TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
nutritional characteristics of a butyrivibrio. 195813549370
isolation and fermentation characteristics of strains of butyrivibrio from ruminal ingesta. 195913664653
isolation, enumeration, and characteristics of proteolytic ruminal bacteria.fulghum, robert s. (virginia polytechnic institute, blacksburg) and w. e. c. moore. isolation, enumeration, and characteristics of proteolytic ruminal bacteria. j. bacteriol. 85:808-815. 1963.-colony counts of proteolytic ruminal bacteria in the order of 10(9) organisms per g of whole rumen contents, and total colony counts in the order of 2 to 3 x 10(9) organisms per g, were obtained from rumen contents of cattle fed a maintenance ration of hay and grain. the proteolytic counts averaged 38% of ...196314044947
serological analysis of butyrivibrio from the bovine rumen.margherita, s. s. (university of california, davis) and r. e. hungate. serological analysis of butyrivibrio from the bovine rumen. j. bacteriol. 86:855-860. 1963.-the cultural and fermentation characteristics of a number of strains of butyrivibrio fibrisolvens isolated from the bovine rumen of cattle from different areas were determined, and the strains were subjected to serological analysis by the techniques of agglutination, immunodiffusion, and indirect hemolysis. in general, the results of t ...196314066485
variation in rumen butyrivibrio strains.margherita, s. s. (university of california, davis), r. e. hungate, and hannelore storz. variation in rumen butyrivibrio strains. j. bacteriol. 87:1304-1308. 1964.-five strains of butyrivibrio isolated from the rumen of a single animal on an alfalfa hay ration were tested for serological relationships by agglutination and immunofluorescence. the main finding was a serological monospecificity of the strains. a cross-reaction between two strains was detected by agglutination and a second cross-rea ...196414188706
biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids by rumen bacteria.polan, c. e. (north carolina state of the university of north carolina, raleigh), j. j. mcneill, and s. b. tove. biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids by rumen bacteria. j. bacteriol. 88:1056-1064. 1964.-a simple, rapid, specific assay for the biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids was developed. with this assay, it was shown that washed suspensions of mixed rumen bacteria hydrogenate linoleic and oleic acids. butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, a common rumen bacterium, is capable of hydrogen ...196414219019
enzymatic studies of pure cultures of rumen microorganisms.joyner, a. e., jr. (university of california, davis), and r. l. baldwin. enzymatic studies of pure cultures of rumen microorganisms. j. bacteriol. 92:1321-1330. 1966.-the activities of enzymes representing the major pathways of carbohydrate metabolism and anaerobic electron transport in cell-free extracts of whole rumen contents have been reported. the effects of diet upon the activities of several enzymes suggested that enzymatic measurements might prove useful for the study of rumen metabolism ...19664380801
the biohydrogenation of alpha-linolenic acid and oleic acid by rumen micro-organisms.1. alpha-[u-(14)c]linolenic acid was incubated with the rumen contents of sheep and the metabolic products were characterized by thin-layer chromatography, gas-liquid chromatography and absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and infrared. 2. a tentative scheme for the biohydrogenation route to stearic acid is presented. the main pathway is through diconjugated cis-cis-cis-octadecatrienoic acid, non-conjugated trans-cis (cis-trans)-octadecadienoic acid and trans-octadecenoic acid, but other p ...19664287407
characterization of several bovine rumen bacteria isolated with a xylan medium.dehority, b. a. (ohio agricultural research and development center, wooster). characterization of several bovine rumen bacteria isolated with a xylan medium. j. bacteriol. 91:1724-1729. 1966.-studies were conducted to characterize eight strains of bacteria isolated from bovine rumen contents, by use of a medium containing xylan as the only added carbohydrate source. based on morphology, biochemical reactions, nutritional requirements, and fermentation products, five of the eight strains were ide ...19665937235
biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids. 3. purification and properties of a linoleate delta-12-cis, delta-11-trans-isomerase from butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. 19675633396
lysis of viable rumen bacteria in bovine rumen fluid.streptococcus bovis and butyrivibrio sp. were labeled with thymidine-methyl-(3)h, washed, and resuspended in rumen fluid or rumen fluid fractions obtained from holstein and jersey cows fed alfalfa hay once daily. factors affecting the lytic activity found in untreated rumen fluid were examined. day to day variation and differences before and after feeding were observed for the same cow. there were also differences between cows on the same day. for a given rumen fluid, the rate of release of labe ...19685659364
oxygen sensitivity of various anaerobic bacteria.anaerobes differ in their sensitivity to oxygen, as two patterns were recognizable in the organisms included in this study. strict anaerobes were species incapable of agar surface growth at po(2) levels greater than 0.5%. species that were found to be strict anaerobes were treponema macrodentium, treponema denticola, treponema oralis n. sp., clostridium haemolyticum, selenomonas ruminatium, butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, succinivibrio dextrinosolvens, and lachnospira multiparus. moderate anaerobes w ...19695370458
characteristics of ruminococcus and cellulolytic butyrivibrio species from the rumens of sheep fed differently supplemented teff (eragrostis tef) hay diets. 19705516604
identification of products produced by the anaerobic degradation of rutin and related flavonoids by butyrivibrio sp. c3. 19705530120
characterization of the lipids of butyrivibrio fibrisolvens.butyrivibrio fibrisolvens strain d-1 was grown on a lipid-free chemically defined medium. the lipids were extracted with chloroform-methanol and separated into nonpolar and polar fractions by silicic acid column chromatography. further separations were made by preparative thin-layer chromatography. the lipid fractions were identified by specific staining reactions and r(f) values, by phosphorus and nitrogen determinations, by chromatography of hydrolysis products, and by the use of infrared spec ...19704316361
biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids. iv. substrate specificity and inhibition of linoleate delta-12-cis, delta-11-trans-isomerase from butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. 19704990474
identification of products produced by the anaerobic degradation of naringin by butyrivibrio sp. c3. 19715103057
carbon dioxide requirement of various species of rumen bacteria.the carbon dioxide requirement of 32 strains of rumen bacteria, representing 11 different species, was studied in detail. increasing concentrations of co(2) were added as nahco(3) to a specially prepared co(2)-free medium which was tubed and inoculated under nitrogen. prior depletion of co(2) in the inoculum was found to affect the level of requirement; however, the complexity and buffering capacity of the medium did not appear to be involved. an absolute requirement for co(2) was observed for e ...19715541030
biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids. v. stereospecificity of proton addition and mechanism of action of linoleic acid delta 12-cis, delta 11-trans-isomerase from butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. 19715554292
fermentation of isolated pectin and pectin from intact forages by pure cultures of rumen bacteria.studies on the rate and extent of galacturonic acid and isolated pectin digestion were carried out with nine strains of rumen bacteria (butyrivibrio fibrisolvens h10b and d16f, bacteroides ruminicola 23 and d31d, lachnospira multiparus d15d, peptostreptococcus sp. d43e, b. succinogenes a3c, ruminococcus flavefaciens b34b, and r. albus 7). only three strains, 23, d16f, and d31d, utilized galacturonic acid as a sole energy source, whereas all strains except a3c and h10b degraded (solubilized) and ...19724552890
common antigenic determinant in a rumen organism and in salmonellae containing the antigen o4.nineteen of 28 strains of rumen organisms isolated from a cow on a high roughage diet and identified morphologically as butyrivibrios, reacted to a low agglutinin titer with salmonella antisera, forming five groups. however only one strain reacted with polyvalent o salmonella antiserum. this strain reacted with o4 factor serum and with antisera to salmonella strains containing the antigen o4, and agglutinin absorption tests showed the presence of an antigen identical to o4. when 16 further strai ...19724117663
effect of low-roughage diets on the microflora and lipid metabolism in the rumen.changing the diet of five lactating cows and one nonlactating cow from high to low roughage induced milk fat depression in the lactating cows and altered the composition of the rumen microflora. while the numbers of lactic and propionic acid-producing bacteria increased, the numbers of butyrivibrio spp. decreased. the numbers of lipolytic bacteria and the in vitro lipolytic activity of the rumen fluid were also decreased, as was the extent of hydrogenation of linoleic and linolenic acids combine ...197216349951
characterization of esterases produced by a ruminal bacterium identified as butyrivibrio obligately anaerobic ruminal bacterial isolate was selected from 18 tributyrin-degrading isolates and identified as butyrivibrio fibrisolvens strain 53. the culture in late exponential phase contained enzymes which could be released by sonic disruption. these enzymes degraded substrates at a rate in the order 1-naphthyl acetate (na) > 1-naphthyl butyrate > 1-naphthyl propionate but did not degrade 1-naphthyl palmitate or 1-naphthyl phosphate. the enzymes on na were neither stimulated nor inhi ...19734734862
enzymes of intermediary metabolism of butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and ruminococcus albus grown under glucose limitation. 19734796347
variations in enzyme activities of butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and ruminococcus albus grown in continuous culture. 19744275991
glycerol teichoic acid as an antigenic determinant in a gram-negative bacterium butyrivibrio antigenic determinant isolated from a strain of the gram-negative bacterium butyrivibrio fibrisolvens reacted with specific antisera to the polyglycerophosphate backbone of membrane teichoic acids of lactobacilli. it gave a reaction of identity with membrane glycerol lipoteichoic acid and glycerol teichoic acid preparations from lactobacilli, and with phenol extracts of other gram-positive bacteria. the antigen-antibody reactions was strongly inhibited by glycerol-phosphoryl-glycerol-phosphor ...197550403
intermolecular transacylation of phosphatidylethanolamine by a butyrivibrio sp.1. washed cells and supernatant from a culture of a butyrivibrio sp. carry out the intermolecular transacylation reaction 2 phosphatidylethanolamine leads to n-acylphosphatidyl-ethanolamine+lysophosphatidylethanolamine. 2. washed cells can catalyse the intramolecular transacylation of n-(acyl)glycerylphosphorylethanolamine to lysophosphatidylethanolamine; the culture supernatant is largely devoid of activity.19751212204
the isomerization of 2,5- and 9,12-octadecadienoic acids by an extract of butyrivibrio fibrisolvens.a cell-free particulate preparation from butyrivibrio fibrisolvens was used to study the relative rates of isomerization of all cis,cis-methylene-interrupted isomers of octadecadienoic acid. only two isomers were found to be substrates, the 9,12-isomer was isomerized at 41 +/- 4 mumol/min per mg protein, and the 2,5-isomer at 11 +/- 1 mumol/min per mg. the product of the isomerization of the 2,5-isomer had an ultraviolet absorption maximum at 233 nm indicating that it was the 3,5-isomer. the iso ...19761252494
a phospholipid-deacylating system of bacteria active in a frozen medium.a phosphatidylcholine-deacylating system present in a butyrivibrio species (probably fibrisolvens) shows appreciable activity at low temperatures with a maximum hydrolysis rate at--10 degrees c. 2. the rate at--10 degrees c is higher than at 39 degrees c unless the system at the latter temperature is stimulated by adding oleic acid or sodium dodecyl sulphate. 3. the low-temperature phospholipase activity has an absolute requirement for thiol reagents, e.g. cysteine, dithiothreitol or mercaptoeth ...19761259714
biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids. hydrogenation by cell-free preparations of butyrivibrio fibrisolvens.hydrogenation of cis-9,trans-11-octadecadienoic acid to yield trans-11-octadecenoic acid by cell-free preparations of butyrivibrio fibrisolvens has been obtained under strictly anaerobic conditions. reduced methyl viologen, nadh, and an endogenous electron donor each can serve as a reductant. inhibition studies and gel filtration patterns reveal the presence of at least two hydrogenation systems, one of which is coupled through a flavin, possibly fmn. although the enzymes comprising the biohydro ...19761262324
isolation of lipoteichoic acids from butyrivibrio fibrisolvens.lipoteichoic acid (lta) and deacylated lipoteichoic acid have been isolated from the bovine-rumen gram-negative anaerobe butyrivibrio fibrisolvens by phenol extraction. lipoteichoic acid (21.8 mumol phosphorus/g cells) consisted of a conventional 1, 3-phosphodiester-linked chain of glycerol phosphate units joined covalently to a glycolipid. it was not substituted with glycosyl or d-alalyl ester groups. deacylated lipoteichoic acid (57.5 mumol phosphorus/g cells) was similar in constitution but l ...1976819620
cultural factors influencing the utilization or production of acetate by butyrivibrio fibrisolvens.utilization of acetate by four strains of butyrivibrio fibrisolvens was influenced by the composition of their growth medium. growth-limiting glucose concentrations, low availability of co2 and the presence of sodium lactate all stimulated acetate uptake by three strains. the type strain, d1, utilized acetate if the concentration of acetate added to the medium was at least 15 mumol ml-1. in batch culture, all strains produced acetate before entering a phase of acetate uptake. continuous-culture ...1976985851
novel lipids of butyrivibrio spp.(1) an analysis has been conducted of the lipids present in three obligately anaerobic bacteria isolated from the ovine rumen belonging to the genus butyrivibrio. two of these organisms are rich in phospholipase (a1 + a2) activity, and appear to be different strains of the species fibrisolvens. (2) the only n-containing lipids comprise n-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine occurring as a minor component in all organisms and a new lipid, diglyceride galactosylphosphorylethanolamine in one of these. (3) ...1976991380
some aspects of the metabolism of butyrivibrio fibrisolvens.the growth responses of an acetate-utilizing isolate of butyrivibrio fibrisolvens to co2, acetate and pyruvate were determined using a chemically-defined medium. carbon dioxide was essential for growth and both acetate and pyruvate increased growth. 14c from [i-14c]pyruvate appeared predominantly in formate and lactate. these results, together with those obtained with enzyme preparations, indicated pyruvate synthase, pyruvate-co2 exchange and pyruvate formate lyase to be active.1976993781
ultrastructure of butyrivibrio fibrisolvens: a gram-positive bacterium.the cells of bacteria of the genus butyrivibrio are universally described as being gram negative, and they produce an unequivocal gram-negative reaction in the standard staining procedure. however, their cell walls contain derivatives of teichoic acid, which are characteristic of gram-positive cells. in this study, the cell walls of two representative strains of butyrivibrio were of the gram-positive morphological type, as seen by electron microscopy, but they were very thin (12 to 18 nm). the t ...1977845122
glucose-1-phosphate as a selective substrate for enumeration of bacteroides species in the rumen.when glucose-1-phosphate was used as the only added energy source in a selective roll tube medium, colony counts for rumen contents ranged from 17.8 to 84.8% of the total culturable count. percentages were highest in rumen contents from sheep fed high-concentrate rations. from a total of 73 cultures isolated from glucose-1-phosphate roll rubes, only 15.1% were presumptively identified as bacteroides species. strains presumptively identified as butyrivibrio, selenomonas, treponema, streptococcus ...1977869544
activation of nad-dependent lactate dehydrogenase in butyrivibrio fibrisolvens by fructose 1,6-diphosphate. 1977874457
characterization of the predominant bacteria occurring in the rumen of goats (capra hircus).a total of 44 strains of bacteria were isolated from rumen contents of the goat. based on morphology, gram stain, anaerobiosis, motility, and fermentation end products, they were grouped into 11 different types. for each type, all or representative strains were characterized in detail. the type, number of strains characterized over total number of strains, and identification were as follows: type 1, 6/21, atypical butyrivibrio fibriosolvens; type 2, 6/9, atypical butyrivibrio fibrisolvens; type ...1977879766
urease assay and urease-producing species of anaerobes in the bovine rumen and human feces.a growth medium and test were developed for rapid detection of urease in fermentative anaerobic bacteria. using nonselective rumen fluid roll-tube agar medium and the new test, it was confirmed that peptostreptococcus productus is often the most numerous urease-forming species in human feces. also, some fecal strains of ruminococcus albus, clostridium innocuum, and clostridium beijerinckii produced urease. single strains of fusobacterium prausnitzii, coprococcus catus, and streptococcus mitis th ...1977879770
studies on some characteristics of hydrogen production by cell-free extracts of rumen anaerobic bacteria.hydrogen production was studied in the following rumen anaerobes: bacteroides clostridiiformis, butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, enbacterium limosum, fusobacterium necrophorum, megasphaera elsdenii, ruminococcus albus, and ruminococcus flavefaciens. clostridium pasteurianum and escherichia coli were included for comparative purposes. hydrogen production from dithionite, dithionite-reduced methyl viologen, pyruvate, and formate was determined. all species tested produced hydrogen from dithionite-reduce ...1977558042
effects of heavy metals and other trace elements on the fermentative activity of the rumen microflora and growth of functionally important rumen bacteria.the inhibitory effects of high concentrations of essential and non-essential trace elements were tested on the rumen microflora using the rate of fermentation in vitro as the assay. the elements (and the concentration causing 50% inhibition) in decreasing order of toxicity were hg2+ (20 microgram/ml), cu2+ (21 microgram/ml), cr6+ (70 microgram/ml), se4+ (73 microgram/ml), ni2+ (160 microgram/ml), cd2+ (175 microgram/ml), as3+ (304 microgram/ml) and as5+ (1610 microgram/ml). the elements tested t ...1978565671
production of branched-chain volatile fatty acids by certain anaerobic production of isobutyric acid, isovaleric acid, and 2-methylbutyric acid by cultures of bacteroides ruminicola and megasphaera elsdenii on media that contained trypticase or casein hydrolysate continued (up to 5 days) after growth had ceased. only trace quantities of these acids were produced in a medium that contained a mixture of amino acids that did not include the branched-chain amino acids. m. elsdenii produced increased quantities of the branched-chain fatty acids in a medium that cont ...1978566082
the role of carbonate in the metabolism of glucose by butyrivibrio fibrisolvens.the amount of na2co3 added to semi-synthetic medium determined the length of the lag phase, the growth rate and the dry weight of three strains of butyrivibrio fibrisolvens (wv1, nor37, b835). with increasing co3(2-) concentration the molar growth yield of bacteria, from glucosewas increased and, of the fermentation products, formate increased more than the other acids. co3(2-)-limited cultures of strain wv1 (group 2 butyrivibrio) and strain nor37 (troup 1 butyrivibrio) incorporated 14co3(2-) in ...1978641526
electron microscopy of the microbial populations present and their modes of attack on various cellulosic substrates undergoing digestion in the sheep rumen.cotton fibers and various cell wall preparations from grass leaves and from the feces of sheep fed on dried grass were placed in the sheep rumen in bags made from 5-mum-mesh nylon cloth. after periods of from 3 to 48 h, bags were removed, and the contents were fixed, embedded, sectioned, and stained for electron microscopy. some of the bacteria present were seen to be closely associated with the cell walls, either tunneling within them or making very close contact. evidence was obtained for diff ...197816345303
comparison of substrate affinities among several rumen bacteria: a possible determinant of rumen bacterial competition.five rumen bacteria, selenomonas ruminantium, bacteroides ruminicola, megasphaera elsdenii, streptococcus bovis, and butyrivibrio fibrisolvens were grown in continuous culture. estimates of substrate affinities were derived from lineweaver-burk plots of dilution rate versus substrate concentration. each bacterium was grown on at least four of the six substrates: glucose, maltose, sucrose, cellobiose, xylose, and lactate. wide variations in substrate affinities were seen among the substrates util ...197916345358
comparison of maintenance energy expenditures and growth yields among several rumen bacteria grown on continuous culture.maintenance energy expenditures were mesured for five rumen bacteria, selenomonas ruminantium, butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, bacteroides ruminicola, megasphaera elsdenii, and streptococcus bovis, by using a complex medium with glucose as the carbon source. large differences (as high as 8.5-fold) in maintenance energy expenditures were seen among these bacteria. the suggestion is made that maintenance requirements could be a significant determinant of bacterial competition in the rumen. theoretical ...197916345359
effects of combinations of substrates on maximum growth rates of several rumen bacteria.five rumen bacteria, selenomonas ruminantium, bacteroides ruminicola, megasphaera elsdenii, butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, and streptococcus bovis were grown in media containing nonlimiting concentrations of glucose, sucrose, maltose, cellobiose, xylose and/or lactate. each bacterium was grown with every substrate that it could ferment in every possible two-way combination. only once did a combination of substrates result in a higher maximum growth rate than that observed with either substrate alone ...197916345360
oxaloacetate synthesis in butyrivibrio fibrisolvens.phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (adenosine 5'-triphosphate) was the only enzyme capable of carboxylating pyruvate or phosphoenolpyruvate that could be demonstrated in sonicated cells or cell-free extracts of a group 1 butyrivibrio.197916345406
effect of monensin and lasalocid-sodium on the growth of methanogenic and rumen saccharolytic is thought that monensin increases the efficiency of feed utilization by cattle by altering the rumen fermentation. we studied the effect of monensin and the related ionophore antibiotic lasalocid-sodium (hoffman-laroche) on the growth of methanogenic and rumen saccharolytic bacteria in a complex medium containing rumen fluid. ruminococcus albus, ruminococcus flavefaciens, and butyrivibrio fibrisolvens were inhibited by 2.5 mug of monensin or lasalocid per ml. growth of bacteroides succinogen ...197916345418
oxaloacetate synthesis in butyrivibrio fibrisolvens.[this corrects the article on p. 1247 in vol. 37.].197916345454
biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids. presence of dithionite and an endogenous electron donor in butyrivibrio fibrisolvens.two oxygen-consuming substances were isolated from cell-free extracts of the rumen anaerobe, butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. the major fraction comprising 97% of the total activity was characterized as a three-component mixture of glucose, maltose, and dithionite. the minor activity fraction contained an electron donor for the reduction of cis-9,trans-11-octadecadienoate to trans-11-octadecenoate. after oxidation, the electron donor could be reduced by the dithionite, thereby accounting for the previ ...1979438161
some effects of uncouplers and inhibitors on growth and electron transport in rumen bacteria.uncouplers and inhibitors of electron transport affected growth and electron transport of rumen bacteria in various ways. selenomonas ruminantium was not affected by inhibitor and uncoupler concentrations which affected growth and electron transport of bacteroides ruminicola, b. succinogenes, and butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. inhibitors, when active, led to accumulation of reduced electron carriers before the site of action, but differences were found among organisms in the site of action of these ...1979457609
characteristics of a lipolytic and fatty acid-requiring butyrivibrio sp. isolated from the ovine rumen.a naturally occurring fatty acid-requiring butyrivibrio sp. (strain s2), isolated from the ovine rumen, deacylates plant galactolipids, phospholipids and sulpholipids to obtain sufficient fatty acid for growth. growth in vitro was promoted by adding to the growth medium a single straight-chain saturated fatty acid (c13 to c18) or vaccenic acid. palmitoleic and oleic acids also supported growth but gave lengthy lag phases probably due to their toxicity. linolenic and linoleic acids supported good ...1979479833
a new series of long-chain dicarboxylic acids with vicinal dimethyl branching found as major components of the lipids of butyrivibrio spp.1. some members of the genus butyrivibrio, including a general fatty acid auxotroph (strain s2), contain as a major part of their complex lipids a high-molecular-weight component that is probably formed by the union of two fatty acid chains [hazlewood & dawson (1979) j. gen. microbiol. 112, 15--27]. 2. proton and 13c n.m.r. and i.r. and mass spectroscopy were used to examine a homologous series of these moieties and, in addition, the hydrocarbon derivative of one homologue and several synthetic ...1979540040
enzymology of butyrate formation by butyrivibrio fibrisolvens.butyrivibrio fibrisolvens is a major butyrate-forming species in the bovine and ovine rumen. the enzymology of butyrate formation from pyruvate was investigated in cell-free extracts of b. fibrisolvens d1. pyruvate owas oxidized to acetylcoenzyme a (coa) in the presence of and benzyl viologen or flavin nucleotides. the bacterium uses thiolase, beta-hydroxybutyryl-coa dehydrogenase, crotonase, and crotonyl-coa reductase to form butyryl-coa from acetyl-coa. reduction of acetoacetyl-coa to b ...197935524
complex lipids of a lipolytic and general-fatty-acid-requiring butyrivibrio sp. isolated from the ovine rumen.the complex lipids of the naturally-occurring general-fatty-acid-auxotroph butyrivibrio s2 [hazlewood & dawson (1979) j. gen. microbiol. 112, 15-27] grown with palmitic acid as sole fatty-acid supplement have been investigated and some have been isolated in a state of purity and analysed. the majority are phospholipids (84%) and many contain galactose. they typically possess few esterified long-chain fatty-acid residues (c16:0), but are rich in esterified butyric acid and c16-alkenyl groups. mos ...19807236210
structure of diabolic acid-containing phospholipids isolated from butyrivibrio sp.the structures of the diabolic acid-containing phospholipids of buryrivibrio s2 grown in the presence of palmitic acid have been investigated. generally they consist of two conventional bacterial phospholipid or galactolipid structures linked by esterification through a single diabolic acid residue. the main lipid consists of the butyroyl ester of sn-1-alkenylglycero-3-phospho-1'-sn-glycerol joined in this way to the butyroyl ester of sn-1-alkenyl-3-galactosylglycerol by esterification of the va ...19807236211
molybdate and sulfide inhibit h2 and increase formate production from glucose by ruminococcus albus.h2 production from glucose by ruminococcus albus was almost completely inhibited by 10(-5) m molybdate only when sulfide was present in the growth medium. inhibition was accompanied by a significant increase in the production of formate. extracts of molybdate-sulfide-grown cells did not contain hydrogenase activity. active enzyme in extracts of uninhibited cells was not inhibited by the molybdate-sulfide-containing growth medium. the results indicate that a complex formed from molybdate and sulf ...19807369826
identification of an endogenous electron donor for biohydrogenation as alpha-tocopherolquinol.four fluorescent compounds present in solvent extracts of butyrivibrio fibrisolvens could serve as electron donors for the biohydrogenation of cis-9,trans-11-octadecadienoate in the presence of dithionite, which was itself inactive. one of the compounds was identified as alpha-tocopherolquinol and another as alpha-tocopherolquinone. a partially purified soluble enzyme preparation from b. fibrisolvens catalyzed the reduction of alpha-tocopherolquinone to alpha-tocopherolquinol in the presence of ...19807372585
effect of ph on the efficiency of growth by pure cultures of rumen bacteria in continuous culture.a total of 10 strains of rumen bacteria, selenomonas ruminantium hd4, megasphaera elsdenii b159, butyrivibrio fibrisolvens a38, streptococcus bovis jb1, lactobacillus vitulinus ga1, bacteroides ruminicola b14, b. ruminicola ga33, ruminococcus albus 7, ruminococcus flavefaciens c94, and bacteroides succinogenes s85, were grown in energy-limiteh of the medium reservoir was lowered approximately 0.3 ph units, and the energy source concentration remaining in the culture vessel, optical density, cell ...19807387158
identification of deoxy-alpha-tocopherolquinol as another endogenous electron donor for biohydrogenation.solvent extracts of butyrivibrio fibrisolvens contain 2-[3, 7, 11, 15-tetramethylhexadecyl]-3, 5, 6-trimethyl-benzoquinol (deoxy-alpha-tocopherolquinol) that can serve as an alternate electron donor for alpha-tocopherolquinol for the biohydrogenation of cis-9, trans-11-octadecadienoate. in addition, the cell extracts contain deoxy-alpha-tocopherolquinone. this compound arises metabolically from alpha-tocopherolquinone via dehydration to trimethylphytylbenzoquinone followed by hydrogenation to de ...19807440571
effects of lasalocid or monensin on lactate-producing or -using rumen bacteria.lasalocid or monensin inhibited most of the lactate-producing rumen bacteria (butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, eubacterium cellulosolvens, e. ruminantium, lachnospira multiparus, lactobacillus ruminis, l. vitulinus, ruminococcus albus, r. flavefaciens, streptococcus bovis). minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from .38 to 3.0 micrograms/ml. among the lactate producers, those that produce succinate as a major end product (bacteroides, selenomonas, succinimonas, succinivibrio) were not inhibited by ...19817275867
isolation and presumptive identification of adherent epithelial bacteria ("epimural" bacteria) from the ovine rumen hundred sixty-one strains of adherent bacteria were isolated under anaerobic conditions from four sites on the rumen epithelial surface of sheep fed hay or a hay-grain ration. before isolation of bacteria, rumen tissue was washed six times in an anaerobic dilution solution, and viable bacteria suspended in the washings were counted. calculation indicated that unattached bacteria would have been removed from the tissue by this procedure, but a slow and progressive release of attached bacteria ...19817195191
characterization of the cecal bacteria of normal hundred ninety-two isolates from cecal contents of three normal weaned pigs were obtained by means of anaerobic roll tube methods and were characterized. seventy-eight percent of the isolates were gram-negative. the most numerous species isolated from each of the pigs was bacteroides ruminicola. this species accounted for 35% of the isolates that were characterized, and selenomonas ruminantium accounted for 21% of the isolates. other gram-negative bacteria isolated from all three pigs were b ...19817235711
bacterial population adherent to the epithelium on the roo of the dorsal rumen of anaerobic procedures, the total number of adherent bacteria was determined on tissue samples obtained from the roof of the dorsal rumen of three sheep. after four washings, 1.91 x 10, 0.34 x 10, and 1.23 x 10 bacteria per cm were still attached to the rumen epithelium in sheep 1, 2, and 3, respectively. a total of 95 strains of bacteria were isolated from these three samples. based on morphology, gram stain, anaerobiosis, motility, and fermentation end products, they were presumptively identi ...198116345797
effects of long-chain fatty acids on growth of rumen bacteria.the effects of low concentrations of long-chain fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, oleic, and vaccenic) on the growth of seven species (13 strains) of rumen bacteria were investigated. except for bacteroides ruminicola and several strains of butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, bacterial growth was not greatly affected by either palmitic or stearic acids. in contrast, growth of selenomonas ruminantium, b. ruminicola, and one strain of b. fibrisolvens was stimulated by oleic acid, whereas the cellulolytic spe ...198116345887
isolation of plasmid dna from butyrivibrio fibrisolvens.a procedure based on successive precipitation of cell lysates with sodium dodecyl sulfate-nacl and polyethylene glycol 6000 was developed which allows the isolation of plasmid dna from butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. a survey of b. fibrisolvens strains isolated from the bovine rumen showed that plasmids are a common feature of this species.198216345935
biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids. purification and properties of cis-9,trans-11-octadecadienoate reductase.the enzyme catalyzing the second step in the biohydrogenation pathway of linoleic acid by butyrivibrio fibrosolvens cis-9,trans-11-octadecadienoate reductase has been purified to near homogeneity. it has a molecular weight of 60,000 and appears to be a single subunit. the purified enzyme contains 2 mol of iron, 10 mol of fucose, and 12 mol of galactose per 60,000 g. the iron, but not the carbohydrate, is required for enzymatic activity. phosphatidylethanolamine was also found to be associated wi ...19827061501
effect of ph on growth rates of rumen amylolytic and lactilytic bacteria.the relationship between the ph of the medium and specific growth rates, in well-buffered media at 38.5 degrees c, was determined for three strains of butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and for one strain each of streptococcus bovis, selenomonas ruminantium subsp. lactilytica. megasphaera elsdenii, veillonella alcalescens, and propionibacterium acnes. the ph optima for growth were between 6.1 and 6.6 for all six species, and the upper ph limits were between 7.3 and 7.8. the lower limit ph values for grow ...19827125656
an exopectate lyase of butyrivibrio fibrisolvens from the bovine extracellular pectinolytic enzyme produced by butyrivibrio fibrisolvens isolated from the bovine rumen was studied. the enzyme had a ph optimum of 8.0 to 8.5 and was stimulated by ca2+ and inhibited by edta. the products of pectinolysis had an absorption peak at 235 nm and reacted with thiobarbituric acid, indicating a lyase type of action. the enzyme cleaved the substrates terminally from the reducing end; action on poly- and oligogalacturonates resulted in the formation of an unsaturated tr ...19827153760
the hydrogenation of gamma-linolenic acid by pure cultures of two rumen bacteria.two species of rumen bacteria that have been previously shown to partially hydrogenate alpha-linolenic acid have been examined for their ability to hydrogenate gamma-linolenic acid. free gamma-linolenic acid is hydrogenated in vitro to stearic acid by a rumen fusocillus sp. (n.c.i.b. 11026), but only to cis,trans-octadec-6,11-enoic acid by a butyrivibrio sp. the sequential hydrogenations are preceded by a delta 12-cis-delta 11-trans isomerization identical with that observed in the hydrogenation ...19836318740
alpha-ketoglutarate metabolism by cytochrome-containing anaerobes.during growth in the presence of tracer amounts of exogenously supplied alpha-keto[1-14c]glutarate (akg) or alpha-keto [5-14c]glutarate, cytochrome-containing bacteroides fragilis strain 2044 and bacteroides vulgatus strain 8482 incorporated extremely small amounts of radioactivity into cell macromolecules and protoheme. under identical conditions, bacteroides "l" strain 7cm and bacteroides buccae strain j1 incorporated substantial label from [5-14c]akg, but not [1-14c]akg, into cellular macromo ...19836413047
effects of chetomin on growth and acidic fermentation products of rumen bacteria.chetomin, an antibiotic metabolite of chaetomium spp., was tested in the form of its tetrathiol derivative for its effects on growth and carbohydrate metabolism by five strains of functionally important rumen bacteria. the compound was bacteriostatic for the strains tested and gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to inhibition than gram-negative bacteria. in an anaerobic broth dilution assay using a medium lacking rumen fluid, the minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) of chetomin which co ...19836686488
isolation of proteolytic rumen bacteria by use of selective medium containing leaf fraction 1 protein (ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase).the principle proteolytic bacteria isolated from bovine rumen contents by virtue of the ability to obtain nitrogen from the proteolysis of leaf fraction 1 protein (ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase, ec were identified as streptococcus bovis and butyrivibrio spp. substitution of fresh fodder, rich in soluble protein, for a hay-concentrates diet resulted in enhanced ruminal proteolytic activity and a significant increase in the number of bacteria able to use fraction 1 protein as the sole ...19836881961
characterization of membrane lipids of a general fatty acid auxotrophic bacterium by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry.lipids in the plasma membrane of the general fatty acid auxotroph butyrivibrio s2 pack as a bilayer that is characterized by a high order and high motional anisotropy and a low membrane fluidity compared to mammalian plasma membranes. lipid packing as determined by the electron spin resonance (esr) order parameter and membrane fluidity as measured by esr correlation times are, however, comparable to those of other bacterial membranes. membranes of the organism grown with saturated fatty acids of ...19853000428
seasonal changes in the ruminal microflora of the high-arctic svalbard reindeer (rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus).the dominant rumen bacteria in high-arctic svalbard reindeer were characterized, their population densities were estimated, and ruminal ph was determined in summer, when food quality and availability are good, and in winter, when they are poor. in summer the total cultured viable population density was (2.09 +/- 1.26) x 10(10) cells ml-1, whereas in winter it was (0.36 +/- 0.29) x 10(10) cells ml-1, representing a decrease to 17% of the summer population density. on culture, butyrivibrio fibriso ...19854026289
the rumen microbiology of seaweed digestion in orkney sheep.the microbial populations of the rumens of seaweed-fed and pasture-fed orkney sheep were examined. the populations in the pasture-fed sheep were similar to those of other domestic ruminants fed on land plants, but those of the seaweed-fed animals showed major differences in the dominant species. total ciliate populations were quantitatively similar, but in the seaweed-fed animals dasytricha ruminantium was one of the most dominant species. no phycomycete fungi or cellulolytic bacteria were found ...19854030526
microbiology and ration digestibility in the hindgut of the ovine.contents of the terminal ilea, ceca-proximal colons, and terminal recta were obtained from nine sheep, three of which were fed 100% orchardgrass hay, three of which were fed 60% cracked corn-40% orchardgrass hay, and three of which were fed 80% cracked corn-20% orchardgrass hay. the digestibility of dry matter in the ceca was greatest when the all-hay diet was fed, whereas the percentage of cellulose digestion in the ceca increased with increasing levels of concentrate. for all diets, the total ...19854051484
an exo-d-galacturonanase of butyrivibrio fibrisolvens from the bovine intracellular pectinolytic enzyme was isolated from a cell extract of butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and purified. the optimum ph for enzyme activity was 5.6. the enzyme preferentially degraded de-esterified substrates by hydrolysis of monosaccharide units from the non-reducing end; the only product of degradation was d-galacturonic acid. values of km and vmax for oligo- and polygalacturonates indicated that the best substrate was digalacturonic acid; oligogalacturonates containing either a satura ...19854056742
enrichment and isolation of rumen bacteria that reduce trans- aconitic acid to tricarballylic acid.bacteria from the bovine rumen capable of reducing trans-aconitate to tricarballylate were enriched in an anaerobic chemostat containing rumen fluid medium and aconitate. after 9 days at a dilution rate of 0.07 h, the medium was diluted and plated in an anaerobic glove box. three types of isolates were obtained from the plates (a crescent-shaped organism, a pleomorphic rod, and a spiral-shaped organism), and all three produced tricarballylate in batch cultures that contained glucose and trans-ac ...198516346691
degradation of bermuda and orchard grass by species of ruminal bacteria.fiber degradation in bermuda grass and orchard grass was evaluated gravimetrically and by scanning and transmission electron microscopy after incubation with pure cultures of rumen bacteria. lachnospira multiparus d-32 was unable to degrade plant cell wall components. butyrivibrio fibrisolvens 49 degraded 6 and 14.9% of the fiber components in bermuda grass and orchard grass, respectively, and ruminococcus albus 7 degraded 11.4% orchard grass fiber but none in bermuda grass. both b. fibrisolvens ...198516346915
effect of 3-phenylpropanoic acid on growth of and cellulose utilization by cellulolytic ruminal bacteria.the growth of several cellulolytic species of ruminal bacteria was measured in media containing either cellobiose or cellulose as the energy source and with or without added 3-phenylpropanoic acid (ppa). with ruminoccoccus albus 7 and 8, the addition of ppa greatly enhanced the rate of cellulose utilization but had little effect on the rate of growth when cellobiose was the energy source. comparative rates of growth obtained on either cellobiose or cellulose for ruminococcus flavefaciens fd1 or ...198616347111
influence of forage phenolics on ruminal fibrolytic bacteria and in vitro fiber vitro cultures of ruminal microorganisms were used to determine the effect of cinnamic acid and vanillin on the digestibility of cellulose and xylan. cinnamic acid and vanillin depressed in vitro dry matter disappearance of cellulose 14 and 49%, respectively, when rumen fluid was the inoculum. the number of viable bacteroides succinogenes cells, the predominant cellulolytic organism, was threefold higher for fermentations which contained vanillin than for control fermentations. when xylan rep ...198616347127
proteolytic activity of the ruminal bacterium butyrivibrio fibrisolvens.the proteolytic activity of butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, a ubiquitously distributed bacterial species in the gastrointestinal tracts of ruminants and other mammals, was characterized. the relative proteolytic activity (micrograms of azocasein degraded per hour per milligram of protein) varied greatly with the strain: 0 to 1 for strains d1, d16f, e21c, and x6c61; 7 to 15 for strains il631, nor37, s2, lm8/1b, and x10c34; and 90 to 590 for strains 12, 49 h17c, cf4c, cf3, cf1b, and r28. the activity l ...19863524460
starch utilization by the human large intestinal microflora.high levels (2-565 units/g) of amylase activity were observed in human faeces. over 92% of amylase activity in faeces obtained from healthy persons was extracellular, whereas only about 9% of activity was associated with particulate material and washed cells. bacterial cell-bound amylases were considerably more efficient in breaking down starch, however, than were the soluble enzymes which occurred in cell-free faecal supernatant fluids. cell population densities of anaerobic starch-hydrolysing ...19862423494
stoichiometry of glucose and starch splitting by strains of amylolytic bacteria from the rumen and anaerobic digester.the stoichiometry of glucose and starch splitting by the amylolytic bacteria streptococcus bovis, selenomonas ruminantium, butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, eubacterium ruminantium and clostridium sp. was followed. there were many differences in the ratios of metabolites and in growth yields, as well as in the cell composition, between the growth on glucose and starch. the bacteria employ different nutritional strategies with respect to both energy sources.19863759723
effect of phenolic monomers on ruminal bacteria.ruminal bacteria were subjected to a series of phenolic compounds in various concentrations to acquire fundamental information on the influence on growth and the potential limits to forage utilization by phenolic monomers. ruminococcus albus 7, ruminococcus flavefaciens fd-1, butyrivibrio fibrisolvens 49, and lachnospira multiparus d-32 were tested against 1, 5, and 10 mm concentrations of sinapic acid, syringaldehyde, syringic acid, ferulic acid, vanillin, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-hydr ...19863789721
phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphorylation of hexoses by ruminal bacteria: evidence for the phosphotransferase transport system.six species of ruminal bacteria were surveyed for the phosphoenolpyruvate (pep)-dependent phosphorylation of glucose. selenomonas ruminantium hd4, streptococcus bovis jb1, and megasphaera elsdenii b159 all showed significant activity, but butyrivibrio fibrisolvens 49, bacteroides succinogenes s85, and bacteroides ruminicola b1(4) showed low rates of pep-dependent phosphorylation and much higher rates in the presence of atp. s. ruminantium hd4, s. bovis jb1, and m. elsdenii b159 also used pep to ...19863789722
t-2 toxin metabolism by ruminal bacteria and its effect on their growth.the effect of t-2 toxin on the growth rates of different bacteria was used as a measure of its toxicity. toxin levels of 10 micrograms/ml did not decrease the growth rate of selenomonas ruminantium and anaerovibrio lipolytica, whereas the growth rate of butyrivibrio fibrisolvens was uninhibited at toxin levels as high as 1 mg/ml. there was, however, a noticeable increase in the growth rate of b. fibrisolvens ce46 and ce51 and s. ruminantium in the presence of low concentrations (10 micrograms/ml ...19873579272
protein degradation by ruminal microorganisms from sheep fed dietary supplements of urea, casein, or albumin.ruminal fluid from sheep fed hay plus concentrate diets containing 1.8% urea, 6% casein, or 6% egg albumin had proteolytic activities of 4.12, 3.02, or 4.00 mg of [14c]casein hydrolyzed ml-1 h-1, respectively. dietary albumin had no effect on the rate of albumin breakdown relative to that of casein (0.06). greater numbers of highly proteolytic bacteria, mainly butyrivibrio spp., were isolated from the rumens of sheep receiving albumin. albumin hydrolysis by these isolates was even slower relativ ...19873579280
effects of potassium ion concentrations on the antimicrobial activities of ionophores against ruminal anaerobes.the antimicrobial activities of monensin and lasalocid against representative strains of ruminal bacteria were evaluated in medium containing three different concentrations of potassium (1.3, 7.9, or 23.3 mm). the growth of eubacterium ruminantium was inhibited by low concentrations of ionophores (less than or equal to 0.16 mg/liter), while the strain of streptococcus bovis tested was resistant to high concentrations of ionophores (40 mg/liter) at all potassium concentrations tested. the mics of ...19873426214
interactions between rumen amylolytic and lactate-utilizing bacteria in growth on starch.the growth and metabolism of the rumen amylolytic bacteria streptococcus bovis, butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and bacteroides ruminicola, growing in pure cultures and co-cultures with the rumen lactilytic bacteria megasphaera elsdenii and veillonella alcalescens were followed. the interaction of amylolytic bacteria with v. alcalescens represents a simple food chain. the interaction with m. elsdenii is more complex, since there is a simultaneous competition for products of the starch degradation.19873429358
seasonal changes in the cecal microflora of the high-arctic svalbard reindeer (rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus).the dominant cecal bacteria in the high-arctic svalbard reindeer were characterized, their population densities were estimated, and cecal ph was determined in summer, when food quality and availability is good, and in winter, when it is very poor. in summer the total culturable viable bacterial population was (8.9 +/- 5.3) x 10(8) cells ml-1, whereas in winter it was (1.5 +/- 0.7) x 10(8) cells ml-1, representing a decrease to 17% of the summer population density. of the dominant species of cult ...19873030193
effects of several mycotoxins on specific growth rate of butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and toxin degradation in vitro.four strains of butyrivibrio fibrisolvens did not degrade aflatoxin b1. acetyl t-2 toxin, t-2 toxin, ht-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, verrucarin a, zearalenone, and ochratoxin a did not affect the specific growth rate of b. fibrisolvens ce51 significantly, but all were degraded to greater or lesser extents. breakdown products were produced as a result of deacetylation reactions.19873107465
factors affecting the rate of breakdown of bacterial protein in rumen fluid.1. the cellular proteins of butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, lactobacillus casei, megasphaera elsdenii, selenomonas ruminantium and streptococcus bovis were labelled by growth in the presence of l-[14c]leucine, and the breakdown of labelled protein was measured in incubations of these bacteria with rumen fluid to which unlabelled 5 mm-l-leucine was added. the rate of protein breakdown was estimated from the rate of release of radioactivity into acid-soluble material. 2. protein breakdown occurred at d ...19873118940
fermentation of xylans by butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and other ruminal bacteria.the ability of butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and other ruminal bacteria (6 species, 18 strains) to ferment a crude xylan from wheat straw or to ferment xylans from larchwood or oat spelts was studied. liquid cultures were monitored for carbohydrate utilization, cell growth (protein), and fermentation acid production. b. fibrisolvens 49, h17c, actf2, and d1 grew almost as well on one or more of the xylans as they did on cellobiose-maltose. b. fibrisolvens 12, r28, a38, x10c34, ard22a, and x6c61 exhib ...19873124741
uncommonly encountered, motile, anaerobic gram-negative bacilli associated with infection.motile, anaerobic gram-negative bacilli belonging to the genera butyrivibrio, succinimonas, succinivibrio, anaerovibrio, wolinella, campylobacter, desulfovibrio, selenomonas, and anaerobiospirillum are being recognized in clinical specimens with increasing frequency. over a 12.5-year period at the va wadsworth medical center, 13 clinical specimens yielded one of these organisms. six isolates were recovered from infected wounds, five from respiratory tract specimens obtained from patients with an ...19873321364
neutral sugar composition of extracellular polysaccharides produced by strains of butyrivibrio fibrisolvens.the extracellular polysaccharides (epss) produced by 37 isolates presently classified as butyrivibrio species (or more specifically as butyrivibrio fibrisolvens) were purified from glucose-grown cultures. the neutral sugar compositions of these epss were determined by both thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatographic techniques. results showed that while the neutral sugar composition of the eps was constant for a given strain, it varied considerably between strains. in addition, several acidic comp ...19883377501
synergism of rumen microbial hydrolases during degradation of plant isolated mixture of exocellular enzymes of rumen bacteria ruminococcus flavefaciens, butyrivibrio fibrisolvens and rumen fungus neocallimastix frontalis, specific activities of cellulases, hemicellulases and glycosidases were determined. the highest specific activities were shown mostly for proteins of n. frontalis.19883397009
enumeration and isolation of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria from human feces.the fibrolytic microbiota of the human large intestine was examined to determine the numbers and types of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria present. fecal samples from each of five individuals contained bacteria capable of degrading the hydrated cellulose in spinach and in wheat straw pretreated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide (ahp-ws), whereas degradation of the relatively crystalline cellulose in whatman no. 1 filter paper (pmc) was detected for only one of the five samples. the mean ...19883415224
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