effects of changes in membrane sodium flux on virulence gene expression in vibrio cholerae.the expression of several virulence factors of vibrio cholerae is coordinately regulated by the toxt molecule and the membrane proteins tcpp/h and toxr/s, which are required for toxt transcription. to identify proteins that negatively affect toxt transcription, we screened transposon mutants of v. cholerae carrying a chromosomally integrated toxt::lacz reporter construct for darker blue colonies on media containing 5-bromo-4-chlor-3-indolyl beta-d galactoside (x-gal). two mutants had transposon ...199910077658
prevention of marine biofouling using a conductive paint electrodeconductive paint electrode was used for marine biofouling on fishing nets by electrochemical disinfection. when a potential of 1.2 v vs. a saturated calomel electrode (sce) was applied to the conductive paint electrode, vibrio alginolyticus cells attached on the electrode were completely killed. by applying a negative potential, the attached cells were removed from the surface of the electrode. changes in ph and chlorine concentration were not observed at potentials in the range -0.6 approximate ...199810099349
suppression by the dna fragment of the motx promoter region on long flagellar mutants of vibrio alginolyticus.the axial length of the polar flagellum (pof) of vibrio alginolyticus is about 5 microm. we previously isolated mutants that make abnormally long flagella. the swarm sizes of these mutants in a soft agar plate are smaller than that of a wild-type strain. we cloned a dna fragment into the pmf209 plasmid that restored the swarming ability of the long-pof strain v10578. the swimming speed and flagellar length of these transformants were almost equal to the wild-type values. the amounts of pf47 flag ...199910100745
camp-mediated catabolite repression and electrochemical potential-dependent production of an extracellular amylase in vibrio alginolyticus.vibrio alginolyticus, a halophilic marine bacterium, produced an extracellular amylase with a molecular mass of approximately 56,000, and the amylase appeared to be subject to catabolite repression mediated by camp. the production of amylase at ph 6.5, at which the respiratory chain-linked h+ pump functions, was inhibited about 75% at 24 hours following the addition of 2 microm carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (cccp), while the production at ph 8.5, at which the respiratory chain-linked ...199910192907
the presumed potassium carrier trk2p in saccharomyces cerevisiae determines an h+-dependent, k+-independent current.ionic currents related to the major potassium uptake systems in saccharomyces cerevisiae were examined by whole cell patch-clamping, under k+ replete conditions. those currents have the following properties. they (1) are inward under all conditions investigated, (2) arise instantaneously with appropriate voltage steps, (3) depend solely upon the moderate affinity transporter trk2p, not upon the high affinity transporter trk1p. they (4) appear to be independent of the extracellular k+ concentrati ...199910218594
differentiation of vibrio alginolyticus strains isolated from sardinian waters by ribotyping and a new rapid pcr fingerprinting method.we investigated the usefulness of a novel pcr fingerprinting technique, based on the specific amplification of genomic regions, to differentiate 30 vibrio alginolyticus strains isolated in sardinian waters. the different profiles obtained were scanned and analyzed by a computer program in order to determine genetic relationships. the results were then compared with the patterns obtained by ribotyping with hindiii, kpni, and xbai restriction enzymes. pcr fingerprinting could differentiate the str ...199910223972
korormicin, an antibiotic specific for gram-negative marine bacteria, strongly inhibits the respiratory chain-linked na+-translocating nadh: quinone reductase from the marine vibrio alginolyticus. 199910344574
vibrios associated with litopenaeus vannamei larvae, postlarvae, broodstock, and hatchery probionts.several bacteriological surveys were performed from 1994 to 1996 at different litopenaeus vannamei hatcheries (in ecuador) and shrimp farms (in mexico). samples were taken from routine productions of healthy and diseased l. vannamei larvae, postlarvae, and their culture environment and from healthy and diseased juveniles and broodstock. in ecuador, the dominant bacterial flora associated with shrimp larvae showing symptoms of zoea 2 syndrome, mysis mold syndrome, and bolitas syndrome has been de ...199910347048
occurrence, diversity, and pathogenicity of halophilic vibrio spp. and non-o1 vibrio cholerae from estuarine waters along the italian adriatic coast.the occurrence, diversity, and pathogenicity of vibrio spp. were investigated in two estuaries along the italian adriatic coast. vibrio alginolyticus was the predominant species, followed by vibrio parahaemolyticus, non-o1 vibrio cholerae, and vibrio vulnificus. by using a biochemical fingerprinting method, all isolates were grouped into nine phenotypes with similarity levels of 75 to 97.5%. the production of toxins capable of causing cytoskeleton-dependent changes was detected in a large number ...199910347072
comparison of the heme iron utilization systems of pathogenic vibrios.vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio fluvialis, and vibrio parahaemolyticus utilized heme and hemoglobin as iron sources and contained chromosomal dna similar to several vibrio cholerae heme iron utilization genes. a v. parahaemolyticus gene that performed the function of v. cholerae huta was isolated. a portion of the tonb1 locus of v. parahaemolyticus was sequenced and found to encode proteins similar in amino acid sequence to v. cholerae hutw, tonb1, and exbb1. a recombinant plasmid containing the v. ...199910348876
change to alanine of one out of four selectivity filter glycines in ktrb causes a two orders of magnitude decrease in the affinities for both k+ and na+ of the na+ dependent k+ uptake system ktrab from vibrio alginolyticus.ktrab from vibrio alginolyticus is a recently described new type of high affinity bacterial k+ uptake system. its activity assayed in an escherichia coli k+ uptake negative mutant depended on na+ ions (km of 40 microm). subunit ktrb contains four putative p-loops. the selectivity filter from each p-loop contains a conserved glycine residue. residue gly-290 from the third p-loop selectivity filter in ktrb was exchanged for ala, ser or asp. ktrb variants ser-290 and asp-290 were without activity. ...199910359077
cloning, sequencing, expression and characterization of the manganese superoxide dismutase gene from vibrio alginolyticus.the soda gene coding for manganese superoxide dismutase from the marine microorganism vibrio alginolyticus was cloned, sequenced and over-expressed in escherichia coli using the pet20b (+) expression vector. the full-length gene was consisted of 603bp open reading frame, which encoded a polypeptide of 201 amino acid residues, with a calculated molecular weight of 22672da. the deduced amino acid sequence of the soda showed considerable homology to other mn-sods. the recombinant enzyme was efficie ...199910365251
an evaluation of chromogenic substrates for characterization of serine protease produced by pathogenic vibrio alginolyticus.four chromogenic substrates for characterizing serine protease of vibrio alginolyticus were evaluated. the protease activity of bacterial extracellular products, or the fractions of 33 kd protease purified by the akta purifier system with various columns, was completely inhibited by ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid, ethylene glycol-bis(beta-amino-ethyl ether) n,n,n',n'-tetraacetic acid (egta), antipain and phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride (pmsf) using water-soluble substrates (azoalbumin and azoc ...199910413876
functional interaction between poma and pomb, the na(+)-driven flagellar motor components of vibrio alginolyticus.four proteins, poma, pomb, motx, and moty, appear to be involved in force generation of the sodium-driven polar flagella of vibrio alginolyticus. among these, poma and pomb seem to be associated and to form a sodium channel. by using antipeptide antibodies against poma or pomb, we carried out immunoprecipitation to verify whether these proteins form a complex and examined the in vivo stabilities of poma and pomb. as a result, we could demonstrate that poma and pomb functionally interact with eac ...199910438787
random mutagenesis of the poma gene encoding a putative channel component of the na(+)-driven polar flagellar motor of vibrio alginolyticus.poma and pomb are integral membrane proteins and are essential for the rotation of the na(+)-driven polar flagellar motor of vibrio alginolyticus. on the basis of their similarity to mota and motb, which are the proton-conducting components of the h(+)-driven motor, they are thought to form the na(+)-channel complex and to be essential for mechanochemical coupling in the motor. to investigate poma function, random mutagenesis of the poma gene by using hydroxylamine was carried out. we isolated 3 ...199910439415
active immunisation of black tiger prawn (penaeus monodon) against vibriosis in thailand.mechanisms of host defence in crustaceae and vibriosis in shrimp and methods for its prevention are discussed as introduction. the own work deals with the development of a site-specific multivalent anti-vibrio vaccine and its application in thailand. the vaccine was produced in a continuous bioreactor system from field strains of vibrio alginolyticus, v. harveyi, v. parahaemolyticus and v. vulnificus, purified through ultrafiltration, and inactivated by formalin. it was applied to penaeus monodo ...199910486986
on the in-vitro antimicrobial activity of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol.secoiridoides (oleuropein and derivatives), one of the major classes of polyphenol contained in olives and olive oil, have recently been shown to inhibit or delay the rate of growth of a range of bacteria and microfungi but there are no data in the literature concerning the possible employment of these secoiridoides as antimicrobial agents against pathogenic bacteria in man. in this study five atcc standard bacterial strains (haemophilus influenzae atcc 9006, moraxella catarrhalis atcc 8176, sal ...199910504039
hybrid motor with h(+)- and na(+)-driven components can rotate vibrio polar flagella by using sodium ions.the bacterial flagellar motor is a molecular machine that converts ion flux across the membrane into flagellar rotation. the coupling ion is either a proton or a sodium ion. the polar flagellar motor of the marine bacterium vibrio alginolyticus is driven by sodium ions, and the four protein components, poma, pomb, motx, and moty, are essential for motor function. among them, poma and pomb are similar to mota and motb of the proton-driven motors, respectively. poma shows greatest similarity to mo ...199910515922
evolutionary changes reflected by the cellular amino acid composition.comparison of the amino acid composition of cell-proteins using 17 amino acids has been used to investigate the biological evolution of organisms such as bacteria, blue-green alga, green alga, fungi, slime mold, protozoa and vertebrates. the degree of difference in the amino acid ratios between any two groups reflects the degree of divergency in biological evolution. the amino acid composition of the gram-negative bacteria (escherichia coli, klebsiella, proteus, and vibrio alginolyticus) was ide ...199910524278
the effect of motility and cell-surface polymers on bacterial attachment.recently it was shown that motility of vibrio alginolyticus facilitated cell attachment to glass surfaces. in the present study the same relationship between motility and cell attachment was confirmed for alcaligenes and alteromonas spp. these findings clearly answer a long-standing question: does motility facilitate attachment? however, they are contradictory to a general view on cell attachment that the energy barrier due to electrostatic repulsion between negatively charged bacterial cells an ...199910537201
inhibitor studies of a new antibiotic, korormicin, 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline n-oxide and ag+ toward the na+-translocating nadh-quinone reductase from the marine vibrio alginolyticus.a new antibiotic, korormicin, isolated from a marine bacterium pseudoalteromonas sp. f-420, was found to strongly inhibit the respiratory chain-linked na+-translocating nadh-quinone reductase (nqr) from the marine vibrio alginolyticus. similar to 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline n-oxide (hqno), korormicin specifically inhibited the na+-dependent reaction in the nqr complex that is directly coupled to the extrusion of na+ from the cells. both korormicin and hqno acted as purely noncompetitive inhibi ...199910549856
sequencing and preliminary characterization of the na+-translocating nadh:ubiquinone oxidoreductase from vibrio harveyi.the na(+)-translocating nadh: ubiquinone oxidoreductase (na(+)-nqr) generates an electrochemical na(+) potential driven by aerobic respiration. previous studies on the enzyme from vibrio alginolyticus have shown that the na(+)-nqr has six subunits, and it is known to contain fad and an fes center as redox cofactors. in the current work, the enzyme from the marine bacterium vibrio harveyi has been purified and characterized. in addition to fad, a second flavin, tentatively identified as fmn, was ...199910587447
chronic diarrhea associated with vibrio alginolyticus in an immunocompromised patient. 199910589925
survey on the distribution of vibrionaceae at the seaport areas in taiwan, 1991-1994.a monthly survey on the distribution of human-pathogenic vibrionaceae of the seawater from five principal harbors in taiwan was conducted by national quarantine service from july, 1991 to february, 1994. of the total 1,167 vibrionaceae isolates, strains of vibrio alginolyticus (449 strains) were the most frequently isolated, followed by vibrio parahaemolyticus (262) , aeromonas hydrophila (153), vibrio cholerae non-o1 (86), and vibrio vulnificus (67). none of vibrio cholerae o1 was isolated. the ...199610592802
purification and partial characterization of a toxic serine protease produced by pathogenic vibrio extracellular lethal toxin produced by vibrio alginolyticus strain swy originally isolated from diseased kuruma prawn (penaeus japonicus) was purified using the akta purifier system with hydrophobic interaction chromatography, anion exchange and gel filtration columns. the toxin is an alkaline serine protease, inhibited by phenyl methylsulphonyl fluoride (pmsf), antipain and shows maximal activity at ph 8 to 11, having a pi of 4.3 and a molecular weight of approximately 33 kd. the toxin was c ...199910624008
cysteine-scanning mutagenesis of the periplasmic loop regions of poma, a putative channel component of the sodium-driven flagellar motor in vibrio alginolyticus.the sodium-driven motor consists of the products of at least four genes, poma, pomb, motx, and moty, in vibrio alginolyticus. poma and pomb, which are homologous to the mota and motb components of proton-driven motors, have four transmembrane segments and one transmembrane segment, respectively, and are thought to form an ion channel. in poma, two periplasmic loops were predicted at positions 21 to 36 between membrane segments 1 and 2 (loop(1-2)) and at positions 167 to 180 between membrane segm ...200010648526
[bioenergetics of marine bacteria--respiration-coupled na+ pump].marine bacteria are unique in the requirement for na+ for optimal growth. using a marine bacterium vibrio alginolyticus, it was confirmed that na+ is essential for the active uptake of all amino acids. furthermore, the respiratory chain of v. alginolyticus was found to require na+ for the maximum activity. the site of na(+)-dependent activation is localized in the nadh-quinone reductase segment, where na+ is extruded from the cells as a direct result of redox reaction. thus, marine bacteria are ...200010655779
functional reconstitution of the na(+)-driven polar flagellar motor component of vibrio alginolyticus.the bacterial flagellar motor is a molecular machine that couples the influx of specific ions to the generation of the force necessary to drive rotation of the flagellar filament. four integral membrane proteins, poma, pomb, motx, and moty, have been suggested to be directly involved in torque generation of the na(+)-driven polar flagellar motor of vibrio alginolyticus. in the present study, we report the isolation of the functional component of the torque-generating unit. the purified protein c ...200010681557
characterization of a flagellar sheath component, pf60, and its structural gene in marine vibrio.the polar flagella (pof) of vibrio alginolyticus are surrounded by a membrane structure called a sheath. five major proteins, whose molecular masses are 60, 47, 45, 44, and 18 kda (named pf60, pf47, pf45, pf44, and pf18, respectively), have been detected in polar flagella. pf47 and pf45 have been identified as flagellins while the other proteins are thought to be sheath-associated ones. in this study, we isolated and partially characterized a major sheath protein, pf60. we found that pf60 can be ...200010731663
lethal attribute of serine protease secreted by vibrio alginolyticus strains in kuruma prawn penaeus japonicus.toxicity of the extracellular products (ecp) and the lethal attribute of serine protease secreted by five pathogenic vibrio alginolyticus strains from various sources in kuruma prawn penaeus japonicus were studied. the ecps of organisms originally isolated from diseased kuruma prawn or small abalone haliotis diversicolor supertexta were more lethal (ld50 value of 0.48 or 0.41 microg protein/g prawn) than those from diseased tiger prawn p. monodon, yellowfin porgy acanthopagrus latus or horse mac ...200010739107
distribution of vibrio cholerae virulence genes among different vibrio species isolated in sardinia, italy.the members of the genus vibrio include harmless aquatic strains as well as strains capable of causing epidemics of cholera. diarrhoea caused by vibrio cholerae is attributed to cholerae enterotoxin (ct) codified by the ctx operon and regulated by a number of virulence genes such as toxt, toxr and toxs. fifty-two vibrio strains were isolated from different aquatic environments in and around sardinia and searched by pcr for the presence of ctxa, zot, ace, toxr, toxs, toxt, tcpa and vpi virulence ...200010747228
epidermal lesions and mortality caused by vibriosis in deep-sea bahamian echinoids: a laboratory study.when significant mortality of the bathyal spatangoid echinoid paleopneustes cristatus occurred under laboratory conditions, we investigated the cause and course of the disease by culturing and identifying internal pathogens, then experimentally infecting healthy urchins with isolates of the suspected disease organism. the pathogen was determined to be the gram-negative halophilic bacterium vibrio alginolyticus. this species was also recovered from frozen post-challenge specimens of p. cristatus ...200010768287
detection of the na(+)-translocating nadh-quinone reductase in marine bacteria using a pcr examine the distribution of the na(+)-translocating nadh-quinone reductase (na(+)-nqr) among marine bacteria, we developed a simple screening method for the detection of this enzyme. by reference to the homologous sequences of the na(+)-nqr operons from vibrio alginolyticus and haemophilus influenzae, a pair of primers was designed for amplification of a part of the sixth orf (nqr6) of the na(+)-nqr operon. when pcr was performed using genomic dna from 13 marine bacteria, a 0.9-kbp fragment c ...200010779868
nhaa, an na(+)/h(+) antiporter involved in environmental survival of vibrio cholerae.vibrio cholerae, the agent of cholera, is a normal inhabitant of aquatic environments, in which it survives under a wide range of conditions of ph and salinity. in this work, we identified the nhaa gene in a wild-type epidemic strain of v. cholerae o1. nhaa encodes a protein of 382 amino acids that is very similar to the proteins nhaa of vibrio parahaemolyticus, vibrio alginolyticus ( approximately 87% identity), and escherichia coli (56% identity). v. cholerae nhaa complements an e. coli nhaa m ...200010781565
multimeric structure of poma, a component of the na+-driven polar flagellar motor of vibrio alginolyticus.four integral membrane proteins, poma, pomb, motx, and moty, are thought to be directly involved in torque generation of the na(+)-driven polar flagellar motor of vibrio alginolyticus. our previous study showed that poma and pomb form a complex, which catalyzes sodium influx in response to a potassium diffusion potential. poma forms a stable dimer when expressed in a pomb null mutant. to explore the possible functional dependence of poma domains in adjacent subunits, we prepared a series of poma ...200010783392
a slow-motility phenotype caused by substitutions at residue asp31 in the poma channel component of a sodium-driven flagellar motor.poma is thought to be a component of the ion channel in the sodium-driven polar-flagellar motor of vibrio alginolyticus. we have found that some cysteine substitutions in the periplasmic region of poma result in a slow-motility phenotype, in which swarming and swimming speeds are reduced even in the presence of high concentrations of nacl. most of the mutants showed a sodium ion dependence similar to that of the wild type but with significantly reduced motility at all sodium ion concentrations. ...200010809720
covalently bound flavin in the nqrb and nqrc subunits of na(+)-translocating nadh-quinone reductase from vibrio nadh-quinone reductase (nqr) from the marine bacterium vibrio alginolyticus is composed of six subunits (nqra to nqrf). on sds-page of the purified complex, nqrb and nqrc subunits were found to give yellow-green fluorescent bands under uv illumination. both the nqrb and nqrc, electroeluted from the gel, had an absorption maximum at 448 nm, and the fluorescence excitation maxima at 365 and 448 nm and the emission maximum at 514 nm. the electroeluted nqrb and nqrc, respectively ...200010838078
an unusual source of vibrio alginolyticus-associated otitis: prolonged colonization or freshwater exposure?otitis externa and otitis media are commonly encountered in clinical practice. we report an unusual case of otitis externa, which was caused by vibrio alginolyticus, several months after saltwater exposure. clinicians need to be aware of this unusual pathogen, especially in refractory cases of ear infections.200010864119
coupling ion specificity of chimeras between h(+)- and na(+)-driven motor proteins, motb and pomb, in vibrio polar flagella.we have shown that a hybrid motor consisting of proton-type rhodobacter sphaeroides mota and sodium-type vibrio: alginolyticus pomb, motx and moty, can work as a sodium-driven motor in vibrio: cells. in this study, we tried to substitute the b subunits, which contain a putative ion-binding site in the transmembrane region. rhodobacter sphaeroides motb did not work with either mota or poma in vibrio cells. therefore, we constructed chimeric proteins (momb), which had n-terminal motb and c-termina ...200010899118
intermolecular cross-linking between the periplasmic loop3-4 regions of poma, a component of the na+-driven flagellar motor of vibrio alginolyticus.poma and pomb form a complex that conducts sodium ions and generates the torque for the na(+)-driven polar flagellar motor of vibrio alginolyticus. poma has four transmembrane segments. one periplasmic loop (loop(1-2)) connects segments 1 and 2, and another (loop(3-4)), in which cysteine-scanning mutagenesis had been carried out, connects segments 3 and 4. when poma with an introduced cys residue (cys-poma) in the c-terminal periplasmic loop (loop(3-4)) was examined without exposure to a reducin ...200010900193
hepatopancreatic alterations in litopenaeus vannamei (boone, 1939) (crustacea: decapoda: penaeidae) experimentally infected with a vibrio alginolyticus in other countries, the presence of disease has affected and limited the development of shrimp culture in venezuela. vibriosis is one of the most prevalent, causing high mortality not only in larval cultures but also in shrimp production. the present work shows the histological changes in hepatopancreas of litopenaeus vannamei experimentally induced by a strain of vibrio alginolyticus. the shrimps were infected by the immersion technique, being exposed to a concentration of 5.2 x 10(7) bacter ...200010963396
isolation of vibrio alginolyticus from seawater aquaria.the seawater bacterium vibrio alginolyticus was detected in 5 of 20 water samples from seawater aquaria (from 3 of 5 units) and also from the surface of diseased stony corals. a total of 45 isolates were differentiated biochemically, of which 13 isolates (29%) proved to be v. alginolyticus. all those strains produced the virulence factors caseinase and lipase, 11 strains amylase and gelatinase. 7 strains showed lecithinase activity and 2 strains produced hemolysins. all examined strains showed a ...200011109571
metal content and biochemical analyses of a recombinant collagenase prtv from vibrio parahaemolyticus.prtv is an extracellular metalloprotease of vibrio parahaemolyticus and regarded as a collagenase. inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry analysis indicated that the recombinant prtv contains 1 mol of zinc per mol of the native enzyme. on the basis of a kinetic study using 2-furanacryloyl-leu-gly-pro-ala (falgpa, the specific substrate for bacterial collagenase) as a substrate, it was suggested that metal ions may play a significant role in the binding and catalytic steps of th ...200011128063
fmn is covalently attached to a threonine residue in the nqrb and nqrc subunits of na(+)-translocating nadh-quinone reductase from vibrio alginolyticus.the na(+)-translocating nadh-quinone reductase (nqr) from vibrio alginolyticus is composed of six subunits (nqra to nqrf). we previously demonstrated that both nqrb and nqrc subunits contain a flavin cofactor covalently attached to a threonine residue. fluorescent peptide fragments derived from the nqrb and nqrc subunits were applied to a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and covalently attached flavin was identified as fmn in both subunits. from post- ...200111163785
virulence factors in vibrio alginolyticus strains isolated from aquatic a microbiological monitoring carried out in various aquatic environment of sardinia island (italy) vibrio alginolyticus with different virulence phenotypes appeared widely spread. hemolysis, hemoagglutination and protease production might be together particularly in strains isolated from polluted environments. adherence capacities to two epithelial cells (hep-2 and caco-2) available in laboratory were widely spread in the examined bacterial strains. the adhesion degree was influenced by the u ...200011235505
recent progress in the na(+)-translocating nadh-quinone reductase from the marine vibrio alginolyticus.the respiratory chain of gram-negative marine and halophilic bacteria has a na(+)-dependent nadh-quinone reductase that functions as a primary na(+) pump. the na(+)-translocating nadh-quinone reductase (nqr) from the marine vibrio alginolyticus is composed of six structural genes (nqra to nqrf). the nqrf subunit has non-covalently bound fad. there are conflicting results on the existence of other flavin cofactors. recent studies revealed that the nqrb and nqrc subunits have a covalently bound fl ...200111248187
na(+) translocation by bacterial nadh:quinone oxidoreductases: an extension to the complex-i family of primary redox pumps.the current knowledge on the na(+)-translocating nadh:ubiquinone oxidoreductase of the na(+)-nqr type from vibrio alginolyticus, and on na(+) transport by the electrogenic nadh:q oxidoreductases from escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumoniae (complex i, or ndh-i) is summarized. a general mode of redox-linked na(+) transport by nadh:q oxidoreductases is proposed that is based on the electrostatic attraction of a positively charged na(+) towards a negatively charged, enzyme-bound ubisemiquinone a ...200111248188
pathogenicity of vibrio alginolyticus isolated from diseased small abalone haliotis diversicolor supertexta.outbreaks of mass mortality among cultured small abalone haliotis diversicolor supertexta with abscess/ulcers in the mantle occurred in 1998 at kao-hsiung, taiwan. a swarming bacterium, strain h-11 was isolated from the haemolymph of the moribund small abalone using tryptic soy agar supplemented with 3% nacl and/or thiosulphate citrate bile salt sucrose agar. this strain was characterized and identified as vibrio alginolyticus on the basis of various biochemical tests. the h-11 strain and its ex ...200111297013
vibrio alginolyticus acute gastroenteritis: report of two cases. 200111298156
in vitro susceptibility of vibrio spp. isolated from the environment.bacteria of the genus vibrio include harmless aquatic strains as well as strains capable of causing epidemics of cholera and human intestinal diseases. some of these species may show resistance to different antibiotics including cefotaxime, tetracycline and chloramphenicol. the susceptibility to different antibiotics was tested using 40 vibrio alginolyticus, eight v. parahaemolyticus and six v. vulnificus strains isolated in the coastal waters of northern sardinia (italy). the frequency of resis ...200111337229
structures of ribonuclease p rnas of vibrio core species.the structures of an rna component of ribonuclease p (rnase p rna) were examined for vibrio parahaemolyticus, vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio carchariae, vibrio natriegens, vibrio campbellii, vibrio proteolyticus, vibrio pelagius and vibrio harveyi to clearly determine their genetic differences. the rnase p rnas ranged from 382 to 454 nucleotides (nt) in size, and were remarkably different from each other in the structure of two helices, p3 and p12. the p3 helices were comprised of tandem repeats o ...200111430405
residue aspartate-147 from the third transmembrane region of na(+)/h(+) antiporter nhab of vibrio alginolyticus plays a role in its activity.nhab is a bacterial na(+)/h(+) antiporter with unique topology. the ph dependence of nhab from vibrio alginolyticus differs from that of the escherichia coli nhab homolog. replacement of asp-147 with glu made high h(+) concentrations a requirement for the nhab activity. replacement of asp-147 with neutral amino acids inactivated nhab.200111544242
identification of bacteria crucial to histamine accumulation in pacific mackerel during storage.bacterial growth and histamine formation in pacific mackerel during storage at 0, 4, 15, and 25 degrees c were monitored. to identify bacterial species contributing to histamine formation, several groups of bacteria were isolated by using selective media under temperatures corresponding to the various storage conditions. initially, low counts of bacteria were found in the gill, skin, and intestine of fresh fish, and only weak histamine formers were found in the gill. histamine was found in the m ...200111601705
identification of the abc protein sapd as the subunit that confers atp dependence to the k+-uptake systems trk(h) and trk(g) from escherichia coli k-12.the activity of the two almost identical k+-uptake systems, trk(h) and trk(g), from escherichia coli k-12 depends completely and partially on the presence of the trke gene, respectively. trke maps inside the sapabcdf operon, which encodes an atp-binding cassette (abc) transporter of unknown function from the subgroup of peptide-uptake systems. this study was carried out to clarify the role of sapabcdf gene products in the atp dependence of the e. coli trk systems. for this purpose deltasapabcdf ...200111700350
cloning and characterization of motx, a vibrio alginolyticus sodium-driven flagellar motor gene.four motor proteins, motx, moty, poma, and pomb, have been identified as constituents of the na(+)-driven flagellum of vibrio species. in this study, the complete motx gene was cloned from vibrio alginolyticus and shown to complement three mot mutations, motx94, motx115, and motx119, as well as a v. parahaemolyticus motx mutant. the motx94 mutant contains a frameshift at val86 of motx, while the motx115 and motx119 mutations comprise substitutions of ala146 to val and gln 194 to amber, respectiv ...200111726290
difference between forward and backward swimming speeds of the single polar-flagellated bacterium, vibrio alginolyticus.the forward and backward swimming speeds and periods of a vibrio alginolyticus strain that has a single polar flagellum were measured. the backward swimming speeds were 1.5 times greater than the forward ones on average and the average period of backward swimming was shorter than forward swimming. however, the swimming speed and period were not correlated. similar results were obtained for a mutant that has a 1.6 times longer flagellum on average.200111750825
chemical defense in the egg masses of benthic invertebrates: an assessment of antibacterial activity in 39 mollusks and 4 polychaetes.many marine invertebrates deposit benthic egg masses that are potentially vulnerable to microbial infection. to help counter this threat these species may have evolved some form of chemical protection for their encapsulated embryos. in this study the egg masses from 7 marine mollusks were tested for antibacterial activity against 4 marine pathogens: enterococcus sericolicida, vibrio anguillarum, vibrio alginolyticus, and vibrio harveyi. extracts from all of these egg masses were found to inhibit ...200111812113
inactivation of the na+-translocating nadh:ubiquinone oxidoreductase from vibrio alginolyticus by reactive oxygen species.the na+-translocating nadh:quinone oxidoreductase (na+-nqr) from vibrio alginolyticus was inactivated by reactive oxygen species. highest na+-nqr activity was observed in anaerobically prepared membranes that exhibited 1:1 coupling of nadh oxidation and q reduction activities (1.6 u x mg(-1)). optical and epr spectroscopy documented the presence of b-type cytochromes, a [2fe-2s] cluster and an organic radical signal in anaerobically prepared membranes from v. alginolyticus. it is shown that the ...200211856363
cloning and sequence analysis of a novel metalloprotease gene from vibrio parahaemolyticus 04.the metalloprotease gene (vppc) from vibrio parahaemolyticus 04 has been cloned and sequenced. the vppc gene contains an open reading frame of 2442 nucleotides encoding a polypeptide of 814 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 89,833 da. the predicted amino acid sequence of vppc containing a zinc metalloprotease hexxh consensus motif displays extensive homology to the collagenase from vibrio alginolyticus. the activity of the recombinant protease produced in escherichia coli was exami ...200211867235
novel substituted quinoxaline 1,4-dioxides with in vitro antimycobacterial and anticandida activity.thirty-six 6(7)-substituted-3-methyl- or 3-halogenomethyl-2-phenylthio-phenylsulphonyl-chloro-quinoxaline 1,4-dioxides belonging to series 3-6 were synthesised and submitted to a preliminary in vitro evaluation for antimycobacterial, anticandida and antibacterial activities. antitubercular screening showed a generally good activity of 3-methyl-2-phenylthioquinoxaline 1,4-dioxides (3d,e,h-j) against mycobacterium tuberculosis, and exhibited mic between 0.39 and 0.78 microg ml(-1) (rifampicin mic= ...200212008050
ilizarov technique in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis caused by vibrio alginolyticus.we present a case of 26-year-old woman with posttraumatic chronic osteomyelitis caused by vibrio alginolyticus, contracted after contamination of a tibial fracture with seawater. the patient underwent bone resection and bifocal osteosynthesis according to ilizarov and was treated with a combination of ciprofloxacin and tetracycline. the patient responded in the same way to distraction osteogenesis as any other patient with chronic osteomyelitis with large defects.200212035144
korormicin insensitivity in vibrio alginolyticus is correlated with a single point mutation of gly-140 in the nqrb subunit of the na(+)-translocating nadh-quinone nadh-quinone reductase (nqr) from the marine vibrio alginolyticus is strongly inhibited by a new antibiotic korormicin. korormicin specifically inhibits the na(+)-dependent reaction of the nqr complex and acts as a purely non-competitive inhibitor for q-1 with the inhibitor constant of 82 pm. korormicin-resistant mutants were isolated from v. alginolyticus and the nqr complex was purified from a mutant kr2. similar to 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline n-oxide (hqno), korormicin a ...200212054467
vibrio alginolyticus as the cause of pleural empyema and bacteremia in an immunocompromised patient. 200212072928
[immunotropic properties of exoglycan obtained from the marine micro-organism vibrio alginolyticus].immune system modulating activity of exoglycane isolated from culture media of vibrio alginolyticus (strain 945-80) was investigated. the substance demonstrated stimulating activity on the humoral and cell immune system, potentiated phagocyte activity of macrophage and neutrophils, increased survival index of the animals infected by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.200212077940
the systematic substitutions around the conserved charged residues of the cytoplasmic loop of na+-driven flagellar motor component poma.poma, a homolog of mota in the h+-driven flagellar motor, is an essential component for torque generation in the na+-driven flagellar motor. previous studies suggested that two charged residues, r90 and e98, which are in the single cytoplasmic loop of mota, are directly involved in this process. these residues are conserved in poma of vibrio alginolyticus as r88 and e96, respectively. to explore the role of these charged residues in the na+-driven motor, we replaced them with other amino acids. ...200212079395
comparative susceptibility of veliger larvae of four bivalve mollusks to a vibrio alginolyticus strain.the susceptibility of 7 d old veliger larvae of the scallops argopecten ventricosus and nodipecten subnodosus, the penshell atrina maura, and the pacific oyster crassostrea gigas to a pathogenic strain of vibrio alginolyticus was investigated by challenging the larvae with different bacterial concentrations in a semi-static assay. the results indicate that the larvae of the 2 scallop species are more susceptible to the v. alginolyticus strain than those of the oyster and the penshell. signs of t ...200212113308
motx and moty, specific components of the sodium-driven flagellar motor, colocalize to the outer membrane in vibrio alginolyticus.rotation of the sodium-driven polar flagella of vibrio alginolyticus requires four motor proteins: poma, pomb, motx and moty. motx and moty, which are unique components of the sodium-driven motor of vibrio, have been believed to be localized in the inner (cytoplasmic) membrane via their n-terminal hydrophobic segments. here we show that motx and moty colocalize to the outer membrane. both proteins, when expressed together, were detected in the outer membrane fraction separated by sucrose density ...200212366836
presence of vibrios in seawater and mytilus galloprovincialis (lam.) from the mar piccolo of taranto (ionian sea).during the spring-summer period, vibrios were detected in water and mussels (mytilus galloprovincialis) collected in 30 sampling sites located in the mar piccolo of taranto (ionian sea, italy). in order to evaluate the degree of microbial pollution of the investigated area, fecal coliforms and escherichia coli densities were also determined. vibrio alginolyticus constituted the predominant component of the total culturable vibrios. some vibrio species such as v. mediterranei, v. parahaemolyticus ...200212369519
usefulness of r72h pcr assay for differentiation between vibrio parahaemolyticus and vibrio alginolyticus species: validation by dna-dna hybridization.we compared the efficiencies of biochemical methods and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for the identification of vibrio parahaemolyticus strains. the 122 isolates studied, identified by biochemical tests as v. parahaemolyticus or vibrio alginolyticus, were tested by r72h pcr assay. the results obtained with the two methods were consistent for 90% of the strains studied. pcr amplification of the r72h fragment generated two unique amplicons, 387 bp and 320 bp in length. for 11% of the strains fro ...200212393193
phylogenetic study and identification of human pathogenic vibrio species based on partial hsp60 gene sequences.the use of hsp60 gene sequences for phylogenetic study and identification of pathogenic marine vibrios was investigated. a 600-bp partial hsp60 gene was amplified by pcr and sequenced from 29 strains representing 15 vibrio species within the family vibrionaceae. sequence comparison of the amplified partial hsp60 gene revealed 71-82% sequence identity among different vibrio species and 96-100% sequence identity among epidemiologically distinct strains with the same species designation. this degre ...200212489780
in the spiny lobster (panulirus interruptus) the prophenoloxidase is located in plasma not in the spiny lobster (panulirus interruptus), unlike other crustaceans most of the prophenoloxidase (propo) was detected in cell-free plasma (86.3%). in spite of its location, lobster propo activating system has a similar activation mechanism to other crustacean propo systems. haemocyte lysate was able to activate the plasma propo indicating location of the prophenoloxidase activating enzyme (ppae) in haemocytes. lobster haemocyte ppae was isolated by affinity chromatography and its participatio ...200312526875
[antibiotic resistance and plasmid profiles of vibrio isolates from cultured sparus sarba].a total of 51 potential pathogenic vibrios were isolated from moribund silver seabream sparus sarba, which were collected from local fish farms of hong kong. all the isolates were classified and identified as 7 species by the api 20 e system and the scheme of alsina & blanch. these species were vibrio alginolyticus (24 strains), vibrio vulnificus (12 strains), vibrio parahaemolyticus(7 strains), vibrio logei(4 strains), vibrio pelagius ii(2 strains), vibrio fluvialis (1 strains) and vibrio medit ...199912555529
ktrab and ktrcd: two k+ uptake systems in bacillus subtilis and their role in adaptation to hypertonicity.recently, a new type of k+ transporter, ktr, has been identified in the bacterium vibrio alginolyticus (t. nakamura, r. yuda, t. unemoto, and e. p. bakker, j. bacteriol. 180:3491-3494, 1998). the ktr transport system consists of ktrb, an integral membrane subunit, and ktra, a subunit peripherally bound to the cytoplasmic membrane. the genome sequence of bacillus subtilis contains two genes for each of these subunits: yuaa (ktra) and ykqb (ktrc) encode homologues to the v. alginolyticus ktra prot ...200312562800
numerical taxonomy of vibrionaceae isolated from cultured amberjack (seriola dumerili) and surrounding water.a numerical taxonomic study was performed on 148 isolates of gram-negative, heterotrophic, facultative anaerobic bacteria isolated from amberjack (seriola dumerili) and its surrounding culture water. the study included 30 type and reference strains belonging to genera vibrio, listonella, and photobacterium. the strains were characterized by 109 morphological, biochemical, physiological, and nutritional tests. cluster analysis of similarity matrices obtained with s(sm) and s(j) coefficients was c ...200312567241
ion-coupling determinants of na+-driven and h+-driven flagellar motors.the bacterial flagellar motor is a tiny molecular machine that uses a transmembrane flux of h(+) or na(+) ions to drive flagellar rotation. in proton-driven motors, the membrane proteins mota and motb interact via their transmembrane regions to form a proton channel. the sodium-driven motors that power the polar flagellum of vibrio species contain homologs of mota and motb, called poma and pomb. they require the unique proteins motx and moty. in this study, we investigated how ion selectivity is ...200312628250
vibrio rotiferianus sp. nov., isolated from cultures of the rotifer brachionus plicatilis.five gram-negative bacterial strains, oxidase-positive, motile by means of more than one polar flagella, facultative anaerobe, arginine dihydrolase-negative, lysine- and omithine decarboxylase-positive, sensitive to the vibriostatic agent o/129, were isolated from a flow-through rotifer culture system in gent, belgium, and previously characterized by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism. comparison of the 16s rdna sequence of strain lmg 21460t indicated close relationships (approxi ...200312656179
torque-speed relationship of the na+-driven flagellar motor of vibrio alginolyticus.the torque-speed relationship of the na(+)-driven flagellar motor of vibrio alginolyticus was investigated. the rotation rate of the motor was measured by following the position of a bead, attached to a flagellar filament, using optical nanometry. in the presence of 50mm nacl, the generated torque was relatively constant ( approximately 3800pnnm) at lower speeds (speeds up to approximately 300hz) and then decreased steeply, similar to the h(+)-driven flagellar motor of escherichia coli. when the ...200312662929
molecular characterisation and antimicrobial resistance of vibrio vulnificus and vibrio alginolyticus isolated from mussels (mytilus galloprovincialis).twelve vibrio vulnificus biotype 1 and 11 vibrio alginolyticus isolated from mussels in italy were analysed by antimicrobial resistance, plasmid profiles, random amplification of polymorphic dna (rapd), and single enzyme amplified fragment length polymorphism (saflp). plasmid dna was detected in three v. vulnificus and four v. alginolyticus cultures. all isolates were resistant to at least two antimicrobial agents: all isolates were resistant to ampicillin, carbenicillin and streptomycin, except ...200312747419
necrotizing fasciitis due to vibrio alginolyticus in an immunocompetent patient.we describe a patient with a history of asthma and remote use of steroids the development of necrotizing fascitis due to vibrio alginolyticus after an injury from a coral reef during bathing in the caribbean sea off colombia. the patient recovered with aggressive surgical debridement and antibiotics.200312843111
molecular cloning, expression of orange-spotted grouper goose-type lysozyme cdna, and lytic activity of its recombinant protein.lysozyme acts as a non-specific innate-immunity molecule against the invasion of bacteria pathogens. a leukocyte cdna library of orange-spotted grouper epinephelus coioides was constructed and the goose-type (g-type) lysozyme cdna was isolated. the complete cdna consists of an open reading frame of 585 bp encoding a protein of 194 amino acids. this protein shows a 72.2% amino acid sequence identity with the flounder g-type lysozyme. similar to most other species, the glu catalytic residue in g-t ...200312911059
hepatic cholangiocarcinoma and testicular mesothelioma in a wild-caught blue shark, prionace glauca (l.).an adult male blue shark, prionace glauca (l.), caught in july 2000 by a recreational fisherman off long island, new york, usa, had a retained fishing hook from a previous capture. the hook penetrated the gastric wall and lacerated the right liver lobe. macroscopic lesions consisted of transmural gastritis and peritonitis. alteromonas sp. and vibrio alginolyticus were isolated from the peritoneal fluid. in addition, a well delineated, sessile mass was found on the otherwise normal serosa of the ...200312962210
oral administration of formalin-inactivated cells of aeromonas hydrophila a3-51 controls infection by atypical a. salmonicida in goldfish, carassius auratus (l.).there has been increasing interest in the use of probiotics in aquaculture to control fish diseases (e.g. douillet langdon 1994; gildberg, mikkelsen, sandaker & ringo 1997; kennedy, tucker, neidic, vermeer, cooper, jarrell & sennett 1998; deschrijver & ollevier 2000; robertson, o'dowd, burrells, williams & austin 2000), and a diverse range of gram-positive (such as carnobacterium inhibens) (robertson et al. 2000) and gram-negative bacteria, including vibrio alginolyticus (garriques & arevalo 199 ...200312962220
misidentification of aeromonas veronii biovar sobria as vibrio alginolyticus by the vitek find the cause of misidentification of aeromonads when using the vitek system.200312969502
pseudomonas creosotensis sp. n., a creosote-tolerant marine a study of the marine biological environment in which creosoted pilings are located, a previously unreported species of bacteria was isolated. this species was detected on creosoted piling from 11 widely differing locations and was the predominant species of bacteria found on these piling. the new organism was identified as a gram-negative rod belonging to the genus pseudomonas and has been named pseudomonas creosotensis. it has been completely described by the standard morphological and bioc ...196114480909
retention of virulence in viable but non-culturable halophilic vibrio spp.the viable but non-culturable (vbnc) forms of two environmental strains of vibrio alginolyticus 1 and vibrio parahaemolyticus 66 and one strain of v. parahaemolyticus atcc 43996 showing virulence characteristics (hemolysin production, adhesive and/or cytotoxic ability, in vivo enteropathogenicity) were obtained by culturing bacteria in a microcosm consisting of artificial sea water (asw) and incubating at 5 degrees c with shaking. every 2 days, culturability of the cells in the microcosm was mon ...200314580971
imprisonment in a death-row cell: the fates of microbes entrapped in the limulus blood clot. 200314583530
description of vibrio alginolyticus infection in cultured sepia officinalis, sepia apama, and sepia pharaonis. 200314583547
quinoxalin-2-ones. part 5. synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of 3-alkyl-, 3-halomethyl- and 3-carboxyethylquinoxaline-2-ones variously substituted on the benzo-moiety.a new series of 3-alkyl-, 3-trifluoromethyl-, 3-carboxyethyl- and 3-bromomethylquinoxaline-2-ones and 2,3-bis(bromomethyl)quinoxalines bearing cl, cf3, morpholine on the benzo-moiety, were synthesised and submitted to a preliminary in vitro evaluation for antibacterial and anticandida activities. results of the screening showed that compounds 9b, 14b and 19b (mic=62.5 microg/ml) and 10b (mic=15.6 microg/ml) were the most active against vibrio alginolyticus.200314630235
intraspecific characterization of vibrio alginolyticus isolates recovered from cultured fish in spain.intraspecific differentiation and characterization of vibrio alginolyticus strains isolated from cultured fish in spain.200314633040
accuracy of six commercially available systems for identification of members of the family vibrionaceae.six commercially available bacterial identification products were tested with vibrio alginolyticus (12 strains), v. cholerae (30 strains), photobacterium (vibrio) damselae (10 strains), v. fluvialis (10 strains), v. furnissii (4 strains), v. hollisae (10 strains), v. metschnikovii (9 strains), v. mimicus (10 strains), v. parahaemolyticus (30 strains), and v. vulnificus (10 strains) to determine the accuracy of each system for identification. the products included api 20e, crystal e/nf, microscan ...200314662957
in vitro inhibition of microbial flora of fish by nisin and lactoperoxidase test the antimicrobial effects of nisin and lactoperoxidase system (lp system) against sardines flora. this study is part of a programme designed to investigate the preservability of fish using these inhibitors as potential biopreservatives.200414687217
vibrio alginolyticus associated with white spot disease of penaeus february 2000, white spot disease outbreaks occurred among cultured penaeus monodon in extensive shrimp farms on the southwest coast of india. bacteria were isolated from infected shrimp that showed reddish body coloration and white spots in the cuticle. the isolates were screened on thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose (tcbs) agar plates for the selection of vibrio species. the primary isolate (qs7) was characterized as v. alginolyticus based on morphological, biochemical and physiological ...200314735933
a single wap domain-containing protein from litopenaeus vannamei hemocytes.a cdna clone coding for a single wap domain (swd) protein was isolated from a hemocyte cdna library of litopenaeus vannamei. the full-length cdna sequence is 0.4kb long and encodes a 93-amino acid protein. using this sequence as a probe a similar clone coding for a 92-amino acids protein was found in a cdna library from penaeus monodon hemocytes. the mrna size was confirmed by northern blot as well as that gene is expressed in hemocytes, but not in hepatopancreas. mrna levels of the shrimp swd p ...200414741689
vibrio hispanicus sp. nov., isolated from artemia sp. and sea water in spain.three gram-negative, small, motile, rod-shaped bacteria were isolated from artemia sp. and sea water in barcelona, spain, during 1990 and 1991. they were fermentative, oxidase-positive, sensitive to vibriostatic agent o/129, arginine dihydrolase-positive, lysine and ornithine decarboxylase-negative and grew in the absence of nacl. they differed from phenotypically related species by their ability to grow at 4 degrees c and utilize l-rhamnose. cloning of the 16s rrna gene of the type strain produ ...200414742490
a k+ yptake protein, trka, is required for serum, protamine, and polymyxin b resistance in vibrio vulnificus.vibrio vulnificus, a highly virulent marine bacterium, is the causative agent of both serious wound infections and fatal septicemia in many areas of the world. to identify the genes required for resistance to human serum, we constructed a library of transposon mutants of v. vulnificus and screened them for hypersensitivity to human serum. here we report that one of the isolated serum-susceptible mutants had a mutation in an open reading frame identified as trka, a gene encoding an amino acid seq ...200414742502
isolation and characterization of pathogenic vibrio alginolyticus from diseased cobia rachycentron canadum.outbreaks of serious mortality among cultured juvenile cobia rachycentron canadum l. (weighing 8-10 g) characterized by lethargy, dark skin and ascites in the peritoneal cavity while some fish possessing damaged eyes occurred in july and august of 2001 in taiwan. fifteen motile bacterial strains were isolated from head kidney and/or the ascites on tryptic soy agar supplemented with 1% nacl (tsa1) and/or thiosulphate citrate bile salt (tcbs) sucrose agar plates during the two outbreaks. all the i ...200414768024
in vitro growth characteristics of five candidate aquaculture probiotics and two fish pathogens grown in fish intestinal mucus.the selection of probiotics for aquaculture is usually based on their antagonism towards pathogens. however, other criteria such as growth, attachment to intestinal mucus and production of beneficial compounds should also be considered. we suggest a protocol for the isolation and selection of potential probiotic bacteria based on their in vitro growth characteristics and propose a ranking index (ri) to screen potential aquaculture probionts. we suggest that the lag period and doubling time are t ...200414769479
synthesis, anti-mycobacterial, anti-trichomonas and anti-candida in vitro activities of 2-substituted-6,7-difluoro-3-methylquinoxaline 1,4-dioxides.a new series of 23 6,7-difluoro-3-methyl-2-phenylthio/phenylsulfonyl/phenylsulfinyl/benzylamino/phenylamino-quinoxaline 1,4-dioxides variously substituted in the phenyl moiety, was synthesized and submitted to in vitro evaluation for anti-mycobacterial, anti-trichomonas, anti-candida, anti-mycoplasma and antibacterial activities. in anti-mycobacterial assays, several compounds resulted active (mic90 = 2.0-4.0 microg/ml) against mycobacterium tuberculosis h37rv. anti-trichomonas screening showed ...200414987828
multimeric structure of the poma/pomb channel complex in the na+-driven flagellar motor of vibrio is known that poma and pomb form a complex that functions as a na(+) channel and generates the torque of the na(+)-driven flagellar motor of vibrio alginolyticus. it has been suggested that poma works as a dimer and that the poma/pomb complex is composed of four poma and two pomb molecules. poma does not have any cys residues and pomb has three cys residues. therefore, a mutant pomb (pomb(cl)) whose three cys residues were replaced by ala was constructed and found to be motile as well. we car ...200414999008
[investigation of the bacteria in the seawater of xisha in the south china sea and their antibiotic sensitivity profile].to investigate the distribution and antibiotic sensitivity of the bacteria in the seawater of xisha in the south china sea.200415041561
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