epidural abscess and subdural empyema.epidural abscess and subdural empyema are serious intracranial infections that result in significant morbidity and mortality. frequently, they are secondary to sinusitis or middle ear disease, and the bacteria involved are inhabitants of the upper respiratory tract. symptoms may be mild and mimic the symptoms of the underlying infection. however, especially with subdural empyema, alteration in the level of consciousness and focal neurologic deficits are common. morbidity and mortality are minimi ...19892568981
comparison of four commercial brucella agar media for growth of anaerobic organisms.four different commercial brucella blood agar plating media (anaerobe systems, bbl microbiology systems, remel, and scott laboratories) were compared for the abilities to recover anaerobic organisms from clinical specimens and to support the growth of american type culture collection anaerobic stock cultures. following 24 h of incubation in an anaerobe chamber, anaerobe systems prereduced, anaerobically sterilized brucella plates yielded 63% of the total clinical anaerobe isolates, the scott med ...19892584378
microbiology of infected epidermal cysts.specimens from 231 epidermal cyst abscesses were inoculated on media supportive for growth of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. of these, 192 yielded bacterial growth. aerobic or facultative bacteria only were recovered in 84 specimens (44%), anaerobic bacteria only in 57 specimens (30%), and mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in 51 specimens (26%). a total of 315 isolates (162 anaerobes and 153 aerobes) were recovered. an average of 0.8 aerobic or facultative isolates per infected cyst were rec ...19892589860
josamycin concentrations in human dental granuloma after a single oral administration of josamycin.1. josamycin concentrations in human serum and dental granuloma after a single oral administration of josamycin (600 mg) were assayed by an agar diffusion (paper disc) method. 2. the mean peak josamycin concentrations in serum and dental granuloma occurred at an identical time, approximately 90 min, and were 0.88 micrograms/ml and 1.61 micrograms/g, respectively. 3. the mean concentration ratio of dental granuloma to serum at the peak time was 2.24. 4. josamycin concentration in dental granuloma ...19892591712
studies on microaerophilic cocci (stuart-schwan cocci) isolated from summer mastitis and other pyogenic infections of cattle.forty-nine strains of microaerophilic gram-positive cocci (stuart-schwan cocci) isolated from summer mastitis, "pyogenes"-mastitis, other pyogenic conditions of danish cattle and swine, and from the sheep headfly hydrotaea irritans were biochemically characterized with the api 50 ch and api zym test kit systems, and screened for production of a variety of extracellular enzymes by agar plate methods. for comparison 4 strains isolated from swedish cases of heifer and dry cow mastitis were included ...19892596384
plasmid analysis and antimicrobial susceptibilities of peptostreptococcus species.there are no published methods on plasmid isolation from peptostreptococcus spp., therefore two methods of plasmid isolation from this genera were analysed: the boiling and alkaline-sds methods. plasmid dna was not recovered by the boiling method, however, with the alkaline-sds method, cryptic plasmid dna was detected in two p. asaccharolyticus and one p. magnus strains. to achieve optimum lysis, peptostreptococcus cells were treated with lysozyme (2 mg/ml) for 15 min. at 37 degrees c followed b ...19892599360
sodium-dependent transport of branched-chain amino acids by a monensin-sensitive ruminal peptostreptococcus.a recently isolated ruminal peptostreptococcus which produced large amounts of branched-chain volatile fatty acids grew rapidly with leucine as an energy source in the presence but not the absence of na. leucine transport could be driven by an artificial membrane potential (delta psi) only when na was available, and a chemical gradient of na+ (delta una+) also drove uptake. because na+ was taken up with leucine and a z delta ph could not serve as a driving force (with or without na), it appeared ...19892604404
antimicrobial susceptibilities of eubacterium, peptostreptococcus, and bacteroides isolated from root canals of teeth with periapical pathosis.eubacterium, peptostreptococcus, and bacteroides were isolated in high frequency from root canals with acute periapical inflammation. the antimicrobial susceptibilities of these strains were studied by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations of different agents. although all three kinds of isolates were susceptible to penicillins, the isolates other than black-pigmented bacteroides were less susceptible to cephems, tetracyclines, and macrorides with several resistant strains. all strains w ...19892607278
an in vitro method to study the adherence of oral bacteria to hela cells.exfoliated buccal epithelial cells have been widely used in microbial adherence studies, but present a number of problems due to their variable nature and to contamination with indigenous bacteria. an adherence assay was developed using hela cell monolayers which were washed with buffer, or treated with saliva or serum to mimic buccal or crevicular epithelial cells, respectively. a total of eighteen strains of oral bacteria tested showed a low affinity for untreated hela cells, but most strains ...19892607993
the predominant cultivable microbiota of crevicular epithelial cells.the purpose of the present investigation was to compare the composition of the predominant cultivable microbiota associated with gingival crevicular epithelial cells with that of the unattached microbiota recovered from the same site. samples were taken from 2 diseased sites from 8 periodontal patients, by scraping the epithelial lining of the pocket with a curette. the epithelial cells were separated from the unattached subgingival bacteria by centrifugation in a reduced 50% percoll density gra ...19892628861
development and clinical application of dna probe specific for peptostreptococcus micros.p. micros is thought to be an important pathogen in the etiology of certain inflammatory lesions, however, the role of this microorganism is uncertain due to the lack of rapid and reliable method to identify this species. the purpose of this study was to develop a dna probe specific for the detection of p. micros in order to evaluate its prevalence in oral infectious lesions. the whole genomic dna from p. micros was partially digested and inserted into the vector puc 13. four recombinant clones ...19892632133
[studies on anaerobic infection in oro-maxillary region--rapid diagnosis by gas-liquid chromatography and antibiotic susceptibilities of anaerobic bacteria].subject material for this study was pus collected from patients with purulent inflammation in the oro-maxillary region. direct gas-liquid chromatography (glc) analysis was made, bacterial isolation and identification were carried out, and comparisons were made with results from glc analysis and anaerobic isolates in a pyg medium. in addition, antibiotic susceptibilities of anaerobic bacteria were examined. results 1. anaerobic bacteria were isolated from 85 of 100 cases of obstructive abscesses. ...19892641196
accuracy and reproducibility of the 4-hour atb 32a method for anaerobe identification.the atb 32a system (api system sa, la balme les grottes, montalieu-vercieu, france) was evaluated for use in the identification of 214 anaerobes. organisms included 73 isolates of the bacteroides fragilis group, 24 bacteroides spp., 10 fusobacteria, 43 clostridia, 28 cocci, and 36 gram-positive, nonsporeforming rods. with the concomitant use of gram stain, pigmentation, catalase testing, and aerobic growth, the atb 32a system correctly identified 97% of the b. fragilis group isolates, 88% of bac ...19892681252
quantitative bacteriology of a case of acute is generally assumed that the microorganisms responsible for acute suppurative parotitis are facultative anaerobes, primarily staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus viridans. a quantitative microbiologic investigation of an aspirate of pus from the case we report revealed a microbial flora (5.1 x 10(6) cfu/ml) consisting entirely of strict anaerobes (fusobacterium nucleatum and peptostreptococcus anaerobius). the strain of f. nucleatum was sensitive to metronidazole but resistant to penicill ...19892682427
a 12 year study of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in intra-abdominal and postsurgical abdominal wound infections.findings from the study of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in intra-abdominal infections from 339 specimens of the peritoneal cavity after intestinal perforation, 83 specimens from abdominal abscesses and 89 specimens from postsurgical abdominal wounds are presented. anaerobic bacteria alone were present in 43 (13 per cent) of the peritoneal specimens, aerobic bacteria alone in 38 (11 per cent) and mixed aerobic and anaerobic flora in 258 (76 per cent). a total of 985 bacterial isolates were reco ...19892683149
serological studies of peptostreptococci using an indirect fluorescent antibody test.members of the genus peptostreptococcus are frequent isolates from periodontal lesions. a study was undertaken for determination of the serological relationships of oral and non-oral strains of several species of this genus. eighty-nine strains of peptostreptococci representing seven species were tested by means of an indirect fluorescent antibody technique (ifa), with rabbit antisera to peptostreptococcus anaerobius atcc 27337, peptostreptococcus micros vpi 2618-a, and peptostreptococcus produc ...19892685068
intravenous sulbactam/ampicillin in the treatment of pediatric infections.a total of 82 patients involving 83 episodes of proven or presumed bacterial infection were treated with sulbactam/ampicillin. these included 36 cases of soft tissue infection or abscess, four cases of joint or bone infection, 20 cases of respiratory tract infection (17 cases of pneumonia, two of otitis media, and one of tonsillitis), 15 urinary tract infections, three cases of enterocolitis, one case of infective endocarditis, two cases of septicemia, and two of peritonitis. the causative patho ...19892686918
anaerobic bacteria in brain abscess, a review; observation of 18 consecutive cases.the aerobic and anaerobic bacterial flora of 18 consecutive cases of brain abscesses were studied. two cases were sterile. in five cases there was a single bacterial isolate. in five cases there was a single bacterial isolate the organism being staphylococcus aureus in two cases, bacteroides fragilis in two cases and peptostreptococcus anaerobius in one case. in the remaining eleven cases, more than one organism was isolated. a combination of anaerobe with an aerobe was observed in five cases an ...19892687167
aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of intra-abdominal abscesses in this study of the aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of 23 intra-abdominal abscesses, aerobic bacteria alone were present in one specimen, anaerobic bacteria only in four, and mixed aerobic and anaerobic flora in 18. ninety bacterial isolates (3.9 isolates per specimen), 63 anaerobic (2.7 per specimen), and 27 aerobic and facultative (1.2 per specimen) isolates were recovered. the predominant organisms were bacteroides fragilis group (23 isolates), peptostreptococcus sp (20 isolates), and esc ...19892688128
[medical treatment of single hepatic abscess caused by anaerobic germ in a previously healthy patient]. 19892711009
infection following challenge of the lactating and dry udder of dairy cows with actinomyces pyogenes and peptostreptococcus indolicus.challenge of 12 mammary glands of cows in mid-lactation with 10(7) colony forming units (cfu) of peptostreptococcus indolicus on two occasions led to clinical mastitis in only four quarters. the bacteria were rarely recovered and disappeared from the secretion within 14 days. in challenges 7 days prior to drying off eight of 12 quarters became infected and at drying off all quarters challenged became infected. the infections established at drying off persisted well into the dry period. p. indoli ...19892713635
intestinal perforation in children.there were 102 cases of intestinal perforation seen in children at the department of paediatric surgery at s.s. hospital, varanasi during a 3 year period. enteric (typhoid) perforation (29%), intussusception (15%) ascaris lumbricoides infestation (9%) and appendicitis (9%), which are rarities in the reported literature, were the major causes of intestinal perforation. radiological evidence of pneumoperitoneum was seen in 88% of patients. the majority of cases in this study were older than 5 year ...19892735889
aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of bartholin's abscess.aspirates of pus from an abscess of bartholin's gland in 28 patients were studied for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. bacterial growth was obtained on culture in 26 specimens. a total of 67 bacterial isolates (43 anaerobic and 24 aerobic and facultative) were recovered, accounting for 2.6 isolates per specimen (1.7 anaerobic and 0.9 aerobic and facultatives). anaerobic bacteria only were present in eight patients, aerobic and facultatives in five and mixed aerobic and anaerobic flora in 13. sing ...19892740967
microbiology of postthoractomy sternal wound infection.specimens from 74 patients with postthoractomy sternal wound infection were studied for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. bacterial growth was obtained in specimens from 65 patients (88%). aerobic or facultative bacteria only were recovered in 50 specimens (77%), anaerobic bacteria only in 6 (9%), and mixed aerobic, facultative, and anaerobic bacteria in 9 (14%). eighty-seven isolates were recovered (1.3 per specimen): 68 aerobic or facultative (1.0 per specimen) and 19 anaerobic (0.3 per specimen ...19892745693
characterization of nad-dependent 3 alpha- and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and of nadp-dependent 7 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from peptostreptococcus productus.a human fecal isolate, characterized by morphological, physiological and biochemical data as a strain of peptostreptococcus roductus, was shown to contain nad-dependent 3 alpha- and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and a nadp-dependent 7 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. all enzyme activities could be demonstrated in crude extracts and in membrane fractions. the 3 alpha- and 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were synthesized constitutively. specific enzymatic activities were significantl ...19892752021
bacterial flora in chronic tonsillitis.a study of aerobic and anaerobic bacterial flora in chronic tonsillitis revealed a total of 59 isolates. aerobic flora from the surface swab was found in 80%, from the core of the tonsil in 92% and from both the surface and the core in 68% of the cases. there were 30 aerobic isolates from the surface and 29 isolates from the core. mixed flora were present from the surface and the core in 10 and 7 cases, respectively. pathogens were seen in 36% of the cases from the surface and in 40% from the co ...19892759695
metabolism and some characteristics of ruminal strains of megasphaera elsdenii.megasphaera elsdenii belongs to the group comprising the ruminal and intestinal lactate- and sugar-fermenting species. in the present study the fermentation characteristics, metabolism of glucose and lactate, and susceptibility to antimicrobial agents of four ruminal strains were investigated. particular attention was given to the mixed-substrate fermentation pattern and resultant fermentation acid profile. lactate was utilized more rapidly than glucose in media with both carbon sources. interac ...19892764566
characterization of albumin-binding properties of peptostreptococcus magnus.a peptostreptococcus magnus strain demonstrated binding activity for albumin preparations from humans, mice, and dogs, but not for rabbit or bovine albumin. the albumin binding site appeared to be heat stable and of protein nature. treatment of p. magnus cells with trypsin under specified conditions enhanced this albumin binding. electron micrographs and kinetic analyses revealed that this enhancement was the result of the removal of some cell wall associated proteins leading to a higher binding ...19892766116
colony counts and characterization of bacteria adherent to the rumen wall and desquamated epithelial cells in conventional young lambs.characterization and enumeration of the adherent epimural community of the rumen wall of young, conventionally reared lambs were carried out from 2 to 21 days after birth. three hundred strains were isolated by anaerobic procedures from three sites: dorsal, ventral, and caudal sacs, and from the sloughed epithelial cells. the population of epimural bacteria was very dense from the first days of the lamb's life. this population increased slightly with age. during the first week the counts were si ...19892766120
coaggregation of fusobacterium nucleatum, selenomonas flueggei, selenomonas infelix, selenomonas noxia, and selenomonas sputigena with strains from 11 genera of oral bacteria.twenty-eight strains of fusobacterium nucleatum and 41 selenomonas strains, including s. sputigena (24 strains), s. flueggei (10 strains), s. infelix (5 strains), and s. noxia (2 strains), were tested for their ability to coaggregate with each other and with 49 other strains of oral bacteria representing actinobacillus, actinomyces, bacteroides, capnocytophaga, gemella, peptostreptococcus, porphyromonas, propionibacterium, rothia, streptococcus, and veillonella species. selenomonads coaggregated ...19892777378
microbiology of wound infection after head and neck cancer surgery.specimens of pus were obtained from 24 patients who developed postoperative wound infection after head and neck cancer surgery. aerobic bacteria only were isolated in two instances (8%), anaerobic bacteria only in one (4%), and mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in 21 (88%). a total of 146 isolates were recovered (66 aerobic and 80 anaerobic), an average of six isolates per specimen (2.7 aerobic and 3.3 anaerobic). the most frequently recovered isolates were peptostreptococcus sp, staphylococc ...19892785783
in-vitro activity of a new penem fce 22101.the in-vitro activity of a new penem fce 22101 was evaluated in comparison with other antimicrobial agents against 966 aerobic and anaerobic gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. fce 22101 inhibited 90% of enterobacteriaceae, haemophilus influenzae, h. parainfluenzae, h. ducreyi, neisseria gonorrhoeae, branhamella catarrhalis, staphylococcus aureus, staph. epidermidis and group b streptococcus at concentrations of 0.12-4.0 mg/l. pseudomonas aeruginosa was resistant with mic90 of greater than ...19892786518
chemotaxis inhibition by gardnerella vaginalis and succinate producing vaginal anaerobes: composition of vaginal discharge associated with g vaginalis.the influence of six succinate producing vaginal anaerobes and gardnerella vaginalis on the chemotactic activity of granulocytes was studied by the under agarose method. g vaginalis, mobiluncus species, and three gram negative anaerobes elicited hardly any response, but peptostreptococcus productus showed clear positive chemotaxis, as did the escherichia coli strain used as a control. inhibition of the chemotactic response of white blood cells was found with all strains, but the high succinate p ...19892787775
comparative in vitro activity of lomefloxacin, a difluoro-quinolone.lomefloxacin is a new difluoro-quinolone. in this study, we have determined the in vitro activity of lomefloxacin against a wide range of clinical bacterial isolates and compared it with that of other fluoro-quinolones and some unrelated antimicrobials. lomefloxacin was very active against enterobacteriaceae (mic90, 0.5 micrograms/ml) with activity comparable to that of ofloxacin (mic90, 0.25 micrograms/ml). lomefloxacin was moderately active against isolates of pseudomonas aeruginosa (mic90, 4 ...19892791500
effect of high-fiber and high-oil diets on the fecal flora of swine.six pairs of pigs were fed a basal diet, a high-fiber diet, and a diet high in corn oil in different sequences to minimize the carry-over effect of diet. after 2 months on each diet, a fecal specimen from each pig was cultured on nonselective medium in roll tubes. fifty colonies were randomly selected from each fecal sample, and isolates were characterized to identify a representative cross section of the fecal flora. the bacterial composition of the fecal flora differed between basal and high-f ...19872821900
controlled evaluation of trypticase soy broth with and without gelatin and yeast extract in the detection of bacteremia and fungemia.the addition of gelatin to blood culture media has been suggested to prevent the inhibition of neisseria meningitidis, neisseria gonorrhoeae, gardnerella vaginalis, and peptostreptococcus anaerobius that is caused by sodium polyanetholsulfonate. to determine the effect of such supplementation on the overall yield of microorganisms, we compared the yield and speed of detection of clinically important microorganisms from 5422 paired 10-ml samples of blood cultured in trypticase soy broth (tsb) con ...19872831009
comparative activity of ly146032 against anaerobic cocci.fifty strains of anaerobic gram-positive cocci were tested in vitro against benzylpenicillin, teicoplanin, vancomycin and ly146032. the organisms displayed a wide range of susceptibility to penicillin and the minimum inhibitory concentration for 11 of the strains was greater than or equal to 1 mg penicillin/l. the activity of teicoplanin exceeded that of vancomycin by a factor of two. the activity of ly 146032 varied in different culture media and was dramatically potentiated by the addition of ...19872831046
in vitro activities of daptomycin (ly146032) and paldimycin (u-70,138f) against anaerobic gram-positive bacteria.the in vitro activities of daptomycin (ly146032), paldimycin (u-70,138f), vancomycin, and penicillin g against 344 clinical isolates of anaerobic gram-positive bacteria were determined by an agar dilution method in calcium-supplemented (50 micrograms/ml) wilkins-chalgren medium, using an inoculum of 10(5) cfu. daptomycin demonstrated excellent activity against a broad range of anaerobic gram-positive cocci and bacilli, including peptostreptococcus, eubacterium, bifidobacterium, actinomyces, prop ...19882840019
comparative evaluation of three identification systems for anaerobes.the accuracy of two new 4-h identification systems for anaerobes, the an-ident (analytab products, plainview, n.y.) and the rapid ana (innovative diagnostic systems, inc., atlanta, ga.) was compared with that of the api 20a system (analytab products). a total of 132 clinical isolates were tested in each of the three systems. the overall accuracies at the genus and species level for the three systems were: api 20a, 68.9 and 56.8%, respectively; an-ident, 90.2 and 73.5%; and rapid ana, 93.9 and 81 ...19852862161
in vitro effects of sulphasalazine, azodisal sodium, and their metabolites on clostridium difficile and some other faecal bacteria.the effects of sulphasalazine (sasp), azodisal sodium (ads), and their metabolites were tested in vitro on aerobic and anaerobic faecal bacterial strains. sulphapyridine (sp) had a mild to moderate effect on escherichia coli and streptococcus faecalis. sasp also had a growth-inhibitory effect on strep. faecalis. the other substances had no effect on the aerobic strains. sasp, sp, 5-aminosalicylic acid, and, to a certain extent, n-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid exerted a growth-inhibitory effect on ...19852862692
comparative in-vitro activity of sch 34343 and other antimicrobial agents against anaerobic bacteria.the activity of sch 34343 was determined against 575 strains of anaerobic bacteria by an agar-dilution method. its activity was compared with that of benzylpenicillin, piperacillin, cefoxitin, imipenem, clindamycin, metronidazole, chloramphenicol, vancomycin, fusidic acid and bacitracin. sch 34343 and imipenem were the most active agents tested. based on these results, sch 34343 appears to be a promising antimicrobial agent for anaerobic infections and warrants further clinical investigations.19852863246
the significance of clostridial isolates in intra-abdominal order to evaluate the significance of clostridial species in intra-abdominal infections, the bacteriology records of three hospitals were reviewed during a period of five years. included in this report were 41 patients from whom clostridial species were recovered from specimens of free peritoneal fluid, abscess cavities or bile. seven patients died for a mortality rate of 17.1 per cent. most patients had polymicrobial infections of which clostridial organisms were one of the several anaerobes ...19862876527
pathogenicity of clostridium species with other bacteria in mixed infections.the relationship of clostridial isolates with other bacteria in mixed infections was studied by means of a subcutaneous abscess model in mice. we used 26 isolates of seven clostridial species, two bacteroides spp., eight gram-positive facultative or anaerobic cocci and three enteric gram-negative aerobic rods. abscesses were induced by all seven clostridium perfringens and three c. butyricum isolates and by some of the others. selective antimicrobial therapy experiments showed that enteric gram- ...19862878957
peptostreptococcus micros in polymicrobial abscesses. 19882894531
the in-vitro activity of three long-acting cephalosporins against bacteroides fragilis, peptostreptococcus species and clostridium perfringens.the in-vitro activity of three long-acting cephalosporins (cefotetan, cefonicid and ceftriaxone) was compared against 206 clinical isolates of bacteroides fragilis, peptostreptococcus species and clostridium perfringens, using an agar dilution procedure to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (mics). clindamycin was included as a comparator. cefotetan was much more active than the two other cephalosporins against strains of bacteroides fragilis (mic90 16 mg/l compared with greater than 12 ...19882902937
peptostreptococcus magnus does not cause hematogenous infections in experimental arthroplasties.rabbits with cemented endoprostheses in the knee joints were given 1-ml intravenous injections of suspensions containing peptostreptococcus magnus (3 x 10(8) colony-forming units/ml) on three consecutive days seven weeks postoperatively. the animals were killed after another seven weeks. the bacterial challenge did not result in infection. this is in contrast to a previous study using the same experimental system with another anaerobic bacterial species, propionibacterium acnes, which caused inf ...19892924473
studies on mixed populations of human intestinal bacteria grown in single-stage and multistage continuous culture systems.mixed intestinal bacteria were grown for 336 h in two identical single-stage chemostats at low growth rates in a carbohydrate-limited medium. complex bacterial populations were maintained and anaerobes always outnumbered aerobes. the predominant organisms belonged to the genera bacteroides, bifidobacterium, lactobacillus, clostridium, eubacterium, propionbacterium, peptococcus, and peptostreptococcus. bacteroides species predominated in both fermentors, particularly b. ovatus and b. thetaiotaomi ...19892930171
is ciprofloxacin active against clinically important anaerobes?the comparative activity of ciprofloxacin against 272 clinical isolates and reference strains of anaerobes was determined by an agar dilution method. the majority of strains of bacteroides fragilis and clostridia were resistant (mic greater than 2 mg/l). the effect of ph, inoculum size and medium composition was also studied; the activity of ciprofloxacin was decreased at acid ph and by increasing inoculum size but was unaffected by the composition of the test media. ciprofloxacin should not be ...19862941400
[in vitro effect of piperacillin, amoxicillin, cefoxitin and metronidazole against obligate anaerobic bacteria].the minimum inhibitory concentrations (mic) of piperacillin and three other antibiotics (amoxicillin, cefoxitin, metronidazole) against 165 strains of obligate anaerobes isolated in hospitals in 1985 and 1986 were determined by the wilkins-chalgren agar medium dilution method. among the 67 strains of bacteroides fragilis, 98.5% were sensitive to piperacillin (mic less than or equal to 128 mg/l), 100% were sensitive to metronidazole (mic less than or equal to 4 mg/l), 11.9% were resistant to cefo ...19862949268
in vitro activity of vancomycin and teicoplanin against anaerobic bacteria.the in vitro activity of vancomycin and teicoplanin, a new glycopeptide antimicrobial, was determined against a total of 286 anaerobic bacteria including bacteroides fragilis group (100), b. melaninogenicus (21), b. bivius (16), fusobacterium spp. (15), peptococcus spp. (20), peptostreptococcus spp. (21), clostridium perfringens (23), c. difficile (41) and propionibacterium acnes (29). minimum inhibitory concentrations (mic) were determined using an antimicrobial incorporation technique in wilki ...19872962846
fermentation of peptides and amino acids by a monensin-sensitive ruminal peptostreptococcus.a monensin-sensitive ruminal peptostreptococcus was able to grow rapidly (growth rate of 0.5/h) on an enzymatic hydrolysate of casein, but less than 23% of the amino acid nitrogen was ever utilized. when an acid hydrolysate was substituted for the enzymatic digest, more than 31% of the nitrogen was converted to ammonia and cell protein. coculture experiments and synergisms with peptide-degrading strains of bacteroides ruminicola and streptococcus bovis indicated that the peptostreptococcus was u ...19882975156
myonecrosis of the abdominal wall, complicating radical hysterectomy. 19872978389
effect of sodium polyanetholesulfonate and gelatin on the recovery of gardnerella vaginalis from blood culture media.sodium polyanetholesulfonate (sps) is used as a routine supplement to blood culture media to enhance recovery of microorganisms, but it inhibits the growth of peptostreptococcus anaerobius, neisseria meningitidis, neisseria gonorrhoeae, and streptobacillus moniliformis. comparative clinical blood culture studies at the university of colorado hospital suggested that sps also inhibits the growth of gardnerella vaginalis. we inoculated 16 blood culture isolates of g. vaginalis into 11 blood culture ...19852987298
influence of dietary fiber on the intestinal environment. 19853001739
sulbactam/ampicillin versus metronidazole/gentamicin in the treatment of severe pelvic infections.the clinical efficacy and safety of sulbactam/ampicillin versus metronidazole/gentamicin were compared in 39 patients with severe pelvic infections. 30 patients had severe acute pelvic inflammatory disease with peritonitis, 3 tubo-ovarian abscesses, 4 endomyometritis, and 2 posthysterectomy pelvic cellulitis. aerobic and anaerobic cultures from the sites of infection yielded 259 micro-organisms from 38 patients; an average of 6.8 bacteria per infection (3.9 anaerobes and 2.9 aerobes). the most f ...19863013566
efficacy of sulbactam plus ampicillin in gynecologic infections.the efficacy of sulbactam plus ampicillin in the treatment of various gynecologic infections was evaluated in 24 women (median age, 35 years). ten women had pelvic cellulitis plus vaginal cuff abscess; six, pyeloperitonitis; three, vaginal cuff abscess; three, surgical wound sepsis; one, tubo-ovarian abscess; and one, endometritis. surgical procedures preceding infection included abdominal hysterectomy, ovarian cyst removal, ectopic pregnancy, correction of cystocele, and uterine dilatation and ...19863026007
ampicillin/sulbactam versus metronidazole-gentamicin in the treatment of soft tissue pelvic infections.the clinical efficacy and safety of ampicillin/sulbactam versus metronidazole-gentamicin were evaluated in a comparative, randomized, prospective study. forty-four patients were enrolled: 22 received the ampicillin/sulbactam regimen, and 22 received the metronidazole-gentamicin combination. there were 33 cases of severe acute pelvic inflammatory disease, two tuboovarian abscesses, five cases of endomyometritis, and two cases of posthysterectomy pelvic cellulitis. aerobic and anaerobic cultures f ...19873030109
[pharmacokinetic, bacteriological and clinical studies of cefuzonam in the field of obstetrics and gynecology. study group of cefuzonam in the field of obstetrics and gynecological infections].a multi-center open study was conducted to investigate cefuzonam (czon, l-105) regarding to its pharmacokinetic, bacteriological and clinical aspects in the field of obstetrics and gynecology with the participation of 31 medical institutions and the related facilities. the results are summarized as follows. 1. peak mics of czon for staphylococcus aureus, coagulase (-) staphylococci, escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae, bacteroides fragilis group, peptostreptococcus spp. isolated from obstetr ...19883050195
peptostreptococcus magnus septic arthritis--a report and review of the english literature.we describe a 30-year-old female presenting with synovitis of the left 4th proximal interphalangeal joint. anaerobic cultures of the synovial membrane grew peptostreptococcus magnus. the synovitis resolved after a course of intravenous penicillin g. the role of the anaerobic bacterium peptostreptococcus magnus in joint infections is reviewed.19883060615
anaerobic infections in the head and neck region.anaerobic bacteria form the predominant flora of the oral cavity, outnumbering facultative organisms by 10-1,000: 1. the type of anaerobic bacteria and their concentration depend on the anatomical site and the degree of anaerobiosis in the different sites in the mouth. three groups of anaerobic bacteria inhabit the oral cavity; the strict anaerobes, the moderate anaerobes, and the microaerophilic group of organisms. the majority of anaerobic bacterial infections occurring in the region of the mo ...19883074469
brain abscess after dilatation of esophageal stricture.two children, below 15 years of age, developed brain abscesses after esophageal dilation. they were among 40 children treated for supratentorial brain abscesses during the past 10 years. pus culture of one of the abscesses was peptostreptococcus, which is a common oropharyngeal flora. clinicians should be aware of this complication since the prognosis is usually satisfactory after prompt treatment.19883077165
anaerobic bacteria in dentoalveolar abscesses.the present study was initiated to determine the bacteriology of 40 orofacial abscesses of dental origin in patients who had taken antibiotics for several days. bacteria were isolated from all but 2 specimens. aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacteria were isolated in 21 cases, obligate anaerobic bacteria in 17 cases, whereas in 11 cases, polymicrobial growth was revealed. the average number of bacterial species was 2.1 per specimen. gram positive aerobic micro-organisms predominated, namely, st ...19863088157
long-term management of patients who have had urinary diversions into colon.thirty-four patients with urinary-colonic diversions have been followed up for 13 to 41 years (mean 20.3). the commonest long-term complication was hyperchloraemic acidosis (50%). the most serious was neoplasm at the anastomotic site: benign lesions occurred in three patients and carcinomas in two (15%). staining for sialomucins in colonic biopsies adjacent to the anastomoses was positive in 17 of 19 patients. it has been suggested that this represents a pre-malignant change. analysis of faecal ...19863099879
[bacterial infection agents in hospitalized patients].during six months the pattern of microbial isolates has been analysed from 1492 urinary tract infections, from 1445 wound infections, from 451 bronchial secretions, from 3067 blood cultures, from 116 peritoneal swabs and from 39 cerebrospinal fluids. all the specimens investigated were taken from patients of surgical, neurosurgical, internal wards and two intensive care units. in total, the most frequent isolates were grampositive microorganisms like staphylococus aureus, straphylococcus epiderm ...19863107262
the effect of carbon dioxide on the in vitro activity of erythromycin and ru-28965 against anaerobic bacteria.the in vitro activity of erythromycin and ru-28965 (a novel macrolide antimicrobial with improved pharmacokinetics) was determined against a variety of anaerobic bacteria in anaerobic atmospheres with and without added carbon dioxide. minimum inhibitory concentrations (mic) were determined using an antimicrobial incorporation technique in wilkins-chalgren agar (oxoid, uk) containing saponinlysed horse blood to a final concentration of 10%. the inoculum used was approximately 10(4) colony forming ...19873113907
protein l. a novel bacterial cell wall protein with affinity for ig l chains.a novel ig-binding protein has been isolated from the surface of bacteria belonging to the anaerobic species peptococcus magnus. to solubilize the protein, peptococci were treated with different proteolytic enzymes (papain, pepsin, and trypsin) or with mutanolysin, a bacteriolytic agent known to digest the cell walls of streptococci. papain, trypsin, and mutanolysin all solubilized peptides showing affinity for radiolabeled human igg in western blot analysis. compared with papain and trypsin, mu ...19883125250
characterization of cross-reactive proteins detected by culturette brand rapid latex test for clostridium difficile.clostridium sporogenes, peptostreptococcus anaerobius, and bacteroides asaccharolyticus have been reported to react in the culturette brand rapid latex test (marion scientific, div. marion laboratories, inc., kansas city, mo.) for clostridium difficile. from the results of this study we showed that c. sporogenes and p. anaerobius produce a protein which is very similar biochemically and immunologically to the protein of c. difficile that is detected by the test. thus, the positive latex reaction ...19883128574
bactericidal effects of photoradiation therapy with hematoporphyrin derivative.hematoporphyrin derivative (hpd) localizes selectively in malignant and rapidly metabolizing tissues and undergoes a cytotoxic reaction when exposed to light of a specific wavelength. hpd has been studied extensively with regard to the diagnosis and treatment of tumors but not with regard to bactericidal activity. this investigation assessed the effect of light-activated hpd on various microorganisms, on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and on the interactions of polymorphonuclear leukocytes ...19853155547
semiquantitative culture results and pathogenic significance of obligate anaerobes in peritonsillar abscesses.we studied the bacteria in consecutive peritonsillar abscesses using semiquantitation of the primary culture findings and correlated the results to clinical parameters. puncture-aspirated pus from 42 abscesses yielded 133 isolates. group a streptococci were isolated 10 times and, unlike other bacteria, were isolated 4 times in pure culture; other beta-hemolytic streptococci were found in 8 abscesses, and anaerobes were found in 28. the infections were polymicrobial, with two to seven bacteria in ...19883164314
preformed enzyme profiles of reference strains of gram-positive anaerobic cocci.the preformed (constitutive) enzyme profiles of 30 type strains and reference strains of gram-positive anaerobic cocci were determined with two commercial systems, rapid ana and a prototype system from api. both systems identified peptostreptococcus anaerobius, ps. asaccharolyticus, ps. indolicus, ps. magnus and ps. micros accurately, except for one strain of ps. magnus misidentified as ps. micros by the rapid ana system. the indole-negative, butyrate-producing cocci (classified at present as ps ...19883172172
brain abscess from chronic odontogenic cause: report of case.a case of a chronic odontogenic abscess that probably precipitated a frontopatrietal brain abscess by hematogenous spread has been presented. a thorough examination of the patient showed no other source of infection. peptostreptococcus sp was found as the common pathogen despite 6 days of broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. this case emphasizes the important role of dentistry in medical diagnosis and treatment implemented in the hospital setting.19883183246
comparative activities of cefuroxime, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, and ofloxacin against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria isolated from bite wounds.we studied the comparative in vitro activities of 10 oral antimicrobial agents against 147 aerobic and 61 anaerobic bacteria making up species in 13 genera (staphylococcus aureus, streptococci, eikenella corrodens, pasteurella multocida, haemophilus-actinobacillus spp., m-5, ef-4, moraxella spp., flavobacterium iib, bacteroides melaninogenicus, bacteroides spp., fusobacterium spp., and peptostreptococcus spp.) that were isolated from bite wounds. cefuroxime was generally greater than fourfold mo ...19883190202
tetracycline resistance and tetm in oral anaerobic bacteria and neisseria perflava-n. sicca.tetracycline-resistant organisms isolated from six patients with periodontal disease included bacteroides spp., eubacterium spp., fusobacterium nucleatum, neisseria perflava-n. sicca, peptostreptococcus anaerobius, veillonella parvula, and facultative streptococci. all but the bacteroides spp. and eubacterium spp. hybridized with the tetm determinant. an additional 417 bacterial strains were screened, and 4% of both the oral streptococci and the fusobacterium spp. hybridized with the tetm probe.19883190205
infection of a prosthetic knee joint with peptostreptococcus magnus.infection of a prosthetic knee joint with peptostreptococcus magnus in an immunosuppressed patient with rheumatoid arthritis is described. the organism is a skin commensal, generally thought to be of low pathogenicity; the difficulty in making the diagnosis is emphasised.19883196085
presence of anaerobic bacteria in conjunctivitis associated with wearing contact lenses.ten anaerobic bacterial species were found in conjunctival cultures obtained from six patients who wore contact lenses and developed conjunctivitis. in three instances the anaerobic bacteria were associated with facultative bacteria. the predominant anaerobic isolates were peptostreptococcus species (three isolates), bacteroides sp. (two), and fusobacterium sp. (two). it was the practice of five of the six patients to wet their lenses with saliva. it is recommended that a culture for anaerobes b ...19883207314
empyema caused by kingella denitrificans and peptostreptococcus spp. in a patient with bronchogenic carcinoma.empyema caused by kingella denitrificans and peptostreptococcus spp. was diagnosed in a patient with bronchogenic carcinoma. this appears to be the third report providing evidence of a pathogenic role for k. denitrificans, and the first concerning infection in the pleural space and in a patient with underlying immunosuppressive disease. k. denitrificans should be added to the list of fastidious gram-negative bacteria associated with opportunistic infections in the compromised host.19883229487
central nervous system infection associated with anaerobic bacteria in two dogs and two cats.central nervous system (cns) infection caused by anaerobic bacteria (including bacteroides, fusobacterium, peptostreptococcus, and eubacterium) was diagnosed in two dogs and two cats. in one dog there was extensive meningomyeloencephalitis, presumably the result of hematogenous spread of bacteria from lung abscesses and bacterial endocarditis. subdural empyema of unknown origin was found in a second dog and two cats. clinical signs in all four animals included mental depression and focal neurolo ...19883230556
evaluation of a commercial latex test for clostridium difficile for reactivity with c. difficile and cross-reactions with other bacteria.seventy-eight species of bacteria (739 isolates) were tested for reactivity with a commercial latex test for clostridium difficile. all noncytotoxic as well as cytotoxic strains of c. difficile reacted positively. immuno-specific cross-reactions were found only with c. sporogenes, proteolytic c. botulinum, and peptostreptococcus anaerobius.19883235677
bacteriology of periodontal disease in the cat.subgingival plaque samples were obtained from 32 cats showing different stages of periodontal disease. correlations were sought between gingival index scores and the prevalence of various microbial groups, and between microbial populations found in sites designated as most-affected and least-affected within individual cats. the tendency with higher gingival index scores, and with the most-affected sites, was toward a microbial population composed to a greater extent of anaerobic gram-negative ro ...19883245794
clinical and laboratory findings in women with bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis versus controls.we report comprehensively on the clinical and laboratory findings in 30 women with bacterial vaginosis (bv), 30 with vaginal trichomoniasis and 30 with normal secretions. women with trichomoniasis were more often divorced (chi 2 test, p much less than 0.001), more often complained of dyspareunia (chi 2 test, p less than 0.05), frequently had discharge present in the vaginal vestibule, and showed one or more signs of vaginitis in half the cases. a 'moth-eaten' cervix was seen in only four women ( ...19883260566
[aerobic and anaerobic bacterial flora of crural ulcers].in a group of 600 patients treated in the metropolitan dermatological hospital in warsaw bacteriological examination were carried out of swabs from the untreated crural ulcers. in 95% of these cultures growth of pathological aerobic organisms was obtained. coagulase-positive staphylococci (st. aureus) and gram-negative bacteria (pseudomonas aeruginosa, proteus vulgaris, enterobacter sp and e. coli) prevailed. in 27% of cases the cultured strains were resistant to the generally available antibiot ...19883268941
[microbiology of samples from patients with periodontal pockets].a microbiologic study was carried out in 39 patients with periodontal affections, who were surgically treated. a formulary was drawn up for the collection of the following data: age, sex, criteria of russell periodontal index and microbiologic results. the contents of the periodontal pocket was collected at the time of the surgical procedure, and settled in assay tubes with culture medium to provide bacterial growth. the highest percentage of microorganisms were those of genus peptostreptococci, ...19883272438
a multicenter comparative study of cefotetan once daily and cefoxitin thrice daily for the treatment of infections of the skin and superficial soft compare the effectiveness of cefotetan administered at 2 g once a day with cefoxitin at 1 or 2 g three times a day in the treatment of hospitalized patients with skin and superficial soft tissue infections, 194 patients from eight centers were enrolled in an open, randomized trial. most of the 104 evaluable patients in the cefotetan group and 50 in the cefoxitin group were young men with community-acquired, moderate or severe cellulitis, or abscesses of the upper and lower extremities caused ...19883287976
microbiological and clinical aspects of aspiration pneumonia.aspiration pneumonia is characterized by a pneumonitis in a dependent segment of the lung with typical necrosis or abscess-formation in the parenchyma. observed aspiration or predisposition to aspiration, cavitation or abscess formation, with or without empyema fluid and isolation of distinctive micro-organisms are important clues to the diagnosis. diagnostic procedures to collect anaerobic uncontaminated secretions are transtracheal aspiration, blood cultures, pleural fluid aspiration, fibreopt ...19883290185
[nonclostridial obligate anaerobes--the main causative agents of lung abscesses].the use of the anaerobic technique in bacteriological investigations has made it possible to establish the leading role of asporogenous anaerobes in the etiological structure of the causative agents of pulmonary abscesses. asporogenous anaerobes have been isolated from 93% of all examined patients, and in 54.4% of such patients these microorganisms have proved to be an independent etiological factor. among asporogenous anaerobes, the main causative agents of pulmonary abscesses have been found t ...19873296575
[revision of the taxonomy of the genera peptococcus and peptostreptococcus and a study on their identification system]. 19873302346
[activity of fusidic acid on strictly anaerobic bacteria].fusidic acid is a well known antimicrobial agent due to its narrow spectrum of activity against gram positive bacteria and especially staphylococci. therefore, it is after used preventively against bacterial infection in traumatology, but the susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria is not well known. we have studied, the in vitro activity of sodium fusidate against 147 strains of anaerobic bacteria. this antibiotic has a moderate activity against bacteroides, more significant against clostridium, p ...19873302863
the growth of oral bacteria on saliva.the present experiments were aimed at studying the degradation of salivary glycoproteins by the oral microflora. to this end, s. sanguis i strain ny476 and s. sanguis ii (s. mitior) strain ny581 were grown continuously in human-whole saliva. under these conditions, the strains produced a variety of cell-associated hydrolytic activities, including glycosidases, exo- and endopeptidases, and esterases. s. sanguis ii generally exhibited higher levels of enzyme activity than did s. sanguis i, in part ...19873305628
direct and indirect pathogenicity of anaerobic bacteria in respiratory tract infections in children.bacteroides sp (bacteroides melaninogenicus, bacteroides oralis, and bacteroides fragilis), peptostreptococci, and fusobacteria are important pathogens in respiratory tract infections (rti). these organisms are often recovered mixed with other aerobic, facultative, and anaerobic bacteria. evidence supporting their virulence is provided by studies showing their synergistic potentials in mixed infections and their increased virulence when encapsulated. a recent increase in numbers of beta-lactamas ...19873318301
omental pedicle graft in the management of infected ascending aortic prostheses.two patients had mediastinal infections with chronic draining sinus tracts that involved a vascular prosthesis in the ascending aorta. in 1 patient, a false mycotic aneurysm developed and in the other, a beginning rupture of the proximal suture line. in both patients, the infection was cured by replacing the infected aortic prosthesis combined with wrapping the new prosthesis with a pedicled omental graft. an omental graft was used to protect the vascular prosthesis and minimize the risk of recu ...19873318738
aerobic and anaerobic bacteriology of purulent nasopharyngitis in children.cultures of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were obtained from the inferior nasal meatus of 25 children with purulent nasopharyngitis and from 25 controls. microorganisms were isolated from all specimens. a total of 98 isolates (3.9 per patient), 45 aerobes (1.8 per patient) and 53 anaerobes (2.1 per patient), were isolated in patients with purulent nasopharyngitis. seventy-three isolates (2.9 per patient), 47 aerobes (1.9 per patient) and 26 anaerobes (1.0 per patient) were found in the controls ...19883356794
identification of gram-positive anaerobic cocci by use of systems for detecting pre-formed enzymes.two systems for detecting pre-formed enzymes, rapid ana and a prototype system from api, were compared in a blind study for their ability to identify 69 gram-positive anaerobic cocci isolated from clinical specimens. both systems were able to identify peptostreptococcus anaerobius, ps. asaccharolyticus and ps. micros accurately without the need for further tests. the prototype api system identified all isolates of ps. magnus correctly, but the rapid ana system misidentified several isolates as p ...19883357195
metabolism of sennosides by human intestinal bacteria.during the course of studies on the metabolism of sennosides by human intestinal bacteria, an enzyme which takes part in the reduction of sennosides and sennidins was originally isolated from peptostreptococcus intermedius. this enzyme catalyzed the electron transfer from nadh to fad, fmn or benzyl viologen, which reduced nonenzymatically sennosides and sennidins to 8-glucosyl-rhein anthrone and rhein anthrone, respectively.19883368516
enrichment and isolation of a ruminal bacterium with a very high specific activity of ammonia production.when mixed ruminal bacteria were inoculated into semicontinuous cultures (25% transfer every other day) containing lactate, dulcitol, pectin, or xylose and trypticase (1 g/liter) as the sole nitrogen source, the specific activity of ammonia production increased. the greatest enrichment was observed with lactate and xylose, and in these cases the specific rate of ammonia production was eightfold higher than that of the ruminal fluid control (approximately 35 nmol of ammonia per mg of protein per ...19883377500
recovery of anaerobic bacteria from clinical specimens in 12 years at two military hospitals.examination of 15,844 clinical specimens submitted over 12 years (1973 to 1985) to the anaerobic microbiology laboratories in two military hospitals demonstrated the recovery of anaerobic bacteria in 4,458 (28.1%) specimens. the specimens yielded 6,557 anaerobic isolates (1.47 isolates per specimen). bacteroides spp. accounted for 43% of all isolates; anaerobic gram-positive cocci, 26%; clostridium spp., 7%; and fusobacterium spp., 4%. bacteroides spp. predominated in abscesses, obstetrical and ...19883384929
cecal and fecal bacterial flora of the mongolian gerbil and the chinchilla.the mongolian gerbil is being increasingly used as a laboratory animal and as a pet. both chinchillas and gerbils are used as animal models for otitis media and other otic research. previously, only incomplete information was available regarding the indigenous bacterial flora of the lower intestinal tracts of these coprophagic animals. using the strict anaerobic methodology of the virginia polytechnic institute anaerobe laboratory, we studied the predominant bacterial flora of the cecum and feca ...19883389814
presentation and management of neck abscess: a retrospective analysis.a retrospective analysis of deep neck abscesses managed at the los angeles county-usc medical center was performed. fifty-one patients met the criteria and were reviewed as to presentation, etiology, location, and microbiology. hemolytic streptococci and anaerobic species, especially bacteroides and peptostreptococci, were the most common organisms isolated. intravenous drug abuse was the most common etiology, and was an important source of primary carotid space infection. this group was most co ...19883398666
induction of chronic arthritis in rats by cell wall fragments of anaerobic coccoid rods isolated from the faecal flora of patients with crohn's disease.crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are accompanied by seronegative arthritis in about one fifth of the cases. in the present study, cell wall fragments from major residents such as eubacterium, coprococcus and peptostreptococcus species, isolated from the faecal flora of patients with crohn's disease, were tested for properties to induce chronic arthritis in lewis rats. cell wall fragments from eubacterium contortum strains me44 and me47 were found to induce chronic arthritis; peptostreptoco ...19883410168
efficacy and safety of single-dose ceftizoxime vs. multiple-dose cefoxitin in preventing infection after vaginal hysterectomy.the efficacy, safety and effect of a single, 1-g dose of ceftizoxime on the return of vaginal flora were compared to those of the standard regimen of three 2-g doses of cefoxitin for prophylaxis in 99 randomized women undergoing vaginal hysterectomy. thirty-four were studied in dallas and 65 in los angeles. surgical procedures were comparable for all the antibiotic groups, although proportionately more simple hysterectomies were performed in dallas. the patients received a povidone-iodine vagina ...19883422693
effect of streptococcus parvulus and peptostreptococcus magnus on cytotoxin levels of clostridium difficile in anaerobic continuous flow anaerobic continuous flow (cf) culture method was used in order to study the effect of peptostreptococcus magnus and streptococcus parvulus, anaerobic gram-positive cocci which are members of intestinal bacterial flora, on growth and cytotoxin-activity of clostridium difficile. the growth- and the cytotoxin activity-patterns of c. difficile in an established cf culture of p. magnus were similar to those of c. difficile alone. on the other hand, in the mixed culture system of c. difficile and ...19873431487
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