs. tee from the italian registry on ie (riei).201323489364
[streptococcus bovis, taxonomic status, clinical relevance and antimicrobial susceptibility].streptococcus bovis is a large bacterial complex of facultative anaerobic gram-positive cocci that includes distinct, genetically-related species. traditionally, s. bovis was classified into three biotypes: i (mannitol fermentation-positive), ii/1 (mannitol-negative and β-glucuronidase-negative), and ii/2 (mannitol-negative and β-glucuronidase-positive). the introduction of molecular techniques in the last few decades has led to proposals for a genetic classification of this complex: s. bovis bi ...201323453226
early in vitro and in vivo development of high-level daptomycin resistance is common in mitis group streptococci after exposure to daptomycin.the development of high-level daptomycin resistance (hldr; mic of ≥ 256 mg/liter) after exposure to daptomycin has recently been reported in viridans group streptococcus (vgs) isolates. our study objectives were as follows: to know whether in vitro development of hldr after exposure to daptomycin was common among clinical isolates of vgs and streptococcus bovis; to determine whether hldr also developed during the administration of daptomycin to treat experimental endocarditis caused by the dapto ...201323478959
the increasing incidence of streptococcus bovis endocarditis: a new york dairy farmer with epidural abscess. 201323462630
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