a comparison of the lytic activity of poultry, human, and bovine phages with staphylococci of different origin.the total of 625 staphylococcal strains of different origin were typed with 22 shimizu's poultry phages. for comparison all these strains were also investigated with the 24 phages of the international basic set for typing human staphylococci and with the 12 phages for typing bovine staphylococci. of the 325 staphylococcus aureus strains 50 from humans belonged to a biotype, 100 from chickens to b biotype and further 175 animal strains (of swine, rabbit, bovine, sheep, and hare provenance) to b, ...1978155378
occurrence of protein a in staphylococcus aureus and closely related staphylococcus species.all but 1 of 143 strains of staphylococcus aureus were positive for protein a, whereas all 34 strains of staphylococcus hyicus and 123 of 127 strains of staphylococcus intermedius were devoid of this cell wall component.1979397227
evaluation of methods for differentiation of coagulase-positive staphylococci.the purpose of this study was to determine the minimum number of tests that could be used to differentiate between the coagulase-positive strains of staphylococcus: staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus hyicus, and staphylococcus intermedius. eighty coagulase-positive strains of each of the three species were examined. the five tests conducted were growth on modified baird-parker agar, growth on p agar supplemented with acriflavin, production of acetoin, anaerobic fermentation of mannitol, and p ...19921452705
pathogens in dog bite wounds in dogs in harare, zimbabwe.over a year swabs were taken from 87 untreated bite wounds in dogs seen by veterinary practitioners in harare, zimbabwe. swabs were also taken from normal skin adjacent to the wound site, and gingival swabs were collected from normal dogs coming to the same clinics. the swabs were cultured aerobically for pathogens, particularly staphylococcus intermedius, and the antibiotic sensitivities of the pathogens were determined by disc diffusion assay. the most common pathogens isolated from the wounds ...19921466122
isolation of cdc group m-5 and staphylococcus intermedius from infected dog bites. 19921474272
bite wounds and of every two americans will be bitten by an animal or by another person at some point. bites account for approximately 1% of all visits to emergency rooms; injuries inflicted by dogs are most common. the bacteria involved in infection of bite wounds include pasteurella multocida, staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus intermedius, alpha-hemolytic streptococci, capnocytophaga canimorsus, and other members of the oral flora. anaerobic bacteria are present in approximately one-third of bite woun ...19921562653
nucleotide sequence and phylogeny of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase encoded by the plasmid pscs7 from staphylococcus aureus.the nucleotide sequence of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene (cat) and its regulatory region, encoded by the plasmid pscs7 from staphylococcus aureus, was determined. the structural cat gene encoded a protein of 209 amino acids, which represented one monomer of the enzyme chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat). comparisons between the amino acid sequences of the pscs7-encoded cat from s. aureus and the previously sequenced cat variants from s. aureus, staphylococcus intermedius, staphy ...19911929326
comparison of the affinities to bovine and human prothrombin of the staphylocoagulases from staphylococcus intermedius and staphylococcus aureus of animal origin.staphylocoagulases of staphylococcus aureus (40 strains originally isolated from horses, dogs, cats, cows, sheep, opossums, pigs, humans, and a goat) and staphylococcus intermedius (19 isolates from dogs and 1 pigeon strain) were tested for their affinity to prothrombins of either bovine or human origin. the tests used were the coagulase tube test (using human, bovine, or equine fibrinogen with either bovine or human prothrombin as the source of coagulase-reacting factor) and a chromogenic assay ...19912037675
postoperative mediastinitis: a comparison of two electrocautery techniques on presternal soft tissues.postoperative mediastinitis remains a serious surgical problem, complicating 0.4% to 5% of all cases. in an experiment designed to address this problem, 36 mongrel dogs underwent a median sternotomy incision. in group i (n = 18) all layers to the sternum were opened by a scalpel, and electrocautery was used only for pinpoint hemostasis. in group ii (n = 18) the skin was opened by a scalpel and the remaining layers to the sternum were opened by electrocautery. total kilojoules of electrical energ ...19902359337
comparison of the staphylocoagulase activities of staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus intermedius on chromozym-th.the staphylocoagulases of staphylococcus intermedius (39 strains from clinical samples from dogs and 1 strain from a pigeon) and staphylococcus aureus (40 strains from nine different animal species) were compared by using the chromogenic methods of engels et al. (w. engels, m. kemps, and c. p. a. van boven, j. clin. microbiol. 14:496-500, 1981). s. intermedius produced staphylocoagulase which resembled that of s. aureus in its rate and method of action on prothrombin, but s. intermedius produced ...19902312669
synergistic hemolytic reactions between staphylococci and micrococcus lylae.the primary culture of a clinical specimen obtained from a dog with an acute squamous eczema revealed three different bacterial species which demonstrated synergistic hemolytic activities on sheep blood agar plates. the three cultures were identified as beta-hemolytic staphylococcus intermedius, as a coagulase-negative staphylococcal species, producing a delta-like hemolysin and as non-hemolytic micrococcus lylae. the coagulase-negative staphylococcal species as well as m. lylae produced synergi ...19892669429
comparison of aerobic culturette, synovial membrane biopsy, and blood culture medium in detection of canine bacterial arthritis.canine joints were cultured 24 hours after inoculation with staphylococcus intermedius using synovial membrane biopsy, synovial fluid on aerobic culturette and in blood culture medium, and synovial fluid incubated 24 hours in blood culture medium before being cultured. a mildly virulent strain consistently yielded positive cultures when incubated in blood culture medium 24 hours and negative cultures with the other techniques. a highly virulent strain also yielded positive cultures when incubate ...19892672551
staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. coagulans subsp. nov., isolated from the external auditory meatus of dogs with external ear otitis.a new subspecies, staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. coagulans, was isolated from the external auditory meatus of dogs suffering from external ear otitis and is described on the basis of studies of 21 strains. phenotypic studies showed that these strains are more closely related to staphylococcus intermedius than to other staphylococci, but dna hybridization studies indicated that they are closely related to staphylococcus schleiferi n850274t. on the basis of biochemical distinctiveness (positive ...19902275856
prophylactic efficacy of four antibacterial shampoos against staphylococcus intermedius in dogs.prophylactic efficacy of 4 antibacterial shampoos against staphylococcus intermedius in dogs was determined by use of a controlled quantitative technique. ten adult beagles were used in the study. the antibacterial agents in the shampoos were 3.0% benzoyl peroxide, 0.5% chlorhexidine acetate, 1.0% available iodine as a polyalkyleneglycol-iodine complex, and a combination of 0.5% triclosan, 2.0% sulfur, and 2.0% salicylic acid. treated and control sites were challenge exposed with 5.30 +/- 0.10 ( ...19912021238
evaluation of the staph-zym-system for identification of staphylococcus hyicus and staphylococcus intermedius.the staph-zym system was evaluated as a means for identifying cultures of staphylococcus hyicus isolated from pigs and bovines and cultures of staphylococcus intermedius isolated from canines. the selected cultures had been identified by conventional methods. the staph-zym system correctly identified all 52 s. hyicus and all 33 s. intermedius. it is concluded that the staph-zym system is a practical and reliable test for identifying mostly animal pathogenic s. hyicus and s. intermedius, and migh ...19892763754
a rapid test to detect the most clinically significant staphylococcus species.a new two-hour test system (rapidec staph) to detect the main staphylococci was evaluated. of 124 reference strains tested, 83 represented species most often found in clinical specimens, the remaining 41 strains representing five species primarily of animal origin. rapidec staph detected all staph, aureus, staph. epidermidis and seven of eight staph. saprophyticus strains. of the animal species, all staphylococcus intermedius strains were assigned to the correct category, the remainder were misi ...19911943543
specificity of antibodies present in human periapical lesions.various classes of immunoglobulins have been found in human periapical lesions. the specificity of secreted antibodies against antigens egressing from the root canal system has yet to be thoroughly investigated. the purpose of this study was to test the specificity of antibodies present in human periapical lesions. human periapical biopsies were removed and cultured as organ culture explants. antibodies present in the lesions were extracted in the cell culture fluids. a modified enzyme-linked im ...19911940740
frequency of staphylococcus intermedius as human nasopharyngeal flora.staphylococcus intermedius, a veterinary flora and pathogen, has recently been isolated from humans with infected dog bite wounds. the frequency of s. intermedius as a human nasopharyngeal flora was determined by culturing samples from 144 veterinary college staff members. this bacterium was isolated from only one individual (0.7%). it appears that s. intermedius is a true zoonotic opportunistic pathogen.19892584388
bone abscess in the mandible of a quarter horse gelding.a 4-year-old quarter horse gelding presented with a swelling in the soft tissues over the junction of the body and ramus of the left mandible. radiography showed a well circumscribed lytic area within the mandible surrounded by sclerosis unassociated with any tooth. aspiration of the lesion yielded pus. the abscess cavity was opened, curetted and lavaged. a penrose drain was placed in the abscess cavity for 10 days. bacteriological culture of the exudate and soft tissues from the abscess produce ...19911879139
enterotoxigenicity of staphylococcus intermedius of canine origin.seventy-three staphylococcal strains isolated from pyrodermatitis in dogs were classified as staphylococcus intermedius (52 strains) or staphylococcus aureus (21 strains) on the basis of acetoin formation, anaerobic mannitol fermentation, aerobic maltose fermentation, pigmentation, coagulation of human plasma, and reaction on crystal violet agar. enterotoxin was produced by 13 of the 52 s. intermedius strains and 6 of the s. aureus strains. the highest percentage of enterotoxigenic strains produ ...19883275321
occurrence of staphylococcus intermedius on the hair and skin of normal dogs.aerobic bacterial populations were studied on the distal hair coat and at the skin surface of the shoulder, rump and abdomen of 10 healthy dogs. coagulase negative staphylococci (cns) were more frequently isolated from the hair than the skin at the shoulder and rump. there was no difference in the isolation rate of coagulase positive staphylococci (cps) (staphylococcus intermedius) between the hair and skin. total skin counts were greatest on the abdomen whereas cns counts from the hair were lea ...19921585075
investigations on the role of staphylococci in the pathogenesis of german shepherd dog pyoderma (gsp).skin reaction patterns to intradermal injections of a staphylococcus intermedius antigen were examined in physically healthy dogs and in dogs with german shepherd dog pyoderma (gsp) at 15 and 30 minutes and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, 48 and 72 hours after the injection. in both groups the skin histopathology revealed an aspecific inflammatory response of an early polymorphonuclear reaction, followed by a mononuclear cell reaction at 24 and 48 hours. it is concluded that hypersensitivity to staphyloco ...19902321349
phage typing of staphylococcus intermedius.staphylococcus intermedius, a coagulase-positive staphylococcal species, is a common canine pathogen and a rare human wound pathogen. a total of 145 strains of s. intermedius (atcc 29663, 4 reference strains, 4 human isolates, 44 canine infection isolates, and 92 isolates from canine gingiva) were screened for lysogenic phage by a modified fisk method. nineteen phage preparations were prepared for preliminary typing experiments. lytic activity was observed on 93 of 145 (64.1%) isolates, yielding ...19912007645
evaluation of the staph-zym system with staphylococci isolated from bovine intramammary infections.a total of 148 staphylococci isolated from bovine intramammary infections were used to evaluate the staph-zym system (rosco, taastrup, denmark). the overall accuracy of the system was 91.9%. the system correctly identified all strains of staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus simulans, and staphylococcus xylosus and 95% of staphylococcus intermedius strains. of 33 staphylococcus hyicus strains, 31 (93.9%) were classified correctly by the staph-zym system, as well as 8 (80%) of 10 staphylococcus c ...19911993769
effects of four preparations of 0.05% chlorhexidine diacetate on wound healing in dogs.four chlorhexidine diacetate (chd) antiseptic wound lavage preparations were evaluated in vivo to determine their effects on second intention wound healing in the dog in vitro to determine their relative antibacterial activity against staphylococcus intermedius. chlorhexidine was diluted to 0.05% in sterile water, 0.9% sodium chloride, lactated ringers solution (lrs), and lrs that was allowed to form a precipitate with chd. control solutions included sterile water and lrs. there were no signific ...19921626379
a procedure for urease and protein extraction from staphylococci.staphylococcal cell protein and urease can be solubilized after growth in todd-hewitt broth supplemented with 0.5% yeast extract by extraction for 18-24 h in phosphate buffer, ph 7.0. in general 20% (but up to 100%) of the urease present in the original cells could be solubilized. less protein was solubilized. species examined included coagulase-negative staphylococci, staphylococcus intermedius and staph. aureus. extracts of staph. epidermidis prepared by this procedure gave electrophoretic ure ...19892584172
long-term study of aerobic bacteria of the genital tract in breeding bitches.the aerobic bacterial flora of the genital tract was characterized in 59 bitches in an 18-month study. the bitches represented 4 breeds and were from 3 kennels. collection of vaginal swab specimens for bacterial culturing was performed every month, except during estrus when specimens were collected every week (n = 826). the capsule of the swab containing transport media was broken before specimen collection to moisten the tip, which helped to reduce the number of negative cultures. all bitches h ...19921524290
[bacteriology and mycology of otitis externa in dogs].the bacterial and fungal flora of 1118 ears of dogs with otitis externa and 100 ears of healthy control dogs were studied in order to isolate the causative agents. the yeast malassezia pachydermatis (56%) was by far the most common organism in otitic dogs followed by the bacteria staphylococcus intermedius (23%), pseudomonas aeruginosa (12%), proteus spp. (6%) and streptococcus canis (5%). a statistical analysis of observed results showed that the incidence of these organisms is significant in o ...19921411421
nucleotide sequence of the chloramphenicol resistance determinant of the streptococcal plasmid pip501.we have sequenced the chloramphenicol resistance determinant (cat) of plasmid pip501 from streptococcus agalactiae to investigate its relationship with other cognate cat determinants. sequence analysis revealed that it exhibits a high degree of similarity with the cat genes of plasmids pc221 and pub112 from staphylococcus aureus and pscs1 from staphylococcus intermedius. these genes, however, display several differences in their regulatory and coding regions. these results demonstrate that the c ...19921461942
[infectious endocarditis caused by staphylococcus intermedius in a patient infected with hiv]. 19921391010
staphylococcus intermedius: clinical presentation of a new human dog bite pathogen.staphylococcus intermedius is a gram-positive, coagulase-positive coccus that can be distinguished from staphylococcus aureus by routine microbiological testing. whereas s intermedius is recognized as flora and pathogen of dogs, it has never been isolated from human infections. we hypothesized that s intermedius may cause human dog bite wound infections and that it has been previously misidentified as s aureus. fourteen isolates from clinically infected dog bite wounds that were originally ident ...19892705672
colonization of neonatal puppies by staphylococci.the composition of the normal staphylococcal flora of bitches and their litters held in a breeding unit was studied. the animals were sampled at a number of sites using moistened swabs. six bitches were sampled daily, for 10 days, before whelping and then, together with four puppies per litter, at whelping (day 11) and at 1 and 7 days thereafter. staphylococcus intermedius formed the predominant staphylococcal isolate. s. intermedius counts at the oral and nasal sites on the bitches did not chan ...19921467920
comparison of coagulase test methods for identification of staphylococcus intermedius from dogs.staphylococcus intermedius isolates from dogs were tested for coagulase activity by 6 commercial methods and by conventional methods, using rabbit and dog plasma. when compared with the conventional tube method using rabbit plasma, none of the 6 commercial methods was suitable for identification of s intermedius, although the 6 tests performed well using strains of s aureus. use of rabbit plasma identified more s intermedius isolates than did use of dog plasma.19853927803
frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility of staphylococcus species isolated from canine pyodermas.specimens obtained from pyogenic skin lesions of 210 dogs were culturally examined for staphylococci. a total of 215 isolates of staphylococci were biotyped, using the biochemical tests contained in a commercial staphylococcal identification system. of 201 coagulase-positive isolates, 197 were identified as staphylococcus intermedius, 3 as s aureus, and 1 as s hyicus. of 14 coagulase-negative isolates, 5 were identified as s epidermidis, 5 as s xylosus, 3 as s simulans, and 1 as s hominis. antim ...19863954195
relationships among the results of coagulase, staphylococcal toxin, and thermonuclease tests on staphylococci from cow milk.production of staphylococcal alpha- or alpha-beta-toxins correlated well with production of coagulase or thermonuclease (or both) in 203 staphylococcus aureus isolates from milk and should be reliable indicators of s. aureus in the absence of staphylococcus intermedius. failures to produce toxin, tube coagulase, or thermonuclease occurred in only 1 to 2% of s. aureus. evidence of beta- or alpha-beta-toxins was not found among 321 other staphylococci isolated from milk. a few coagulase- or thermo ...19853988900
nucleotide sequence of a nuc gene encoding the thermonuclease of staphylococcus intermedius. 19921408843
staphylococcus intermedius in canine gingiva and canine-inflicted human wound infections: laboratory characterization of a newly recognized zoonotic pathogen.staphylococcal gingival flora was characterized in cultures from 135 dogs. staphylococcus intermedius was isolated in 39% of the cultures, s. aureus was isolated in 10%, and both were isolated in 2.0%. s. aureus was isolated more often from dogs of working breeds with weights of greater than 40 lb (ca. 18 kg) and with outdoor habitats than was s. intermedius, which was associated with dogs of nonworking breeds with weights of less than 40 lb and indoor habitats. s. intermedius was distinguished ...19892913039
evaluation of the rapid mastitis test for identification of staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus agalactiae isolated from bovine mammary glands.a latex agglutination test system (rapid mastitis test [rmt]; immucell, portland, maine) containing reagents for the identification of staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus agalactiae from bovine intramammary infections was evaluated with 527 staphylococcal and 267 streptococcal isolates. the rmt staphylococcus aureus reagent detected 94.2% of 242 staphylococcus aureus isolates, 80% of 25 staphylococcus intermedius isolates, and 42.8% of 21 tube coagulase-positive staphylococcus hyicus isolate ...19883284897
numerical analysis of fatty acid profiles in the identification of staphylococci.representative strains of coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative staphylococci were degraded by acid methanolysis and the resultant fatty acid methyl esters analysed by gas chromatography. the quantitative data obtained were examined by cluster analysis. the coagulase-positive strains formed six major and one single-member cluster at the 90% s-level. the staphylococcus intermedius aggregate cluster included the single-member cluster and major clusters 1 and 2. the four remaining clusters cont ...19854056741
interactions of immunoglobulin g, fibrinogen and fibronectin with staphylococcus hyicus and staphylococcus intermedius.binding of immunoglobulin g, fibrinogen and fibronectin to 112 cultures of coagulase-positive staphylococci together with 7 of coagulase-negative s. hyicus subsp. chromogenes were investigated. of the coagulase-positive staphylococcal cultures 45 were s. hyicus subsp. hyicus, 51 s. intermedius and 16 s. aureus. all 45 s. hyicus subsp. hyicus cultures coagulated plasma preparations from pigs and not always those from sheep, rabbits and dogs. labelled igg was bound by all cultures of s. hyicus sub ...19854082824
characterization of coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from free-living birds.a total of 129 coagulase-positive staphylococcal strains were isolated from the nasopharyngeal region of free-living birds--81 (16%) from 501 birds of prey, 29 (25%) from 117 water birds, and 19 (2%) from 937 pheasants. staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus intermedius were identified in 64 (79%) and 17 (21%) strains from birds of prey, in 1 (3%) and 28 (97%) strains from water birds, and in 4 (21%) and 15 (79%) strains from pheasants, respectively. of the total number of the 69 s.aureus stra ...19911839541
isolation of bacteriophages for typing staphylococcus intermedius isolated from pigeons.attempts to isolate phages for typing staphylococcus intermedius isolated from pigeons were made. five phages were isolated from the lysogenic strains and the nostrils of pigeons, and were used for typing 50 strains isolated from pigeons in japan, belgium and czechoslovakia. thirty-one (62.0%) of the 50 strains were typed at either routine test dilution (rtd) or 100 x rtd into 8 phage patterns. a total of 122 strains of s. intermedius isolated from dogs, horses, mink and foxes were subjected to ...19826213119
cloning and sequence analysis of a plasmid-encoded chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene from staphylococcus intermedius.the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene (cat) of a 3.9 kb chloramphenicol resistance (cmr) plasmid from staphylococcus intermedius, designated pscs1, was cloned into an escherichia coli plasmid vector. sequence analysis revealed a high degree of base similarity with the cat gene of the s. aureus cmr plasmid pc221 but there were several differences in the regulatory region. a lesser degree of similarity was observed between the cat gene of the s. intermedius plasmid and the cat gene of the s. ...19911713259
surface hydrophobicity of staphylococcus intermedius and staphylococcus hyicus.surface hydrophobicity of 90 staphylococcus intermedius and 55 s hyicus isolates was evaluated using the hexadecane adherence assay and the ammonium sulphate salt aggregation test. a strongly positive hydrocarbon adherence in the hexadecane adherence assay was demonstrated in 11 per cent of the s intermedius isolates and 7 per cent of the s hyicus isolates. bacterial aggregation in 1.6 m, or less, ammonium sulphate was observed in 28 per cent of the s intermedius isolates and 37 per cent of the ...19921553442
typing coagulase-positive staphylococci of different origin with blouse and meekins' phages.making use of four experimental blouse and meekins' (i) phages 06, 40, 58, and 93, derived from staphylococcus intermedius strains of canine origin, 631 strains of three coagulase-positive staphylococcal species were typed. the typability was in a great extent dependent on the origin of the tested strains. of 310 s. aureus strains 23 (7%) at rtd and 45 (15%) at 100 x rtd were typable, all without exception of c biotype from cows and sheep. of 281 s. intermedius strains 208 (74%) at rtd and 14 (5 ...19846242405
the anal region as a main carrier site of staphylococcus intermedius and streptococcus canis in dogs. 19873424574
evaluation of the minitek gram-positive set for identification of staphylococci isolated from the bovine mammary gland.the minitek gram-positive set was evaluated as a means of identifying staphylococci isolated from bovine mammary glands. initial accuracy was 79.2%. misidentification of isolates due to data base deficiencies resulted with the animal-associated species staphylococcus intermedius and s. hyicus. minor modification to account for data base deficiencies permitted recognition of 87.7% of the isolates. incorporation of additional veterinary isolates into the data base would improve the accuracy of the ...19863711275
species of staphylococcus isolated from animal hundred randomly selected clinical strains of staphylococci were identified by species using a commercial micromethod system. eight species of staphylococci were identified. staphylococcus intermedius was the most frequent (n = 74) species identified and accounted for 70/74 (94.6%) of the coagulase-positive strains and 70/79 (88.6%) of the total isolates from dogs. other species identified, in order of their frequency, included s. epidermidis (8), s. aureus (7), s. simulans (4), s. sciuri (2 ...19846467945
patterns of antibodies to staphylococcal dnases in dog sera.sera from clinically healthy dogs and from dogs with a history of skin disease were examined for the presence of antibodies to the dnases of staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus hyicus subsp. hyicus, and staphylococcus intermedius. the antibodies found most frequently and in the largest amounts were those to the dnase of s. intermedius.19846490863
temporal study of staphylococcal species on the skin of human subjects in isolation and clonal analysis of staphylococcus capitis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.the staphylococcal skin floras of an isolated group of subjects were studied for 1 year. a wide variation in isolation patterns was found for different species. staphylococcus intermedius, previously thought to be of veterinary origin, was found to be part of the resident flora of some subjects, and this may indicate a wider role for it in clinical infection. sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) analysis of s. capitis isolates indicated persistent skin colonizatio ...19892687313
antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of canine staphylococcus intermedius isolates from veterinary clinical specimens.sixty-six staphylococcus intermedius isolates from canine clinical specimens were tested for susceptibility to various antimicrobial agents by the bauer-kirby disk diffusion method and a commercial microdilution system. all isolates were susceptible to cephalothin, cloxacillin, gentamicin, methicillin, and vancomycin. resistance to ampicillin, penicillin g, and tetracycline was frequent. there was an overall 87% agreement of results from the disk diffusion and microdilution methods for 10 antimi ...19846524732
characterization of coagulase-positive staphylococcus intermedius and staphylococcus aureus isolated from veterinary clinical specimens.staphylococci were the most frequent isolates from clinical specimens submitted from a large referral and teaching veterinary hospital. in this study a total of 160 isolates were examined by a wide range of biochemical tests and modifications of basic procedures. an attempt was made to test the validity of these procedures for use in characterization of clinical isolates of coagulase-positive staphylococci. of the isolates examined, some 27 were staphylococcus aureus, 115 were staphylococcus int ...19836630462
sensitivity of canine staphylococcus intermedius strains to the phages typing staphylococcus aureus isolated from man.98 staphylococci strains isolated from skin lesions of dogs were tested for their morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. these examinations have proved that the majority of the strains was staphylococcus intermedius (n = 97), and only one was staphylococcus aureus. the strains were also tested for their sensitivity to bacteriophages. most of staphylococcus intermedius strains (n = 75) could be typed with the set of human phages, typing staphylococci isolated from man. two ...19902151904
serum concentrations of cefepime (bmy-28142), a broad-spectrum cephalosporin, in dogs.serum concentrations of cefepime (bmy-28142) were determined for four dosing regimes, 10 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg, given as single subcutaneous (sc) or intramuscular injections (im) to dogs. serial serum samples were analyzed for the presence of cefepime by high-performance liquid chromatography. in experiment 1, the overall mean (+/- sem) serum concentration (for a 12-hour period) after a dose of 20 mg/kg for sc and im routes (4.9 +/- 0.74 micrograms/ml and 5.5 +/- 0.63 micrograms/ml, respectively) wa ...19921740062
biochemical properties and differentiation of coagulase-positive staphylococci from rooks and gulls.coagulase-positive staphylococci were found in the throats of 46 rooks (69 per cent) and 47 gulls (21 per cent) out of totals of 67 and 229 birds, respectively. of 111 strains isolated from throat swabs 86 (77.5 per cent) were classified as staphylococcus aureus and 25 strains (22.5 per cent) as staphylococcus intermedius. of the s aureus strains 82 per cent from rooks and 50 per cent from gulls were biotyped. most of them were identified as biotypes d and b, only a few as biotype a, and none as ...19883387679
protein a in staphylococcus intermedius isolates from dogs and cats.the presence and quantity of extracellular and cell-bound protein a of staphylococcus intermedius isolates from dogs and cats were determined, using an enzyme-linked immunoglobulin-binding assay. horseradish peroxidase-conjugated rabbit anti-bovine immunoglobulin g purified by affinity chromatography was reacted with whole cell and supernatant fractions of s intermedius (n = 139), a protein a-producing strain of s aureus, and a protein a-deficient strain of s epidermidis. extracellular protein a ...19863767095
leukocyte function in pelger-huët anomaly of dogs.leukocyte function was evaluated in five dogs with pelger-huët (p-h) anomaly and in five control dogs. no significant differences were found between groups in neutrophil adherence, random movement, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, or bacterial killing of staphylococcus intermedius. neutrophils migrated rapidly into inflammatory sites where progressive nuclear lobulation was noted over time. antibody titers to exogenous antigens were similar in the p-h and control groups indicating b- and t-lymphocyte c ...19892649629
identification of protein a from staphylococcus intermedius isolated from canine skin.protein a was identified in cell wall-bound and secreted forms from staphylococcus intermedius isolated from canine skin. a direct binding radioimmunoassay for the detection of bacterial surface fc receptors identified 48 of 50 s intermedius isolates that contained cell wall-bound protein a. using a competitive binding radioimmunoassay for the detection of fc-reactive proteins in bacterial culture supernatants, we identified 9 of 50 clinical isolates of s intermedius that secreted measurable qua ...19883395013
[susceptibility of bacterial isolates from the equine respiratory tract to trimethoprim, sulfadoxine, sulfadimethoxine and combinations of these compounds].using a broth microdilution technique, the in vitro susceptibility of bacterial isolates from the equine respiratory tract to trimethoprim, sulfadoxine, sulfadimethoxine, and combinations of these compounds was determined. the bacterial strains (n = 88) isolated recently from horses with respiratory symptoms belonged to the following species: streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (n = 34), streptococcus equi subsp. equi (n = 22), staphylococcus aureus (n = 9), klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 7), rh ...19957624856
temporal study of staphylococcal species on healthy dogs.during a 1-year period, specimens were obtained monthly from 5 hair coat and 7 mucous membrane sites of 11 healthy dogs. among 804 isolates of staphylococci, 13 species were identified. staphylococcus intermedius was the most frequently isolated (40.2% of total isolates) coagulase-positive species, and s xylosus was the most frequently isolated (17.3%) coagulase-negative species. moreover, s intermedius was the most frequently isolated species from the 12 sites evaluated and was isolated persist ...19883400910
clinical pharmacologic aspects of cefixime in dogs.the minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) of cefixime, a new third-generation orally administered caphalosporin, was determined for reference and clinical isolates from dogs. the mic of the drug for all but 1 of the 18 enterobacteriaceae isolates tested, 1 pasteurella canis, 1 rhodococcus equi, 1 streptococcus canis, and 1 streptococcus group g isolate, was less than 1.0 microgram/ml. the mic for 9 staphylococcus intermedius isolates ranged from 1.56 to 6.25 micrograms/ml and, for 8 sta aureus ...19957661460
[staphylococcus intermedius in urolithiasis of mink]. 19854051668
species distribution of coagulase-positive staphylococci in animals.a total of 268 isolates of coagulase-positive staphylococci from a variety of animal species, including dogs, horses, cats, monkeys, goats, and cows, were assigned to species on the basis of the api staph- ident system (analytab products, inc., plainview , n.y.). of 195 isolates from dogs, 179 (91.8%) were staphylococcus intermedius, as were 9 of 25 (36%) isolates from horses, 7 of 15 (46.6%) isolates from cats, and 4 of 6 (66.6%) isolates from goats. only 1 of 10 isolates from monkeys and none ...19846429188
phage typing coagulase-positive staphylococci from rooks and gulls.phage typing was performed on 86 strains of staphylococcus aureus and 25 strains of staphylococcus intermedius from rooks and gulls with human, bovine, chicken and canine phages. eighty per cent of the s aureus strains and 64 per cent of the s intermedius strains were typable. the s aureus biotype d strains of rook origin were specifically lysed at routine test dilution (rtd) by chicken phages from groups i or i + iv, by human phages belonging to groups i and m, and partly by canine phage 58. th ...19882968634
isolation and characterization of immunoglobulin binding proteins from staphylococcus intermedius and staphylococcus hyicus.125-i-igg binding activities were observed with 15 (17%) of 90 s. intermedius isolates from dogs and 39 (95%) of 41 s. hyicus isolates from pigs. binding activities were not detected with s. hyicus isolates from cows. the igg binding proteins of 2 s. intermedius, 2 s. hyicus, and protein a from s. aureus cowan i were isolated from their cell surfaces. the proteins precipitated with igg preparations from human, rabbit, pig, dog and horse, but not with igg from cow, mouse and chicken. this indicat ...19921455944
antimicrobial effect of combinations of edta-tris and amikacin or neomycin on the microorganisms associated with otitis externa in dogs.combinations of edta-tris and two aminoglycoside antibiotics (amikacin and neomycin) were tested for synergistic activities against the microorganisms associated with otitis externa in dogs and for the solutions' stability over time. synergistic activity was observed when edta-tris plus amikacin and edta-tris plus neomycin were tested against staphylococcus intermedius, proteus mirabilis, pseudomonas aeruginosa, and escherichia coli, but not against candida albicans. stability studies over a 3-m ...19947831753
detection of beta-lactamase produced by staphylococcus iodometric, 2 chromogenic, and 3 acidometric methods were compared for the detection of beta-lactamase produced by staphylococcus intermedius (n = 105) isolated from dogs. of 575 tests performed, using the 6 methods evaluated, 316 (55.0%) were positive for beta-lactamase production. the iodometric method was the reference method. with the exception of a high correlation (r = 0.962) between 1 acidometric method and 1 chromogenic method, the 5 commercial methods had correlation coefficients le ...19853875302
characteristic bacteriolytic activities of staphylococcus hyicus.staphylococcus hyicus demonstrated characteristic bacteriolytic activities towards a micrococcus luteus reference strain. this lytic activity was demonstrated on medium containing m. luteus cells as large zones of transparency around the culture streak. smaller zones of transparency were observed with staphylococcus intermedius, staphylococcus chromogenes, and some strains of staphylococcus aureus but not with other coagulase-negative staphylococcal species. the distribution and extent of the ba ...19892768457
staphylococcus intermedius isolated from dog-bite wounds. 19947963622
characterization of staphylococcus intermedius from healthy dogs and cases of superficial pyoderma by dna restriction endonuclease order to study the possible clonal relation of staphyloccocus (s.) intermedius from canine superficial pyoderma and from healthy carriers, isolates from pustular swabs and from vaginal, nasal and normal skin sabs were typed using macrorestriction analysis with sma i and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. from the size of the resulting fragments the size of the chromosome of s. intermedius could be determined to be roughly 1500 +/- 200 kb on the average. the fingerprints were very heterogeneous ...19947975151
characteristics of coagulase-negative staphylococci that help differentiate these species and other members of the family hundred reference strains and 1,240 clinical isolates representing 26 species of the family micrococcaceae were used to evaluate the potential of tests for synergistic hemolysis, adherence to glass, pyroglutamyl-beta-naphthylamide hydrolysis, and susceptibility to a set of five antimicrobial agents for differentiating these species and strains within the species. sixty-eight percent of the clinical isolates exhibited synergistic hemolysis; 69% of the clinical staphylococci but none of the mi ...19882846632
efficacy of tylosin tablets for the treatment of pyoderma due to staphylococcus intermedius infection in dogs.tylosin tablets (20 mg/kg, q12h) were administered orally to 21 dogs with superficial or deep staphylococcal pyodermas. response to therapy was excellent in 90.5% of the dogs, and in vitro susceptibility testing correlated perfectly with therapeutic response. duration of therapy varied from 17 to 91 days, with an average of 33 days. relapses occurred in 28.6% of the dogs within a three-month period. no side effects were reported. under the conditions of the study, tylosin was an effective and sa ...19947994702
enterotoxigenicity of staphylococcus intermedius strains isolated from dogs.dogs (n = 100) were examined for the presence of enterotoxigenic staphylococcus intermedius. enterotoxigenic strains were isolated from the nasal cavities of 43 (43.0%) out of 100 dogs. of the 50 enterotoxigenic strains isolated, 23 (46.0%) produced enterotoxin a, 17 (34.0%) enterotoxins a and c, 8 (16.0%) enterotoxin c, and only two (4.0%) enterotoxins a and b. the amount of enterotoxin produced on semisolid brain heart infusion medium by the 17 enterotoxin a producing strains of s. intermedius ...19846241773
enterotoxin production by strains of staphylococcus intermedius and staphylococcus aureus isolated from dog infections.sixty-six strains of s. intermedius and 10 of s. aureus isolated from infected dogs were examined for enterotoxin production. 39.5% of the strain (37.9% of s. intermedius and 50% of s. aureus) produced one or more enterotoxins. the predominant types produced by s. intermedius were c1 and c2, and only two of the strains synthesized enterotoxin a. one of the s. aureus strains produced the toxic shock syndrome toxin 1.19873630476
variations in antibiograms and plasmid profiles among multiple isolates of staphylococcus intermedius from pyoderma in dogs. 19921488956
distribution of staphylococcal species on clinically healthy cats.among 827 isolates derived from 113 clinically healthy cats, 12 species of staphylococci were identified. staphylococci were isolated from each cat and from 54.9% of the anatomic sites evaluated. a mode of 6 (range = 2 to 11) of the 11 anatomic sites evaluated per cat yielded staphylococci. a mode of 8 (range = 2 to 12) isolates were found per cat. staphylococcus simulans was the most isolated (43.9% of total) coagulase-negative species. moreover, s simulans was the most isolated species from ea ...19854051289
comparative ribotyping of staphylococcus intermedius from dogs, pigeons, horses and mink.strains of staphylococcus (s.) intermedius from dogs, pigeons, horses and mink were typed by comparison of rrna gene restriction fragment length polymorphisms (ribotyping) and the resulting ribotypes examined by cluster-analysis. digestion of whole-cell dna with hindiii resulted in 9 ribotypes with 3 to 4 bands. separation of isolates from different host animal species was not possible. ecori yielded 11 different patterns with 4 to 9 fragments. the ecori-ribotypes of all canine strains grouped i ...19957544518
antimicrobial susceptibility of coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from louisiana dogs.disk diffusion susceptibility tests were done on 1,178 clinical strains of coagulase-positive staphylococci (cps) isolated from dogs during a 7-year period. relative decreases of 7% to 33% were found in the percentages of cps sensitive to 8 antimicrobics. relative percentages of cps sensitive to 9 other antimicrobics were increased or decreased less than 5%. sensitivity to the beta-lactam antibiotics showed the least relative change. regression analysis demonstrated that the greatest change in p ...19846497102
analysis of intestinal flora of a patient with congenital absence of the portal vein.a 14-year-old female patient, admitted for a closer examination of liver tumour (hepatocellular adenoma), was diagnosed as having a congenital absence of the portal vein. the blood ammonia level (approximately 120 micrograms dl-1) in the superior mesenteric vein was markedly low compared to the normal value of 300-350 micrograms dl-1 in the portal vein. the decreased ammonia concentration and urease activity of the patient's faeces were demonstrated. the dominant intestinal flora in the faeces o ...19938364525
identification of coagulase-positive staphylococcus intermedius and staphylococcus hyicus subsp. hyicus isolates from veterinary clinical specimens.coagulase-positive isolates of staphylococcus intermedius from dogs and coagulase-positive isolates of staphylococcus hyicus subsp. hyicus from a pig and cows were identified initially by a simplified scheme which can be readily performed in a routine diagnostic laboratory. characters tested in the scheme included coagulase activity, colony pigment, and aerobic acid production from maltose. the identity of these isolates was confirmed by deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization ...19817334077
characterisation of a synergohymenotropic toxin produced by staphylococcus intermedius.staphylococcal synergohymenotropic (sht) toxins damage membranes of host defence cells and erythrocytes by the synergy of two secreted and non-associated proteins: class s and class f components. whereas panton-valentine leucocidin (pvl), gamma-hemolysin and luk-m from staphylococcus aureus are members of this toxin family, a new bi-component toxin (luks-i + lukf-i) from staphylococcus intermedius, a pathogen for small animals, was characterised and sequenced. it is encoded as a luk-i operon by ...19957498527
distribution of genes encoding erythromycin ribosomal methylases and an erythromycin efflux pump in epidemiologically distinct groups of staphylococci.erythromycin-resistant staphylococci can be divided into two phenotypic classes based on their pattern of cross-resistance to other macrolides, lincosamides and type b streptogramins. strains inducibly or constitutively resistant to all mls antibiotics possess erythromycin ribosomal methylase (erm) genes, whereas strains inducibly resistant to only 14 and 15-membered ring macrolides and type b streptogramins harbour msra, which encodes an atp-dependent efflux pump. dot-blot hybridization was use ...19938463168
a comparison of lincomycin hydrochloride and clindamycin hydrochloride in the treatment of superficial pyoderma in dogs.thirty dogs with superficial pyoderma were randomly allocated to treatments with either lincomycin hydrochloride (22 mg/kg twice daily) or clindamycin hydrochloride (11 mg/kg once daily), initially for three weeks. samples were taken from pustules, from adjacent apparently uninvolved skin, and from the nares. these were submitted for bacterial culture and sensitivity testing. the dogs were re-examined after three weeks treatment and samples for bacteriology were taken from the nares, from any pu ...19938488640
effect of beta-lactamase of staphylococcus intermedius on disk agar diffusion susceptibility tests.clinical strains of canine staphylococcus intermedius (n = 120) were tested for susceptibility to beta-lactam antimicrobics (n = 6) by the standardized disk agar diffusion method and for beta-lactamase (bl) production. significant differences between susceptibilities for bl producing (n = 68) and non-producing (n = 52) strains were found for penicillin g and ampicillin. zone sizes of bl producing strains were significantly smaller than those of non-producers for penicillin g, ampicillin, cephalo ...19846332707
different staphylococcal species contain various numbers of penicillin-binding proteins ranging from four (staphylococcus aureus) to only one (staphylococcus hyicus).the penicillin-binding proteins of a total of 25 staphylococcal strains belonging to five different species were analyzed. all strains of the same species showed an identical penicillin-binding protein pattern which clearly differed from that of strains of the other species. staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus intermedius, staphylococcus simulans, and the dolphin strains were found to contain two to four penicillin-binding proteins. strains of staphylococcus hyicus exhibited only one penicilli ...19854019416
multicenter evaluation of arbitrarily primed pcr for typing of staphylococcus aureus strains.fifty-nine isolates of staphylococcus aureus and a single strain of staphylococcus intermedius were typed by arbitrarily primed pcr (ap-pcr). to study reproducibility and discriminatory abilities, ap-pcr was carried out in seven laboratories with a standardized amplification protocol, template dna isolated in a single institution, and a common set of three primers with different resolving powers. the 60 strains could be divided into 16 to 30 different genetic types, depending on the laboratory. ...19957650182
characterisation of staphylococcus intermedius isolates from canine pyoderma and from healthy carriers by sds-page of exoproteins, immunoblotting and restriction endonuclease digest analysis.ten staphylococcus intermedius isolates from cases of canine pyoderma and 10 from healthy carriers were examined by sds-page of exoproteins, immunoblotting and restriction endonuclease digest analysis. similarities between banding patterns of the isolates were calculated as dice coefficients for all three methods. for sds-page and immunoblotting, no significant differentiation was found between the pyoderma and "healthy" groups. analysis of dna digested with bglii indicated that s. intermedius i ...19937902443
prevalence of coagulase-positive staphylococci, other than staphylococcus aureus, in bovine determine prevalence and relevance of coagulase-positive staphylococcus hyicus and s intermedius intramammary infections (imi) in dairy cows and determine the ability of the 4-hour tube coagulase (tc) test to differentiate the coagulase-positive staphylococci (cps).19968720238
in vitro activity of fifteen antimicrobial agents against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible staphylococcus this study the susceptibility of 91 methicillin-resistant and -susceptible staphylococcus intermedius strains (mrsi and mssi, respectively) against 15 antimicrobial agents was determined. the activity of the antimicrobial agents was studied at ph 7.2 and ph 8.5. methicillin was more active at ph 7.2 (28 strains methicillin-resistant) than at ph 8.5 (55 strains methicillin-resistant). gentamicin showed excellent activity, with only 3 strains resistant at ph 8.5. however, gentamicin would have ...19968735419
experimental bacteriophage set for typing staphylococcus intermedius.a new phage set for typing staphylococcus intermedius is proposed. by using 14 phages, 581 strains isolated from dogs, pigeons, horses, foxes and mink were subjected to typing at routine test dilution (rtd) and 100 x rtd. the typability of each ecovar ranged from 78.9% to 100%. most of the strains were typable at rtd. phage patterns obtained could be divided into 4 types (canine i, canine ii, pigeon, and equine). the phage set was considered useful for typing s. intermedius.19826221490
diversity of adenine conversion in staphylococci.the special position of staphylococcus intermedius in comparison with staphylococcus saprophyticus, staphylococcus chromogenes, and staphylococcus hyicus was shown by deamination of adenine to hypoxanthine. s. chromogenes and s. hyicus converted adenine to adenosine. estimation of adenine conversion may be used for differentiation of s. intermedius from other coagulase-positive staphylococci.19968893524
genomic dna fingerprinting, using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, of staphylococcus intermedius isolated from investigate the degree of polymorphism in the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge) patterns of staphylococcus intermedius and to assess the value of this typing method for discriminating strains.19968896684
comparison of single-dose and conventional trimethoprim-sulfadiazine therapy in experimental staphylococcus intermedius cystitis in the female dog.cystitis was produced in 4 groups of 6 female dogs each, using salicylic acid, ethanol, and staphylococcus intermedius. group-i dogs served as nontreated controls. starting 2 days after infection was induced, group-ii dogs were treated with trimethoprim-sulfadiazine at a dosage of 15 mg/kg given orally 2 times a day for 21 days; groups-iii and -iv dogs were treated with single oral dosages of the antibiotic at 60 mg/kg and 90 mg/kg, respectively. group-i dogs (controls) remained infected for the ...19863800121
emerging chloramphenicol resistance in staphylococcus lentus from mink following chloramphenicol treatment: characterisation of the resistance genes.a total of 26 staphylococcal strains isolated from mink with urinary tract infections as well as from the environment of the mink were examined for antibiotic resistance and prevalence of plasmids mediating resistance to the antibiotics applied for prophylactic or therapeutic purposes. chloramphenicol resistance (cmr) which occurred in fourteen of the eighteen staphylococcus lentus strains, but in none of the staphylococcus intermedius and staphylococcus xylosus strains, was shown to be mediated ...19947801525
comparison of the beta-toxins from staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus intermedius.the beta-toxins produced by staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcus intermedius were purified to homogeneity from culture supernatants. although the toxin from s. aureus has been throughly studied, less is known about its unique counterpart from s. intermedius. this is the first reported purification and analysis of the s. intermedius beta-toxin. both toxins have similar enzymatic properties, belong to the class of neutral sphingomyelinases c, and have a high specificity for sphingomyelin. they ...19968914839
aerobic bacteria occurring in the vagina of bitches with reproductive disorders.a retrospective survey was performed of aerobic bacterial species found in the vagina of 203 bitches with genital disorders, e.g. infertility, vaginitis, pyometra and puppy death. escherichia coli, beta-hemolytic streptococci, staphylococcus intermedius and pasteurella multocida were the species most often isolated. from bitches with pyometra e. coli in pure culture was the most frequent isolate. in contrast, the majority of infertile bitches gave rise to mixed cultures, and no specific bacteria ...19938342462
prevention of surgical infections in dogs with a single intravenous injection of marbofloxacin: an experimental model.eighteen healthy beagle dogs of both sexes were each given 0, 2 or 4 mg/kg marbofloxacin intravenously before the subcutaneous implantation of a silicon tissue cage. two millilitres of a suspension containing 1.3 x 10(4) colony forming units (cfu)/ml of staphylococcus intermedius were then injected into the cage 15 minutes after the intravenous injection. the dogs were clinically assessed immediately, and then two, four, eight and 24 hours after the challenge. samples of inflammatory fluid were ...19979061872
new combination for the therapy of canine otitis externa. i. microbiology of otitis order to compound a new drug combination against canine otitis externa (oe), 515 dogs affected with oe were subjected to physical examination and microbiological analysis of their ear exudates. oe was erythematous-ceruminous in 83 per cent and suppurative in 17 per cent of the patient material. erythematous-ceruminous inflammations were characterised by severe pruritus and accumulation of brownish, greasy cerumen in the auditory canal. the yeast malassezia pachydermatis was isolated from the ...19979065882
application of polymerase chain reaction for the correlation of salmonella serovars recovered from greyhound feces with their diet.the polymerase chain reaction was employed to correlate salmonella serovars isolated from fecal material of greyhounds suffering from gastroenteritis with those isolated from the diet fed to the greyhounds prior to onset of diarrhea. kennels around the abilene, kansas, area were contacted and supplied with materials needed to collect a portion of the diet each day. with the onset of diarrhea, the kennels were instructed to ship the fecal material and diet from the previous 10 days to the laborat ...19938373851
differentiation of staphylococci on the basis of nuclease properties.the quantity, thermostability, and serological pattern of nucleases produced by different staphylococci were studied. staphylococcal strains were isolated from nine different species of animals or from humans. staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus intermedius, and staphylococcus hyicus subsp. hyicus were vigorous producers of nuclease, whereas the coagulase-negative staphylococci, except s. hyicus subsp. hyicus, produced significantly less nuclease. the nucleases of all strains were found to be ...19836643663
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