cell envelope and cell wall immunization of macaca fascicularis: effect on the progression of ligature-induced periodontitis.the nonhuman primate, macaca fascicularis, was used to study the role of immunization with selected members of the periodontopathic microbiota in the longitudinal progression of ligature-induced periodontitis. animals were immunized with cell envelope antigens prepared from porphyromonas gingivalis and prevotella intermedia, and a mixture prepared from fusobacterium nucleatum, campylobacter rectus, and actinomyces viscosus. serum immunoglobulin g (igg), igm and iga isotype antibodies increased s ...19958602339
viability of four putative periodontal pathogens and enteric rods in the anaerobic transport medium vmga iii.the aim of this study was to determine the survival in vmga iii of porphyromonas gingivalis, prevotella intermedia, fusobacterium nucleatum, actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and enteric rods in laboratory cultures as well as in subgingival plaque samples. laboratory strains of the 4 putative periodontal pathogens and escherichia coli were used in the laboratory part of this study. also, 31 subgingival plaque samples were obtained from 22 periodontal patients and stored in vmga iii. each samp ...19958602345
the use of allozyme electrophoresis to assess genetic heterogeneity among previously subspeciated isolates of fusobacterium nucleatum.fusobacterium nucleatum has been implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. five subspecies have previously been proposed. the validity of these subdivisions was investigated using allozyme electrophoresis for 21 enzyme mobilities. the 18 f. nucleatum isolates tested had previously been subspeciated and included type strains as well as isolates from both oral and extraoral sites. the results showed 2 distinct genetic groups with fixed differences at 82.5% of the test loci, indicativ ...19968604250
identification and analysis of fipa, a fusobacterium nucleatum immunosuppressive factor gene.we have previously demonstrated that sonic extracts of fusobacterium nucleatum fdc 364 were capable of inhibiting human t-cell responses to mitogens and antigens. the purified f. nucleatum immunosuppressive protein (fip) is composed of two subunits of 44 and 48 kda. furthermore, fip inhibits t-cell activation by arresting cells in the middle of the g(1) phase of the cell cycle; the data available to date suggest that fip impairs the expression of the proliferating-cell nuclear antigen. to initia ...19968606098
incidence of anaerobes in ventilator-associated pneumonia with use of a protected specimen brush.the role of anaerobic bacteria in ventilator-associated pneumonia (vap) has been little investigated. in this study we analyzed the incidence of anaerobes in patients with a first episode of bacteriologically documented vap (> 10(3)cfu/ml), using protected specimen brushes (psb). we particularly took care to preserve anaerobic conditions during transport and the microbiological procedure. two groups were considered: group a with anaerobic bacteria recovered from psb, with or without anaerobes, a ...19968616556
bacteriological diagnosis of periodontal plaque bacteria cause virtually all the forms of inflammatory periodontal disease. periodontitis is caused by the specific periodontopathic bacteria, which induce destruction of connective tissue attachment and adjacent alveolar bone. examinations to identify the infections by porphyromonas gingivalis, actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, prevotella intermedia, campylobacter rectus, bacteroides forsythus, fusobacterium nucleatum, eikenella corrodens and treponema denticola have recently ...19948620588
endodontic pathogens: propagation of infection through patent dentinal tubules in traumatized monkey teeth.periapical pathology indicating endodontic infection, when present in marginal periodontitis-affected teeth, has recently been shown to be an aggravating factor in progression of marginal destruction. this has been associated with patency of dentinal tubules in the tooth cervix, an area normally devoid of cementum following periodontal therapy. these studies are, however hampered by that only circumstantial evidence such as presence of periapical destruction have been applied as criteria of endo ...19958625937
immune response to fusobacterium nucleatum and prevotella intermedia in patients with infectious mononucleosis.the role of four oral flora organisms (fusobacterium nucleatum, prevotella intermedia, porphyromonas gingivalis and actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans) was investigated in 22 patients with infectious mononucleosis. immunoglobulin-g class antibody titres to these organisms were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. serum levels in the patients were determined at day 1 and 42-56 days later. significantly higher antibody levels to f. nucleatum and pr. intermedia were found in the second ...19968642574
taxonomy, biology, and periodontal aspects of fusobacterium nucleatum.the pathogenic potential of fusobacterium nucleatum and its significance in the development of periodontal diseases, as well as in infections in other organs, have gained new interest for several reasons. first, this bacterium has the potential to be pathogenic because of its number and frequency in periodontal lesions, its production of tissue irritants, its synergism with other bacteria in mixed infections, and its ability to form aggregates with other suspected pathogens in periodontal diseas ...19968665477
mixed infection with porphyromonas gingivalis and fusobacterium nucleatum in a murine lesion model: potential synergistic effects on virulence.these studies determined the characteristics of tissue destruction in a murine abscess model elicited by mixed infection with the periodontopathogens fusobacterium nucleatum and porphyromonas gingivalis. the interbacterial effects of this synergism, the kinetics of the relationship of the bacterial interaction, and the characteristics of the bacteria required for the tissue destruction were studied. infection of mice with p. gingivalis and f. nucleatum strains elicited lesions of various sizes a ...19968675312
scba from streptococcus crista cc5a: an atypical member of the lrai gene family.a new member of the lrai family of putative adhesin genes was cloned, from streptococcus crista cc5a, and sequenced. the gene, scba appears to be part of an abc transport operon and encodes a putative peptide of 34.7 kda. the protein contains a signal sequence with residues 17 to 21 (l-a-a-c-s) matching the consensus sequence for the prolipoprotein cleavage site of signal peptidase ii. scba is 57 to 93% identical, at the amino acid level, with the five previous sequenced members of the lrai fami ...19968675315
microbiological and serological investigations of oral lesions in papillon-lefèvre syndrome.microbiological and serological (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) investigations were carried out, including karyotyping, on two asian children with papillon-lefèvre syndrome. in case 1, a girl aged four years, the most prevalent putative periodontopathogens were eikenella corrodens, fusobacterium nucleatum, porphyromonas gingivalis, prevotella intermedia (deciduous dentition) and bacteroides gracilis, e corrodens and f nucleatum (permanent dentition). in case 2, a boy aged nine years, they we ...19968675741
inhibition of neutrophil and monocyte defensive functions by learn more about the effects of smokeless tobacco on the defensive functions of neutrophils, we studied the influence of nicotine on these cells in vitro, looking at their bactericidal activity against oral pathogens, and at their ability to produce microbicidal reactive oxygen species (oxygen radicals). exposure of human blood neutrophils to nicotine (0.01% to 0.1%) inhibited their ability to kill actinomyces naeslundii, actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and fusobacterium nucleatum. alth ...19958683417
the interference of gingival cell cultures with growth of selected bacteria.the aim of the present study was to analyze the interference of oral tissue cells or cell lines (effector cells) with growth of reference bacteria, and furthermore to investigate whether cells derived from different individuals differ in such activity. the reference bacteria were staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus epidermidis, streptococcus mitis, actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, porphyromonas gingivalis, and fusobacterium nucleatum. the effector cells used were gingival fibroblasts (gf) ...19968703443
comparative virulence of periodontopathogens in a mouse abscess model.this report compares the virulence of selected strains of p. gingivalis, a. actinomycetemcomitans, c. rectus, f. nucleatum and t. denticola in a murine model as a measure of pathogenic potential of these oral microorganisms. the characteristics of the tissue destruction associated with these monoinfections were then related to a potential model for bacterial synergism in progressing periodontitis.19958705817
host defensive functions in a family manifesting early-onset case studies help us identify host risk factors in periodontal disease. in this study we examine a family consisting of a mother (40 years old, with rapidly progressive periodontitis), her elder daughter (14 years old, with localized juvenile periodontitis), and younger daughter (13 years old, with simple gingivitis). we examined 1) the peripheral neutrophil functions (chemotactic migration, phagocytosis, superoxide production); 2) lymphocyte functions (proliferative activity and cytokine ...19968708971
histological and microbiological aspects of ligature-induced periodontitis in beagle dogs.this study was designed to investigate, using 6 beagle dogs, the levels of selected putative pathogens in healthy sites, in gingivitis sites, and in sites with histologically confirmed attachment loss. levels of attachment loss increased with increasing periods of ligation and reached a maximum of 0.15 mm at 57 days. both histological attachment level and histological pocket depth were found to vary significantly with health/disease status (p < 0.0001). higher numbers of total colony-forming uni ...19968739161
response to periodontal therapy in patients with high or low levels of p. gingivalis, p. intermedia, p. nigrescens and b. a previous study, subjects receiving either adjunctive tetracycline or augmentin showed, on average, more attachment level gain 10 months post-therapy than subjects receiving either ibuprofen or a placebo, although some subjects in each treatment group showed loss of attachment post-therapy. since differences in treatment response might have been due to differences in the subgingival microbiota, the response to different therapies in subjects with different pre-therapy subgingival microbiotas ...19968739165
the effect of age on the development of gingivitis. clinical, microbiological and histological the present "experimental gingivitis" study, the response of the marginal gingiva to plaque formation was studied in one group of young subjects, 20-25 years of age, and in one group of older subjects, aged 65-80 years. during a 4-week period, all subjects received a series of professional tooth cleaning to establish healthy gingival conditions. a baseline examination (day 0) included assessments of plaque and gingivitis. sites that were examined (the experimental sites) included the mesio-pa ...19968739171
comparison of spiral gradient endpoint and agar dilution methods for susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria: a multilaboratory collaborative evaluation.a multilaboratory collaborative study was carried out to assess the utility of the spiral gradient endpoint (sge) method for the determination of the antimicrobial susceptibilities of anaerobes and to evaluate the equivalence of the mics obtained by the sge method with those obtained by the reference agar dilution method of the national committee for clinical laboratory standards. the standard deviation of the mic obtained by the sge method for the five participating laboratories was +/- 0.26 of ...19968748295
the effect of chlorhexidine on defined, mixed culture oral biofilms grown in a novel model order to develop an improved method to evaluate antimicrobial agents for use in clinical dentistry, a constant-depth film fermenter (cdff) has been used to generate biofilms of fixed depth comprising nine species of bacteria commonly found in dental plaque in health and disease. these bacteria were grown together initially in a conventional chemostat which was used to inoculate the cdff over an 8 h period. medium was then supplied directly to the cdff and biofilms allowed to develop. the biof ...19968760321
effects of sublethal exposure to an antiseptic mouthrinse on representative plaque bacteria.although the mechanism responsible for the clinical antiplaque efficacy of oral antiseptics is generally considered to be primarily one of bactericidal activity, it has been suggested that oral antiseptics may have additional effects on bacteria exposed to sublethal levels. studies reported herein, investigated the effects of sublethal levels of an essential oil-containing antiseptic mouthrinse (listerine antiseptic, warner-lambert co., morris plains, nj) on selected activities of representative ...19968783049
rapid characterization of periodontal bacterial isolates by using fluorogenic substrate tests.eighty-nine species of subgingival bacteria, represented by 121 reference strains and 892 patient isolates, including gram-negative, gram-positive, aerobic, facultatively anaerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic species, were characterized with a panel of fluorogenic, 4-methylumbelliferyl-linked substrate tests. identifications of all patient isolates were confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) of whole-cell proteins relative to reference strains. char ...19968789019
treatment of periodontal disease based on microbiological diagnosis. relation between microbiological and clinical parameters during 5 years.the purpose of this study was to assess the clinical effect of treatment aimed to suppress actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and porphyromonas gingivalis below detection level and prevotella intermedia below 5% of the cultivable periodontal pocket flora. sixteen patients and a total of 111 periodontal pockets with probing depth > or = 6 mm were included in the study. twelve patients and a total of 77 sites completed the 5-year study. the results demonstrated clinical improvement of probing de ...19968794965
microbiology of periapical abscesses and associated maxillary sinusitis.aspirate of pus from 5 periapical abscesses of the upper jaw and their corresponding maxillary sinusitis were studied for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. polymicrobial flora were found in all instances, where the number of isolates varied from 2 to 5. anaerobes were recovered from all specimens. the predominant isolates were prevotella sp., porphyromonas sp., fusobacterium nucleatum, and peptostreptococcus sp. concordance in the microbiological findings between periapical abscess and the maxilla ...19968794972
prevalence of 6 putative periodontal pathogens in subgingival plaque samples from romanian adult periodontitis patients.the aim of the present study was to determine by standard cultivation procedures the detection frequencies of porphyromonas gingivalis, prevotella intermedia, fusobacterium nucleatum, actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, bacteroides forsythus, and capnocytophaga species as well as various enteric rods in subgingival plaque samples form romanian adult periodontitis patients. dna probe analysis (affirm dp microbial identification test) was also used, parallel to cultivation, to identify p. gingiv ...19968849850
growth inhibition of a human oral bacterium porphyromonas gingivalis by rat cysteine proteinase inhibitor cystatin s.agar diffusion analysis demonstrated that rat cystatin s, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor, inhibited the growth of all tested strains of a human oral, gram-negative anaerobic periodontopathogen porphyromonas gingivalis. its specific inhibitory activity against this tissue-invasive bacterium but not against other tested oral bacterial species emphasized the importance of specific cysteine proteinases for growth of p. gingivalis.19968862019
recurrent vertebral osteomyelitis and psoas abscess caused by streptococcus constellatus and fusobacterium nucleatum in a patient with atrial septal defect and an occult dental infection.we describe a case in which recurrent vertebral osteomyelitis and psoas abscess due to streptococcus constellatus and fusobacterium nucleatum developed in a patient with a previously unrecognized atrial septal defect with bidirectional shunts. disease recurrence was ascribed to the presence of dental disease, which served as the source of infection. to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case in which vertebral osteomyelitis and psoas abscess have been associated with atrial septal defe ...19968863368
effect of oxygen, inoculum composition and flow rate on development of mixed-culture oral biofilms.the effect of aeration on the development of a defined biofilm consortium of oral bacteria was investigated in a two-stage chemostat system. an inoculum comprising 10 species, including both facultatively anaerobic and obligately anaerobic bacteria, and species associated with oral health and disease, was inoculated into an anaerobic first-stage chemostat vessel. the effluent from this chemostat was linked to an aerated [200 ml co2/air (5:95, v/v) min-1] second-stage vessel, in which removable h ...19968868437
development of a steady-state oral microbial biofilm community using the constant-depth film fermenter.the complexity of biofilm communities like dental plaque suggests that laboratory model biofilm growth systems may help to understand their structure and function. this study describes the use of a constant-depth film fermenter (cdff) to investigate biofilm formation by a nine-membered community of oral bacteria. the community was grown to steady state in a chemostat incubated anaerobically. the chemostat output was fed into the cdff incubated aerobically. viable counts for each species from the ...19968868438
evaluation of the long-term efficacy and safety of locally-applied minocycline in adult periodontitis patients.the objectives of the present study were to establish in a long-term investigation the safety as well as the clinical and microbiological efficacy of scaling and rootplaning combined with local application of 2% minocycline hydrochloride-gel versus placebo-gel in patients with moderate to severe chronic adult periodontitis. this was an 18 months, randomized, double-blind, parallel, comparative study, in which 20 healthy patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis participated. at base ...19968877655
the relationship of gingival crevicular fluid short chain carboxylic acid concentration to gingival inflammation.short-chain carboxylic acids (scca; c < or = 5; e.g., lactic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid) are metabolic by-products of bacterial metabolism which accumulate in the gingival crevice, and exhibit significant biological activity, including the ability to alter gene expression. it has been hypothesized that among the activities of sccas are their ability to contribute to gingival inflammation. this concept complements the notion that specific periodontal pathogens are the causative agents of ...19968877660
acute tongue abscess: report of two cases.tongue abscesses are extremely rare. two cases caused by periodontal pathogens are presented.19968910119
strong cytotoxicity to human gingival fibroblasts by porphyromonas gingivalis atcc 33277.the aim of the present study was to analyze the cytotoxicity of some bacterial species associated with periodontal diseases. the specificity of cytotoxicity was estimated against cells of various origin and from different individuals. the reference bacteria were actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, porphyromonas gingivalis and fusobacterium nucleatum. these bacteria were cultured for 24 h in liquid media and the supernatants were used in cytotoxicity assays. the target cells used were human gin ...19968915950
serum rheumatoid factor induced by intraperitoneal administration of periodontopathic bacterial lipopolysaccharide in mice.serum rheumatoid factor (rf) level and peritoneal and splenic cd5+b (b-1) cells in mice were examined after intraperitoneal administration of purified lipopoly-saccharides (lps) from oral periodontopathic bacteria; porphyromonas gingivalis, actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, fusobacterium nucleatum and capnocytophaga ochracea. f. nucleatum and c. ochracea lps induced higher levels of serum igm- and igg-rf, while p. gingivalis lps showed the least induction. in addition, wet weights of spleen ...19968915954
microbiology of the transition from acute to chronic maxillary sinusitis.repeated aspirations of sinus secretions by endoscopy was performed in five patients over a period of 34-50 days and, ultimately, surgical drainage was done in three who presented with acute maxillary sinusitis that did not respond to antimicrobial therapy and became chronic. the aspirates were cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. most of the bacteria isolated from the first culture were aerobic or facultative bacteria: streptococcus pneumoniae (three isolates), haemophilus influenzae no ...19968918954
selling biotechnology in the dental medicine marketplace: the omnigene diagnostics dna probe tests for periodontal pathogens.omnigene diagnostics, inc. has applied the principles of genetic engineering to develop species-specific dna probe tests for eight periodontal pathogens (porphyromonas gingivalis, prevotella intermedia, actinobacillus actinomycetem-comitans, fusobacterium nucleatum, eikenella corrodens, campylobacter rectus, bacteroides forsythus, and treponema denticola). the test requires minimal effort on the part of the clinician: subgingival plaque samples are collected from the patient and sent through the ...19968931245
a scanning electron microscopic evaluation of in vitro dentinal tubules penetration by selected anaerobic vitro root canal dentinal tubule invasion by selected anaerobic bacteria commonly isolated from endodontic infections was evaluated. dentinal cylinders obtained from bovine incisors were inoculated with bacteria, and microbial penetration into tubules was demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy. the results indicated that all bacterial strains tested were able to penetrate into dentinal tubules, but to different extents.19968934991
degradation of host protease inhibitors and activation of plasminogen by proteolytic enzymes from porphyromonas gingivalis and treponema denticola.bacterial proteases may participate in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases through their action on host proteins. in the present study, the ability of selected periodontopathogens, as well as two proteases isolated from porphyromonas gingivalis and treponema denticola, to degrade host protease inhibitors was evaluated. the activation of human plasminogen by the two bacterial proteases was also investigated. proteolytic breakdown of host protease inhibitors (alpha-1-antitrypsin, antichymotry ...19968936322
cloning of the foma gene, encoding the major outer membrane porin of fusobacterium nucleatum atcc10953.the major outer membrane protein, foma, of the gram-negative human oral pathogen fusobacterium nucleatum functions as a porin and is assumed to act as a receptor protein in coaggregation with other oral pathogenic bacteria such as streptococcus sanguis and porphyromonas gingivalis. we describe here the cloning of foma from f. nucleatum in e. coli. using pgem3zf(+), three recombinant plasmids were carrying parts of the foma gene, but none of these contained regions upstream of the coding sequence ...19968938641
proteolytic artifacts in sds-page analysis of selected periodontal pathogens.the aim of the study was to examine whether proteolytic artifacts, which result in a loss and poor resolution of protein bands, occur during sodium dodecyl sulfate (sds)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of cellular proteins from selected proteolytic (porphyromonas gingivalis, prevotella nigrescens and treponema denticola) and non-proteolytic (fusobacterium nucleatum) bacteria. conditions to limit or prevent proteolysis were also investigated. bacterial cells were incubated in solubili ...19968941761
induction of systemic murine b-cell responses by fusobacterium nucleatum and porphyromonas gingivalis.the purpose of this study was to examine the antigenic abilities of fusobacterium nucleatum strain atcc 25586 and porphyromonas gingivalis strain w50 black inbred balb/cabom mice immunized subcutaneously. furthermore, we aimed to analyze whether the outer membranes (om) and whole cells (wc) of f. nucleatum or p. gingivalis had an effect on the levels of antibody response and whether a combination of both could either enhance or suppress the b-cell response. a single-cell assay, solid-phase enzym ...19968941767
the establishment of a community of oral bacteria that controls the growth of candida albicans in a chemostat.the purpose of this study was to establish and identify a community of oral bacteria that controls the growth of candida albicans in the chemostat. the chemostat was operated under glucose-limiting conditions at a dilution rate of 0.05 h-1 and inoculated with a yeast-free suspension of a tongue scraping. after a steady state had been reached, it was inoculated with c. albicans to establish the yeast and determine whether its growth could be contained. the steady-state community comprised the spe ...19968941776
risk indicators for periodontal disease in a racially diverse urban population.a cross-sectional study of 117 subjects from a dental clinic serving a diverse population (i.e., whites, african-americans, native-americans, and asians) was performed to evaluate risk indicators of periodontal disease. gingival crevicular fluid (gcf) and subgingival plaque were taken at the same visit from 4 posterior sites of the most diseased sextant in each subject. age, smoking packyears, beta-glucuronidase (beta g), neutrophil elastase (ne), myeloperoxidase (mpo), fusobacterium nucleatum ( ...19968951624
the adherence of periodontopathogens to periodontal probes. a possible factor in intra-oral transmission?periodontal probes have previously been shown to harbor several bacterial types or species after probing periodontally diseased pockets. this study aims to identify and quantify periodontopathogens that may adhere to a periodontal probe by culturing techniques. it also examines the probe's roughness on its capability to collect bacteria, comparing merrit-b probes (with deep indentations) with tps probes (with smooth surfaces). from the differential phase contrast microscopy findings it was seen ...19968959565
degradation of lactoferrin by periodontitis-associated bacteria.the degradation of human lactoferrin by putative periodontopathogenic bacteria was examined. fragments of lactoferrin were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and measured by densitometry. the degradation of lactoferrin was more extensive by porphyromonas gingivalis and capnocytophaga sputigena, slow by capnocytophaga ochracea, actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and prevotella intermedia, and very slow or absent by prevotella nigrescens, campylobacter rectus ...19968961558
immune response to anaerobic bacteria in patients with peritonsillar cellulitis and abscess.the role of four oral organisms (fusobacterium nucleatum. prevotella intermedia, porphyromonas gingivalis, and actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans) was investigated in 19 children with peritonsillar abscess, and 17 with peritonsillar cellulitis. antibody titers to these organisms were measured by enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay in the patient, as well as in 32 control patients. serum levels in the patients were determined at day 1 and 42-56 days later. significantly higher antibody levels to ...19968973727
investigations of the taxonomy and systematics of fusobacterium nucleatum using allozyme electrophoresis.fusobacterium nucleatum forms part of the resident microbiota in both oral and extraoral sites in humans and animals. it is also involved in infections in such sites. despite the genetic heterogeneity within the species, it has been divided into five subspecies, the validities of which have been questioned. in the present study, 44 f. nucleatum isolates were examined at 21 enzyme loci by using the allozyme electrophoretic technique to establish an accurate genetic framework for taxonomic purpose ...19978995811
extraction and characterization of the smooth-type lipopolysaccharide from fusobacterium nucleatum jcm 8532 and its biological activities.the lipopolysaccharide (lps) of fusobacterium nucleatum jcm 8532 was isolated by hot-phenol water extraction. most of the lps was extracted in the phenolic phase and shown to be the smooth-type, whereas the aqueous phase contained mainly rough-type lps. the chemical composition of the lps was similar to that reported in other studies, but d-quinovosamine, which may be a major component of o-antigenic polysaccharide, and 3-deoxy-d-manno-2-octulosonic acid (kdoi) were detected for the first time b ...19968999284
plaque ph and microflora of dental plaque on sound and carious root surfaces.given the hypothesis that root caries is the result of acid formation by acidogenic micro-organisms, the present study was performed to relate sucrose-induced ph response of dental plaque on root surfaces to the microbial composition of the overlying plaque. seventeen caries-active elderly chinese with poor oral hygiene and with both sound and carious root surfaces were examined. plaque ph was measured before and up to one hour after a controlled sucrose mouthrinse. plaque samples for microbiolo ...19969003238
electrophoresis of whole-cell soluble proteins of microorganisms isolated from bacteremias in endodontic therapy.we have previously demonstrated that anaerobic bacteria are the microorganisms most frequently isolated from blood following endodontic therapy of teeth with apical periodontitis. phenotypic characterisation of the isolates suggested that the bacteria in the blood originated from the root canal. the present experiment using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) was carried out in an effort to verify these findings, and to further study the microorganisms involved i ...19969021323
anaerobic microorganisms in root canals of human teeth with chronic apical periodontitis detected by indirect immunofluorescence.aiming to assess the presence of selected anaerobic microorganisms in root canals of human teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. 25 central and lateral upper incisors presenting with radiographic evidence of chronic apical periodontitis were studied. the pulp chamber was opened under aseptic conditions and samples of the root canal content were collected with sterile absorbent paper points, which were placed and dispersed in test tubes containing reduced transport medium rtt. aliquots were dr ...19969028199
effect of oral bacteria on peripheral blood leukocyte interleukin-6 and soluble interleukin-6 receptor determine the effect of pathogenic oral bacteria on interleukin 6 (il-6) and soluble il-6 receptor production, we measured their release by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. unseparated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, peripheral blood lymphocytes (monocyte depleted), pure t cells, or monocytes were cultured with actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, capnocytophaga gingivalis, capnocytophaga ochracea, fusobacterium nucleatum or porphyromonas gingivalis for 24 h. supernatan ...19969028259
alveolar bone loss in rats infected with a strain of prevotella intermedia and fusobacterium nucleatum isolated from a child with prepubertal periodontitis.prevotella intermedia and fusobacterium nucleatum are associated with various forms of periodontal disease. the purpose of the present study was to infect the clinical isolates of these periodontopathic bacteria and to induce a significant loss of alveolar bone in specific pathogen-free (spf) rats in the absence of ligatures. p. intermedia ykd8 and f. nucleatum ykz5 were isolated from a prepubertal periodontitis patient, while p. gingivalis mwb13 was from a patient with juvenile periodontitis. a ...19979029446
fusobacterium nucleatum t18 aggregates human mononuclear cells and inhibits their pha-stimulated previous studies fusobacterium nucleatum has been shown to induce either stimulatory or inhibitory effects on human mononuclear cells. we examined the interaction of human mononuclear cells with human and cynomolgus monkey strains of f. nucleatum. peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) isolated from normal donors were aggregated in the presence of cells of f. nucleatum but not control bacteria. the aggregation of pbmcs and f. nucleatum t18 was inhibited by either l-arginine, l-lysine, or ...19979029450
short-chain carboxylic acid concentration in human gingival crevicular fluid.short-chain carboxylic acids (e.g., lactic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid) are metabolic by-products of bacterial metabolism which can accumulate in the gingival crevice. it is of no small consequence, therefore, that 1- to 5-mm concentrations of these acids exhibit significant biological activity, including the ability to alter cell proliferation and gene expression in cells of importance to the periodontium. this communication reports on the in vivo concentrations of propionic and butyric ...19979042080
the clinical, microbial, and host response characteristics of the failing implant.the goal of this study was to provide new data regarding levels of inflammatory and growth factor mediators and bacterial pathogens associated with failing implants, as compared to healthy implants. twenty-one patients with failing implant sites (group 1) and 8 patients with only healthy implants (group 2) were included. fifteen of the 21 failing implant patients (group 1) also presented with at least one stable nondiseased implant. plaque samples were examined, using dna oligonucleotide probes ...19979048452
microbial findings of deep peri-implant bone defects.the objective of this study was to examine inflammatory tissue in deep peri-implant bone pockets (> 5 mm) for anaerobic bacteria colonization. the peri-implant inflammatory tissue of bone defects from 12 edentulous patients with 18 unsuccessful implants (imz type) was removed after surgical opening of the defects. after grinding the tissue with glass beads in nutrient solution, an aliquot of the suspension was plated and incubated on appropriate culture media. the quantitative and qualitative di ...19979048462
bacterial adherence to guided tissue regeneration barrier membranes exposed to the oral environment.microbial colonization of barrier materials used in guided tissue regeneration (gtr) is known to adversely affect treatment outcomes. the purpose of this study was to compare the rate at which 11 commonly-occurring oral bacteria species colonize three different barrier materials (collagen, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene, and polylactic acid). the study group consisted of 10 systemically healthy individuals with no history of periodontal disease and absence of antimicrobial therapy within the p ...19979058336
evidence for genetic control of changes in f-actin polymerization caused by pathogenic microorganisms: in vitro assessment using gingival fibroblasts from human twins.attachment to and migration upon a substratum, as well as other functions of connective tissue cells, are regulated mainly by cytoplasmic structural proteins, particularly filamentous actin (f-actin). pathogenic microorganisms exert negative effects on cytoskeletal proteins. in the present study, normal gingival fibroblasts from 10 sets of human twins (6 fraternal, dz; 4 identical, mz) were exposed to soluble extracts from porphyromonas gingivalis or fusobacterium nucleatum, then f-actin was sta ...19979085216
cloning and expression of foma, the major outer-membrane protein gene from fusobacterium nucleatum t18.the major outer-membrane protein. foma, of fusobacterium nucleatum has been associated with porin activity, interbacterial adherence and stimulation of host immune cells. until now, molecular analysis of foma has not been possible because previous attempts to clone the foma gene were not successful. the inability to clone f. nucleatum genes led to speculation that escherichia coli may not be a suitable host. this report concerns the amplification of the foma gene of f. nucleatum t18 using oligon ...19979134112
increase of heat-shock protein and induction of gamma/delta t cells in peritoneal exudate of mice after injection of live fusobacterium nucleatum.fusobacterium nucleatum and actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans are gram-negative rod periodontal pathogens. the peritoneal cavity of institute of cancer research (icr) mice was used as the local infection model. in vivo production of heat-shock proteins (hsp) was studied by injection of 1/10 minimum lethal dose (mld) of each live bacteria into mice. heat-shock proteins 70 and 60 were examined in the extract of peritoneal exudate cells (pec) from mice injected intraperitoneally with either f. n ...19979135551
secretion of il-1 beta, tnf-alpha, il-8 and il-1ra by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in response to lipopolysaccharides from periodontopathic bacteria.polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmn) are the first cells that migrate into periodontal tissues and gingival crevices in response to invading pathogens. it was recently demonstrated that pmn have the ability to synthesize and release cytokines following appropriate stimulation, while it is not clear whether these capacities are directly related to periodontal destructive processes. we therefore investigated the amounts of the cytokines interleukin-1 beta (il-1 beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha (tn ...19979138193
release and activation of human neutrophil matrix metallo- and serine proteinases during phagocytosis of fusobacterium nucleatum, porphyromonas gingivalis and treponema denticola.the phagocytic ingestion of reference strains and clinical isolates of fusobacterium nucleatum, porphyromonas gingivalis, and treponema denticola by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmns) and the concomitant release of pmn granule proteinases were studied by specific functional and immunological assays. pmns were incubated with the microorganisms anaerobically at 37 degrees c for indicated time periods. the suspensions and pellets were used for phagocytic ingestion assay and electron microscopic st ...19979144046
development of resistance to metronidazole and minocycline in local delivery of antibiotics to periodontal pockets, very high initial concentrations are often quickly succeeded by subinhibitory concentrations, which may facilitate development of bacterial resistance. the purpose of the present study was to investigate possible development of resistance in suspected periodontal pathogens after exposure to subinhibitory concentrations of metronidazole and minocycline. the minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) of 18 reference strains and 12 clinical isola ...19979144048
the effect of areca nut on salivary and selected oral microorganisms.the aim of this study was to investigate the effect on the growth of salivary and selected oral microorganisms of areca nut, aqueous extracts of the nut, its major alkaloid arecoline and the components tannic acid and catechin of its tannin fraction. the antibacterial properties of the above were tested on streptococcus mutans, streptococcus salivarius, candida albicans and fusobacterium nucleatum and, as a control, staphylococcus aureus. this was followed by investigating its effect on salivary ...19969147124
methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus and candida albicans on denture surfaces.infectious diseases caused by methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, mrsa, and candida albicans are often serious in compromised hosts. we enumerated mrsa and c. albicans on denture surfaces and in saliva samples from 29 adults. staphylococcus species, mrsa, and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus epidermidis, mrse, were detected on 17, 3, and 1 of the 29 denture surfaces, respectively. c. albicans were detected on 22 denture surfaces. all saliva samples from patients whose dentures carri ...19969151568
inhibitory effects of funoran on the adherence and colonization of oral bacteria.funoran, a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from the seaweed gloiopeltis furcata, strongly inhibited the adsorption of mutans streptococci to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (s-ha) used as an experimental pellicle and strongly desorbed cariogenic mutans streptococci pre-adsorbed to s-ha. colonization inhibition and anticariogenic effects of funoran were also investigated in experimental rats. the colonization of streptococcus cricetus e49 inoculated on the molar teeth of experimental rats administ ...19969151580
the influence of abutment surface roughness on plaque accumulation and peri-implant mucositis.bacterial adhesion to intra-oral, hard surfaces is firmly influenced by the surface roughness to these structures. previous studies showed a remarkable higher subgingival bacterial load on rough surfaces when compared to smooth sites. more recently, the additional effect of a further smoothening of intra-oral hard surfaces on clinical and microbiological parameters was examined in a short-term experiment. the results indicated that a reduction in surface roughness below r(a) = 0.2 microns, the s ...19969151584
the influence of periodontitis on the subgingival flora around implants in partially edentulous patients.the hypothesis that teeth act as reservoirs of micro-organisms for the colonization of oral implants has recently been stated several times. the present study aimed at examining, in partially edentulous patients with severe periodontitis, whether pockets around teeth and implants harbored a comparable micro-flora. in 6 patients (3 with refractory periodontitis and 3 with advanced chronic adult periodontitis), plaque samples were taken from a deep and shallow pocket around both teeth and implants ...19969151609
microbiology of chronic maxillary sinusitis: comparison between specimens obtained by sinus endoscopy and by surgical drainage.the aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of sinus aspirates obtained during surgery was compared with culture of samples obtained by endoscopy. six patients with chronic maxillary sinusitis were evaluated. polymicrobial flora was found in all specimens (two-to-five isolates/sample). a total of 24 isolates (18 anaerobic, five aerobic and one micro-aerophilic) was obtained from sinus aspirates, and 25 isolates (16 anaerobic and nine aerobic) were found in endoscopic specimens. the predominant organi ...19979152041
possible lethal enhancement of toxins from putative periodontopathogens by nicotine: implications for periodontal test the hypothesis that lethal synergy in the chick embryo model may occur between nicotine and bacterial products (cell-free extracellular toxins and cell lysates) of five putative periodontopathogens.19979155677
characterization of bacteroides forsythus isolates.fifteen bacteroides forsythus strains freshly isolated from patients with periodontitis were used together with three collection strains and one type strain for characterization of growth on various media; determination of enzymatic profiles, antibiotic susceptibility profiles, 16s rrna ribotypes, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) outer membrane protein profiles, and pathogenicity; and gas chromatography analysis by using a wound chamber model in rabbits. all s ...19979163447
rheumatoid factor from periodontitis patients cross-reacts with epitopes on oral bacteria.the objective of this study was to determine the antigenic specificity of rheumatoid factor (rf) that had previously been reported in the serum of patients with periodontitis.19969171508
protein degradation by prevotella intermedia and actinomyces meyeri supports the growth of non-protein-cleaving oral bacteria in serum.the proteolytic activities of oral bacteria are thought to play an important role in the aetiology of dental abscesses. bacteria-derived proteases may contribute to tissue destruction, and are likely to impair host defence by degrading immunoglobulins and complement. degraded periodontal tissue and tissue fluid are likely to constitute essential sources of nutrients in the abscess. tissue fluid, which is derived from serum, is rich in protein and poor in carbohydrate, suggesting that breakdown o ...19979178115
orogenital contact: a cause of chorioamnionitis?fusobacterium nucleatum and capnocytophaga species are common oral pathogens and infrequent causes of systemic infection in patients with compromised immunity or disrupted mucosal integrity. the isolation of both organisms from a clinical specimen suggests an oral source of infection.19949205437
associations of endodontic symptoms and signs with particular combinations of specific bacteria.significant associations have been reported between (a) specific bacterial species isolated from root canals and (b) between individual bacterial species and endodontic symptoms and signs. the prime objective of this study was to determine whether particular combinations of specific bacteria are associated with individual endodontic symptoms and signs. seventy root canals were investigated microbiologically taking care to maintain the viability of obligate anaerobes, which accounted for 64% of t ...19969206427
an in vitro study of the coronal leakage of two root canal sealers using an obligate anaerobe microbial marker.the aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the coronal leakage of obligate anaerobes into root canals obturated with lateral condensation of cold gutta-percha with two root canal sealers. sixty extracted human teeth with straight, single root canals were prepared using the modified double-flared technique with balanced force under copious irrigation until the master apical file was size 40. the teeth were divided randomly into experimental groups (40 teeth) and control groups (20 teeth). ...19969206441
in vitro activity of bay 12-8039, a new 8-methoxyquinolone, compared to the activities of 11 other oral antimicrobial agents against 390 aerobic and anaerobic bacteria isolated from human and animal bite wound skin and soft tissue infections in humans.the in vitro activity of bay 12-8039, a new oral 8-methoxyquinolone, was compared to the activities of 11 other oral antimicrobial agents (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin, sparfloxacin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, amoxicillin clavulanate, penicillin, cefuroxime, cefpodoxime, and doxycycline) against 250 aerobic and 140 anaerobic bacteria recently isolated from animal and human bite wound infections. bay 12-8039 was active against all aerobic isolates, both gram-positive and gram-negativ ...19979210683
uvulitis caused by anaerobic bacteria.i present two children with bacteremic uvulitis due to anaerobic bacteria.19979220512
disinfection by calcium hydroxide pastes of dentinal tubules infected with two obligate and one facultative anaerobic bacteria.bovine dentine cylinders were experimentally infected with actinomyces israelii, fusobacterium nucleatum, or enterococcus faecalis. the latter is a facultative anaerobic bacteria and the others are obligate anaerobes commonly found in endodontic infections. the infected specimens were exposed to pastes of calcium hydroxide mixed with saline solution or camphorated paramonochlorophenol for periods of 1 h, 1 day, and 1 week. the viability of bacteria after these exposure times was evaluated by spe ...19969220753
immune response to fusobacterium nucleatum, prevotella intermedia and other anaerobes in children with acute tonsillitis.the number of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria was determined in the saliva of 20 children with acute group a beta-haemolytic streptococcal (gabhs) pharyngo-tonsillitis, and 20 with acute non-gabhs tonsillitis. antibody titres to four gram-negative anaerobic bacilli that reside in the oropharynx (fusobacterium nucleatum, prevotella intermedia, porphyromonas gingivalis, and actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans) were determined in these and 20 control patients. an average of 8.8 aerobic and anaerobi ...19979222046
occurrence of invading bacteria in radicular dentin of periodontally diseased teeth: microbiological findings.bacterial invasion in roots of periodontally diseased teeth, which has been recently documented using cultural and microscopic techniques, may be important in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. the purpose of this investigation was to determine the occurrence and the species of invading bacteria in radicular dentin of periodontally diseased teeth. samples were taken from the middle layer of radicular dentin of 26 periodontally diseased teeth. 14 healthy teeth were used as controls. dentin ...19979226388
multiple c-terminal serine phosphorylation accompanies both protein kinase c-dependent and -independent activation of cytosolic 85 kda phospholipase a2 in macrophages.exposure of mouse macrophages to either phorbol ester or certain bacteria was previously shown to cause increased phosphorylation of the cytosolic 85 kda phospholipase a2 as well as a stable increase in its catalytic activity. we have now attempted to map the major phosphorylation sites on the enzyme in such cells. phosphorylation occurred on serine residues without a detectable increase in either phosphothreonine or phosphotyrosine. after cnbr cleavage five fragments showed increased 32p labell ...19979230120
the relationship between gingivitis and the serum antibodies to the microbiota associated with periodontal disease in children with down's syndrome.gingival inflammation in down's syndrome children (ds) develops earlier and is more rapid and extensive than in non-ds children. abnormalities in host response to the oral flora have been proposed as etiological factors of this gingival inflammation. however, the relationship between gingivitis and the host response to oral microorganisms in ds by age has not been determined. the objective of this study was to clarify this relationship. sera were obtained from 75 ds subjects (aged 2 to 18 years) ...19979249633
host modulation of tissue destruction caused by periodontopathogens: effects on a mixed microbial infection composed of porphyromonas gingivalis and fusobacterium nucleatum.these studies determined the ability of selected periodontopathogens to synergistically initiate soft tissue destruction in a murine abscess model. the development of immunity following recovery from infection or by active immunization was also examined. mice were infected with p. gingivalis w50, f. nucleatum t18, or a combination of the two microorganisms. f. nucleatum caused only a localized lesion in contrast to p. gingivalis which caused a spreading suppurative inflammatory lesion of the ski ...19979250777
beta-lactamase producing bacteria in adult 23 untreated adult periodontitis patients, the occurrence of beta-lactamase producing periodontal bacteria was determined. in addition to non-selective isolation media, selective isolation and growth of beta-lactamase positive subgingival bacterial species was carried out on blood agar plates supplemented with amoxicillin and plates with amoxicillin+clavulanic acid. porphyromonas gingivalis, prevotella intermedia, actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, peptostreptococcus micros, fusobacterium ...19979266340
increased susceptibility of rag-2 scid mice to dissemination of endodontic infections.specific immunity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of periapical lesions, although the extent to which these mechanisms are actually involved in either protection or destruction of the pulp-periapex complex is yet to be established. to investigate this question we compared periapical-lesion pathogenesis in rag-2 severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mice with immunocompetent control mice following surgical pulp exposure. in order to equalize the bacterial challenge, an infection protocol ...19979284152
enzymatic removal and disinfection of bacterial biofilms.model biofilms of staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus epidermidis, pseudomonas fluorescens, and pseudomonas aeruginosa were made on steel and polypropylene substrata. plaque-resembling biofilms of streptococcus mutans, actinomyces viscosus, and fusobacterium nucleatum were made on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite. the activity of enzymes against bacterial cells in biofilm was measured by fluorescence microscopy and an indirect conductance test in which evolution of carbon dioxide was measured. glu ...19979293025
recently described clinically important anaerobic bacteria: taxonomic aspects and update.a new method of identifying bacteria, phylogenetic 16s rrna sequencing, has led to major reorganizations among most genera of anaerobic bacteria. the pigmented prevotella species now comprise seven species including p. nigrescens and p. tannerae; p. intermedia/p. nigrescens-like organisms await inclusion. the former mitsuokella dentalis and hallella seregens were transferred to prevotella as one species, p. dentalis. p. enoeca is a new nonpigmenting prevotella. the genus porphyromonas currently ...19979310640
dental implant implants provide a restorative tool to support crowns, bridge abutments, and removable dentures. osseointegrated implants are titanium posts that are surgically implanted in alveolar bone. a tight immobile bond (osseointegration) forms between bone and titanium, and prosthetic and restorative fixtures are attached to the implants. titanium implants differ from natural teeth, which may make them more susceptible to mechanical stress. a small proportion of implants are not successful and ma ...19979310682
pore-forming molecules in gram-negative anaerobic bacteria.little information is available about porin molecules in anaerobes. porins from bacteroides fragilis and porphyromonas, fusobacterium, and campylobacter species have been described. a pore-forming outer membrane (om) porin protein was isolated from b. fragilis (omp-200); it is exposed at the cell surface and dissociated by boiling and application of reducing agents. fusobacterium nucleatum foma, an om porin protein of 40 kd, had a deduced topology of foma similar to that of established porins, d ...19979310708
cross-infection from periodontitis sites to failing implant sites in the same mouth.twenty-five tooth and implant sites in nine patients were investigated for the presence of putative periodontopathic organisms, using specific dna probes for actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, porphromonas gingivalis, prevotella intermedia, eikenella corrodens, fusobacterium nucleatum, treponema denticola, and campylobacter recta. five of nine patients showed a likelihood of transmission from tooth to implant sites. these patients also showed a high number of putative periodontopathic organis ...19979337029
putative periodontal pathogens in subgingival plaque of young adults with and without early-onset periodontitis.this study assessed the associations between putative periodontal pathogens and early-onset periodontitis (eop) in a population of 248 subjects, 13 to 19 years of age at baseline, derived from a representative sample of u.s. young adults. the subjects were selected based on the presence or absence of attachment loss at baseline. the attachment level was assessed clinically at baseline and at a 6-year follow-up examination, and the presence of 7 bacterial species was assessed at follow-up using d ...19979358364
coronal leakage of mixed anaerobic bacteria after obturation and post space preparation.the purpose of this study was to assess bacterial leakage of a mixed anaerobic community of organisms in obturated canals after post space preparation.19979377197
experimental gingivitis in periodontitis-susceptible subjects.the purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical, microbiological, and gingival crevicular fluid (gcf) profiles in periodontitis-resistant and periodontitis-susceptible subjects during 4 weeks of experimental gingivitis. experimental groups of similar ages were defined as gingivitis controls (gc; n = 10) and history of rapidly progressive periodontitis (rpp; n = 10), respectively. prior to baseline, all subjects achieved good plaque control (plaque index (p1i) approximately 0) and gingival hea ...19979378832
identification of a fusobacterium nucleatum pk1594 galactose-binding adhesin which mediates coaggregation with periopathogenic bacteria and hemagglutination.attachment of fusobacterium nucleatum to various oral surfaces is mediated by several adhesins anchored on its outer surface. monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were prepared and used to identify the putative galactose-binding adhesin of f. nucleatum pk1594. four unique mabs, 8g7, 26b9, 28g11, and 29d4, were isolated on the basis of their ability to inhibit coaggregation of f. nucleatum pk1594 with porphyromonas gingivalis pk1924. all four mabs were also capable of inhibiting galactose-inhibitable int ...19979393820
"checkerboard" versus culture: a comparison between two methods for identification of subgingival microbiota.the present study compared the "checkerboard" dna-dna hybridization methodology with culture techniques for the analysis of the composition of the subgingival microbiota. 70 subjects, presenting with a variety of periodontal conditions, contributed with a total of 283 subgingival plaque samples analyzed with respect to the following species: porphyromonas gingivalis, prevotella intermedia/prevotella nigrescens, fusobacterium nucleatum, campylobacter rectus, eikenella corrodens, bacteroides forsy ...19979395099
reduced serum igg reactivities with bacteria from dental plaque in hiv-infected persons with periodontitis.serum samples were obtained from 44 hiv-seropositive (hiv+) and 37 hiv-seronegative (hiv-) persons that were grouped according to periodontal status. serum igg and iga reactivities towards streptococcus mutans, actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, porphyromonas gingivalis. prevotella intermedia, prevotella nigrescens and fusobacterium nucleatum were measured by means of elisa. hiv+ persons with chronic marginal periodontitis showed significantly lower igg reactivities to the periodontal pathoge ...19979402504
comparison of the subgingival microbiota of periodontally healthy and diseased adults in northern cameroon.our study is the 1st report on subgingival microbiota in adult cameronians. the aim was to investigate, using the checkerboard dna-dna hybridization technique, the prevalence of 18 oral species in subgingival plaque samples obtained from sex- and age-matched cameronian adults with and without periodontal destruction. we also compared cultivation and the affirm dp test with the checkerboard technique in their capability to detect some selected species among the 18. 21 adult periodontitis patients ...19979402505
Displaying items 1401 - 1500 of 4852