release and consumption of d-amino acids during growth of marine prokaryotes.analysis of the composition of the marine-dissolved organic matter has highlighted the importance of d-amino acids, whose origin is attributed mainly to the remains of bacterial peptidoglycan released as a result of grazing or viral lysis. however, very few studies have focused on the active release of d-amino acids by bacteria. with this purpose, we measured the concentration of dissolved amino acids in both enantiomeric forms with two levels of complexity: axenic cultures of vibrio furnissii a ...201424057323
structural and functional studies on three alginate lyases from vibrio date, several microorganisms that can metabolize alginate have been characterized. in these microorganisms, a class of enzymes called alginate lyases (alys) catalyze the depolymerization of alginate into oligomers via an endolytic β-elimination reaction. but it is not clear how these lyases differ on their enzymological functions or their divisions of labor. we focused on three extracellular secretory alginate lyases in the gram-negative marine bacterium v.alginolyticus (atcc 17749). we found ...201424050202
skin ulcer: a long-term complication after massive liquid silicone oil infiltration.despite scientific literature replete with stories of disastrous results and disfigurement, illicit subcutaneous injections of highly viscous fluids in massive quantities still are performed, often by unqualified persons. the authors present a devastating long-term outcome from a massive volume of silicone oil injected subcutaneously into the buttocks of a 48-year-old transsexual patient and its ulceration treated only through regular medications.201324045933
pathological analysis of hemolymphs of charybdis japonica infected with vibrio alginolyticus.we explored the pathogenic mechanism of vibrio alginolyticus in the stone crab charybdis japonica by studying the hemolymph of c. japonica artificially infected by v. alginolyticus. to this end, wright-geimsa staining and electron microscopy were used, and phenoloxidase (po) activity and the immune protection rate of c. japonica injected with immune polysaccharide during infection were analyzed. the results indicated that the total hemocyte and hyaline hemocyte (hh) counts in diseased crabs were ...201324036334
identification and cloning of the second type transglutaminase from litopenaeus vannamei, and its transcription following pathogen infection and in relation to the haemolymph coagulation.complementary (c)dna encoding transglutaminaseii (tgii) messenger (m)rna of white shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei, was cloned from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and rapid amplification of cdna ends (race) using oligonucleotide primers based on the tg sequence of the horseshoe crab, tachypleus tridentatus (accession no.: baa02134), tiger shrimp, penaeus monodon (aav49005; aao33455), kuruma shrimp, marsupenaeus japonicus (bad36808) and pacifastacus leniuscul ...201324036331
occurrence, characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of vibrio alginolyticus in the eastern adriatic 2007-2008, 162 samples (72 marine water samples, 90 swabs from the gills and skin) were collected from three european seabass fish farms in eastern adriatic. the aim of study was to determine the occurrence of vibrio, to identify the isolated strains and to investigate their antimicrobial resistance. the comparison of the results obtained in spring and autumn periods indicated a higher vibrio concentration in spring samplings. the greatest prevalence of vibrio alginolyticus was on gills than ...201324012112
vsco, a putative t3ss chaperone escort of vibrio alginolyticus, contributes to virulence in fish and is a target for vaccine development.type iii secretion system (t3ss) in vibrio alginolyticus is essential for its pathogenesis. vsco's homologous proteins flij, invi and ysco have been suggested to be putative chaperone escorts although its function in v. alginolyticus is unclear. to investigate the physiological role of vsco, a mutant strain of v. alginolyticus with an in-frame deletion of the vsco gene was constructed in the present study. one finding was that the mrna expression levels of sycd, vopb and vopd proteins decreased ...201323994282
draft genome sequence of the human-pathogenic bacterium vibrio alginolyticus e0666.vibrio alginolyticus is a gram-negative halophilic bacterium with worldwide distribution. in this work, we report the draft genome sequence of a v. alginolyticus strain (e0666) isolated from epinephelus coioides ascites in the shantou city of guangdong province, china.201323990586
mechanistic and statistical models of total vibrio abundance in the neuse river estuary.bacteria in the genus vibrio are ubiquitous to estuarine waters worldwide and are often the dominant genus recovered from these environments. this genus contains several potentially pathogenic species, including vibrio vulnificus, vibrio cholerae, vibrio parahaemolyticus, and vibrio alginolyticus. these bacteria have short generation times, as low as 20-30 min, and can thus respond rapidly to changing environmental conditions. a five-parameter mechanistic model was generated based on environment ...201323948561
pretreatment of macroalgae for volatile fatty acid this study, a novel method was proposed for the biological pretreatment of macroalgae (laminaria japonica, pachymeniopsis elliptica, and enteromorpha crinita) for production of volatile fatty acid (vfa) by anaerobic fermentation. the amount of vfa produced from 40 g/l of l. japonica increased from 8.3 g/l (control) to 15.6 g/l when it was biologically pretreated with vibrio harveyi. the biological treatment of l. japonica with vibrio spp. was most effective likely due to the alginate lyase ac ...201323942360
cloning and expression analysis of nonspecific cytotoxic cell receptor 1 (ls-nccrp1) from red snapper (lutjanus sanguineus).it is well known that nonspecific cytotoxic cells (nccs) are kinds of natural killer cell mediated innate immune responses in teleosts. the nonspecific cytotoxic cell receptor protein 1 (nccrp-1) is an important cell surface protein on ncc, which serves crucial functions in target cell recognition and cytotoxicity activation. in the present study, a nonspecific cytotoxic cell receptor protein nccrp-1 (ls-nccrp1) was cloned from red snapper, lutjanus sanguineus. the ls-nccrp1 cdna is composed of ...201323911966
use of mixture design to construct a consortium of date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) fruit extract and potentially probiotic bacillus strain to confer protection against vibriosis in artemia find a biological control treatment applicable to shrimp hatcheries, the influence of the dietary administration of a consortium of two date palm (phoenix dactylifera l.) fruit extracts and potentially probiotic bacillus strain on artemia culture was studied. challenge tests were performed with virulent vibrio alginolyticus to assess the protective effects of deglet nour and degla fruit extracts alone or in conjunction with potentially probiotic bacillus strain.201323893402
characterization and expression of sphsp60 in hemocytes after challenge to bacterial, osmotic and thermal stress from the mud crab scylla paramamosain.hsp60 play a crucial role in the process of pathogenic and protective immune responses and is implicated in autoimmune disease. in order to understand the environmental response and immune response of this gene, we cloned a hsp60 (sphsp60) gene from the mud crab scylla paramamosain, localized sphsp60 in hemocytes by in situ hybridization, and detected the expression of sphsp60 after stresses in relation to three housekeeping genes (β-actin, 18s rrna and gapdh). the full-length of the sphsp60 cdn ...201323891593
genomic structure, characterization and expression analysis of a manganese superoxide dismutase from pearl oyster pinctada fucata.manganese superoxide dismutase (mnsod) is a major component of the cellular defense mechanisms against oxidative damage. we cloned and analyzed the expression pattern and genomic structure of the mnsod gene of pearl oyster pinctada fucata, hereafter designated as pomnsod. the full-length pomnsod cdna was 1080 bp in length and consisted of a 5'-untranslated region (utr) of 222 bp, a 3'-utr of 318 bp with a polyadenylation signal (aataaa) at 15 nucleotides upstream of the poly (a) tail, and an ope ...201323880235
dietary effect of rubus coreanus ethanolic extract on immune gene expression in white leg shrimp, penaeus vannamei.the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of a rubus coreanus ethanolic extract on immunostimulatory response in white leg shrimp penaeus vannamei. shrimps with an average initial weight of 0.5 ± 0.04 g were collected and acclimatized for 10 days. four experimental diets including a control diet, a probiotic diet and 0.25 and 0.5% of r. coreanus ethanolic extract (rcee) diets were used to feed the shrimps. after 8 weeks of culture, shrimp fed with probioti ...201323811352
mutation in the a-subunit of f(1)f(o)-atpase causes an increased motility phenotype through the sodium-driven flagella of vibrio.bacterial flagellar motors exploit the electrochemical potential gradient of a coupling ion as energy source and are composed of stator and rotor proteins. vibrio alginolyticus has a na(+)-driven motor and its stator is composed of poma and pomb. recently, we isolated increased motility strains (sp1-sp4) from the poma-n194d/pomb-d24n mutant whose motility was quite weak. to detect the responsible mutation, we have used a next-generation sequencer and determined the entire genome sequences of the ...201323750030
effects of the water extract of gynura bicolor (roxb. & willd.) dc on physiological and immune responses to vibrio alginolyticus infection in white shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei).gynura bicolor (roxb. & willd.) dc is widely distributed in certain areas of asia and is very popular in vegetarian cuisine in taiwan. to investigate the regulatory roles of g. bicolor in various functions in crustaceans, we examined innate non-specific immune responses (including total hemocyte count (thc), phenoloxidase activity (po), respiratory bursts (rbs), and superoxide dismutase (sod) activity), physiological responses (including haemolymph glucose, lactate, and lipids), and gene express ...201323603309
innate immune responses and efficacy of using mushroom beta-glucan mixture (mbg) on orange-spotted grouper, epinephelus coioides, aquaculture.this study attempts to describe the effects of innate immunity responses and field application of mushroom beta-glucan mixture (mbg) in cultured orange-sported grouper, epinephelus coioides. chemical analysis for mbg showed that the mixture contains 34.06% of macro-molecular polymers with bio-active linkage such as 3-; 3,4- and 4,6-glucopyranosyl and 6-linked galactopyranosyl residues. study performed on the innate immunity showed that oral ingestion of mbg at 1.0 g and 2.0 g per kilogram of fee ...201323603237
polymorphisms of anti-lipopolysaccharide factors in the swimming crab portunus trituberculatus and their association with resistance/susceptibility to vibrio alginolyticus.anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (alf) is an important antimicrobial peptide (amp) that can bind and neutralize major component of gram-negative bacteria cell wall, lipopolysaccharide (lps). seven isoforms of anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ptalf1-7) were previously identified from the swimming crab portunus trituberculatus in our laboratory. here, polymorphisms of ptalf1-7 were detected and their association with resistance/susceptibility to vibrio alginolyticus (a main gram-negative bacteria ca ...201323567857
temporal and spatial distribution patterns of potentially pathogenic vibrio spp. at recreational beaches of the german north sea.the number of reported vibrio-related wound infections associated with recreational bathing in northern europe has increased within the last decades. in order to study the health risk from potentially pathogenic vibrio spp. in the central wadden sea, the seasonal and spatial distribution of vibrio vulnificus, vibrio parahaemolyticus, vibrio alginolyticus and vibrio cholerae were investigated at ten recreational beaches in this area over a 2-year period. v. alginolyticus and v. parahaemolyticus w ...201323563708
distribution and pathogenic relationship of virulence associated genes among vibrio alginolyticus from the mariculture systems.vibrio alginolyticus has been confirmed as an important pathogen for aquatic animals. however, the pathogenic mechanism of v. alginolyticus is not completely understood. a total of 31 isolates of v. alginolyticus from sea water, fish and shrimp on the mariculture systems were fingerprinted by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. the pathogenicity of these isolates was tested by challenge and the 21 genes associated with the virulence of vibrio cholerae or vibrio parahaemolyticus were examined in v. ...201323562411
litopenaeus vannamei toll-interacting protein (lvtollip) is a potential negative regulator of the shrimp toll pathway involved in the regulation of the shrimp antimicrobial peptide gene penaeidin-4 (pen4).the toll-like receptor (tlr)-nuclear factor (nf)-κb signaling pathway is evolutionarily conserved from insects to mammals as a regulator of the expression of immune-related genes. in mammals, tlr-nf-κb signaling is tightly controlled because excessive activation of this pathway can result in severe damage to the host. the mammalian toll-interacting protein (tollip) has an important function in the negative regulation of this pathway, but no reports about invertebrate tollip have been published t ...201323500511
diversity of vibrio spp. isolated at ambient environmental temperature in the eastern english channel as determined by pyrh describe the diversity of the culturable mesophilic and potentially pathogenic vibrios isolated at 22 and 37°c on tcbs medium, in september 2009 from seawater and surface sediments.201323473469
litopenaeus vannamei sterile-alpha and armadillo motif containing protein (lvsarm) is involved in regulation of penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors.the toll-like receptor (tlr)-mediated nf-κb pathway is tightly controlled because overactivation may result in severe damage to the host, such as in the case of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. in mammals, sterile-alpha and armadillo motif-containing protein (sarm) plays an important role in negatively regulating this pathway. while caenorhabditis elegans sarm is crucial for an efficient immune response against bacterial and fungal infections, it is still unknown whether drosophila sarm ...201323405063
dynamics of vibrio with virulence genes detected in pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardii) off california: implications for marine mammal health.given their coastal site fidelity and opportunistic foraging behavior, harbor seals (phoca vitulina) may serve as sentinels for coastal ecosystem health. seals using urbanized coastal habitat can acquire enteric bacteria, including vibrio that may affect their health. to understand vibrio dynamics in seals, demographic and environmental factors were tested for predicting potentially virulent vibrio in free-ranging and stranded pacific harbor seals (phoca vitulina richardii) off california. vibri ...201323392641
selection of aptamers against inactive vibrio alginolyticus and application in a qualitative detection assay.aptamers against inactive vibrio alginolyticus were selected from an 82-nt ssdna random library by systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment. after 15 rounds of selection, the final pool of aptamers was highly specific for inactivated v. alginolyticus and had a dissociation constant of 27.5 ± 9.2 nm. using these aptamers and pcr, v. alginolyticus could be detected at 100 cells/ml. sequencing of the final pool of aptamers revealed that some sequences, termed high-frequency aptamer ...201323381690
expression of hsp70 in the mud crab, scylla paramamosain in response to bacterial, osmotic, and thermal stress.hsp70 is involved in immune responses against infectious pathogens, thermal, and osmotic stress. to understand the immune defense mechanisms of the mud crab scylla paramamosain, genomic dna, transcript level and antimicrobial activities of hsp70 were analyzed. genomic dna sequence analysis revealed one intron in this gene. furthermore, six snps were detected by direct sequencing from 30 samples in this study. hsp70 mrna was expressed in almost all tissues examined. by using the quantitative real ...201323325574
molecular cloning, genomic structure and antimicrobial activity of ptalf7, a unique isoform of anti-lipopolysaccharide factor from the swimming crab portunus trituberculatus.anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (alfs), as the potent antimicrobial peptides, are becoming predominant candidates for potential therapeutic agents of bacterial and viral diseases. in this study, a unique isoform of alf (ptalf7) was identified from hemocytes cdna library of the swimming crab portunus trituberculatus. the ptalf7 cdna contained an open reading frame (orf) of 372 bp encoding 123 amino acids. the deduced peptide of ptalf7 shared high similarity with our previously reported ptalf1-3 b ...201323261507
expression and immunogenicity analysis of accessory colonization factor a from vibrio alginolyticus strain hy9901.the accessory colonization factor a (acfa) of vibrio alginolyticus plays an important role in the efficient colonization of the bacterium and is potential candidates for vaccine development. in present study, the acfa gene was cloned, expressed and purified. western blot analysis revealed protein recognition with the native acfa in different v. alginolyticus strains. to analyze the immunogenicity of the recombinant acfa, lutjanus erythropterus bloch were immunized by intraperitoneal injection, a ...201323261505
a newly identified anti-lipopolysaccharide factor from the swimming crab portunus trituberculatus with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity.anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (alfs), exhibiting binding and neutralizing activities to lipopolysaccharide (lps), are the potent antimicrobial peptides of innate immunity in crustaceans. in this study, a unique isoform of alf (ptalf6) was identified from eyestalk cdna library of the swimming crab portunus trituberculatus. the full-length cdna of ptalf6 was 669 bp encoding 115 amino acids, relatively short to other known alfs. the deduced peptide of ptalf6 was conserved; it contained the signal ...201323257203
fucoidan effectively provokes the innate immunity of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against experimental vibrio alginolyticus this study, we examined the effect of fucoidan on the immune response of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against vibrio alginolyticus infection. fucoidan induced degranulation, caused changes in the cell morphology, and increased activation of prophenoloxidase (propo) and the production of superoxide anions in vitro. shrimp that received fucoidan via immersion at 100, 200, and 400 mg l(-1) after 3 h showed haemocyte proliferation and a higher mitotic index of haematopoiet ...201323201320
cloning and characterization of the splrr cdna from green mud crab, scylla paramamosain.infectious diseases have seriously inhibited the aquaculture of mud crab scylla paramamosain in southeastern china. identification of the immune molecules and characterization of the defense mechanisms will be pivotal to the reduction of these diseases. available data show that leucine-rich repeat (lrr) proteins play a crucial role in protein-protein interactions, recognition processes or immune reactions in both invertebrates and vertebrates. in the present study, we cloned and characterized a ...201323108257
effect of lipopolysaccharides from vibrio alginolyticus on the mx gene expression and virus recovery from gilthead sea bream (sparus aurata l.) experimentally infected with nodavirus.infections with nodavirus affect a wild and farmed fish species throughout the world, mostly from the marine environment. the aim of this work was to determine the immune status of gilthead sea bream that comes as a result of a nodavirus infection, induced by activation of the interferon response pathway by lipopolysaccharides from vibrio alginolyticus and the expression of interferoninduced mx protein in liver samples. the enhancement of mx protein gene expression was detected in liver samples ...201323092730
pclt, a novel c-type lectin from procambarus clarkii, is involved in the innate defense against vibrio alginolyticus and wssv.lectins play important roles in the innate immunity. in this work, a c-type lectin, pclt, was obtained from procambarus clarkii which contained a carbohydrate recognition domain (crd) with the ability to bind to vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (wssv). rt-pcr and qrt-pcr analyses demonstrated pclt was specifically expressed in the hepatopancreas and the mrna was markedly upregulated by v. alginolyticus and wssv challenge, although a slight difference in timing was observed. the ...201323085401
cdna cloning, characterization and expression analysis of catalase in swimming crab portunus trituberculatus: cdna cloning and expression analysis of catalase gene of portunus trituberculatus.catalase is an important antioxidant protein that protects organisms against various oxidative stresses by eliminating hydrogen peroxide. in the present study, a full-length cdna sequence of catalase was cloned from the haemocytes of swimming crab portunus trituberculatus by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) and rapid amplification of cdna end method. the catalase cdna sequence contained 1,851 bp with an open reading frame of 1,551 bp encoding 516 amino acid residues. th ...201223073768
connecting type vi secretion, quorum sensing, and c-di-gmp production in fish pathogen vibrio alginolyticus through phosphatase pppa.vibrio alginolyticus, a gram-negative marine bacterium, has brought about severe economic damage to the mariculture industry by causing vibriosis in various fish species. we are intrigued in the regulation of the pathogenesis in this bacterium. here, we reported a complex regulatory connection among the newly defined type vi secretion system (t6ss), quorum sensing (qs), and 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-gmp) signal through the phosphatase pppa encoded in the t6ss gene cluster of v. alginoly ...201323021863
differential expression analysis of nuclear oligomerization domain proteins nod1 and nod2 in orange-spotted grouper (epinephelus coioides).nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing proteins-1 and -2 (nod1 and nod2) are members of the nod-like receptors (nlrs) family. they are both cytoplasmic receptors, and sense microbial infections/danger molecules to induce host innate immune response. in this study, the full-length orf sequences of nod1 and nod2 were cloned, and the putative amino acid sequences were identified in orange-spotted grouper (epinephelus coioides). the complete open reading frame (orf) of grouper nod1 con ...201222982325
comparative study on the antibiotic susceptibility and plasmid profiles of vibrio alginolyticus strains isolated from four tunisian marine biotopes.the antibiotic resistance patterns and the plasmids profiles of the predominant etiological agent responsible for vibriosis in tunisia, v. alginolyticus were studied to contribute to control their spread in some mediterranean aquaculture farms and seawater. the sixty-nine v. alginolyticus strains isolated from different marine tunisian biotopes (bathing waters, aquaculture and conchylicole farms and a river connected to the seawater during the cold seasons) were multi-drug resistant with high re ...201222918722
withdrawn: effects of saponin supplementation diet on hematological, biochemical, and immunological responses in epinephelus bruneus against vibrio alginolyticus.this article has been withdrawn at the request of the author(s) and/or editor. the publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. the full elsevier policy on article withdrawal can be found at
molecular cloning and characterization of class i nf-κb transcription factor from pearl oyster (pinctada fucata).nf-κb transcription factors play central roles in many important physiological and pathological processes including innate immune responses. here we report the cloning of an nf-κb transcription factor, pfrelish from pearl oyster pinctada fucata, one of the most important bivalve mollusks for seawater pearl production. pfrelish full-length cdna is 3916 bp with an open reading frame of 3558 bp encoding a putative protein of 1186 amino acids. the deduced pfrelish contains a n-terminal rhd, a nucleu ...201222796487
molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (traf3) from pearl oyster pinctada fucata.traf3 is a highly versatile regulator that negatively regulates jnk and alternative nuclear factor-κb signalling, but positively controls type i interferon production. to investigate traf3 function in innate immune responses among invertebrate especially mollusk, we characterized traf3 (pftraf3) from pearl oyster pinctada fucata, one of the most important bivalve mollusks for seawater pearl production. pftraf3 cdna is 2261 bp with an open reading frame of 1623 bp encoding a putative protein of 5 ...201222796485
zinc effect on the sea urchin paracentrotus lividus immunological competence.pollution by heavy metals has become one of the most important problems in marine coastal areas as a consequence of anthropogenic inputs. among metal contaminants, zinc, being considered not very toxic, is sometimes released into the sea in appreciable quantities and its concentration is loosely regulated. in this work we analyzed the effects of a high zinc concentration on the sea urchin paracentrotus lividus immune system. in particular, after 24 h of zinc treatment, we evaluated coelomocytes ...201222717161
phenotypic characterization and rapd fingerprinting of vibrio parahaemolyticus and vibrio alginolyticus isolated during tunisian fish farm outbreaks.the genus vibrio is characterized by a large number of species and some of them are human pathogens causing gastrointestinal and wound infections through the ingestion or manipulation of contaminated fishes and shellfish including vibrio parahaemolyticus and vibrio alginolyticus. in this study, we reported the phenotypic and molecular characterization of 9 v. parahaemolyticus and 27 v. alginolyticus strains isolated from outbreaks affecting cultured gilthead sea bream (sparus aurata l.) and sea ...201322684973
orange-spotted grouper (epinephelus coioides) toll-like receptor 22: molecular characterization, expression pattern and pertinent signaling pathways.the toll-like receptors (tlrs) are an important gene family in host innate immunologic surveillance. the tlr22 gene is an essential member of the tlrs that is only found in aquatic animals and has been detected in some bony fish. here, a tlr22 homolog, ectlr22, was characterized in the orange-spotted grouper (epinephelus coioides) via homology cloning. the 3321 bp full-length cdna sequence of ectlr22 was obtained, which included an open reading frame of 2880 bp encoding a putative peptide of 960 ...201222683817
virulence genes and pathogenicity islands in environmental vibrio strains nonpathogenic to humans.most vibrio species in autochthonous marine microbial communities, such as vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio harveyi, vibrio anguillarum among others, are considered nonpathogenic for humans. however, because many bacterial virulence genes are located in mobile genetic elements, the acquisition of mobile dna could mediate the appearance of virulent or more virulent strains even in a species defined as nonpathogenic. in this study, we screened a collection of marine nonpathogenic vibrio strains isolat ...201222676367
real-time pcr optimization to identify environmental vibrio spp. identify vibrio vulnificus, vibrio cholerae and vibrio alginolyticus using standardized dna extraction method and real-time pcr assays, among a large number of bacterial strains isolated from marine environment.201222639795
modulation of the innate immune system in white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei following long-term low salinity exposure.immune parameters, haemocyte lifespan, and gene expressions of lipopolysaccharide and β-glucan-binding protein (lgbp), peroxinectin (px), integrin β, and α2-macroglobulin (α2-m) were examined in white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei juveniles (0.48 ± 0.05 g) which had been reared at different salinity levels of 2.5‰, 5‰, 15‰, 25‰, and 35‰ for 24 weeks. all shrimp survived during the first 6 weeks. the survival rate of shrimp reared at 2.5‰ and 5‰ was much lower (30%) than that of shrimp reared at 15 ...201222626810
investigation of the roles of t6ss genes in motility, biofilm formation, and extracellular protease asp production in vibrio alginolyticus with modified gateway-compatible plasmids.the aims of this study were to create and evaluate the gateway-compatible plasmids for investigating the function of genes in vibrio alginolyticus and other gram-negative bacteria.201222563695
poly d,l-lactide-co-glycolic acid-liposome encapsulated odn on innate immunity in epinephelus bruneus against vibrio alginolyticus.the efficacy of poly d,l-lactide-co-glycolic acid (plga)-liposome (l) encapsulated oligodeoxynucleotides with unmethylated deoxycytidyl-deoxyguanosine motifs (cpg-odns) on innate and adaptive immune response and disease resistance in kelp grouper (epinephelus bruneus) against vibrio alginolyticus at weeks 1, 2, and 4 is reported. the superoxide dismutase (sod), respiratory burst, and lysozyme activities significantly increased in e. bruneus when immunized with odn, plga+odn, l+odn, and plga+l+od ...201222551979
a new type of kazal proteinase inhibitor related to shrimp penaeus (litopenaeus) vannamei immunity.a clone encoding a four-kazal domain-containing protein was isolated from the hemostats of a penaeus vannamei cdna library. the full-length cdna sequence is 975 bp in length and encodes a 24.4 kda protein (228 residues). four kazal domains, each 43-46 residues in length, were detected in the deduced primary structure. the first, third and fourth domains have the cplreelpvc, cpavydpvc and cplyvdpvc motifs, respectively, suggesting that they are able to inhibit chymotrypsin and elastase. the mrna ...201222542646
identification of the immune expressed sequence tags of pearl oyster (pinctada martensii, dunker 1850) responding to vibrio alginolyticus challenge by suppression subtractive hemolymph subtracted cdna library of pearl oyster (pinctada martensii, dunker 1837) was constructed using the suppression subtractive hybridization (ssh) in response to vibrio alginolyticus. a total of 1089 clones were sequenced. all the consensuses were recognized based on the blast searches in ncbi, and revealed that 376 (58%) of them had no significant matches to reported sequences in the database. 267 ests were in significant matches after homologous sequence searches. hypothesized genes ...201222515956
development and efficacy of an attenuated vibrio harveyi vaccine candidate with cross protectivity against vibrio alginolyticus.vibrio harveyi is a gram-negative bacterial pathogen that can infect a wide range of marine animals. in previous studies, we have reported a virulent v. harveyi strain, t4d. in the present study, an attenuated mutant of t4d, t4dm, was obtained by selection of rifampicin resistance. compared to the wild type, t4dm was different in whole-cell protein profile and much slower in growth rate when cultured in stress conditions caused by iron depletion. virulence analysis showed that compared to t4d, t ...201222484605
differential immune response in the hard clam (mercenaria mercenaria) against bacteria and the protistan pathogen qpx (quahog parasite unknown).the immune response of the hard clam (quahog) mercenaria mercenaria following challenge with live bacteria (vibrio alginolyticus) and the protist qpx (quahog parasite unknown) was investigated. the study also compared immune responses following qpx challenge in two different hard clam broodstocks exhibiting different degrees of susceptibility toward this parasite. different immune and stress-related cellular and humoral factors were assessed including general hemocyte parameters (total and diffe ...201222484278
downregulation of na(+)-nqr complex is essential for vibrio alginolyticus in resistance to balofloxacin.increasingly isolated frequency of antibiotic-resistant v. alginolyticus strains in clinic and aquaculture has been reported, but the mechanisms of v. alginolyticus antibiotic resistance are largely absent. in the present study, native/sds-page based proteomics, which may provide information on protein-protein interaction, was utilized to investigate differential proteins of v. alginolyticus in resistance to balofloxacin. ten proteins were altered, in which v12g01_04671, v12g01_00457, v12g01_159 ...201222465713
characterization of poma mutants defective in the functional assembly of the na(+)-driven flagellar motor in vibrio alginolyticus.the polar flagellar motor of vibrio alginolyticus rotates using na(+) influx through the stator, which is composed of 2 subunits, poma and pomb. about a dozen stators dynamically assemble around the rotor, depending on the na(+) concentration in the surrounding environment. the motor torque is generated by the interaction between the cytoplasmic domain of poma and the c-terminal region of flig, a component of the rotor. we had shown previously that mutations of flig affected the stator assembly ...201222343296
a new anti-lipopolysaccharide factor isoform (ptalf4) from the swimming crab portunus trituberculatus exhibited structural and functional diversity of alfs.anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (alfs) are the potent antimicrobial peptides that can bind and neutralize lipopolysaccharide (lps). in this study, a new isoform of the alf homologs (ptalf4) was cloned from eyestalk cdna library of swimming crab portunus trituberculatus. ptalf4 shared lower amino acid similarity with other alfs, yet it contained the conserved lps-binding domain and was clearly member of the alf family. the genomic sequence of ptalf4 consisted of three exons interrupted by two int ...201222333564
characterization of a new phage, termed ϕa318, which is specific for vibrio alginolyticus.vibrio alginolyticus is an opportunistic pathogen of animals and humans; its related strains can also produce tetrodotoxin and hemolysins. a new phage, ϕa318, which lysed its host v. alginolyticus with high efficiency, was characterized. the burst size of ϕa318 in v. alginolyticus was 72 pfu/bacterium at an moi of 1 at room temperature; the plaque size was as large as 5 mm in diameter. electron microscopy (em) of the phage particles revealed a 50- to 55-nm isomorphous icosahedral head with a 12- ...201222327389
modulation of innate immunity and gene expressions in white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei following long-term starvation and re-feeding.the survival rate, weight loss, immune parameters, resistance against vibrio alginolyticus and white-spot syndrome virus (wssv), and expressions of lipopolysaccharide- and ß-glucan-binding protein (lgbp), peroxinectin (px), prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (ppa), prophenoloxidase (propo) i, propo ii, α2-macroglobulin (α2-m), integrin ß, heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase (cytmnsod), mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (mtmnsod), and extracellular c ...201224371579
characterization of the flagellar motor composed of functional gfp-fusion derivatives of flig in the na(+)-driven polar flagellum of vibrio alginolyticus.the polar flagellum of vibrio alginolyticus is driven by sodium ion flux via a stator complex, composed of poma and pomb, across the cell membrane. the interaction between poma and the rotor component flig is believed to generate torque required for flagellar rotation. previous research reported that a gfp-fused flig retained function in the vibrio flagellar motor. in this study, we found that n-terminal or c-terminal fusion of gfp has different effects on both torque generation and the switchin ...201127857593
distribution of vibrio alginolyticus-like species in shenzhen coastal waters, china.we investigated the distribution of vibrios in shenzhen coastal waters in order to obtain valuable information for the aquaculture industry and a health warning system. quantities of vibrios from surface waters ranged from 0 to 4.40×10(4) cfus ml(-1) in april (spring), while from 0 to 2.57×10(3) cfus ml(-1) in september (autumn); the abundance of v. alginolyticus-like species from surface water ranged from 0 to 6.72×10(3) cfus ml(-1) in april (spring) and from 0 to 1.28×10(3) cfus ml(-1) in sept ...201124031704
uneven frequency of vibrio alginolyticus-group isolates among different populations of galápagos marine iguana (amblyrhynchus cristatus).the presence of vibrio isolates was investigated in cloacal swabs from the galápagos marine iguana (amblyrhyncus cristatus). such unique iguana is endemic to the galápagos archipelago, it is listed as vulnerable in the iucn red list (2009), and is strictly protected by cites and ecuador laws. our results revealed an uneven isolation frequency of vibrios from animals living in different settings: maximal among the santa fe population, scarce at bahía tortuga but practically absent in the samples ...201023766014
diversity and pathogenic potential of vibrios isolated from abrolhos bank corals.we performed the first taxonomic characterization of vibrios and other culturable microbiota from apparently healthy and diseased brazilian-endemic corals at the abrolhos reef bank. the diseases affecting corals were tissue necrosis in phyllogorgia dillatata, white plague and bleaching in mussismilia braziliensis and bleaching in mussismilia hispida. bacterial isolates were obtained from mucus of 22 coral specimens originated from the abrolhos bank (i.e. itacolomis reef, recife de fora reef and ...201023766002
adherence assays and slime production of vibrio alginolyticus and vibrio this study we investigated the phenotypic slime production of vibrio alginolyticus and vibrio parahaemolyticus strains, food-borne pathogens, using a congo red agar plate assay. furthermore, we studied their ability to adhere to abiotic surfaces and vero cells line. our results showed that only v. alginolyticus atcc 17749 was a slime-producer developing almost black colonies on congo red agar plate. adherence to glace tube showed that all v. alginolyticus strains were more adherent than v. pa ...200924031378
the 𝛿-aminolevulinate dehydratase of marine vibrio alginolyticus is resistant to lead (pb). 199928281822
screening and evaluation of local bacteria isolated from shellfish as potential probiotics against pathogenic vibrios.the present study was carried out to isolate, screen and evaluate potential candidates of local bacteria isolated from tiger shrimp penaeus monodon and slipper cupped oysters crassostrea iredalei as probiotics in shellfish aquaculture. a total of 144 of bacteria were successfully isolated from the intestine and stomach of 20 tails of healthy adult tiger shrimp p. monodon, while 136 were successfully isolated from the digestive tract, gills and inner shells of 10 healthy adult c. iredalei. the nu ...201628779740
isolation and characterization of antimicrobial peptides derived from bacillus subtilis e20-fermented soybean meal and its use for preventing vibrio infection in shrimp aquaculture.bacillus subtilis e20-fermented soybean meal (fsbm) was found to produce antimicrobial peptides (amps) with great antimicrobial activity against vibrio alginolyticus (va) and v. parahaemolyticus (vp). three amps were purified with a 5 kda ultrafiltration, sephadex g-15 column and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (rp-hplc). the fsb-amp, htskalldmlkrlgk, identified by an rp-nano-ultrapure liquid chromatography (uplc) electrospray ionization (esi)-tandem mass spectroscopic (ms/m ...201728602685
newly identified invertebrate-type lysozyme (splys-i) in mud crab (scylla paramamosain) exhibiting muramidase-deficient antimicrobial activity.lysozymes are widely distributed immune effectors exerting muramidase activity against the peptidoglycan of the bacterial cell wall to trigger cell lysis. however, some invertebrate-type (i-type) lysozymes deficient of muramidase activity still exhibit antimicrobial activity. to date, the mechanism underlying the antimicrobial effect of muramidase-deficient i-type lysozymes remains unclear. accordingly, this study characterized a novel i-type lysozyme, splys-i, in the mud crab scylla paramamosai ...201728438599
the crustin-like peptide plays opposite role in shrimp immune response to vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (wssv) infection.crustin is an antimicrobial peptide (amp) that plays a key role in innate immunity of crustaceans. in this study, we cloned the entire 660 bp crustin-like sequence with a 507 bp open reading frame encoding a 168 amino acid from marsupenaeus japonicus. the crustin-like gene was primarily expressed in gills and over-expressed in shrimp hemocytes after challenge with wssv or vibrio alginolyticus. after knockdown crustin-like gene using specific double-stranded rna (cru-dsrna), imd, rab7, l-lectin, ...201728546026
a proteomic study of hemocyte proteins from mud crab (scylla paramamosain) infected with white spot syndrome virus or vibrio this study, we investigated the hemocytes' immune response to white spot syndrome virus (wssv) or vibrio alginolyticus infection at the protein level. the differential proteomes from crab hemocytes infected with wssv or v. alginolyticus were analyzed using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation approach immediately after infection. using this approach, we identified 1,799 proteins by their by lc-ms/ms spectra and sequencing data. these included 157 upregulated proteins and 1 ...201728496442
vibrio parahaemolyticus- and v. alginolyticus-associated meningo-encephalitis in a bottlenose dolphin (tursiops truncatus) from the adriatic coast of italy.a case of vibrio parahaemolyticus- and v. alginolyticus-associated meningo-encephalitis in a bottlenose dolphin (tursiops truncatus) found stranded along the adriatic coast of italy in 2016 is herein reported, along with a minireview on v. parahaemolyticus and v. alginolyticus infections in aquatic mammals. macroscopically, two abscesses were found in the dolphin's forebrain, along with an extensive, bilateral, parasitic broncho-pneumonia. histologically, a suppurative-to-pyogranulomatous mening ...201728709108
selection and evaluation of malaysian bacillus spp. strains as potential probiotics in cultured tiger grouper (epinephelus fuscoguttatus).a total of 58 gram-positive bacteria strains were isolated from the marine environment and screened for potential probiotics for disease prevention and improving the productivity of tiger grouper epinephelus fuscoguttatus larvae and juveniles. the bacteria were identified as bacillus licheniformis, b. subtilis, b. circulans, b. sphaericus, b. cereus, brevibacillus brevis, corynebacterium propinquum, leifsonia aquatica and paenibacillus macerans. only 24 strains showed antagonistic activities aga ...201628779739
coordination of bactericidal and iron regulatory functions of hepcidin in innate antimicrobial immunity in a zebrafish model.hepcidin acts as both an antimicrobial peptide and a hormonal regulator of iron homeostasis; however, the biological significance of this dual-function in immune reactions remains elusive. in this study, we provide experimental evidence regarding the coordination of this dual-function in the innate antimicrobial immunity using a zebrafish model. the transcription of hepcidin gene was significantly upregulated in liver by aeromonas hydrophila (a.h) dna stimulation, which was accompanied by an inc ...201728655927
a rapid and efficient screening method for antibacterial compound-producing bacteria.antibacterial compounds are widely used in the treatment of human and animal diseases. the overuse of antibiotics has led to a rapid rise in the prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria, making the development of new antibacterial compounds essential. this study focused on developing a fast and easy method for identifying marine bacteria that produce antibiotic compounds. eight randomly selected marine target bacterial species (agrococcus terreus, bacillus algicola, mesoflavibacter zeaxanthinifacie ...201728621106
evidence for the presence of cell-surface-bound and intracellular bactericidal toxins in the dinoflagellate heterocapsa circularisquama.heterocapsa circularisquama, a harmful dinoflagellate, has multiple haemolytic toxins that are considered to be involved in the toxic mechanism against shellfish and certain species of zooplankton. to evaluate the further nature of the toxins of h. circularisquama, we investigated its effects on several species of bacteria. by colony formation assay, we found that h. circularisquama had antibacterial activity toward the marine bacterium vibrio alginolyticus in a cell density-dependent manner. wh ...201728654772
the force-sensing peptide vemp employs extreme compaction and secondary structure formation to induce ribosomal stalling.interaction between the nascent polypeptide chain and the ribosomal exit tunnel can modulate the rate of translation and induce translational arrest to regulate expression of downstream genes. the ribosomal tunnel also provides a protected environment for initial protein folding events. here, we present a 2.9 å cryo-electron microscopy structure of a ribosome stalled during translation of the extremely compacted vemp nascent chain. the nascent chain forms two α-helices connected by an α-turn and ...201728556777
helical jackknives control the gates of the double-pore k(+) uptake system ktrab.ion channel gating is essential for cellular homeostasis and is tightly controlled. in some eukaryotic and most bacterial ligand-gated k(+) channels, rck domains regulate ion fluxes. until now, a single regulatory mechanism has been proposed for all rck-regulated channels, involving signal transduction from the rck domain to the gating area. here, we present an inactive adp-bound structure of ktrab from vibrio alginolyticus, determined by cryo-electron microscopy, which, combined with epr spectr ...201728504641
the transcription of atypical protein kinase c in hemocytes of the giant freshwater prawn, macrobrachium rosenbergii, during the molt stage and injection of pathogen-associated compounds.protein kinase c (pkc), which is involved in cell signaling pathways, comprises a family of serine/threonine kinases ubiquitously present in animals and its members are grouped on the basis of structural and activation characteristics into novel, classical, and atypical pkc forms. in this study, an atypical pkc of macrobrachium rosenbergii, designated mrapkc, was successfully cloned, and its protein comprised structural domains similar to those of atypical pkc homologues, including the phox and ...201728818614
one enzyme, three metabolites: shewanella algae controls siderophore production via the cellular substrate pool.shewanella algae b516 produces avaroferrin, an asymmetric hydroxamate siderophore, which has been shown to inhibit swarming motility of vibrio alginolyticus. we aimed to elucidate the biosynthesis of this siderophore and to investigate how s. algae coordinates the production of avaroferrin and its two symmetric counterparts. we reconstituted the reaction in vitro with the main enzyme avbd and the putative biosynthetic precursors, and demonstrate that multispecificity of this enzyme results in th ...201728434877
microencapsulation of essential thyme oil by spray drying and its antimicrobial evaluation against vibrio alginolyticus and vibrio parahaemolyticus.the aims of this research were first, to evaluate the antibacterial potential of commercial thyme essential oil against v. alginolyticus and v. parahaemolyticys and second, using the spray drying technique to produce microcapsules. chemical compounds of thyme oil and microcapsules were identified and quantified being thymol the chemical component present at the highest concentration. oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions were prepared and the microcapsules were obtained with a spray dryer using maltodext ...201728832836
occurrence of vibrio species, beta-lactam resistant vibrio species, and indicator bacteria in ballast and port waters of a tropical harbor.ballast water discharges are potential sources for the spread of invasive and pathogenic aquatic organisms. ballast waters from six ships docked in the port of singapore were tested to determine if indictor organisms fell within proposed standards for ballast water discharge according to regulation d-2 of the ballast water management convention (bwmc) guidelines. vibrio species were cultured on media supplemented with beta-lactam antibiotics to determine the presence of antibiotic resistant vibr ...201728822933
mcp, aer, cheb, and chev contribute to the regulation of vibrio alginolyticus (nd-01) adhesion under gradients of environmental factors.adhesion is a key virulence factor of pathogens and can be affected by the environment. our previously research with rna-seq indicated that mcp, aer, cheb, and chev might play roles in the regulation of adhesion in vibrio alginolyticus (nd-01). in order to determine whether and how environmental factors affect adhesion through these genes, gene silencing was performed followed by quantitative real-time pcr (qrt-pcr), rnai, transmission electron microscopy, and adhesion, capillary, and motility a ...201728744982
identification and characterization of atypical 2-cysteine peroxiredoxins from mud crab scylla paramamosain: the first evidence of two peroxiredoxin 5 genes in non-primate species and their involvement in immune defense against pathogen infection.peroxiredoxin 5 (prx5) belongs to a novel family of evolutionarily conserved antioxidant proteins that protect cells against various oxidative stresses. generally, no more than one prx5 transcript had been reported in non-primate species. in this study, two prx5 genes (coined as spprx5-1 and spprx5-2) were firstly isolated from the mud crab, scylla paramamosain, through rt-pcr and race methods. the open reading frame of spprx5-1 and spprx5-2 were 561 bp and 429 bp in length, encoding 186 and 142 ...201728743622
identification of the regulon of aphb and its essential roles in luxr and exotoxin asp expression in the pathogen vibrio vibrios, aphb is essential to activate virulence cascades by sensing low ph and anaerobiosis signals. however, its regulon remains largely unknown. here, aphb is found as a key virulence regulator in v. alginolyticus, a pathogen for marine animals and humans. chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput dna sequencing (chip-seq) enabled the detection of 20 loci in the v. alginolyticus genome that contain aphb-binding peaks. an aphb-specific binding consensus was confirmed by elec ...201728739675
contributions of the oligopeptide permeases in multistep of vibrio alginolyticus pathogenesis.vibrio alginolyticus has been associated with several diseases of cultivated marine animals, and has led to considerable economic losses. the oligopeptide permease (opp) has been proven to play a variety of important roles in nutrition and virulence in several bacteria. in our previous research, the opp gene cluster was identified in vibrio alginolyticus with transcriptome sequence, which also indicated that the opp system might play roles in the regulation of adhesion. in this study, the relati ...201728714216
involvement of dopamine beta-hydroxylase in the neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network of white shrimp, litopenaeus shrimp, the biosynthesis of catecholamines, including dopamine and norepinephrine, is required for physiological and immunological responses against stress. dopamine beta-hydroxylase (dbh), a copper-containing monooxygenase enzyme that plays an important role in catecholamine synthesis of the neuroendocrine regulatory network, was identified in litopenaeus vannamei. in the present study, the potential role of dbh in the immunocompetence of l. vannamei was further estimated by depleting dbh by ...201728709722
evaluation of candidate reference genes for quantitative expression studies in asian seabass (lates calcarifer) during ontogenesis and in tissues of healthy and infected fishes.quantitative real-time pcr (qrt-pcr), used to determine the gene expression profile, is an important tool in functional genomic research, including fishes. to obtain more robust and meaningful result, the best possible normalization of the data is of utmost significance. in the present study, we have evaluated the potential of five commonly used housekeeping genes i.e., elongation factor 1-α (ef1a), β-actin (actb), 18s ribosomal rna (18s), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh) and β-2 ...201628699725
detection of diverse n-acyl-homoserine lactones in vibrio alginolyticus and regulation of biofilm formation by n-(3-oxodecanoyl) homoserine lactone in vitro.quorum sensing (qs) is a cell-to-cell communication system based on the exchange of small intercellular signal molecules, such as n-acyl homoserine lactones (ahls), which act as cell-density mediators of qs gene expression, and are highly variable both in types and amounts in most gram-negative proteobacteria. understanding the regulation of ahls may contribute to the elucidation of cell density-dependent phenomena, such as biofilm formation. vibrio alginolyticus is among the most frequently obs ...201728670299
molecular cloning and functional analysis of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (traf6) in crossastrea gigas.tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (traf6) has been demonstrated to be a key signaling molecule involved in adaptive and innate immunity. in this study, we obtained the full length cgtraf6 cdna and analyzed the characteristics of the orf and the peptide sequence in crassostrea gigas. the deduced protein sequence of cgtraf6 includes a conserved c-terminal traf domain following the ring and the zinc finger domain. the traf domain is composed of coiled-coil traf-n and math (meprin a ...201728648883
peroxiredoxin 1 from cuttlefish (sepiella maindroni): molecular characterization of development and its immune response against vibrio alginolyticus.the aim of this work was constructive to understand the function of peroxiredoxin (prdx) family member peroxiredoxin 1 in sepiella maindroni (smprx1) through molecular mechanisms of reproduction, embryonic development and immune responses to vibrio alginolyticus. the full-length cdna of smprx1 was of 1062 bp, contains a 5' untranslated region (utr) of 79bp, a 3' utr of 359 bp, an open reading frame of 624 bp encoding 207 amino acids. the conserved peroxidase catalytic center "fypldftfvcptei" and ...201728619362
molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of (b-cell lymphoma-2) bcl-2 in the orange-spotted grouper (epinephelus coioides).bcl-2 is a pro-survival member of bcl-2 like superfamily, playing an important role in regulating the apoptotic process. in this study, the full-length bcl-2 (ecbcl-2) was obtained, consisting of a 5'utr of 290 bp, an orf of 699 bp and a 3'utr of 920 bp. ecbcl-2 gene encoded a polypeptide of 232 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 26.12 kda and a predicted isoelectric point (pi) of 6.93. the deduced amino acid sequence analysis showed that ecbcl-2 consisted of the conserved residues ...201728606801
molecular cloning and characterization of a hemocyanin from sepiella maindroni.hemocyanins are respiratory proteins occurring freely dissolved in the hemolymph of many arthropods and molluscs. hemocyanin and hemocyanin-derived peptides have been linked to key aspects of innate immunity. in the present study, the full-length cdna encoding hemocyanin in sepiella maindroni (smhc) was cloned and characterized. bioinformatic analysis predicted that smhc contains one open reading frame of 10,032 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 3343 amino acids. sequence analysis showed that the ...201728602684
localization and domain characterization of the sfla regulator of flagellar formation in vibrio alginolyticus.many swimming bacteria use flagella as locomotive organelles. the spatial and numerical regulation of flagellar biosynthesis differs by bacterial species. the marine bacteria vibrio alginolyticus use a single polar flagellum whose number is regulated positively by flhf and negatively by flhg. cells lacking flhf and flhg have no flagellum. the motility defect in an flhfg deletion was suppressed by a mutation in the sfla gene that resulted in the production of multiple, peritrichous flagella. sfla ...201728544270
virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance in environmental strains of vibrio alginolyticus.vibrio alginolyticus has acquired increasing importance because this microorganism may be pathogenic to aquatic animals and humans. it has been reported that some v. alginolyticus strains carry virulence genes derived from pathogenic v. cholerae and v. parahaemolyticus strains. in this work v. alginolyticus was isolated from oyster samples acquired from a food-market in mexico city. thirty isolates were identified as v. alginolitycus. strains showed β-haemolysis and proteolytic activity and prod ...201628504816
immunogenicity and efficacy of dna vaccine encoding antigenic acfa via addition of the molecular adjuvant myd88 against vibrio alginolyticus in epinephelus coioides.dna vaccines had been widely used against microbial infection in animals. the use of molecular adjuvants to improve the immunogenicity of dna vaccines has been increasingly studied in recent years. myd88 is one of the adapter molecules to activate the signaling cascades and produces inflammatory mediators, and its immunological role and adjuvant potential which had been proved in mammals were rarely reported in fish species. in this study, plasmid pcmyd88 was constructed and the capacity of myd8 ...201728487211
characterization of three caspases and their pathogen-induced expression pattern in portunus trituberculatus.caspases are a family of proteases involved in many important biological processes including apoptosis and inflammation. in this study, we analyzed the expression patterns and effects on immune response in various tissues of the edible crab portunus trituberculatus. ptcas 2, ptcas 3 and ptcas 4 share overall sequence identities of 55.88%-74.86%, 8.47%-46.54% and 20.11%-50.87%, respectively, with their other crustacean species. ptcas 2, ptcas 3 and ptcas 4 have the same caspase domain and catalyt ...201728478258
molecular cloning, characterization and functional analysis of a putative mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 4 (mekk4) from blood clam tegillarca granosa.the mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) cascades stand for one of the most important signaling mechanisms in response to environmental stimuli. in the present study, we cloned and identified for the first time the full-length cdna of mapk kinase kinase 4 (tgmekk4) from blood clam tegillarca granosa using rapid amplification of cdna ends method. the full-length cdna of tgmekk4 was of 1605 bp in length, encoding a polypeptide of 364 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 41.22 kda and ...201728476674
plasma immune protein analysis in the orange-spotted grouper epinephelus coioides: evidence for altered expressions of immune factors associated with a choline-supplemented diet.this study aimed to unravel the regulatory roles of choline in activating immune responses and disease resistance of the orange-spotted grouper epinephelus coioides. fish were fed a choline-supplemented diet at 1 g kg(-1) of feed for 30 days. fish fed a fish meal basal diet without choline-supplement served as controls. at the end of the feeding trial, fish were challenged with vibrio alginolyticus. meanwhile, plasma proteomics of fish in each group were also evaluated by two-dimensional gel ele ...201728454818
metabolism of branched-chain amino acids revealed by transcriptome analysis in vibrio alginolyticus.branched-chain amino acids (bcaas) play important roles in nitrogen metabolism. however, little is known about the metabolism of bcaas in the fish pathogen vibrio alginolyticus. in this study, the global gene expression patterns of v. alginolyticus zj-t cultured in m63 minimal medium supplemented with ammonium sulfate or with three bcaas (isoleucine, leucine and valine) as nitrogen source were evaluated by transcriptome analysis. the results revealed that 311 genes are up-regulated (|log2(fold c ...201728395865
mutational analysis and overproduction effects of motx, an essential component for motor function of na+-driven polar flagella of vibrio.the bacterial flagellar motor is a rotary motor complex composed of various proteins. the motor contains a central rod, multiple ring-like structures and stators. the na+-driven polar flagellar motor of the marine bacterium vibrio alginolyticus has a specific ring, called the ‘t-ring’, which consists of two periplasmic proteins, motx and moty. the t-ring is essential for assembly of the torque-generating unit, the poma/pomb stator complex, into the motor. to investigate the role of the t-ring fo ...201728173168
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