isolation of vibrio alginolyticus sodium-driven flagellar motor complex composed of poma and pomb solubilized by sucrose monocaprate.the polar flagella of vibrio alginolyticus have sodium-driven motors, and four membrane proteins, poma, pomb, motx and moty, are essential for torque generation of the motor. poma and pomb are believed to form a sodium-conducting channel. this paper reports the purification of the motor complex by using sucrose monocaprate, a non-ionic detergent, to solubilize the complex. plasmid pkj301, which encodes intact poma, and pomb tagged with a c-terminal hexahistidine that does not interfere with pomb ...200415073300
effect of ammonia on the immune response of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei and its susceptibility to vibrio alginolyticus.growth of vibrio alginolyticus was not affected by tsb medium containing ammonia-n concentration in the range of 0-20 mg l(-1). white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei (7-12 g in the intermolt stage) were challenged with v. alginolyticus, which had been incubated for 24 h in the tsb medium containing different concentrations of ammonia-n (0, 1, 5. 10 and 20 mg l(-1)). there was no significant difference in cumulative mortality for shrimp incubated in the tsb medium containing 0, 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg l(- ...200415123301
the immune response of the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei and its susceptibility to vibrio infection in relation with the moult cycle.the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei (8.0-14.4 g) was examined for haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst (release of superoxide anion), phagocytic activity, and clearance efficiency to the pathogen vibrio alginolyticus in relation with moult cycle (postmoult, a, b; intermoult, c; premoult, d(0)/d(1)d(2)/d(3)). granular cells were the highest at c and d(0)/d(1)stage, and the lowest at a stage. hyaline cells and thc (total haemocyte count) were higher at c stage, but lower at ...200415123319
otitis media associated with vibrio alginolyticus in a child with pressure-equalizing tubes.vibrio alginolyticus is an unusual cause of otitis media. infection usually occurs in the presence of a chronically perforated eardrum or patent pressure-equalizing tube. infection with v. alginolyticus can occur after even mild, brief exposure to seawater, and the interval between exposure to seawater and onset of clinical infection can be prolonged.200415131479
the immune stimulatory effect of sodium alginate on the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against vibrio alginolyticus.the total haemocyte count (thc), differential haemocyte count (dhc), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst (release of superoxide anion), superoxide dismutase activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to the pathogen vibrio alginolyticus were measured when the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei (9.4-11.3 g) were injected individually with sodium alginate at 10, 20 or 50 microg g(-1). no significant differences in thc, dhc and superoxide dismutase activity were observed among the ...200415145416
competition for attachment of aquaculture candidate probiotic and pathogenic bacteria on fish intestinal mucus.probiotics for aquaculture are generally only selected by their ability to produce antimicrobial metabolites; however, attachment to intestinal mucus is important in order to remain within the gut of its host. five candidate probiotics (ap1-ap5), isolated from the clownfish, amphiprion percula (lacepéde), were examined for their ability to attach to fish intestinal mucus and compete with two pathogens, aeromonas hydrophila and vibrio alginolyticus. two different radioactive isotopes were used to ...200415189372
effect of vibrio alginolyticus on larval survival of the blue mussel mytilus galloprovincialis.the effect of increasing concentrations of vibrio alginolyticus on survival of mytilus galloprovincialis larvae was studied in a 48 h static bioassay in 1 l glass bottles. five bacterial densities were tested ranging from 10(2) to 10(6) bacteria ml(-1). larval survival and normality (veliger larvae with the typical d-shape) were evaluated after 48 h. an inverse relationship between bacterial concentration and larval survival and normality was observed. in spite of high larval survival (79%) unde ...200415212277
bacterial dynamics associated with algal antibacterial substances during post harvest desiccation process of sargassum stolonifolium phang et yoshida.brown algae of genus sargassum are known to produce relatively higher amount of alginic acid. optimal extraction of this algalcolloid for local consumption requires in-depth studies on post-harvest treatment of the algal fronds. present investigation endeavors to establish the dynamics and inter-relationship of moisture content and bacteria found on the surface of the alga and alginic acid content during post-harvest desiccation of sargassum stolonifolium phang et yoshida. harvested fronds were ...200315248481
interaction of pomb with the third transmembrane segment of poma in the na+-driven polar flagellum of vibrio alginolyticus.the marine bacterium vibrio alginolyticus has four motor components, poma, pomb, motx, and moty, responsible for its na(+)-driven flagellar rotation. poma and pomb are integral inner membrane proteins having four and one transmembrane segments (tms), respectively, which are thought to form an ion channel complex. first, site-directed cys mutagenesis was systematically performed from asp-24 to glu-41 of pomb, and the resulting mutant proteins were examined for susceptibility to a sulfhydryl reage ...200415292129
[case report: otitis due to vibrio alginolyticus].infections caused by vibrio alginolyticus is generally disregarded because of the fact that it is an unusual pathogen for humans. in this report, a 57 years old male patient with otitis media has been presented. intense and pure isolation of v. alginolyticus was achieved from the ear discharge sample. according to the history, it was detected that he was on vacation at mediterranean coast three weeks ago, thus the transmission of the bacteria is possibly via seawater. the isolate was found sensi ...200415293914
the immune response of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei and its susceptibility to vibrio alginolyticus under nitrite stress.the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei were challenged with tryptic soy broth (tsb)-grown vibrio alginolyticus at a dose of 1 x 10(6) colony-forming units (cfu) shrimp(-1), and then placed in water containing concentrations of nitrite-n at 0 (control), 1.12, 5.15, 11.06 and 21.40 mg l(-1). mortality of shrimp in 5.15, 11.06 and 21.40 mg l(-1) was significantly higher than those in the control solution after 48-168 h. l. vannamei that had been exposed to control, 0.98, 4.94, 9.87 and 19.99 mg l(-1 ...200415312659
effect of copper sulfate on the immune response and susceptibility to vibrio alginolyticus in the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei.white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei (boone) held in 35 per thousand seawater were challenged with vibrio alginolyticus at a dose of 3 x 10(5) colony-forming units (cfu) shrimp(-1), and then placed in water containing concentrations of cu2+ at 0 (control), 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg l(-1). mortality of shrimp in 5, 10 and 20 mg l(-1) cu2+ was significantly higher than those in 1 mg l(-1) cu2+ and the control solution after 24-96 h. in another experiment, l. vannamei which had been exposed to control, 1, 5, ...200415313510
structural and functional differences of litopenaeus vannamei crustins.penaeid crustins were described in litopenaeus vannamei and l. setiferus as proteins belonging to an antibacterial peptide family with similar sequences but different sizes. six crustin-coding clones were isolated from a cdna library from l. vannamei hemocytes, sequenced and compared. two different isoforms (named i and p) were found, based on two nucleotide differences that produce one change in amino acid sequence (ile/pro). other single differences in nucleotide sequences were also noted, but ...200415325343
digestive pathology of sea turtles stranded in the canary islands between 1993 and 2001.digestive lesions were observed in 84 of 136 sea turtles (128 caretta caretta, four chelonia mydas and four dermochelys coriacea) stranded in the canary islands between january 1993 and december 2001. in the oral cavity ulcerative and necropurulent stomatitis were the most frequently observed lesions, and in the oesophagus ulcerative and fibrinous oesophagitis, and traumatic oesophageal perforation were most frequently observed; all these lesions were mainly associated with the ingestion of fish ...200415357377
dietary administration of sodium alginate enhances the immune ability of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against vibrio alginolyticus.haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst (release of superoxide anion), superoxide dismutase (sod) activity, glutathione peroxidase (gpx) activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to the pathogen vibrio alginolyticus were measured in white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei juveniles (12.3 +/- 1.2 g) which had been fed diets containing sodium alginate at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 g kg(-1) after five months. l. vannamei fed a diet containing 2.0 g kg(-1) sodium alginate had increased ...200515450964
two novel species of tetrodotoxin-producing bacteria isolated from toxic marine puffer fishes.out of eight dominant discrete bacterial colonies isolated and purified from the toxic marine puffer fishes collected in hong kong waters, two novel species of non-sporing, non-acid-fast and chemoorganotrophic bacteria capable of producing tetrodotoxin (ttx, a potent non-protein neurotoxin), as well as one previously reported and confirmed ttx-producing bacterium. they were identified as microbacterium arabinogalactanolyticum, serratia marcescens and vibrio alginolyticus, respectively, all of wh ...200415501290
functional characterization of two type iii secretion systems of vibrio parahaemolyticus.vibrio parahaemolyticus, a gram-negative marine bacterium, is a worldwide cause of food-borne gastroenteritis. recent genome sequencing of the clinical v. parahaemolyticus strain rimd2210633 identified two sets of genes for the type iii secretion system (ttss), ttss1 and ttss2. here, we constructed a series of mutant strains from rimd2210633 to determine whether the two putative ttss apparatus are functional. the cytotoxic activity of mutant strains having a deletion in one of the ttss1 genes wa ...200415501799
the immune response of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei and its susceptibility to vibrio alginolyticus at different salinity levels.white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei held in 25 per thousand seawater were injected with tsb-grown vibrio alginolyticus (1 x 10(4) cfu shrimp(-1)), and then transferred to 5, 15, 25 (control) and 35 per thousand. over 24-96 h, the mortality of v. alginolyticus-injected shrimp held in 5 per thousand and 15 per thousand was significantly higher than that of shrimp held in 25 per thousand and 35 per thousand, and the mortality of v. alginolyticus-injected shrimp held in 5 per thousand was the highest. ...200515561558
molecular cloning and characterisation of a pattern recognition molecule, lipopolysaccharide- and beta-1,3-glucan binding protein (lgbp) from the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei.a lipopolysaccharide- and beta-1,3-glucan binding protein (lgbp) cdna was cloned from the haemocyte and hepatopancreas of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei using oligonucleotide primers and rt-pcr. both 3'- and 5'-regions were isolated by rapid amplification of cdna end race method. analysis of nucleotide sequence revealed that the cdna clone has an open reading frame of 1101 bp encoding a protein of 367 amino acids including a 17 amino acid signal peptide. the calculated molecular mass of the m ...200515561560
equilibrium unfolding of an oligomeric protein involves formation of a multimeric intermediate state(s).superoxide dismutases (sods) are important metalloenzymes which protect cells against oxidative stress by scavenging reactive superoxides. missense mutations in sods are known to lead to some familial cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and several forms of cancers. in the present study, we investigate the guanidinium hydrochloride (gdnhcl)-induced equilibrium unfolding of apo-manganese superoxide dismutase (apo-mnsod) isolated from vibrio alginolyticus using a variety of biophysical techniqu ...200515567159
vibrio alginolyticus infection in the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and 16s rdna sequencing.a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium identified as vibrio alginolyticus was isolated from diseased litopenaeus vannamei (also called penaeus vannamei) in taiwanese culture ponds. the diseased shrimp displayed poor growth, anorexia, inactivity, reddish pleural borders of antennae, uropods and telson, opaque and whitish musculature, and mortality. in histological preparations, melanized hemocytic granulomas were observed in the connective tissue around hemal sinuses together with hemocytic aggreg ...200415584425
asymmetric swimming pattern of vibrio alginolyticus cells with single polar flagella.the swimming pattern of bacteria with single polar flagella has usually been described as "run and reverse". we observed the swimming traces of monotrichously flagellated vibrio alginolyticus cells and examined the relationship between the swimming pattern and the sense of progress. swimming in regions other than a solid surface was confirmed to be linear run and reverse. near a solid surface, the traces consisted of "run and arc"; the cells were found to curve sharply during backward swimming, ...200515621441
[cloning and sequence analysis of variable region gene of anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody against vibrio alginolyticus].to clone and sequence v(h) and v(l) genes of anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody (mab) against vibrio alginolyticus.200515629085
deletion analysis of the carboxyl-terminal region of the pomb component of the vibrio alginolyticus polar flagellar motor.the stator of the sodium-driven flagellar motor of vibrio alginolyticus is a membrane protein complex composed of four poma and two pomb subunits. pomb has a peptidoglycan-binding motif in the c-terminal region. in this study, four kinds of pomb deletions in the c terminus were constructed. none of the deletion proteins restored motility of the deltapomb strain. the poma protein was coisolated with all of the pomb derivatives under detergent-solubilized conditions. homotypic disulfide cross-link ...200515629950
isolation of vibrio alginolyticus and vibrio splendidus from aquacultured carpet shell clam (ruditapes decussatus) larvae associated with mass mortalities.two episodes of mortality of cultured carpet shell clams (ruditapes decussatus) associated with bacterial infections were recorded during 2001 and 2002 in a commercial hatchery located in spain. vibrio alginolyticus was isolated as the primary organism from moribund clam larvae that were obtained during the two separate events. vibrio splendidus biovar ii, in addition to v. alginolyticus, was isolated as a result of a mixed vibrio infection from moribund clam larvae obtained from the second mort ...200515640176
modulated heat shock protein expression during pathogenic vibrio alginolyticus stress of sea bream.the effects of infective vibrio alginolyticus and its extracellular product (ecp) on host fish function are not well understood. in this study a partial biochemical characterization of the ecp from an infective strain of v. alginolyticus isolated from diseased silver sea bream sparus sarba was achieved and the effects of live v. alginolyticus and ecp on hepatic heat shock protein (hsp) expression was compared. the ecp fraction was found to contain several hydrolytic enzymes including both haemol ...200415672876
antibiotic resistance in aeromonas hydrophila and vibrio alginolyticus isolated from a wound infection: a case report. 200515674175
the peroxinectin of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei is synthesised in the semi-granular and granular cells, and its transcription is up-regulated with vibrio alginolyticus infection.peroxinectin mrna expression in the different types of haemocytes of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei was studied by in situ hybridisation using digoxigenin-utp-labelled riboprobes and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). granular cells (gc) and a mixture of semi-granular cells (sgc) and hyaline cells (hc) were separated by 70% percoll gradient centrifugation. peroxinectin was synthesised in both gc and the mixture of sgc-hc. an in situ hybridisation assay indicated that pe ...200515683919
a collagenase-targeted multiplex pcr assay for identification of vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio cholerae, and vibrio parahaemolyticus.a multiplex pcr assay using three collagenase-targeted primer pairs for the species-specific detection of vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio cholerae, and vibrio parahaemolyticus was developed. the results highlight the species specificity of the three primer sets designed. because of the increasing importance of vibrio spp. in human foodborne diseases, molecular approaches for routine microbial screening and monitoring of clinical, environmental, and food samples also have become more important. the ...200515690817
difference in bacterial motion between forward and backward swimming caused by the wall effect.a bacterial cell that has a single polar flagellum alternately repeats forward swimming, in which the flagellum pushes the cell body, and backward swimming, in which the flagellum pulls the cell body. we have reported that the backward swimming speeds of vibrio alginolyticus are on average greater than the forward swimming speeds. in this study, we quantitatively measured the shape of the trajectory as well as the swimming speed. the trajectory shape in the forward mode was almost straight, wher ...200515695638
a four-kazal domain protein in litopenaeus vannamei hemocytes.a cdna clone coding for a kazal protein was isolated from a cdna library of litopenaeus vannamei hemocytes. the full-length cdna sequence is 1.32 kb long and encodes a 24 kda protein. four kazal domains, 43-46 residues long, were detected in the deduced primary structure. apparently, the first and second domains do not have inhibitory activity, as predicted by the sequence between the second and third cys. the third and fourth domains have the sequences cpeiyapvc and cpknyrpvc, indicating that t ...200415707660
the immunostimulatory effect of hot-water extract of gracilaria tenuistipitata on the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against vibrio alginolyticus.the total haemocyte count (thc), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase (sod) activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to the pathogen vibrio alginolyticus were examined in the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei (10.3+/-1.5 g) injected individually with hot-water extract of gracilaria tenuistipitata at 4 or 6 microg g-1. l. vannamei receiving hot-water extract of g. tenuistipitata at either dose increased significantly its thc, phenoloxidase activity, and re ...200515752651
diseases and causes of mortality among sea turtles stranded in the canary islands, spain (1998-2001).this paper lists the pathological findings and causes of mortality of 93 sea turtles (88 caretta caretta, 3 chelonia mydas, and 2 dermochelys coriacea) stranded on the coasts of the canary islands between january 1998 and december 2001. of these, 25 (26.88%) had died of spontaneous diseases including different types of pneumonia, hepatitis, meningitis, septicemic processes and neoplasm. however, 65 turtles (69.89%) had died from lesions associated with human activities such as boat-strike injuri ...200515759796
the protective effect of chitin and chitosan against vibrio alginolyticus in white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei.white shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei, which had been injected with chitin at 4, 6 and 8 microg g(-1) or chitosan at 2, 4 and 6 microg g(-1), were challenged with pathogen vibrio alginolyticus at 2 x 10(6) colony-forming units (cfu) shrimp(-1) and then placed in seawater of 34 per thousand. the survival of shrimp that received chitin or chitosan at either dose was significantly higher than that of control shrimp after 1 day, and at the termination of the experiment (6 days after the challenge). in ...200515820121
genetic heterogeneity among vibrio alginolyticus isolated from shrimp farms by pcr study the strain variability among vibrio alginolyticus isolates from different sources by insertion sequence-targeted pcr fingerprinting and whole cell protein profile analysis.200515836741
effects of dopamine on the immunity of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei.the total haemocyte count (thc), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase (sod) activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency in response to pathogen vibrio alginolyticus were measured when the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei (20.0+/-1.5 g) were injected individually with dopamine at 10(-8), 10(-7) and 10(-6)mol shrimp(-1), respectively. for the shrimp that received dopamine at 10(-7) and 10(-6)mol shrimp(-1), the thc decreased by 25% and 39%, phenoloxidase acti ...200515863017
interactions of motx with moty and with the poma/pomb sodium ion channel complex of the vibrio alginolyticus polar flagellum.rotation of the sodium ion-driven polar flagellum of vibrio alginolyticus requires the inner membrane sodium ion channel complex poma/pomb and the outer membrane components motx and moty. none of the detergents used in this study were able to solubilize motx when it was expressed alone. however, when co-expressed with moty, motx was solubilized by some detergents. the change in the solubility of motx suggests that moty interacts with motx. in agreement with this, a pull-down assay showed the ass ...200515866878
the occurrence of vibrio species in tropical shrimp culture environments; implications for food safety.the occurrence of various vibrio species in water, sediment and shrimp samples from multiple shrimp farm environments from the east and west coast of india was studied. the relative abundance was higher in west coast farms (ca. 10(4) cfu/ml water) when compared to the east coast (ca. 10(2) cfu/ml water). vibrio alginolyticus (3-19%), v. parahaemolyticus (2-13%), v. harveyi (1-7%) and v. vulnificus (1-4%) were the predominant vibrio species identified by standard biochemical testing. in some case ...200515992615
proteomic analysis on the expression of outer membrane proteins of vibrio alginolyticus at different sodium concentrations.the ability of osmoregulation is crucial to marine pathogens that always face the change of osmotic pressure when they shift between natural marine water-bodies and hosts. previous studies indicated that the expressional patterns of outer membrane proteins (omps) changed when gram-negative bacteria were transferred in different environments. in the present study, proteomic methodologies were used to investigate the expressional pattern of omps of vibrio alginolyticus, a universal marine pathogen ...200516021606
vibrio splendidus biotype 1 as a cause of mortalities in hatchery-reared larval turbot, scophthalmus maximus (l.).to characterize bacteria associated with turbot larvae feeding on artemia and identify pathogens causing mortalities in larvae.200516033454
investigation of seven vibrio virulence genes among vibrio alginolyticus and vibrio parahaemolyticus strains from the coastal mariculture systems in guangdong, investigate the distribution of the virulence of two vibrio species among different strains obtained from the mariculture systems on the coast of guangdong in china and the correlation between the virulence strains and the virulence genes among vibrio alginolyticus.200516033522
assembly of motor proteins, poma and pomb, in the na+-driven stator of the flagellar motor.poma and pomb are transmembrane proteins that form the stator complex in the sodium-driven flagellar motor of vibrio alginolyticus and are believed to surround the rotor part of the flagellar motor. we constructed and observed green fluorescent protein (gfp) fusions of the stator proteins poma and pomb in living cells to clarify how stator proteins are assembled and installed into the flagellar motor. we were able to demonstrate that gfp-poma and gfp-pomb localized to a cell pole dependent on th ...200516038931
white spot syndrome virus isolates of tiger shrimp penaeus monodon (fabricious) in india are similar to exotic isolates as revealed by polymerase chain reaction and electron microscopy.microbiological analysis of samples collected from cases of white spot disease outbreaks in cultured shrimp in different farms located in three regions along east coast of india viz. chidambram (tamil nadu), nellore (andhra pradesh) and balasore (orissa), revealed presence of vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio parahaemolyticus, and aeromonas spp. but experimental infection trials in penaeus monodon with these isolates did not induce any acute mortality or formation of white spots on carapace. infectio ...200516053274
influence of water temperature and salinity on seasonal occurrences of vibrio cholerae and enteric bacteria in oyster-producing areas of veracruz, méxico.the influence of temperature and salinity on the occurrence of vibrio cholerae, escherichia coli and salmonella spp. associated with water and oyster samples was investigated in two lagoons on the atlantic coast of veracruz, mexico over a 1-year period. the results indicated that seasonal salinity variability and warm temperatures, as well as nutrient influx, may influence the occurrence of v. cholera. non-o1 and o1. the conditions found in the alvarado (31.12 degrees c, 6.27 per thousand, ph=8. ...200516061261
white shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei) recombinant lysozyme has antibacterial activity against gram negative bacteria: vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio parahemolyticus and vibrio cholerae.c-type lysozyme has been described as an antibacterial component of the shrimp innate defence system. we determined quantitatively the antibacterial activity of white shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei) recombinant lysozyme against three gram negative bacteria: vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio parahemolyticus and vibrio cholerae, using a turbidimetric assay with live bacteria and differential bacterial viable count after interaction with the protein. in conclusion, the antibacterial activity of recombinan ...200616098764
biological deinking of inkjet-printed paper using vibrio alginolyticus and its enzymes.recycling of office waste paper (photocopy, inkjet, and laser prints) is a major problem due to difficulty in removal of nonimpact ink. biological deinking of office waste paper is reported using several microorganisms and their enzymes. we report here deinking and decolorization of the dislodged ink particles from inkjet printed paper pulp by a marine bacterium, vibrio alginolyticus isolate no. nio/di/32, obtained from marine sediments. decolorization of this pulp was achieved within 72 h by gr ...200516133100
a fluid-dynamic interpretation of the asymmetric motion of singly flagellated bacteria swimming close to a boundary.the singly flagellated bacterium, vibrio alginolyticus, moves forward and backward by alternating the rotational direction of its flagellum. the bacterium has been observed retracing a previous path almost exactly and swimming in a zigzag pattern. in the presence of a boundary, however, the motion changes significantly, to something closer to a circular trajectory. additionally, when the cell swims close to a wall, the forward and backward speeds differ noticeably. this study details a boundary ...200516150964
direct observation of steps in rotation of the bacterial flagellar motor.the bacterial flagellar motor is a rotary molecular machine that rotates the helical filaments that propel many species of swimming bacteria. the rotor is a set of rings up to 45 nm in diameter in the cytoplasmic membrane; the stator contains about ten torque-generating units anchored to the cell wall at the perimeter of the rotor. the free-energy source for the motor is an inward-directed electrochemical gradient of ions across the cytoplasmic membrane, the protonmotive force or sodium-motive f ...200516208378
all four putative selectivity filter glycine residues in ktrb are essential for high affinity and selective k+ uptake by the ktrab system from vibrio alginolyticus.the subunit ktrb of bacterial na+-dependent k+-translocating ktrab systems belongs to a superfamily of k+ transporters. these proteins contain four repeated domains, each composed of two transmembrane helices connected by a putative pore loop (p-loop). the four p-loops harbor a conserved glycine residue at a position equivalent to a glycine selectivity filter residue in k+ channels. we investigated whether these glycines also form a selectivity filter in ktrb. the single residues gly70, gly185, ...200516210320
purification and properties of beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase from vibrio alginolyticus h-8.beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase [ec] from vibrio alginolyticus h-8 was purified by column chromatography on deae-sepharose ff, phenyl-sepharose hp, superdex 200hr, and mono q. the molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated by sds-gel electrophoresis (sds-page) to be 75 kda. the pi was 4.6. the activity was inhibited by ag+, hg2+, iodoacetate, p-chloromercuribenzoate, and n-ethylmaleimide.199916232581
cloning and sequencing of a chitinase gene from vibrio alginolyticus h-8.a gene from vibrio alginolyticus h-8, encoding chitinase, designated as chitinase b, was cloned by the shot-gun method using puc118 and sequenced. the open reading frame consisted of 846 amino acids including a signal peptide. the molecular mass of the enzyme estimated based on the amino acid sequence data was 90 kda. the n-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme was different from that of chitinase c1 which we had previously reported. this cloned chitinase b was considered one out of four ch ...200016232787
removal of a high load of ammonia gas by a marine bacterium, vibrio alginolyticus.a newly isolated marine bacterium, vibrio alginolyticus was used to remove a high load of ammonia gas. by a stepwise increase in ammonia supply over the concentration range of 120-2000 ppm (v/v), complete removal of ammonia was observed from the start of the experiment in a suspended culture of the bacterium in basal medium containing 3% nacl. when cells were inoculated onto an inorganic packing material in a biofilter, and a high load of ammonia was introduced continuously under nonsterile cond ...200016232881
cloning and sequencing of the deacetylase gene from vibrio alginolyticus h-8.a gene encoding deacetylase da1 that is specific for n, n'-diacetylchitobiose was cloned using the shot-gun method with puc118 and sequenced. the open reading frame encoded a protein of 427 amino acids including the signal peptide. the molecular mass of the mature enzyme estimated from the amino acid sequence data was 44.7 kda, which is approximately similar to that, estimated by sds-page (48.0 kda), of the purified enzyme reported previously. the n-terminal amino acid sequence deduced from the ...200016232910
clearance rates of sabella spallanzanii and branchiomma luctuosum (annelida: polychaeta) on a pure culture of vibrio alginolyticus.the influence exerted by filter-feeding activity on bacterial density by two sabellid species from the mediterranean sea (ionian sea, italy), branchiomma luctuosum grube and sabella spallanzanii gmelin (annelida: polychaeta) was investigated. clearance rates and retention efficiencies were estimated utilizing the species vibrio alginolyticus selected on account of previous field studies and its importance in fish culture pathogenicity. the cmax was 43.2+/-2.63 l h(-1) g(-1) dw for b. luctuosum a ...200516242172
[studies on extracellular virulent factors produced by potential pathogenic bacteria isolated from abalone postlarvae and biofilms].to find out the potential pathogen(s) that caused massive death of abalone postlarvae( haliotis diversicolor supertesta ) in southern china, 105 bacterial strains were isolated from the water, whitened postlarvae and their biofilms of an abalone farm in guangdong province. extra-cellular protease, gelatinase, lipase as well as haemolysis tests were performed on them. lysophospholipase (tlh)-targeted pcr was also carried out in order to reveal if the haemolysis caused by bacterial strains were re ...200516245888
microcalorimetric measurements of glucose metabolism by marine bacterium vibrio alginolyticus.microcalorimetric measurements of heat production from glucose by vibrio alginolyticus were made to assess the viability of calorimetry as a technique for studying the metabolism of marine bacteria at organic nutrient concentrations found in marine waters. the results show that the metabolism of glucose by this bacterium can be measured by calorimetry at submicromolar concentrations. a linear correlation between glucose concentration and total heat production was observed over a concentration ra ...198216346131
electrolyte effects on attachment of an estuarine bacterium.the effect of electrolyte concentration on attachment of vibrio alginolyticus to hydroxyapatite was determined. bacterial affinity for attachment to the surface and surface capacity were derived from linearization of bacterial adsorption isotherms. at low concentrations (<0.1 m) the affinity of the bacteria for the surface increased with increasing ionic strength, in agreement with the d.l.v.o. theory of colloid interaction. at higher concentrations, bacterial affinity for the surface decreased ...198416346489
influence of alginate on attachment of vibrio spp. to stainless steel surfaces in seawater.the influence of alginate on the attachment of vibrio alginolyticus and vibrio pelagius biovar ii to stainless steel was investigated. when the bacteria were in stationary phase, alginate decreased the number of attached bacteria in the case of each vibrio sp. in contrast, when v. pelagius biovar ii was grown on alginate and harvested in log phase, attachment was increased. this effect may be due to nutrient availability at the surface or to receptors on the bacterial surface which interact with ...198716347345
method designed to detect alginate-degrading bacteria.a simple turbidimetric method was developed to detect alginate degradation. bacteria were grown in alginate-containing media, and culture fluids were mixed with an acidic albumin solution. failure to develop a white turbidity indicated an alginate degrader. the method showed alginate degradation by vibrio alginolyticus atcc 17749, in contrast to prior descriptions.199016348303
occurrence of vibrio alginolyticus in ligurian coast rock pools (tyrrhenian sea, italy) and its association with the copepod tigriopus fulvus (fisher 1860).a study of heterotrophic bacteria and vibrios adhering to the copepod tigriopus fulvus, which lives in ligurian coast rock pools (tyrrhenian sea), was carried out from november 1990 to october 1991. heterotrophic bacteria, which were always found both free in the water and bound to the t. fulvus organisms, showed a correlation with water temperature and salinity. vibrio alginolyticus was found free in the water and bound to t. fulvus surfaces during the warmest months. temperature is the main fa ...199316348971
electrochemical prevention of marine biofouling with a carbon-chloroprene sheet.a carbon-chloroprene sheet (ccs) electrode was used for the electrochemical disinfection of the marine gram-negative bacterium vibrio alginolyticus. when the electrode was incubated in seawater containing 10 cells per ml for 90 min, the amount of adsorbed cells was 4.5 x 10 cells per cm. when a potential of 1.2 v versus a saturated calomel electrode was applied to the ccs for 20 min, 67% of adsorbed cells were killed. this disinfection was due to the direct electrochemical oxidation of cells and ...199316349089
humoral immune responses of amphioxus branchiostoma belcheri to challenge with escherichia coli.humoral parameters of amphioxus branchiostoma belcheri, including lysozyme, antimicrobial activity, microbial agglutinin and haemagglutinins were measured before and after challenge with escherichia coli. humoral fluids from unchallenged b. belcheri had lysozyme, antimicrobial, microbial agglutinating and haemagglutinating activities, which may represent part of the baseline level of innate immunity in this organism. after challenge with e. coli, the lysozyme activity, growth-inhibiting activiti ...200616352447
noradrenaline modulates the immunity of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei.the total haemocyte count (thc), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase (sod) activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency in response to pathogen vibrio alginolyticus were measured when the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei (18.4 +/- 1.2 g) were injected individually with noradrenaline at 10(-8), 10(-7) and 10(-6) mol shrimp(-1). for the shrimp that received noradrenaline at 10(-8), 10(-7) and 10(-6) mol shrimp(-1), the thc decreased by 15%, 21% and 32%, pheno ...200616377211
electron cryomicroscopic visualization of poma/b stator units of the sodium-driven flagellar motor in liposomes.a motor protein complex of the bacterial flagellum, poma/b from vibrio alginolyticus, was reconstituted into liposomes and visualized by electron cryomicroscopy. poma/b is a sodium channel, composed of two membrane proteins, poma and pomb, and converts ion flux to the rotation of the flagellar motor. escherichia coli and salmonella have a homolog called mota/b, which utilizes proton instead of sodium ion. pomb and motb have a peptidoglycan-binding motif in their c-terminal region, and therefore ...200616426637
regulation of polar flagellar number by the flhf and flhg genes in vibrio alginolyticus.the number and location of bacterial flagella vary with the species. the vibrio alginolyticus cell has a single polar flagellum, which is driven by sodium ions. we selected mutants on the basis of reduced swarming ability on soft agar plates. among them, we found two mutants with multiple polar flagella, and named them kk148 and nmb155. in pseudomonas species, it is known that flhf and flen, which are ftsy and mind homologs, respectively, are involved in regulation of flagellar placement and num ...200616428326
roles of charged residues of rotor and stator in flagellar rotation: comparative study using h+-driven and na+-driven motors in escherichia escherichia coli, rotation of the flagellar motor has been shown to depend upon electrostatic interactions between charged residues of the stator protein mota and the rotor protein flig. these charged residues are conserved in the na+-driven polar flagellum of vibrio alginolyticus, but mutational studies in v. alginolyticus suggested that they are relatively unimportant for motor rotation. the electrostatic interactions detected in e. coli therefore might not be a general feature of flagellar ...200616452430
a marine bacterium, micrococcus mccb 104, antagonistic to vibrios in prawn larval rearing systems.a marine bacterium, micrococcus mccb 104, isolated from hatchery water, demonstrated extracellular antagonistic properties against vibrio alginolyticus, v. parahaemolyticus, v. vulnificus, v. fluviallis, v. nereis, v. proteolyticus, v. mediterranei, v cholerae and aeromonas sp., bacteria associated with macrobrachium rosenbergii larval rearing systems. the isolate inhibited the growth of v. alginolyticus during co-culture. the antagonistic component of the extracellular product was heat-stable a ...200516465832
cloning and expression analysis of interferon-gamma-inducible-lysosomal thiol reductase gene in large yellow croaker (pseudosciaena crocea).in mammals, interferon-gamma-inducible-lysosomal thiol reductase (gilt) has been demonstrated to play a key role in the processing and presentation of mhc class ii-restricted antigen (ag) by catalyzing disulfide bond reduction, thus unfolding native protein ag and facilitating subsequent cleavage by proteases. here, we reported the cloning of a gilt gene homologue from the spleen of large yellow croaker, a marine fish (lycgilt). the full-length cdna of lycgilt gene is 1033 nucleotides (nt) encod ...200616478632
crystallization of the nadh-oxidizing domain of the na+-translocating nadh:ubiquinone oxidoreductase from vibrio cholerae.the na+-translocating nadh:quinone oxidoreductase (na+-nqr) from pathogenic and marine bacteria is a respiratory complex that couples the exergonic oxidation of nadh by quinone to the transport of na+ across the membrane. the nqrf subunit oxidizes nadh and transfers the electrons to other redox cofactors in the enzyme. the fad-containing domain of nqrf has been expressed, purified and crystallized. the purified nqrf fad domain exhibited high rates of nadh oxidation and contained stoichiometric a ...200616511277
molecular cloning of growth hormone from silver sea bream: effects of abiotic and biotic stress on transcriptional and translational expression.the pituitary growth hormone (gh) gene of silver sea bream (sparus sarba) was cloned and characterized and found to be 615 base pairs encoding a protein of 204 amino acids. using a bacterial expression system, recombinant protein was prepared and rabbit polyclonal antibody was raised. transcript and protein amounts of gh were measured in fish that were adapted to a range of salinities, acclimated to different temperatures, or undergoing a natural time course of vibrio alginolyticus infection. is ...200616513086
use of multiparameter analysis for vibrio alginolyticus viable but nonculturable state determination.vibrio alginolyticus is known to enter into a viable but nonculturable (vbnc) state in response to environmental conditions unfavorable to the growth. cells in vbnc condition pose a public health threat because they are potentially pathogenic.200616528721
isolation of a pathogenic strain of vibrio alginolyticus from necrotic larvae of macrobrachium rosenbergii (de man). 200616533305
comparison of the growth and survival of larval turbot in the absence of culturable bacteria with those in the presence of vibrio anguillarum, vibrio alginolyticus, or a marine aeromonas sp.larval turbot (scophthalmus maximus) were reared on rotifers (brachionus plicatilis) in the absence of culturable bacteria for up to 14 days and exhibited growth and high rates of survival (>55% in five experiments). low numbers of known bacteria were introduced into similar cultures by exposure of the rotifers to a suspension of bacteria prior to addition of rotifers to the larval cultures; vibrio anguillarum 91079 caused a highly significant decrease (p <0.01) in the proportion of survivors in ...199516535196
affinity proteomic approach for identification of an iga-like protein in litopenaeus vannamei and study on its agglutination unknown protein reacted with anti-human iga, namely, iga-like protein, has been reported in shrimp, but information regarding its identification is not available. in the present study, an affinity proteomic strategy was applied to identify the iga-like protein of shrimp litopenaeus vannamei. the protein of 75 kda was isolated and confirmed by affinity chromatography and western blotting with goat anti-human iga, respectively, and then identified as hemocyanin, a member of igsf, by mass spectr ...200616602688
effect of sulfide on the immune response and susceptibility to vibrio alginolyticus in the kuruma shrimp marsupenaeus japonicus.kuruma shrimp marsupenaeus japonicus held in 34 per thousand seawater were injected with tryptic soy broth (tsb)-grown vibrio alginolyticus (2.7x10(6)cfu shrimp(-1)), and then placed in water containing concentrations of sulfide at 0 (control), 51, 106, 528 and 1050microgl(-1), respectively. after 12-144h, mortality of v. alginolyticus-injected shrimp exposed to 528 and 1102microgl(-1) sulfide was significantly higher than that of shrimp exposed to 51microgl(-1) sulfide and the control solution. ...200716713303
a function of polar flagellum and anisotropic growth in vibrio alginolyticus early-phase colonies.we continuously observed growth of vibrio alginolyticus early-phase colonies on agar plates by phase-contrast microscopy. two mutants defective in motility on solid surfaces were used in this study: one (ym4) can swim in liquid environments using its polar flagellum, and the other (nmb198) cannot swim because it lacks any flagella. we found that isolated colonies of ym4 were generally more circular than those of nmb198. this observation suggests that ym4 cells moved slightly within a colony by t ...200616732454
the immunostimulatory effects of sodium alginate and iota-carrageenan on orange-spotted grouper epinephelus coicoides and its resistance against vibrio alginolyticus.the lysozyme activity, alternative complement activity (ach50), respiratory burst, sod (superoxide dismutase) activity and phagocytic activity of orange-spotted grouper epinephelus coicoides were examined when the fish were injected intraperitoneally with sodium alginate at 10, 20, 30mgkg-1 and iota-carrageenan at 10, 20, 30mgkg-1, respectively after 24, 72 and 120 h. serum ach50 increased directly with dose after 24 and 72 h for both sodium alginate and iota-carrageenan treatments. the fish tha ...200716784873
soft-agar-coated filter method for early detection of viable and thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh)- or tdh-related hemolysin-producing vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood.a novel method for detecting viable and thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh)-producing or tdh-related hemolysin (trh)-producing vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafood was developed. the method involved (i) enrichment culture, selective for viable, motile cells penetrating a soft-agar-coated filter paper, and (ii) a multiplex pcr assay targeting both the tdh gene (tdh) and trh gene (trh) following dnase pretreatment on the test culture to eradicate any incidental dnas that might have been released fro ...200616820446
low flagellar motor torque and high swimming efficiency of caulobacter crescentus swarmer cells.we determined the torque of the flagellar motor of caulobacter crescentus for different motor rotation rates by measuring the rotation rate and swimming speed of the cell body and found it to be remarkably different from that of other bacteria, such as escherichia coli and vibrio alginolyticus. the average stall torque of the caulobacter flagellar motor was approximately 350 pn nm, much smaller than the values of the other bacteria measured. furthermore, the torque of the motor remained constant ...200616844761
virulence and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus pcr of vibrio alginolyticus strains isolated from tunisian cultured gilthead sea bream and sea bass outbreaks.vibrio alginolyticus was isolated from the internal organs of diseased gilthead sea bream (sparus aurata) and sea bass (dicentrarchus labrax) cultured in two fish farms located on the tunisian mediterranean coast, from 2003 to 2005. after phenotypic characterisation, a selection of 34 isolates from gilthead sea bream and sea bass were molecularly typed by repetitive intergenic consensus pcr (eric-pcr) showing a high polymorphism among the isolated strains (19 genotypes). most of the isolates wer ...200616870360
salmonella spp., vibrio spp., clostridium perfringens, and plesiomonas shigelloides in marine and freshwater invertebrates from coastal california ecosystems.the coastal ecosystems of california are highly utilized by humans and animals, but the ecology of fecal bacteria at the land-sea interface is not well understood. this study evaluated the distribution of potentially pathogenic bacteria in invertebrates from linked marine, estuarine, and freshwater ecosystems in central california. a variety of filter-feeding clams, mussels, worms, and crab tissues were selectively cultured for salmonella spp., campylobacter spp., escherichia coli-o157, clostrid ...200616897302
development of monoclonal antibodies for simple identification of vibrio alginolyticus.the present study was aimed to produce monoclonal antibodies (mabs) for simple and specific identification of vibrio alginolyticus infection in shrimp.200616965376
the vibrio motor proteins, motx and moty, are associated with the basal body of na-driven flagella and required for stator formation.the four motor proteins poma, pomb, motx and moty, which are believed to be stator proteins, are essential for motility by the na(+)-driven flagella of vibrio alginolyticus. when we purified the flagellar basal bodies, motx and moty were detected in the basal body, which is the supramolecular complex comprised of the rotor and the bushing, but poma and pomb were not. by antibody labelling, motx and moty were detected around the lp ring. these results indicate that motx and moty associate with th ...200617038120
characterization of a vibrio alginolyticus strain, isolated from alaskan oysters, carrying a hemolysin gene similar to the thermostable direct hemolysin-related hemolysin gene (trh) of vibrio parahaemolyticus.a vibrio strain isolated from alaskan oysters and classified by its biochemical characteristics as vibrio alginolyticus possessed a thermostable direct hemolysin-related hemolysin (trh) gene previously reported only in vibrio parahaemolyticus. this trh-like gene was cloned and sequenced and was 98% identical to the trh2 gene of v. parahaemolyticus. this gene seems to be functional since it was transcriptionally active in early-stationary-phase growing cells. to our knowledge, this is the first r ...200617056701
aerobic microorganisms associated with free-ranging bottlenose dolphins in coastal gulf of mexico and atlantic ocean waters.our abilities to assess health risks to free-ranging dolphin populations, to treat live-stranded or captive dolphins, and to evaluate the risks of disease transmission between humans and dolphins have suffered from a lack of basic information on microorganisms associated with normal, presumably healthy free-ranging individuals. in order to provide these data, we sampled free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus) off florida, texas, and north carolina during 1990-2002. blowhole and ana ...200617092884
genomic plasticity of the rrn-nqrf intergenic segment in the chlamydiaceae, the nucleotide sequence between the 5s rrna gene and the gene for subunit f of the na(+)-translocating nadh-quinone reductase (nqrf or dmpp) has varied lengths and gene contents. we analyzed this site in 45 chlamydiaceae strains having diverse geographical and pathological origins and including members of all nine species.200717158668
rapid detection of vibrio species using liquid microsphere arrays and real-time pcr targeting the ftsz locus.the development of rapid and sensitive molecular techniques for the detection of vibrio species would be useful for the surveillance of sporadic infections and management of major outbreaks. comparative sequence analysis of the ftsz gene in the predominant vibrio species that cause human disease revealed distinct alleles for each examined species, including vibrio cholerae, vibrio parahaemolyticus and vibrio vulnificus. light upon extension (lux) real-time pcr assays were developed to target the ...200717172518
the immunostimulatory effects of hot-water extract of gelidium amansii via immersion, injection and dietary administrations on white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against vibrio alginolyticus.the total haemocyte count (thc), phenoloxidase activity, and respiratory burst were examined when white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei were immersed in seawater (34 per thousand) containing hot-water extract of red alga gelidium amansii at 200, 400 and 600 mg l(-1), injected with hot-water extract at 4 and 6 microg g(-1) shrimp, and fed diets containing hot-water extract at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1). these parameters increased significantly when shrimp were immersed in seawater containing hot-wa ...200717194604
identification and cloning of the antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase, of white shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei, and its expression following vibrio alginolyticus infection.cdna encoding glutathione peroxidase (gpx) mrna of the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei was obtained from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and rapid amplification of cdna (race) using oligonucleotide primers based on the gpx sequence of homo sapiens (nm002083), mus musculus (nm008160), arabidopsis thaliana (u94495), bos taurus (nm174770), and capsicum chinense (aj973135). the 727-bp cdna contained an open reading frame (orf) of 567 bp, a 101-bp 5'-untrans ...200717208011
hedistin: a novel antimicrobial peptide containing bromotryptophan constitutively expressed in the nk cells-like of the marine annelid, nereis diversicolor.a novel antimicrobial peptide, named hedistin was identified from the coelomocytes of nereis diversicolor. hedistin shows no obvious similarities with other known peptides and constitutes the first antimicrobial peptide containing bromotryptophans demonstrated in annelids. cdna and mass spectrometry analysis revealed that, upon bacteria challenge, this peptide is secreted following processing of a precursor containing a signal peptide and prosequences. hedistin was shown to possess an activity a ...200717210178
vibrio alginolyticus infections in the netherlands after swimming in the north sea. 200617213549
crystallization and preliminary x-ray analysis of moty, a stator component of the vibrio alginolyticus polar flagellar motor.the polar flagellum of vibrio alginolyticus is rotated by the sodium motor. the stator unit of the sodium motor consists of four different proteins: poma, pomb, motx and moty. motx and moty, which are unique components of the sodium motor, form the t-ring structure attached to the lp ring in the periplasmic space. moty has a putative peptidoglycan-binding motif in its c-terminal region and motx is suggested to interact with pomb. thus, motx and moty are thought to be required for incorporation a ...200717277446
the effect of dietary chitin supplementation on the survival and immune reactivity of the shore crab, carcinus male shore crabs (carcinus maenas) were maintained on a fish-based diet supplemented with 0, 5 or 10% chitin for 11 weeks. significantly greater mortality was found during this period in the control group (0% chitin) than those fed 10% chitin. crabs fed 5 or 10% chitin had lower numbers of cultivatable bacteria in the hepatopancreas than those on the basal diet alone. the addition of chitin had no significant effect on the serum concentrations of protein and glucose, and the levels of glyc ...200717289410
occurrence of vibrio spp. in blue mussels (mytilus edulis) from the german wadden sea.the present study aimed at determining the contamination of blue mussels grown in germany with relevant bacterial organisms. seasonal variations were examined. for that purpose, mussel samples were taken regularly between june 2004 and may 2005 in seven shellfish-growing areas of the german wadden sea. a total of 90 samples were analysed. the analysis included the compulsory microbiological parameters escherichia coli and salmonella spp., as well as the determination of the contamination with vi ...200717331605
immune responses and gene expression in white shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei, induced by lactobacillus plantarum.the total haemocyte counts, phenoloxidase (po) activity, respiratory bursts, superoxide dismutase (sod) activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to vibrio alginolyticus, as well as prophenoloxidase (propo), lipopolysaccharide- and beta-1,3-glucan-binding protein (lgbp), serine protein (sp), and peroxinectin (pe) mrna transcription of l. vannamei, and its susceptibility to v. alginolyticus when the shrimp were fed diets containing lactobacillus plantarum at 0 (control), 10(7), a ...200717337209
expression, characterization and immunogenicity of a major outer membrane protein from vibrio alginolyticus.vibrio alginolyticus is one of the vibrio pathogens common to humans and marine animals. during infection and induction of the host immune response, outer membrane proteins of bacteria play an important role. in this study, an outer membrane protein gene (ompw) was cloned from v. alginolyticus and expressed in escherichia coli. the 645 bp open reading frame (orf) encodes a protein of 214 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 23.3 kda. the amino acid sequence showed a high iden ...200717342258
atp binding to the ktn/rck subunit ktra from the k+ -uptake system ktrab of vibrio alginolyticus: its role in the formation of the ktrab complex and its requirement in vivo.subunit ktra of the bacterial na(+)-dependent k(+)-translocating ktrab systems belongs to the ktn/rck family of regulatory proteins and protein domains. they are located at the cytoplasmic side of the cell membrane. by binding ligands they regulate the activity of a number of k(+) transporters and k(+) channels. to investigate the function of ktra from the bacterium vibrio alginolyticus (vaktra), the protein was overproduced in his-tagged form (his(10)-vaktra) and isolated by affinity chromatogr ...200717344221
the bidirectional polar and unidirectional lateral flagellar motors of vibrio alginolyticus are controlled by a single chey species.the bacterial flagellar motor is an elaborate molecular machine that converts ion-motive force into mechanical force (rotation). one of its remarkable features is its swift switching of the rotational direction or speed upon binding of the response regulator phospho-chey, which causes the changes in swimming that achieve chemotaxis. vibrio alginolyticus has dual flagellar systems: the na(+)-driven polar flagellum (pof) and the h(+)-driven lateral flagella (laf), which are used for swimming in li ...200717376072
growth response of vibrio cholerae and other vibrio spp. to cyanobacterial dissolved organic matter and temperature in brackish water.environmental control of growth and persistence of vibrios in aquatic environments is poorly understood even though members of the genus vibrio are globally important pathogens. to study how algal-derived organic matter and temperature influenced the abundance of different vibrio spp., baltic sea microcosms inoculated with vibrio cholerae, vibrio vulnificus, vibrio parahaemolyticus, vibrio alginolyticus and native bacterioplankton, were exposed to different temperatures (12-25 degrees c) and ame ...200717386033
characterization and resuscitation of viable but nonculturable vibrio alginolyticus vib283.the aim of this study was to investigate the viable but nonculturable (vbnc) state of the bacterium. vibrio alginolyticus vib283 was cultured in sterilized seawater microcosm at 4 degrees c. culturability of the cells in the microcosm was monitored by spread plate count (pc) on 2216e agar, pcs declined to undetectable levels (<0.1 cfu/ml) within 90 days. total cell counts remained constant throughout the period as determined by acridine orange direct count (aodc). the direct viable counts, on th ...200717492270
Displaying items 701 - 800 of 1999