bacterial interference in vitro. comparison between a quantitative kinetic and a cocultivation blood agar test method.the aim of the present study was to compare two methods for estimation of bacterial growth interference between various bacteria using a bioscreen robot analyzer, allowing kinetic documentation, and a cocultivation test on blood agar plates. six laboratory strains with different virulence and growth requirements were used: actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, porphyromonas gingivalis, fusobacterium nucleatum, streptococcus mitis, staphylococcus aureus, and staphylococcus epidermidis. the interf ...19947833000
in vitro activity of du-6859a against anaerobic bacteria.the activity of a new quinolone agent, du-6859a, against 330 strains of anaerobic bacteria was determined by using the national committee for clinical laboratory standards-approved wadsworth brucella laked blood agar method; the activity of du-6859a was compared with those of amoxicillin-clavulanate (2:1), chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, fleroxacin, imipenem, lomefloxacin, metronidazole, sparfloxacin, and temafloxacin. du-6859a and chloramphenicol inhibited all of the isolates at co ...19947840599
cytology of pulmonary fusobacterium nucleatum infection. a case report.a patient with pulmonary fusobacterium nucleatum infection presenting as a solitary nodule is reported. the infectious nature of the lung nodule was disclosed by ultrasound-guided percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration cytology (fnac) with liu's stain. the cytologic characteristics of f nucleatum infection are described. the usefulness of real-time ultrasound in fine needle aspiration diagnosis of a peripheral lung lesion is demonstrated, and the role of liu's stain in fnac is emphasi ...19957846999
some microbiological, histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics of progressive periodontal disease.the aim of the present investigation was to study the local nature of human periodontal disease by assessing the microbiota and the composition of the tissue lesions at sites with progressive attachment loss in periodontitis susceptible subjects. 300 subjects with periodontal disease were monitored for 2 years without treatment. 8 subjects lost > 2 mm of attachment at > or = 3 sites during both the first and the second 12 month interval. these 8 subjects (progressive disease group; pd) were reca ...19947852619
effect of treatment on some periodontopathogens and their antibody levels in periodontal abscesses.twenty patients suffering from abscess of periodontal origin were treated and followed clinically and microbiologically for 6 months. microbiological examination was performed by culture technique. one deep and one shallow periodontal pocket in the same patient were examined concomitantly. serum was collected and analyzed for specific antibody level using elisa methodology. treatment included supragingival scaling, drainage, and irrigation of the periodontal pocket with 0.85% sodium chloride and ...19947853125
comparative detection frequency of 6 putative periodontal pathogens in sudanese and norwegian adult periodontitis patients.twenty-five sudanese and 18 norwegian adult periodontitis patients were selected to participate in this study. the purpose was to compare cultivation results of porphyromonas gingivalis, prevotella intermedia, actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, fusobacterium nucleatum, and capnocytophaga species as well as various enteric rods in both populations. in addition, dna probe analysis was used to identify p. gingivalis, p. intermedia, a. actinomycetemcomitans, f. nucleatum, and bacteroides forsythu ...19947853128
microbial associations of 4 putative periodontal pathogens in sudanese adult periodontitis patients determined by dna probe analysis.the few previous cultivation studies on the in vivo associations between various periodontal microbial species have shown several positive and negative associations. the present investigation utilized dna probe analysis to examine possible in vivo associations between the periodontal pathogens porphyromonas gingivalis, prevotella intermedia, fusobacterium nucleatum, and bacteroides forsythus in subgingival plaque samples obtained from 25 sudanese untreated adult periodontitis patients. the stand ...19947853129
clinical and microbiological effects of controlled-release locally delivered minocycline in periodontitis.the clinical efficacy of minocycline in a subgingival local delivery system was evaluated alone (m) or as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (m + srp), in comparison to scaling and root planing (srp) or to no subgingival treatment (notx) in adult periodontitis. fifty-one adult patients with > or = 7 mm periodontal pockets demonstrating the presence by culture of porphyromonas gingivalis (pg), prevotella intermedia (p(i)), or actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (aa) were randomized into one ...19947853130
microbiota of rapidly progressive periodontitis lesions in association with clinical parameters.the microbial population in 73 rapidly progressive periodontitis (rpp) lesions in 10 young adults aged 25 to 35 years (5 males, 5 females) was studied in relation to the clinical parameters probing depth, bleeding on probing, and suppuration, which were recorded at the sampled sites. porphyromonas gingivalis was found to predominate (26.7%) in 73 periodontal lesions with clinical probing depth > 6 mm, followed by bacteroides forsythus (23.6%), and prevotella intermedia (15.7%). the prevalence of ...19947853132
in-vitro activity of clinafloxacin (ci-960) and pd 131628-2 against anaerobic bacteria.the antimicrobial activities of two new quinolones, ci-960 and pd 131628-2 were determined against 339 strains of anaerobic bacteria and compared to cefoxitin, imipenem and metronidazole. the nccls-approved wadsworth agar dilution technique with brucella-lysed blood agar was used throughout the study. breakpoints of the new quinolones are 2 mg/l, and breakpoints for cefoxitin, imipenem and metronidazole are 32, 8 and 16 mg/l, respectively. ci-960 displayed excellent activity, inhibiting all stra ...19947868409
the gingival immune response to periodontal pathogens in juvenile periodontitis.a gingival explant culture system was utilized to evaluate the reactivity of local immunoglobulins produced by juvenile periodontitis tissue. gingival explant culture supernatant fluids were screened, via a standardized dot-immunobinding assay, for antibodies reactive to: actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, porphyromonas gingivalis, prevotella intermedia, campylobacter rectus, eikenella corrodens, peptostreptococcus micros, peptostreptococcus anaerobius, capnocytophaga ochracea, eubacterium no ...19947870467
degradation of immunoglobulin g by periodontal bacteria.several subgingival microorganisms were tested for their ability to utilize human immunoglobulin g (igg) as a substrate for growth. this was done using a protein-free chemically defined medium, supplemented with igg. stimulation of growth was observed for capnocytophaga ochracea, porphyromonas asaccharolytica, porphyromonas endodontalis, porphyromonas gingivalis, prevotella intermedia, prevotella oralis, lactobacillus catenaforme and streptococcus intermedius. immunoelectrophoresis, sodium dodec ...19947870469
the antimicrobial activity of prevention mouthrinse.prevention mouthrinse was designed to serve as a vital supplement to normal oral hygiene procedures. to determine the antimicrobial potency of this mouthrinse, minimal inhibitory concentrations (mics), bactericidal kinetics, and short-term exposure studies were conducted. a spectrum of oral microorganisms was employed in this investigation: streptococcus sanguis, streptococcus anginosus, streptococcus mutans, actinomyces viscosus, actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, fusobacterium nucleatum, ei ...19937880467
antiseptic mouthrinse-induced microbial cell surface alterations.this study determined the effect of an essential oil-containing mouthrinse, listerine antiseptic, on microbial cell surface morphology using scanning electron microscopy. twenty-four hour cultures of c. albicans, a. viscosus, s. sanguis, f. nucleatum, and a. actinomycetemcomitans were harvested and washed in buffer. triplicate samples were overlaid on poly-l-lysine coated coverslips, immersed in either listerine or buffer for 30 seconds, fixed in glutaraldehyde followed by post-fixing in 1% osmi ...19937880474
antimicrobial susceptibility of periodontopathic bacteria associated with failing implants.the aim of this study was to examine the subgingival microflora associated with failing implants, and to determine their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics in periodontal therapy and dental practice. thirteen partially edentulous patients with 19 failing implants were selected. clinical examination included probing depth, attachment level, gingival index, plaque index, and radiographic analyses. two subgingival plaque samples were taken from each failing implant and analyzed for microbi ...19957891253
the oral gram-negative anaerobic microflora in young children: longitudinal changes from edentulous to dentate mouth.eruption of primary teeth has a great influence on the oral environment by providing suitable niches for bacterial colonization. the composition of oral gram-negative anaerobic microflora was investigated in 21 young children (mean age 32 months) with primary dentition. the bacterial findings of samples were compared with those of the same children collected at their edentulous infant period (mean age 3 months). during the primary period, 2 samples were collected from each child: a sample with d ...19947936718
in vitro activity of meropenem compared with imipenem, metronidazole, ampicillin, and ampicillin/sulbactam against anaerobes.the aim of the present study was to compare the in vitro activity of meropenem (ici 194660, cas 96036-03-2) with imipenem, metronidazole, clindamycin, ampicillin and ampicillin/sulbactam against a variety of anaerobic bacteria using an agar dilution method. 423 clinical isolates were tested belonging to 70 species of 15 anaerobic genera. they included bacteroides fragilis (n = 62), bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (n = 45), prevotella bivia (n = 11), fusobacterium nucleatum (n = 12), clostridium per ...19947945523
chemostat flow cell system: an in vitro model for the evaluation of antiplaque agents.we developed an experimental in vitro model of dental plaque to assess the potential efficacy of antiplaque agents. the model used a chemostat, which provided a continuous source of 5 species of oral bacteria grown in an artificial "saliva-like" medium. this mixture was pumped through six flow cells, each containing two types of surfaces on which plaque formed and was subsequently measured. formation of bacterial plaque on hydroxyapatite surfaces was assessed by measurement of the dna and protei ...19947983262
polyclonal b cell activation, endotoxin tolerance, and limulus tests of endotoxin preparations of some periodontopathogens.potencies of polyclonal b-cell activation in c3h/hen mice of actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, fusobacterium nucleatum, and porphyromonas gingivalis endotoxins were 0.36, 0.13 and 0.04, taking salmonella abortusequi as 1.0. f. nucleatum and p. gingivalis endotoxins showed positive reactions in c3h/hej mice. most activities in c3h/hen other than that of f. nucleatum were suppressed by polymyxin b. in c3h/hej mice, similar inhibitions were only 60% for p. gingivalis and hardly observed with f. ...19947987966
sizing the fusobacterium nucleatum genome by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.the genome sizes of fusobacterium nucleatum strains f1, f3, f6, atcc 10953, atcc 25586 and fev1 were determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (pfge). the restriction enzymes smai, sacii,sali and xhoi were found to generate a reasonable number of dna fragments which could be separated by pfge in agarose gels. the apparent chromosomal lengths of the f. nucleatum strains were determined to be approximately 2.4 million base pairs. this was within the size-range found by experiments exploiting ...19947988882
macaca fascicularis as a model in which to assess the safety and efficacy of a vaccine for periodontitis.we have assessed macaca fascicularis as a potential model in which to test the efficacy and safety of a vaccine for periodontitis. twenty-eight animals were surveyed and 20 studied in more detail. clinical periodontal status was assessed, the subgingival microflora analyzed especially for the presence and proportions of porphyromonas gingivalis and titers and avidities of serum antibodies reactive with p. gingivalis measured. probing depths ranged from 0.90 mm to 3.80 mm, gingival index scores f ...19948008428
the most frequently isolated gram-negative anaerobes in saliva and subgingival samples taken from young women.stimulated saliva and a pooled subgingival sample from the first molars were collected from 30 caucasian women (mean age 30 years) for the presence of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria. the samples were inoculated on nonselective and selective media. the gram-negative anaerobic species occurring in the oral cavity of more than 50% of the subjects were selected for further analysis. fusobacterium nucleatum and prevotella melaninogenica were not recovered from subgingival sites without a simultaneo ...19948008430
a quantitative comparison of selected bacteria in human carious dentine by microscopic counts.the levels of selected cariogenic and obligately anaerobic bacteria have been compared in carious dentine taken from fissures, smooth surfaces, and root surfaces. the numbers of infected dentinal tubules were determined by immunohistological staining using species-specific antisera against selected bacteria. selective localization was observed; mutans streptococci were the predominant bacteria in dentine from fissures and smooth surface coronal caries, but not from root surface caries. the propo ...19948033185
fusobacterial infections in children.a total of 243 strains of fusobacteria species was recovered from 226 of 1399 (16%) specimens obtained from 213 children. the strains included 65 (27%) fusobacterium sp., 144 (59%) fusobacterium nucleatum, 25 (10%) fusobacterium necrophorum, five (2%) fusobacterium varium, three (1%) fusobacterium mortiferum, and one (0.4%) fusobacterium gonidiaformans. most fusobacteria species were recovered from patients with abscesses (100), aspiration pneumonia (24), paronychia (15), bites (14), chronic sin ...19948034995
sequence variability of the 40-kda outer membrane proteins of fusobacterium nucleatum strains and a model for the topology of the proteins.the complete nucleotide sequences of the foma genes encoding the 40-kda outer membrane proteins (omps) of strains atcc 10953 and atcc 25586 of fusobacterium nucleatum were determined using the genomic dna, or dna fragments ligated into a vector plasmid, as template in a polymerase chain reaction. the deduced amino acid sequences of these two proteins were aligned with the amino acid sequence of the corresponding protein of f. nucleatum strain fev1 and examined for conserved/variable polypeptide ...19948041356
comparison of dna probe and elisa microbial analysis methods and their association with adult periodontitis.the purposes of this study were two-fold: to compare the dna probe and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) microbial identification tests and correlate the levels of microorganisms with adult periodontitis. a single plaque sample were taken from each of 2 sites in 52 patients. twelve of these patients were also sampled during and after treatment. the experimental site had clinical indicators of disease (bleeding on probing, probing and attachment loss of > or = 6 mm) and the contralateral ...19948083789
prevalence of periodontal pathogens with varying metabolic control of diabetes mellitus.the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of 5 periodontal pathogens in individuals with diabetes mellitus. subjects (n = 107) 20-70 years of age with type 1 (n = 60) or 2 (n = 47) diabetes mellitus were studied for the occurrence of the periodontal pathogens a. actinomycetemcomitans, f. nucleatum, e. corrodens, p. gingivalis and p. intermedia. subgingival plaque was sampled in each subject from a single site exhibiting the greatest inflammation. the evaluation of selected period ...19948089237
association between cigarette smoking, bacterial pathogens, and periodontal status.the purposes of this study were to determine if: 1) an association exists between cigarette smoking and signs of periodontal disease after controlling for the confounding variables of age, sex, plaque, and calculus; 2) the prevalence of 5 bacteria commonly associated with periodontal disease differs between smokers and non-smokers; and 3) the presence of any of these bacteria or smoking are associated with a mean proximal posterior probing depth > or = 3.5 mm. plaque, calculus, gingivitis, and p ...19938106950
microbiology of tonsillar surfaces in infectious compare the cultures of tonsillar surface aerobic and anaerobic bacterial flora taken during the acute phase of infectious mononucleosis with the repeated cultures taken 2 months later.19948118535
antibacterial effects of various endodontic medicaments on selected anaerobic bacteria.this study was undertaken to determine the antibacterial effects of various endodontic medicaments against six selected anaerobic bacteria. the experiment involved the testing of the vapors of six medicaments using agar plates streaked with the bacteria. a zone of inhibition was recorded for each plate and the results were analyzed statistically. formocresol produced significantly larger zones of inhibition than any of the other medicaments.19938120484
bacterial vaginosis and vaginal microorganisms in idiopathic premature labor and association with pregnancy outcome.the vaginal microflora of 49 women in idiopathic preterm labor was compared with that of 38 term controls to determine whether the presence of bacterial vaginosis (bv) and/or specific microorganisms would influence the rate of preterm delivery. demographic factors, pregnancy outcome, and reproductive history were also studied. bv, as defined by the presence of clue cells in a vaginal wet mount and characteristic microbial findings in a stained vaginal smear and vaginal culture, was more common i ...19948126176
detection of porphyromonas gingivalis in gingival exudate by a dipeptide-enhanced trypsin-like activity.porphyromonas gingivalis in subgingival plaque is an important risk factor for future periodontal attachment loss in susceptible adults. the elimination of p. gingivalis is usually concomitant with a healing process. therefore, it should be valuable to have an easy chairside method to follow the effect of periodontal treatment on p. gingivalis detection as well as on its eventual reappearance during the maintenance period. we have previously reported the stimulation of amidolytic activity of p. ...19948133415
modeling the relationship between clinical, microbiologic, and immunologic parameters and alveolar bone levels in an elderly population.a cross-sectional periodontal study of 74 subjects aged 65 to 75 years was performed. clinical data were collected and related to microbiological and immunological data. a statistical model (step-wise multiple regression) of factors related to bone loss was created initially using clinical data only; then by adding either the microbiologic or immunologic data; and then by using clinical, microbiologic, and immunologic data together. when only clinical data were considered, three factors were fou ...19948133417
a comparison of two transport media for saliva and subgingival samples.this study has shown that microorganisms associated with caries (mutans streptococci, lactobacilli) and marginal periodontitis (porphyromonas gingivalis, prevotella intermedia and actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans) in pure culture can be stored in vmga or reduced transport fluid and be recovered sufficiently after 24 h. sufficient recovery after 24 h of mail transport was also obtained in 37 saliva samples obtained from adults and 80 subgingival samples from a group of patients before and 3, ...19938152839
similarities between fusobacterium nucleatum and bacteroides fragilis studied by two dna probes derived from fusobacterium nucleatum.a polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-amplified oligonucleotide dna probe corresponding to a fusobacterium nucleatum fevl dna region coding for a 40-kda major outer-membrane protein (omp) and a randomly cloned 2.1 kb dna probe were found to recognize dna from the gram-negative bacteria fusobacterium nucleatum and bacteroides fragilis on southern blots and slot blots. the results indicate sequence similarity within the dna fragments studied. immunoblots tested with polyclonal antibodies against whole ...19948153579
relationship between salivary blood group antigens, microbial flora and periodontal condition in young investigate a possible rôle for salivary blood-group antigens in the relative frequencies of selected periodontal pathogens and commensal oral micro-organisms, we studied the clinical and microbiological condition in young adults with or without blood group reactive substances in saliva (secretors or non-secretors respectively). clinical measurements were recorded at the ramfjord teeth in 81 1st-year dental students. in addition, presence of interproximal loss of attachment (la) was assessed ...19948157769
adherence of oral microorganisms to guided tissue membranes: an in vitro study.microorganisms can adhere and colonize on an exposed guided tissue regeneration (gtr) membrane thus developing a nidus of infection. the purpose of this study was to compare early bacterial adhesion to three different gtr membranes. expanded polytetrafluoroethylene, polyglactin 910, and collagen were used as the test membranes. in part i of this study 15 different oral microbes were used to compare their relative ability to adhere to the membranes. six of the most strongly adherent bacteria (act ...19948164114
antimicrobial action of axol on periodontopathic bacteria.the antimicrobial action of axol was tested against a panel of periodontopathic bacteria, which included treponema denticola, treponema vincentii, treponema sp., porphyromonas gingivalis, prevotella intermedia, prevotella melaninogenica, and fusobacterium nucleatum. the axol commercial solution (undiluted) was effective in inhibiting some of the bacteria but not all. the rational for the use of antimicrobials is discussed.19938180485
regulation of neutrophil responses by phosphotyrosine using immunofluorescent flow cytometry, we observed a profound up-regulation of cd45 on the plasma membrane of neutrophils exposed to low levels of a culture supernatant of the gram-negative pathogen, fusobacterium nucleatum (fn). plasma membranes of neutrophils freshly prepared form human blood possessed little enzymatically active phosphotyrosine phosphatase. the activity of this enzyme was markedly potentiated in plasma membranes prepared from cells preexposed to the fn culture supernatant ...19948189061
antibiotics can prevent implant failure. 19948195490
flow-cytometric identification and detection of porphyromonas gingivalis by a lps specific monoclonal antibody.the purpose of this study was to identify porphyromonas gingivalis (p. gingivalis) by flow cytometry (fcm) using a monoclonal antibody (mab) omr-bg1e directed to p. gingivalis-specific lipopolysaccharide (lps). the p. gingivalis strains atcc 33277, 381, eso75, w50, and a7a1 were selected for the study. fusobacterium nucleatum (f. nucleatum), prevotella intermedia (p. intermedia), campylobacter rectus (c. rectus), streptococcus sanguis (s. sanguis) and actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (a. act ...19948195974
impaired bactericidal activity of pmn from two brothers with necrotizing ulcerative gingivo-periodontitis.the purpose of this study was to investigate the pathogenesis of necrotizing ulcerative gingivo-periodontitis (anup) diagnosed in two brothers, age 9 (anup1) and 14 (anup2) from rural egypt. complete blood count, differential and blood chemistry were within normal limits for both brothers and they were not malnourished. the phagocytosis and killing function of their polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmn) towards four bacterial species were assessed using a fluorochrome microassay. the selection of b ...19948195981
late onset papillon-lefèvre syndrome? a chromosomic, neutrophil function and microbiological study.we had the opportunity to study a family with one of the most destructive forms of periodontal disease known, the papillon-lefèvre syndrome. the parents had no consanguinity and were not affected, and were therefore to be considered carriers of the disease. 2 sisters, the eldest and youngest, showed periodontal breakdown and hyperkeratotic skin lesions, but their deciduous dentition was not affected. 2 brothers had skin lesions only and another brother and sister were healthy. furthermore, 2 bab ...19938227454
[cytotoxicity of anaerobic bacteria isolated from infected root canal].bacteria in the infected root canal play an important role in the progression of the periapical lesion. the purpose of the present study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects of bacteria isolated from an infected root canal on the periapical lesion. four obligately anaerobic bacteria were isolated and their sonic extracts (se) were prepared. the cytotoxic assay of each se for mc3t3-e1 cell was used with respect to the morphological cell changes and [3h]-thymidine uptake. the following results ...19938228523
phosphorylated nutrient uptake by treponema denticola and other potential periodontopathogens.nutrient uptake may contribute to the survival of certain potential periodontopathogens in the competitive environment of the gingival sulcus. this study was conducted to assess the uptake of commercially available, key radiolabelled phosphorylated compounds by treponema denticola. there was a linear relationship in the uptake of atp and g-1-p with cell concentrations of 0.1-2.5 mg of cell dry weight. this uptake reached a steady state within 15 min, and at temperatures of 25-37 degrees c the up ...19938229676
serum immunoglobulin g antibodies to porphyromonas gingivalis, prevotella intermedia, fusobacterium nucleatum and streptococcus sanguis during experimental gingivitis in young adults.twenty-eight young, healthy adults completed an experimental gingivitis study in which blood and clinical recordings were obtained at baseline; after a 4-week period of thorough oral hygiene; after a subsequent 3-week period of plaque accumulation; and after another 2 weeks of thorough oral hygiene. serum immunoglobulin g antibodies against whole cells of porphyromonas gingivalis, prevotella intermedia, fusobacterium nucleatum and streptococcus sanguis were determined using enzyme-linked immunos ...19938233568
sensitization of periodontopathogenic bacteria to killing by light from a low-power laser.cultures of porphyromonas gingivalis, fusobacterium nucleatum and actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans were treated with a range of photosensitizers and then exposed to light from a 7.3 mw helium/neon laser for up to 80 s. toluidine blue o (25 micrograms/ml) and methylene blue (25 micrograms/ml) were effective lethal photosensitizers of all 3 target organisms, enabling substantial light dose-related reductions in viable counts. dihaematoporphyrin ester and aluminium disulphonated phthalocyanine ...19938233573
microbial associations in periodontitis sites before and after treatment.duplicate samples from 110 periodontal sites of 6 mm or more pocket depth in 16 patients were analyzed for the presence of actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, porphyromonas gingivalis, prevotella intermedia, capnocytophaga spp., campylobacter rectus, eikenella corrodens and fusobacterium nucleatum. the sites were sampled before and after nonsurgical periodontal treatment. no statistically significant associations were found before treatment between any of the analyzed species. after treatment, ...19938247608
role of suspected periodontopathogens in microbiological monitoring of periodontitis.periodontal disease is the clinical result of a complex interaction between the host and plaque bacteria. although a specificity to some degree is found for actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in localized juvenile periodontitis (ljp), it has been difficult to obtain evidence for a specific etiological role of the bacteria associated with periodontal disease in adults. what we see is the net result of host-parasite interactions which in an unpredictable moment accumulate and exceed the threshol ...19938260004
correlation between thermal sensitivity and microorganisms isolated from deep carious dentin.the correlation between thermal sensitivity and the microorganisms present in 29 deep carious lesions was studied. the numbers of lactobacilli and total gram-positive rods in the carious lesions were found to be negatively related to the length of pain triggered by cold and heat stimulants. the presence of gram-positive cocci and non-black-pigmented bacteroides were positively associated with both cold and heat sensitivities. black-pigmented bacteroides, streptococcus mutans, and total anaerobic ...19938289023
bactericidal effects of povidone-iodine solution to oral pathogenic bacteria in species of periodontal pathogenic bacteria (bacteroides, gingivalis, bacteroides intermedius, bacteroides melaninogenicus, fusobacterium nucleatum, actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, capnocytophaga spp., eikenella corrodens) and two control species (streptococcus intermedius, pseudomonas aeruginosa) were selected in order to study the bactericidal effects of 10% povidone-iodine (pvp-i) aqueous solution in vitro. the pvp-i solution was diluted to 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 320 ...19938290445
dna probe detection of periodontopathogens in advanced periodontitis.species-specific dna probes were used to determine the presence of actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (a.a.), porphyromonas (bacteroides) gingivalis, prevotella intermedia, treponema denticola, eikenella corrodens, fusobacterium nucleatum, and wolinella recta in subgingival plaque from deep pockets/sites of patients with advanced periodontitis. the subjects were 20 patients with severe adult periodontitis, 13 men and 7 women (mean age 45.6 +/- 6.7 yr). for each subject, 9-10 subgingival sites ...19938290878
new findings on the microbial flora associated with adult periodontitis.the predominant microbial flora associated with adult periodontitis was investigated in 21 patients aged 20-40 years. microorganisms from samples of subgingival plaque were cultured on selective and non-selective media under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. ten species or groups out of a total of 31 were found to comprise the predominant cultivable flora: diphtheroids, porphyromonas asaccharolytica, coagulase-negative staphylococci, 'streptococcus milleri'-group, bacteroides ureolyticus, capnoc ...19938315093
stimulation of b lymphocytes by lipopolysaccharides from anaerobic bacteria.lipopolysaccharides (lpss) from anaerobic gram-negative bacteria, including those of low endotoxic activity that are isolated from bacteroides, prevotella, and porphyromonas are potent inducers of dna replication and polyclonal immunoglobulin production in murine b lymphocytes. the activation is dose-dependent and t cell-independent. replication of dna and production of immunoglobulins were also stimulated by lipid a and by the lps heteropolysaccharide that were isolated by mild acid hydrolysis ...19938324119
bacteriology of anaerobic pleuropulmonary infections: preliminary report.a retrospective bacteriologic study of anaerobic pleuropulmonary infections diagnosed at the wadsworth veterans affairs medical center between 1976 and 1991 was performed. there were 116 specimens from 110 patients. available strains were reexamined using the latest tests and taxonomic schemes. pleural fluid was believed to provide the most reliable specimen; cultures yielded an average of 3.0 anaerobes and 0.6 nonanaerobes per specimen. the most commonly encountered anaerobes were pigmented pre ...19938324128
the normal vaginal flora, h2o2-producing lactobacilli, and bacterial vaginosis in pregnant this study of the vaginal flora of 171 pregnant women in labor at term, the flora was categorized as normal (lactobacillus predominant), intermediate, or representative of bacterial vaginosis (bv) on the basis of a vaginal smear. bv was diagnosed in 39 women (23%); the vaginal flora was classified as normal in 50% of cases and as intermediate in 27%. h2o2-producing lactobacilli were recovered from 5% of women with bv, 37% of those with an intermediate flora, and 61% of those with a normal flo ...19938324131
bacteriologic findings in peritonsillar abscesses in young adults.aspirated pus samples from 124 patients with peritonsillar abscess were cultured quantitatively for aerobes and anaerobes. a total of 98% of the samples yielded bacteria. of the 550 isolates obtained (mean, 4.4 per patient), 143 were aerobes (representing 16 species or groups) and 407 were anaerobes (representing 40 species or groups). aerobes were isolated from 86% of patients-alone in 20 cases and together with anaerobes in 87. the most common aerobic isolates were streptococcus pyogenes (isol ...19938324134
peritonsillar abscess, retropharyngeal abscess, mediastinitis, and nonclostridial anaerobic myonecrosis: a case report.peritonsillar abscess is a potentially life-threatening complication of acute tonsillitis. on occasion, peritonsillar abscess can extend to neck spaces and/or to the mediastinum. we describe a case of a patient with a peritonsillar abscess that extended to the neck, producing bilateral retropharyngeal abscesses and myonecrosis of the strap muscles. culture of a specimen of the necrotic muscle yielded prevotella intermedia, prevotella buccae, lactobacillus catenaforme, another lactobacillus speci ...19938324135
oral and dental infections with anaerobic bacteria: clinical features, predominant pathogens, and treatment.microbial populations colonizing the teeth are a major source of pathogens responsible for oral and dental infections, including periodontal diseases, gingivitis, pericoronitis, endodontitis, peri-implantitis, and postextraction infections. each entity has distinct clinical and microbial features. bacterial species associated with oral infections include actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, porphyromonas gingivalis, prevotella intermedia, bacteroides forsythus, campylobacter rectus, eubacterium ...19938324136
tetracycline resistance in periodontal pathogens.antimicrobial agents are used in combination with debridement to eliminate putative periodontal pathogens, including porphyromonas gingivalis, prevotella intermedia, and actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, from diseased tissues. the most frequently used antimicrobial agents are the tetracyclines. however, these agents are not effective in some patients. this lack of efficacy may be due to antimicrobial resistance. as many as 75% of the bacteria in the subgingival flora may be resistant to tetr ...19938324137
investigating the source of amniotic fluid isolates of fusobacteria. 19938324160
effects of antibiotic treatment on clinical conditions and bacterial growth with guided tissue regeneration.mucogingival flaps were reflected over pairs of mandibular molar teeth with class ii furcation invasions. the dimensions of the furcations were measured. the teeth were debrided and an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-ptfe) membrane was placed and retained over one furcation of each pair (test site) for 4 weeks. the second site served as a control. eight patients (group 1) with 12 e-ptfe sites received no antibiotic. seven patients (group 2) with 12 e-ptfe sites were administered amoxicillin/ ...19938366411
the effects of triclosan and zinc citrate, alone and in combination, on a community of oral bacteria grown in vitro.a mixed-culture chemostat system has been used as a more stringent laboratory system for evaluation of the antimicrobial effects of triclosan and zinc citrate. the inhibitors were added alone, and in combination, as a pulse (a high initial inhibitor concentration which decreased with time) or as a dose (concentration of inhibitor increased with time) to give maximum concentrations of 34.5 mumol/l triclosan and 39.8 mumol/l zinc citrate. when dosed, triclosan inhibited a. viscosus and all five gr ...19938380287
localization of the fusobacterium nucleatum t18 adhesin activity mediating coaggregation with porphyromonas gingivalis t22.adherence of pathogenic bacteria is often an essential first step in the infectious process. the ability of bacteria to adhere to one another, or to coaggregate, may be an important factor in their ability to colonize and function as pathogens in the periodontal pocket. previously, a strong and specific coaggregation was demonstrated between two putative periodontal pathogens, fusobacterium nucleatum and porphyromonas gingivalis. the interaction appeared to be mediated by a protein adhesin on th ...19938380804
monoclonal antibodies to lipopolysaccharide of four oral bacteria associated with periodontal disease.periodontal disease is a common inflammatory disease which erodes the supporting structures of the teeth, and is initiated by a subgingival infection with selected gram-negative bacteria. monoclonal antibodies (mab) to lipopolysaccharide (lps) of four periodontal pathogens, a. actinomycetemcomitans, p. intermedia, f. nucleatum and p. gingivalis were examined for specificity and their ability to bind these pathogens in a particle concentration fluorescence immunoassay (pcfia). the mab selected we ...19938381176
interleukin 1, interleukin 6 and transforming growth factor-beta production by human gingival mononuclear cells following stimulation with porphyromonas gingivalis and fusobacterium nucleatum.gingival mononuclear cell production of interleukin 1 (il-1), interleukin 6 (il-6) and transforming growth factor-beta (tgf-beta) after stimulation with the putative periodontopathic bacteria, porphyromonas gingivalis and fusobacterium nucleatum was investigated. using an elisa method, gingival mononuclear cells extracted from 18 adult periodontitis subjects were found to be producing il-1. however, il-1 activity could only be detected in 5 out of these 18 cases when tested using a thymocyte pro ...19938386762
the influence of race and gender on periodontal microflora.previous studies have demonstrated that demographic characteristics of subject populations influence both the incidence of periodontal diseases and various aspects of host responses to periodontal bacteria. in this study we analyzed the components of the subgingival microflora from individuals with adult periodontitis, early onset periodontitis, gingivitis, and periodontal health as a function of gender and race (black and white). clinical categories were analyzed individually so that there were ...19938387107
lethal photosensitization of bacteria in subgingival plaque from patients with chronic periodontitis.subgingival plaque samples from patients with chronic periodontitis were exposed to light from a 7.3 mw helium/neon laser for 30 s in the presence and absence of 50 micrograms/ml toluidine blue o as a photosensitizer. viable counts of various groups and species of bacteria were carried out before and after irradiation. the median numbers of viable bacteria initially present in the 30-microliters aliquots irradiated were 1.13 x 10(5) cfu (aerobes), 4.08 x 10(5) cfu (anaerobes), 4.92 x 10(3) cfu ( ...19938388448
enzyme activity in crevicular fluid in relation to metabolic control of diabetes and other periodontal risk factors.diabetics are generally considered at higher risk for periodontitis than non-diabetics. among diabetics, those with poorer metabolic control have often been found to have more periodontitis. this study investigated the relationship between two crevicular fluid enzymes, beta-glucuronidase (beta g) and lactic dehydrogenase (ldh), and metabolic control in 93 adults with type 1 or 2 diabetes. metabolic control was evaluated by glycosylated hemoglobin (hba1c) levels. the most visibly inflamed site wa ...19938390572
measurement of electrical bioimpedance for studying utilization of amino acids and peptides by porphyromonas gingivalis, fusobacterium nucleatum, and treponema denticola.the growth response of porphyromonas gingivalis, fusobacterium nucleatum, and treponema denticola to peptides (supplied as trypticase) and amino acids (supplied as casamino acids) was measured over 24 hours by monitoring changes in alternating-current conductivity at 37 degrees c. all species utilized peptides preferentially over amino acids. these results are consistent with those obtained previously with conventional growth-response experiments. the duration of the linear growth response to tr ...19938391864
lethal photosensitization of oral anaerobic bacteria. 19938391865
macaca nemestrina: a non-human primate model for studies of periodontal disease.the non-human primate macaca nemestrina was evaluated for use as a potential model in periodontal research by study of 16 animals. using one incisor, premolar, and molar per quadrant, we measured supragingival plaque, severity of gingival inflammation, and pocket depth, and analyzed the subgingival flora. serum igg titers and avidities to antigens of porphyromonas gingivalis (pg) and actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (aa) were also assessed. ten animals were between 13 and 24 years old, and s ...19938393106
an in vivo study of the influence of the surface roughness of implants on the microbiology of supra- and subgingival nine patients with fixed prostheses supported by endosseous titanium implants, 2 titanium abutments (transmucosal part of the implant) were replaced by either an unused standard abutment or a roughened titanium abutment. after 3 months of habitual oral hygiene, plaque samples were taken for differential phase-contrast microscopy, dna probe analysis, and culturing. supragingivally, rough abutments harbored significantly fewer coccoid micro-organisms (64 vs. 81%), which is indicative of a more ...19938395545
microbial colonization of dental implants in partially edentulous subjects.this study assessed the colonization of brånemark dental implants by periodontopathic bacteria in four partially edentulous patients with a total of 10 implants. marginal and subgingival plaque on the implants was sampled 14 days and 28 days after second-stage surgery and compared with plaque from three teeth closest to the implant sites sampled before second-stage surgery (baseline) and at 14 and 28 days. slot immunoblot assay was used to determine the presence or absence of bacterial antigen t ...19938396644
human monocytes and gingival fibroblasts release tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 alpha and interleukin-6 in response to particulate and soluble fractions of prevotella melaninogenica and fusobacterium this study we provide evidence that structural and soluble components of periodontopathogenic bacteria, such as prevotella melaninogenica and fusobacterium nucleatum, induce the release of cytokines in vitro known to cause in vivo necrotic inflammatory phenomena and bone resorption (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 alpha and interleukin-6). human monocytes and gingival fibroblasts were cultivated in vitro in the presence of both particulate and soluble bacterial fractions. a dose-de ...19938400338
complete sequence of omp1, the structural gene encoding the 40-kda outer membrane protein of fusobacterium nucleatum strain fev1.the sequence of the omp1 gene coding for the 40-kda outer membrane protein (omp) of the gram- oral bacterium, fusobacterium nucleatum strain fev1, has been determined. degenerate oligodeoxyribonucleotide primers were used to prime the amplification of a 120-mer sequence of the gene. this sequence was successively used for constructing new primers applied in asymmetrical, symmetrical, and inverse polymerase chain reaction using as template genomic dna, self-ligated dna fragments, or fragments lig ...19938406032
prb3 null mutations result in absence of the proline-rich glycoprotein gl and abolish fusobacterium nucleatum interactions with saliva in vitro.the glycosylated proline-rich glycoprotein (gl or prg), a product of the prb3 gene, is a major constituent of human parotid saliva. important functions proposed for gl include acting as a bacterial receptor. the gl proteins of several subjects were typed by two polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page) systems: acid-lactate page followed by staining with the periodic acid-schiff reagent and sodium dodecyl sulfate-page followed by electrophoretic transfer and staining with amido black or concanav ...19938406834
case records of the massachusetts general hospital. weekly clinicopathological exercises. case 43-1993. a 71-year-old woman with confusion, hemianopia, and an occipital mass. 19938413415
infective endocarditis due to fusobacterium nucleatum: case report and review of the literature.endocarditis caused by fusobacterium nucleatum is exceedingly rare. we report a case of f. nucleatum right-sided endocarditis in a patient with no known intravenous drug abuse. a detailed computer and manual search of the literature using med-line and index medicus, respectively, revealed a total of five cases of endocarditis due to this species. the clinical characteristics and the patient's hospital course are summarized and reviewed.19938416766
purification of arginine-sensitive hemagglutinin from fusobacterium nucleatum and its role in coaggregation.hemagglutinin of fusobacterium nucleatum was extracted from triton x-100-pronase p-treated cell envelopes, and was purified by affinity chromatography on l-arginine agarose. the hemagglutinin was inactivated by heating at 70 degrees c for 1 min. the activity was inhibited by l-arginine but was not affected by any sugars or by edta. the hemagglutinin aggregated 14 out of 17 strains of oral streptococci tested, and the bacterial aggregating activity was also inhibited by l-arginine. the results in ...19938426279
sub-gingival microflora in macaca mulatta species of rhesus monkey.the macaca mulatta species of rhesus monkey is one of several non-human primate (nhp) models for periodontal disease. this report presents the bacteriology of the gingival sulci in m. mulatta monkeys. three sub-gingival sites (maxillary right central incisor, the disto-buccal of the mandibular left second molar and mesio-buccal of the mandibular right second molar) of 9 monkeys were evaluated clinically before scaling and 7 days after scaling. plaque samples were obtained from sub-gingival sites ...19938426283
phagocytosis of bacterial strains isolated from acute dentoalveolar abscess.the phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes of 37 bacterial strains identified as streptococcus milleri (10 strains), strictly anaerobic gram-positive cocci (10) prevotella intermedia (6), pr. oralis (5) and fusobacterium nucleatum (6) was investigated in vitro. the ingestion of s. milleri and strictly anaerobic gram-positive cocci was significantly greater (p < 0.001) than that of strains of prevotella spp. and f. nucleatum. the degree of uptake of capsulate and non-capsulate strains ...19938429541
a 6-month home usage trial of a 1% chlorhexidine toothpaste (ii). effects on the oral microflora.the effects of 1% chlorhexidine and 1% chlorhexidine/fluoride dentifrices on supragingival plaque flora were investigated in a 6-month home-usage study. 146 subjects were studied from whom plaque around 6 teeth was collected at baseline, 6 weeks and 24 weeks. total anaerobic counts were reduced at 6 and 24 weeks in both active groups compared to control. no differences were seen in any other bacterial parameters. there was a significant decrease in the susceptibility to chlorhexidine of bacteria ...19938450086
polymerase chain reaction-amplified nonradioactive probes for identification of fusobacterium nucleatum.a polymerase chain reaction probe with 100% sequence identity to 120 deoxyribonucleotides of fusobacterium nucleatum fev1, coding for a part of the 40-kda major outer membrane protein, was labeled with the steroid hapten digoxigenin. the probe was compared with various degenerate oligonucleotide probes and found to tolerate much more stringent washing conditions. it was therefore superior in distinguishing, by means of southern blots and slot blots, f. nucleatum from other oral gram-negative bac ...19938458947
pyomyositis and septic arthritis from fusobacterium nucleatum in a nonimmunocompromised adult.we describe a case of pyomyositis of the quadriceps associated with septic arthritis of the knee that developed after fusobacterium nucleatum septicemia in a healthy man. the primary foci was presumed to be the oral cavity. pyomyositis from fusobacterium nucleatum is uncommon, and to our knowledge its association with septic arthritis has not been described.19938478862
the effect of subgingival debridement on periodontal disease parameters and the subgingival microbiota.the aim of the present investigation was to analyse the effect of subgingival scaling and root planing in subjects who prior to treatment exercised meticulous supragingival plaque control. 300 subjects were examined at baseline and after 1 and 2 years without treatment. after the year 2 examination, 62 subjects were randomly selected for therapy. they were given detailed instruction in proper self-performed toothcleaning measures and were carefully monitored during the subsequent 2 years. follow ...19938501276
methylation of adenine and cytosine in some strains of fusobacterium nucleatum.dna from six strains of fusobacterium nucleatum was examined for possible methylation of adenine or cytosine in the restriction site gatc. f. nucleatum dna was digested with the restriction enzymes sau3ai, dpni and mboi, subjected to electrophoresis in agarose gels and southern blotting. the blots were hybridized with a polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-amplified dna probe. both radioactive and non-radioactive labeling methods were used. some strains of f. nucleatum were found to be dam methylated ...19938502161
an analysis of the subgingival microflora in randomly selected subjects.the aim of this study was to describe the presence of some microbial species in the subgingival microflora of a randomly selected subject sample. a further objective was to analyze the association between some microbiological characteristics and the periodontal conditions of the subjects. a total of 171 individuals aged 30-65 years were included. a pooled subgingival plaque sample was obtained from the mesial aspect of the 6 ramfjord teeth by the use of the paper-point method. the samples were p ...19938510980
aspartame as a source of essential phenylalanine for the growth of oral anaerobes.phenylalanine and aspartic acid requirements were determined for 13 species of oral bacteria using the chemically defined medium omiz-w1. none of actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, bacteroides forsythus, eikenella corrodens, selenomonas sputigena, treponema pectinovorum, t. socranskii, or wolinella recta required either of these amino acid constituents of aspartame (l-aspartyl-l-phenylalanine methylester). phenylalanine was essential for the growth of capnocytophaga gingivalis, eubacterium ti ...19938514113
in vitro activity of fk037, a new parenteral cephalosporin, against anaerobic bacteria.the activity of fk037, a new parenteral cephalosporin, was compared with those of cefpirome, ceftazidime, and flomoxef against 322 recent clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria. a fastidious facultative anaerobe, gardnerella vaginalis, was also studied. fk037 inhibited 90% of isolates of peptostreptococcus anaerobius, peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus, clostridium perfringens, mobiluncus spp., g. vaginalis, and porphyromonas gingivalis at < or = 0.78 micrograms/ml. the mics of fk037 for 50 an ...19938517721
1h mrs of human brain abscesses in vivo and in vitro.five patients, each with a brain abscess, were examined by means of 1h mr spectroscopic imaging in vivo. the aspirated pus was analyzed in vitro by means of 1d and 2d cosy 1h mrs. in addition to resonance lines from compounds (lactate, alanine and lipids) often found in the spectra from intracranial tumors, resonance lines were detected from a number of markers of infectious involvement (acetate, succinate, and various amino acids). these results suggest that 1h mrs in vivo might contribute in e ...19958524016
competition for peptides and amino acids among periodontal bacteria.we recently studied the utilization of glutathione (l-gamma-glutamyl-l-cysteinylglycine), l-cysteinylglycine and l-cysteine by anaerobic bacteria. the rate of hydrogen sulfide formation from these compounds was determined and it was concluded that peptostreptococcus micros and fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. nucleatum had an active transport of small peptides. in the present study it is shown that methyl mercaptan formation from l-methionine and l-methionyl-containing peptides can also be used to ...19958544102
aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of superficial suppurative study the aerobic and anaerobic microbiologic characteristics of superficial suppurative thrombophlebitis.19968546586
stable-isotope studies of glutamate catabolism in fusobacterium nucleatum.catabolism of glutamate was investigated in fusobacterium nucleatum, an anaerobic micro-organism that is strongly implicated in periodontal disease. the distribution of labels in acetate and butyrate derived from [13c]glutamates was determined by nmr spectroscopy and ms. the label from l-[5-13c]glutamate was not incorporated, whereas c-1 of acetate and butyrate were efficiently labelled by l-[1-13c]glutamate; these results indicated that the hydroxyglutarate pathway predominated. in butyrate, en ...19958573293
endodontic pathogens in periodontal disease augmentation.periapical pathology indicating endodontic infection, when present in periodontitis-affected teeth, has recently been shown to be correlated to marginal periodontal breakdown. this has been associated with patency of dentinal tubules in the tooth cervix, an area normally devoid of cementum following periodontal therapy. these studies are, however hampered by that only circumstantial evidence such as presence of periapical destruction have been applied as criteria of endodontic infection. the aim ...19958583015
oral microbiota in subjects with a weak or strong response in experimental gingivitis.the purpose of the present study was to examine the composition of the oral microbiota in subjects who had previously demonstrated to develop either a weak or strong response to experimental gingivitis. for this study, subjects were selected from a pool of 25 individuals who had participated twice in an experimental gingivitis trial. out of these 25 panellists, 6 subjects were selected who had developed 2x a weak gingival inflammatory response and 7 subjects who had developed 2x a strong gingiva ...19958583022
[subgingival distribution of periodontopathic bacteria in periodontic patients and susceptibility of these bacteria to minocycline-hcl].the present study was carried out to examine the distribution of six periodontopathic bacteria in deep periodontal pockets and to reconfirm the effect of periocline on these periodontopathic bacteria. samples from sixty-two periodontal pockets were collected at pocket depths of over 4 mm in twenty-one periodontitis patients aged 43 to 75 years. after sampling, periocline was applied topically to the selected pockets once a week for four weeks and reexamined. the detected rates of the periodontop ...19958583161
molecular characterization of a 40-kda outer membrane protein, foma, of fusobacterium periodonticum and comparison with fusobacterium nucleatum.the 40 kda-outer membrane protein foma of fusobacterium periodonticum atcc 33693 was found to exhibit heat modifiable properties, typical for a porin, and n-terminal sequencing indicated a close relationship to the porin foma of fusobacterium nucleatum. a polymerase chain reaction approach was therefore applied for sequencing the foma gene of f. periodonticum, and nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences were aligned and compared with the corresponding sequences of different strains of f. nuc ...19958596666
effect of sonicated material from fusobacterium nucleatum on the functional capacity of accessory cells derived from dental pulp.fusobacterium nucleatum-derived components were studied for their effect on the ability of accessory pulpal cells to induce t-lymphocyte proliferation. in initial experiments, spleen cells were used to establish concentration ranges at which testing of the effect of the bacterial components would be suitable. at low concentrations, bacterial substances induced a stimulatory effect on the proliferation rate of spleen cells, but not when purified t-lymphocytes were incubated in the presence of con ...19958602332
insertional inactivation of binding determinants of streptococcus crista cc5a using tn916.intermicrobial binding plays an important role in the ecology of the oral cavity because it represents one mechanism by which specific bacteria colonize dental plaque. the formation of "corncobs", a morphologically distinct microbial unit composed of streptococcus crista and fusobacterium nucleatum, is a highly specific binding interaction that depends on the presence of polar tufts of fimbriae on the streptococci. we have used a genetic approach to examine the role of streptococcal cell surface ...19958602334
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