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recombinant expression of a modified shrimp anti-lipopolysaccharide factor gene in pichia pastoris gs115 and its characteristic analysis.anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (alfs) with a lps-binding domain (lbd) are considered to have broad spectrum antimicrobial activities and certain antiviral properties in crustaceans. fcalf2 was one isoform of alfs isolated from the chinese shrimp fenneropenaeus chinensis. our previous study showed that a modified lbd domain (named lbdv) of fcalf2 exhibited a highly enhanced antimicrobial activity. in the present study, a modified fcalf2 gene (mfcalf2), in which the lbd was substituted by lbdv, w ...201627517939
antimicrobial susceptibility of vibrio alginolyticus isolated from oyster in korea.pathogenic vibrio alginolyticus, a cause of severe infection in shellfish, as well as in humans, has been found at high frequency around all coastal areas of korea. the aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of v. alginolyticus, to identify the strains isolated from oysters in west sea, and to investigate their antimicrobial resistance profiles. biochemical analyses of the 90 initially recovered presumptive v. alginolyticus colonies indicated that 16 isolates were v. alginolyticus. pc ...201627543129
chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing technology reveals global regulatory roles of low-cell-density quorum-sensing regulator apha in the pathogen vibrio alginolyticus.quorum sensing (qs) is an important regulatory system in virulence expression and environmental adaptation in bacteria. the master qs regulators (mqsr) luxr and apha reciprocally control qs gene expression in vibrios. however, the molecular basis for the regulatory functions of apha remains undefined. in this study, we characterized its regulatory roles in vibrio alginolyticus, an important zoonotic pathogen causing diseases in marine animals as well as in humans. apha is involved in the motilit ...201627551022
filtering activity on a pure culture of vibrio alginolyticus by the solitary ascidian styela plicata and the colonial ascidian polyandrocarpa zorritensis: a potential service to improve microbiological seawater quality economically.we investigated and compared, by laboratory experiments, the filter-feeding activity on bacteria by the solitary ascidian styela plicata and the colonial ascidian polyandrocarpa zorritensis. clearance rates and retention efficiencies were estimated by using, as only food source, the bacterial species vibrio alginolyticus selected on account of its importance in aquaculture pathogenicity. the cmax was 1.4±0.17lh(-1)g(-1) dw for s. plicata and 1.745lh(-1)g(-1) dw for p. zorritensis. the highest re ...201627552728
hubp, a polar landmark protein, regulates flagellar number by assisting in the proper polar localization of flhg in vibrio alginolyticus.the marine bacterium vibrio alginolyticus has a single polar flagellum, the number of which is regulated positively by flhf and negatively by flhg. flhf is intrinsically localized at the cell pole, whereas flhg is localized there through putative interactions with the polar landmark protein hubp. here we focused on the role of hubp in the regulation of flagellar number in v. alginolyticus deletion of hubp increased the flagellar number and completely disrupted the polar localization of flhg. it ...201627573015
studies on the mechanism of bacterial flagellar rotation and the flagellar number regulation.many motile bacteria have the motility organ, the flagellum. it rotates by the rotary motor driven by the ion-motive force and is embedded in the cell surface at the base of each flagellar filament. many researchers have been studying its rotary mechanism for years, but most of the energy conversion processes have been remained in mystery. we focused on the flagellar stator, which works at the core process of energy conversion, and found that the periplasmic region of the stator changes its conf ...201627581279
complete genome sequence of vibrio alginolyticus zj-t.vibrio alginolyticus is a ubiquitous gram-negative bacterium which is normally distributed in the coastal and estuarine environments. it has been suggested to be an opportunistic pathogen to both marine animals and humans, here, the completed genome sequence of v. alginolyticus zj-t was determined by illumina high-throughput sequencing.201627587824
identification of a novel class b scavenger receptor homologue in portunus trituberculatus: molecular cloning and microbial ligand binding.class b scavenger receptors (srbs), which are present in mammals and insects, have been implicated in a wide range of functions. herein, a novel srb homologue, ptsrb, was cloned from the swimming crab, portunus trituberculatus. ptsrb has 538 amino acid residues, and it consists of two transmembrane regions, a large extracellular loop, and two intracellular tails. a phylogenetic analysis showed that ptsrb distinctly clustered with marsupenaeus japonicas srb-1 and most drosophila srb homologues, i ...201627633673
the cooperative expression of heat shock protein 70 kd and 90 kd gene in juvenile larimichthys crocea under vibrio alginolyticus stress.heat shock proteins (hsps) play significant roles in the immune response of fish in defending against diverse environmental threats or stresses. in this study, two complete hsp70 and hsp90 genes of larimichthys crocea (designated as lychsp70 and lychsp90) were identified and characterized (genbank accession no. kt456551 and kt456552). the complete open reading frame (orf) fragments of lychsp70 and lychsp90 were 1917 bp and 2151 bp, encoding 638 and 716 amino acids residues respectively. many sig ...201627678510
the rna chaperone hfq is involved in colony morphology, nutrient utilization and oxidative and envelope stress response in vibrio alginolyticus.hfq is a global regulator that is involved in environmental adaptation of bacteria and in pathogenicity. to gain insight into the role of hfq in vibrio alginolyticus, an hfq deletion mutant was constructed in v. alginolyticus zj-t strain and phenotypically characterized. deletion of hfq led to an alteration of colony morphology and reduced extracellular polysaccharide production, a general impairment of growth in both rich medium and minimal media with different carbon sources or amino acids, en ...201627685640
characterization of vibrio parahaemolyticus and its specific phage from shrimp pond in palk strait, south east coast of india.phage therapy is an alternative and eco-friendly biocontrol agent to prevent and control multidrug resistant bacteria in the aquatic system. the aim of this study is to isolate and characterize the vibrio parahaemolyticus and its potential lytic phage from penaeus monodon growing-out by rearing in shrimp ponds in palk strait, south east coast of india. the conventional phenotypic characteristics and molecular identification was confirmed using 16s rrna sequence and to determine the antibiotic re ...201627697363
molecular cloning and characterization of pten in the orange-spotted grouper (epinephelus coioides).pten is a key tumor suppressor gene that can play a regulatory role in the cellular proliferation, survival and apoptosis. in this study, the full-length pten (ecpten) was obtained, containing a 5'utr of 745 bp, an orf of 1269 bp and a 3'utr of 106 bp. the ecpten gene encoded a polypeptide of 422 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 49.14 kda and a predicted isoelectric point (pi) of 6.34. the deduced amino acid sequence analysis showed that ecpten comprised the conserved residues and ...201627725262
molecular characterization and function of the prohibitin2 gene in litopenaeus vannamei responses to vibrio alginolyticus.prohibitin2 (phb2), a potential tumor suppressor protein, plays important roles in inhibition of cell cycle progression, transcriptional regulation, apoptosis and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. to explore its potential roles in crustaceans' immune responses we have identified and characterized lvphb2, a 891 bp gene encoding a 297 amino acids protein in the shrimp litopenaeus vannamei. expression analyses showed that lvphb2 is expressed in all examined tissues, and largely present in cytopl ...201727756688
a novel p38 mapk indentified from crassostrea hongkongensis and its involvement in host response to immune challenges.p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (mapks) are conserved serine/threonine-specific kinases that are activated by various extracellular stimuli and play crucial regulatory roles in immunity, development and homeostasis. however, the function of p38s in mollusks, the second most diverse group of animals, is still poorly understood. in this study, a novel molluscan p38 (designated chp38) was cloned and characterized from the hong kong oyster crassostrea hongkongensis. its full-length cdna encode ...201627768933
laurus nobilis, zingiber officinale and anethum graveolens essential oils: composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities against bacteria isolated from fish and shellfish.several bacterial strains were isolated from wild and reared fish and shellfish. the identification of these strains showed the dominance of the aeromonas hydrophila species in all seafood samples, followed by staphylococcus spp., vibrio alginolyticus, enterobacter cloacae, klebsiella ornithinolytica, klebsiella oxytoca and serratia odorifera. the isolates were studied for their ability to produce exoenzymes and biofilms. the chemical composition of the essential oils from laurus nobilis leaves, ...201627782086
characterization of potential lytic bacteriophage against vibrio alginolyticus and its therapeutic implications on biofilm dispersal.vibrio alginolyticus is a leading cause of vibriosis, presenting opportunistic infections to humans associated with raw seafood contamination. at present, phage therapy that acts as an alternative sanitizing agent is explored for targeting v. alginolyticus. the study outcome revealed that the phage vp01 with its extreme lytic effect showed a high potential impact on the growth of v. alginolyticus as well as biofilm formation. electron microscopy revealed the phage resemblance to myoviridae, base ...201627793690
mutational analysis and overproduction effects of motx, an essential component for motor function of na+-driven polar flagella of vibrio.the bacterial flagellar motor is a rotary motor complex composed of various proteins. the motor contains a central rod, multiple ring-like structures and stators. the na(+)-driven polar flagellar motor of the marine bacterium vibrio alginolyticus has a specific ring, called the 't-ring', which consists of two periplasmic proteins, motx and moty. the t-ring is essential for assembly of the torque-generating unit, the poma/pomb stator complex, into the motor. to investigate the role of the t-ring ...201627803076
identification, characterization and expression analysis of tumor suppressor protein p53 from pufferfish (takifugu obscurus) after the vibrio alginolyticus challenge.the tumor suppressor protein p53 plays a critical role in cell cycle, apoptosis and dna repair. in this study, the full-length pufferfish p53 (pf-p53) was obtained, containing an open reading frame of 1095 bp, a 5'utr of 157 bp and a 3'utr of 285 bp with a poly (a) tail. the pf-p53 encoded a polypeptide of 364 amino acids with a theoretical isoelectric point of 8.03 and predicted molecular weight of 40.6 kda. pf-p53 was ubiquitously expressed in various tissues with a high-level expression in ki ...201627815196
dietary administration of saponin stimulates growth of the swimming crab portunus trituberculatus and enhances its resistance against vibrio alginolyticus infection.the immunostimulatory role of dietary saponins on swimming crabs was investigated under field conditions. portunus trituberculatus were fed diets enriched with quillaja saponin (qs) at 150, 300 and 450 mg kg(-1). they had an enhanced growth rate and increased resistance against vibrio alginolyticus compared to crabs not fed with qs. significant effects were observed on the average body weight, percentage weight gain and specific growth rate (p < 0.05). total hemocyte and hyaline cell counts of p ...201627815204
white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei that have received fucoidan exhibit a defense against vibrio alginolyticus and wssv despite their recovery of immune parameters to background levels.white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei receiving fucoidan at 2, 6, and 10 μg g(-1) after 0-144 h or 0-120 h were examined for immune parameters (haemograms, phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst, and superoxide dismutase activity), proliferation of haemocyte in the haematopoietic tissue (hpt), gene expression, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to vibrio alginolyticus. immune parameters and mitotic index of hpt increased after 3-24 h, reached their maxima after 48-72 h, and returned ...201627815206
the upregulation of immune responses in tyrosine hydroxylase (th) silenced litopenaeus vannamei.catecholamines (cas) play a crucial role in maintaining physiological and immune homeostasis in invertebrates and vertebrates under stressful conditions. tyrosine hydroxylase (th) is the first and rate-limiting enzyme in ca synthesis. to develop an effective ca-related immunological defense system against stress and pathogen infection, various criteria, were evaluated in th double-stranded (ds) rna-injected white shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei. specifically, the relative transcript quantification ...201727825820
preliminary study on the in vitro and in vivo effects of asparagopsis taxiformis bioactive phycoderivates on teleosts.several compounds from marine organisms have been studied for their potential use in aquaculture. among the red algae, asparagopsis taxiformis is considered one of the most promising species for the production of bioactive metabolites with numerous proposed applications. here, the in vitro antibacterial activity, the easy handling and the absence of adverse effects on marine fish species are reported. depending on the seasonal period of sampling, ethanol extracts of a. taxiformis exhibited signi ...201627826246
season-specific occurrence of potentially pathogenic vibrio spp. on the southern coast of south korea.vibrio species are widely distributed in warm estuarine and coastal environments, and they can infect humans through the consumption of raw and mishandled contaminated seafood. in this study, we aimed to isolate and observe the distribution of enteropathogenic vibrio spp. from environments of the southern coast of south korea over a season cycle. a total of 10,983 isolates of vibrio spp. were obtained from tidal water and mud samples over a 1-year period from five sampling sites along the southw ...201727836844
c-jun n-terminal kinase (jnk) is involved in immune defense against bacterial infection in crassostrea hongkongensis.c-jun n-terminal kinase (jnk) is a universal and essential subgroup of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) superfamily, which is highly conserved from yeast to mammals and functions in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. in this study, we report the first oyster jnk gene homolog (chjnk) and its biological functions in the hong kong oyster crassostrea hongkongensis. the chjnk protein consists of 383 amino acids and contains a conserved serine/threonine protein kinase (s ...201727840294
comparative study of the ion flux pathway in stator units of proton- and sodium-driven flagellar motors.flagellar motor proteins, mota/b and poma/b, are essential for the motility of escherichia coli and vibrio alginolyticus, respectively. those complexes work as a h(+) and a na(+) channel, respectively and play important roles in torque generation as the stators of the flagellar motors. although asp32 of motb and asp24 of pomb are believed to function as ion binding site(s), the ion flux pathway from the periplasm to the cytoplasm is still unclear. conserved residues, ala39 of motb and cys31 of p ...200927857578
characterization of the flagellar motor composed of functional gfp-fusion derivatives of flig in the na(+)-driven polar flagellum of vibrio alginolyticus.the polar flagellum of vibrio alginolyticus is driven by sodium ion flux via a stator complex, composed of poma and pomb, across the cell membrane. the interaction between poma and the rotor component flig is believed to generate torque required for flagellar rotation. previous research reported that a gfp-fused flig retained function in the vibrio flagellar motor. in this study, we found that n-terminal or c-terminal fusion of gfp has different effects on both torque generation and the switchin ...201127857593
antifouling activity towards mussel by small-molecule compounds from a strain of vibrio alginolyticus bacterium associated with sea anemone haliplanella sp.mussels are major fouling organisms causing serious technical and economic problems. in this study, antifouling activity towards mussel was found in three compounds isolated from a marine bacterium associated with the sea anemone haliplanella sp. this bacterial strain, called pe2, was identified as vibrio alginolyticus using morphology, biochemical tests, and phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of 16s rrna and four housekeeping genes (rpod, gyrb, rctb, and toxr). three small-molecule compou ...201727880960
identification and functional characterization of a novel spätzle gene in litopenaeus vannamei.shrimp innate immunity is the first line of resistance against pathogenic bacteria. the toll-like receptor (tlr)-nf-κb pathway is vital in this immunity process. in this study, a novel spätzle gene (lvspz4) of litopenaeus vannamei was cloned and functionally characterized. the open reading frame of lvspz4 was 918 bp, which encoded a putative protein with 305 amino acids. lvspz4 was most expressed in the gills of l. vannamei. this expression was induced by vibrio alginolyticus or staphylococcus a ...201727884706
potentiometric aptasensing of vibrio alginolyticus based on dna nanostructure-modified magnetic beads.a potentiometric aptasensing assay that couples the dna nanostructure-modified magnetic beads with a solid-contact polycation-sensitive membrane electrode for the detection of vibrio alginolyticus is herein described. the dna nanostructure-modified magnetic beads are used for amplification of the potential response and elimination of the interfering effect from a complex sample matrix. the solid-contact polycation-sensitive membrane electrode using protamine as an indicator is employed to chrono ...201627918423
establishment and characterization of a mid-kidney cell line derived from golden pompano trachinotus ovatus, a new cell model for virus pathogenesis and toxicology studies.golden pompano trachinotus ovatus, a popularly cultured and commercially important marine fish worldwide, has been recognized as a promising candidate for mariculture. however, outbreaks of infectious bacterial or viral diseases and environmental deterioration have led to great economic losses in t. ovatus aquaculture recently. in our research, we established a new mid-kidney cell line, designated as tok, from golden pompano, t. ovatus. the optimized growth temperature and working concentration ...201627981423
exse is a negative regulator for t3ss gene expression in vibrio alginolyticus.type iii secretion systems (t3sss) contribute to microbial pathogenesis of vibrio species, but the regulatory mechanisms are complex. we determined if the classic exsacde protein-protein regulatory model from pseudomonas aeruginosa applies to vibrio alginolyticus. deletion mutants in v. alginolyticus demonstrated that, as expected, the t3ss is positively regulated by exsa and exsc and negatively regulated by exsd and exse. interestingly, deletion of exse enhanced the ability of v. alginolyticus ...201627999769
biochemical characterization of the flagellar stator-associated inner membrane protein flil from vibrio alginolyticus.the flagellar motor is embedded in the cell envelope and rotates upon interaction between the stator and the rotor. the rotation is powered by ion flow through the stator. a single transmembrane protein named flil is associated with torque generation in the flagellar motor. we established an escherichia coli over-expression system for flil of vibrio alginolyticus, a marine bacterium that has a sodium-driven polar flagellum. we successfully expressed, purified, and crystallized the ca. 17 kda ful ...201628013221
characterization and function analysis of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 (irak-1) from fenneropenaeus penicillatus.the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 (irak-1) is an important adapter protein which links downstream of myd88, and involved in the complex composed of myd88 and traf6 to activate tlrs signaling pathway. in this study, an irak-1 homolog (fpirak-1) was cloned from the red tail shrimp fenneropenaeus penicillatus. the orf of fpirak-1 consisted of 2874 bp encoding a protein of 957 amino acids which contains a death domain (dd) and a catalytic domain of serine/threonine kinases (stkc). homol ...201728025158
isolation characterization and growth of locally isolated hydrocarbonoclastic marine bacteria (eastern algerian coast).the algerian coastline is being exposed to several types of pollution, including that of hydrocarbons. this environment rich in oil could be the source of proliferation of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. the objective of the study is to isolate and identify indigenous bacterial strains from marine waters of two ports in the eastern algerian coast and to test their growth in the presence of hydrocarbons with and without biostimulation throughout the intake of nitrogen and phosphate. results recorde ...201728058612
designation of pathogenic resistant bacteria in the sparusaurata sea collected in tunisia coastlines: correlation with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of antibiotics.vibrio is characterized by a large number of species and some of them are human pathogens causing gastro intestinal and wound infections through the ingestion or manipulation of contaminated fishes including vibrio parahaemolyticus and vibrio alginolyticus. in this study, we reported the phenotypic and molecular characterization of vibrio parahaemolyticus and vibrio alginolyticus strains isolated from wild and farm sea bream (sparus aurata l.) along the tunisian coast from december 2015 to april ...201728062288
identification and function analysis of an anti-lipopolysaccharide factor from the ridgetail prawn exopalaemon carinicauda.anti-lipopolysaccharide factor is a kind of antimicrobial peptide (amp) with broad-spectrum activities against bacteria, virus, and fungi in crustacean. different isoforms of alfs showed different activities to virus or bacteria. therefore, discovery of more alfs will provide new insights into drug development and disease control. here we reported an alf gene, ecalf1, isolated from the ridgetail prawn exopalaemon carinicauda. its transcripts was mainly detected in hemocytes. silencing of ecalf1 ...201728082184
length-dependent flagellar growth of vibrio alginolyticus revealed by real time fluorescent imaging.bacterial flagella are extracellular filaments that drive swimming in bacteria. during motor assembly, flagellins are transported unfolded through the central channel in the flagellum to the growing tip. here, we applied in vivo fluorescent imaging to monitor in real time the vibrio alginolyticus polar flagella growth. the flagellar growth rate is found to be highly length-dependent. initially, the flagellum grows at a constant rate (50 nm/min) when shorter than 1500 nm. the growth rate decays sharply w ...201728098557
molecular characterization and functional analysis of a piscidin gene in large yellow croaker (larimichthys crocea).the piscidin family, which includes potent antimicrobial peptides with broad-spectrum activity, plays an important role in the innate immune system of fish. in this study, we cloned piscidin-5-like type 3 (lcpis5lt3) in large yellow croaker (larimichthys crocea). multiple alignments with other known piscidins revealed amino acid conservation throughout the fish, especially at the signal peptide (22 amino acids). the phylogenetic tree confirmed that lcpis5lt3 and large yellow croaker piscidin-5-l ...201628105799
identification, ontogeny and expression analysis of a novel laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (lgp2) transcript in asian seabass, lates calcarifer.lgp2 (laboratory of genetics and physiology 2) is an important member of the retinoic acid-inducible gene i (rig-i)-like receptors (rlrs), which plays a significant role in antiviral innate immunity. in this study, we have cloned the full-length cdna sequence of lgp2 from asian seabass, lates calcarifer (aslgp2). the complete aslgp2 cdna sequence consisted of 2586 nucleotides encoding a putative protein of 681 amino acids with a molecular mass of 77.6 kda. from the aslgp2 protein, four different ...201728119144
induction of type i interferons in response to bacterial stimuli in large yellow croaker larimichthys crocea.in addition to the crucial roles in coordinating antiviral immune responses, type i interferons (ifns) also play a role in the host immunity against bacterial pathogens. our previous study identified two type i ifns from large yellow croaker larimichthys croaea(lc), lcifnd and lcifnh, and showed their strong induction by poly(i:c) and antiviral activities. in the present study, both lcifnd and lcifnh were found to be rapidly induced in head kidney and spleen by mixed bacteria of vibrio alginolyt ...201728119146
transcriptome analysis reveals comprehensive insights into the early immune response of large yellow croaker (larimichthys crocea) induced by trivalent bacterial vaccine.vaccination is an effective and safe strategy for combating bacterial diseases in fish, but the mechanisms underlying the early immune response after vaccination remain to be elucidated. in the present study, we used rna-seq technology to perform transcriptome analysis of spleens from large yellow croaker (larimichthys crocea) induced by inactivated trivalent bacterial vaccine (vibrio parahaemolyticus, vibrio alginolyticus and aeromonas hydrophila). a total of 2,789 or 1,511 differentially expre ...201728135311
a molluscan extracellular signal-regulated kinase is involved in host response to immune challenges in vivo and in vitro.extracellular signal-regulated kinases (erks) are a group of highly conserved serine/threonine-specific protein kinases that function as important signaling intermediates in mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) pathways, which are involved in a wide variety of cellular activities, including proliferation, inflammation and cytokine production. however, little is known about the roles of this kinase in mollusk immunity. in this study, we identified a molluscan erk homolog (cherk) in the hong ko ...201728159693
mutational analysis and overproduction effects of motx, an essential component for motor function of na+-driven polar flagella of vibrio.the bacterial flagellar motor is a rotary motor complex composed of various proteins. the motor contains a central rod, multiple ring-like structures and stators. the na+-driven polar flagellar motor of the marine bacterium vibrio alginolyticus has a specific ring, called the ‘t-ring’, which consists of two periplasmic proteins, motx and moty. the t-ring is essential for assembly of the torque-generating unit, the poma/pomb stator complex, into the motor. to investigate the role of the t-ring fo ...201728173168
microrna-100 is involved in shrimp immune response to white spot syndrome virus (wssv) and vibrio alginolyticus infection.in this study, we discovered that shrimp mir-100 was up-regulated at 24 h after wssv or vibrio alginolyticus infection, confirming its participation in the innate immune system of shrimp. the anti-mirna oligonucleotide (amo-mir-100) was applied to inhibit the expression of mir-100. after amo-mir-100 treatment, the shrimp was challenged with wssv or v. alginolyticus. the knockdown of mir-100 expression decreased the mortality of wssv-infected shrimp from 24 h to 72 h post-infection and enhanced t ...201728181552
molecular identification and functional characterization of a tumor necrosis factor (tnf) gene in crassostrea hongkongensis.tumor necrosis factor superfamily (tnfsf) represents a group of multifunctional inflammatory cytokines that have been shown to participate in a variety of pathological and immunological process. however, the functions of these proteins in oyster are still poorly understood. in the present study, an oyster tnf homolog (named chtnf) was identified from a cdna library of crassostrea hongkongensis. the complete cdna of chtnf was 2457bp in length containing an open reading frame (orf) of 1044bp, a 5' ...201728189340
vibrio alginolyticus infections in the usa, 1988-2012.vibrio alginolyticus causes soft tissue and bloodstream infection; little systematically collected clinical and epidemiological information is available. in the usa, v. alginolyticus infections are reported to the cholera and other vibrio illness surveillance system. using data from 1988 to 2012, we categorised infections using specimen source and exposure history, analysed case characteristics, and calculated incidence rates using us census bureau data. most (96%) of the 1331 v. alginolyticus i ...201728202099
molecular detection of the three major pathogenic vibrio species from seafood products and sediments in tunisia using real-time pcr.vibrio spp. have emerged as a serious threat to human health worldwide. v. parahaemolyticus , v. cholerae , and v. vulnificus pose a considerable public health risk in tunisia because they cause sporadic and epidemic foodborne infections associated with the consumption of raw or undercooked contaminated seafood. more recently, toxr-positive v. alginolyticus was also reported to be a potential source of contaminated seafood. a total of 247 samples, including 113 fishes ( labrus viridis , penaeus ...201628221954
molecular characterization of pacific oyster (crassostrea gigas) irak4 gene and its role in myd88-dependent pathway.interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases (iraks) play important roles in myd88-dependent tlr signaling, the crucial innate immune pathway in molluscs. in this study, we examined the full-length irak4 genetic sequence in the pacific oyster (crassostrea gigas) by molecular cloning. phylogenetic analysis revealed that cgirak4 is most closely related to mytilus edulis, and forms a clade with other molluscs. cgirak4 transcripts are widely expressed in all tissues, with the highest expression observe ...201728223161
immune response and antioxidant status of portunus trituberculatus inoculated with pathogens.the white spot syndrome virus (wssv), vibrio parahaemolyticus and v. alginolyticus are serious epidemic pathogen affecting the cultured portunus trituberculatus and resulted in severe economic losses to local farmers. the immune and antioxidant systems are believed to be closely involved in host responses to pathogens in aerobic animals, including crustaceans. in order to explore such host-pathogen interactions in the early stage of infection in p. trituberculatus, the mrna transcript levels of ...201728235638
establishment and characterization of a cell line from the head kidney of golden pompano trachinotus ovatus and its application in toxicology and virus susceptibility.a cell line derived from the head kidney of golden pompano trachinotus ovatus (tohk) was established and characterized in this study. the tohk cells grew most rapidly at 28° c and the optimum foetal bovine serum concentration in l-15 medium was 10%. the tohk cells have a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 54. the transfection efficiency of tohk cells was 7·5% at the 15th passage and 72% at the 40th passage. the transfection efficiency in tohk cells was high, so these cells are suitable for foreig ...201728271507
the 𝛿-aminolevulinate dehydratase of marine vibrio alginolyticus is resistant to lead (pb). 199928281822
characterization and functional analysis of a novel c-type lectin from the swimming crab portunus trituberculatus.c-type lectins (ctls) are a family of calcium-dependent carbohydrate-binding proteins. in the present study, a novel c-type lectin (designated as ptctl1) was identified and characterized from portunus trituberculatus. the full-length cdna of ptctl1 was of 702 bp, containing a 5' untranslated region (utr) of 91 bp, a 3' utr of 110 bp with a poly (a) tail, and an open reading frame (orf) of 501 bp encoding a polypeptide of 166 amino acids with a putative signaling peptide of 21 amino acids. a c-ty ...201728288910
instabilities of a rotating helical rod in a viscous fluid.bacteria such as vibrio alginolyticus swim through a fluid by utilizing the rotational motion of their helical flagellum driven by a rotary motor. the flagellar motor is embedded in the cell body and turns either clockwise (cw) or counterclockwise (ccw), which may lead to straight forward or backward swimming, or reorientation of the cell. in this paper we investigate the dynamics of the helical flagellum by adopting the kirchhoff rod theory in which the flagellum is described as a space curve a ...201728297972
antibacterial activity of metabolites products of vibrio alginolyticus isolated from sponge haliclona sp. against staphylococcus aureus.the objective of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of primary and secondary metabolites from vibrio alginoliticus isolated from sponge haliclona sp. against staphylococcus aureus. a descriptive method was used in this research. the antibacterial activity was analysed by paper disk method. the results showed that the primary metabolites produced by vibrio alginoliticus that is in symbiosis with sponge haliclona sp. were able to effectively inhibit staphylococcus aureus grow ...201728299291
sponge-associated bacteria produce non-cytotoxic melanin which protects animal cells from photo-toxicity.melanin is a photo-protective polymer found in many organisms. our research shows that the bacteria associated with darkly pigmented sponges (haliclona pigmentifera, sigmadocia pumila, fasciospongia cavernosa, spongia officinalis, and callyspongia diffusa) secrete non-cytotoxic melanin, with antioxidant activity that protects animal cells from photo-toxicity. out of 156 bacterial strains screened, 22 produced melanin and these melanin-producing bacteria (mpb) were identified as vibrio spp., prov ...201728315112
tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (traf6) participates in peroxinectin gene expression in fenneropenaeus penicillatus.tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (traf6) is an important cytoplasm signal adaptor that mediates signals activated by tumor necrosis factor receptor (tnfr) superfamily and the interleukin-1 receptor/toll-like receptor (il-1/tlr) superfamily. in the study, the full-length cdna of a traf6 homolog (fptraf6) was identified from fenneropenaeus penicillatus. the full-length cdna of fptraf6 is 2033 bp long, with an open reading frame (orf) encoding a putative protein of 594 amino acids ...201728315393
homeopathy outperforms antibiotics treatment in juvenile scallop argopecten ventricosus: effects on growth, survival, and immune response.mortality from vibriosis in mollusk production is attributed to pathogenic bacteria, particularly vibrio alginolyticus. use of increasingly potent antibiotics has led to bacterial resistance and increased pathogenicity. alternatives in sanitation, safety, and environmental sustainability are currently under analysis. to-date, homeopathy has been investigated in aquaculture of freshwater fish, but not in marine mollusks. the effect of the homeopathic complexes in the growth, survival, and immune ...201728325219
molecular cloning and characterization of antimicrobial peptides from skin of hylarana guentheri.the cdnas encoding antimicrobial peptides (amps) in the skin of hylarana guentheri were identified, namely temporin (five peptides, termed temporin-gha-ghd and temporin-gua), brevinin-1 (one peptide, brevinin-1gub), and brevinin-2 (eight peptides, brevinin-2ghd-2ghj, and brevinin-2ghb). eleven of the 14 peptides have novel primary structures. synthesized temporin gha-ghd have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities against gram-positive bacteria (staphylococcus aureus and bacillus subtilis), gra ...201728338958
complicated sea urchin-induced wound infection caused by vibrioalginolyticus and staphylococcus lugdunensis in a 14-year-old boy.wound infections with vibrio alginolyticus, a gram-negative bacterium found in all temperate oceans, are rarely reported. however, a rising incidence of wound infections caused by v. alginolyticus requires better knowledge about this infectious agent.201628348795
antimicrobial activities of secondary metabolites and phylogenetic study of sponge endosymbiotic bacteria, bacillus sp. at agatti island, lakshadweep archipelago.twenty-one species of sponges were recorded under the class of demospongiae and calcareous sponges of which 19 species were new to agatti reef. a total of 113 sponge endosymbiotic bacterial strains were isolated from twenty-one species of sponges and screened for antimicrobial activity. five bacterial strains of sponge endosymbiotic bacteria (seb) namely seb32, seb33, seb36, seb43 and seb51 showed antimicrobial activity against virulent marine fish pathogens such as vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio ...201628352539
molecular cloning, characterization and function of a germinal center kinase mst4 gene from litopenaeus vannamei in response to vibrio alginolyticus challenge in tlr-traf6 signaling pathway.the serine/threonine protein kinase mst4 plays multiple roles in the regulation of signaling pathways that govern cellular processes including mitosis, migration, homeostasis, polarity, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. here we report the identification and characterization of the full-length sequence of lvmst4 from the shrimp l. vannamei, and investigations into its role in the shrimp's immune response to infection by the pathogenic bacterium vibrio alginolyticus. subcellular locali ...201728377200
enzymatic debridement: is ha-collagenase the right synergy? randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial in venous leg ulcers.the aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new ointment containing hyaluronic acid and collagenase from non-pathogenic vibrio alginolyticus.201728387882
pumilacidin-like lipopeptides derived from marine bacterium bacillus sp. suppress the motility of vibrio alginolyticus.bacterial motility is a crucial factor during the invasion and colonization processes of pathogens, which makes it an attractive therapeutic drug target. here, we isolated a marine bacterium (vibrio alginolyticus 178) from a seamount in the tropical west pacific that exhibits vigorous motility on agar plates and severe pathogenicity to zebrafish. we found that v. alginolyticus 178 motility was significantly suppressed by another marine bacterium bacillus sp. 176 isolated from the same niche. we ...201728389538
structure of the sodium-driven flagellar motor in marine vibrio.most bacteria can swim by rotating the flagellum. the basal body of the flagellum is an essential part for this motor function. recent comprehensive analysis of the flagellar basal body structures across bacteria by cryo-electron tomography has revealed that they all share core structures, the rod, and rings: the c ring, m ring, s ring, l ring, and p ring. furthermore, it also has uncovered that in some bacteria, there are extra ring structures in the periplasmic space and outer-membrane. here, ...201728389960
responses of mytilus galloprovincialis hemocytes to environmental strains of vibrio parahaemolyticus, vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio vulnificus.marine bivalves are exposed to different types of bacteria in the surrounding waters, in particular of the vibrio genus. in the hemocytes of the mussel mytilus spp. immune responses to different vibrios have been largely characterized. however, little information is available on the hemocyte responses to human pathogenic vibrios commonly detected in coastal waters and bivalve tissues that are involved in seafood-borne diseases.201728390964
metabolism of branched-chain amino acids revealed by transcriptome analysis in vibrio alginolyticus.branched-chain amino acids (bcaas) play important roles in nitrogen metabolism. however, little is known about the metabolism of bcaas in the fish pathogen vibrio alginolyticus. in this study, the global gene expression patterns of v. alginolyticus zj-t cultured in m63 minimal medium supplemented with ammonium sulfate or with three bcaas (isoleucine, leucine and valine) as nitrogen source were evaluated by transcriptome analysis. the results revealed that 311 genes are up-regulated (|log2(fold c ...201728395865
one enzyme, three metabolites: shewanella algae controls siderophore production via the cellular substrate pool.shewanella algae b516 produces avaroferrin, an asymmetric hydroxamate siderophore, which has been shown to inhibit swarming motility of vibrio alginolyticus. we aimed to elucidate the biosynthesis of this siderophore and to investigate how s. algae coordinates the production of avaroferrin and its two symmetric counterparts. we reconstituted the reaction in vitro with the main enzyme avbd and the putative biosynthetic precursors, and demonstrate that multispecificity of this enzyme results in th ...201728434877
newly identified invertebrate-type lysozyme (splys-i) in mud crab (scylla paramamosain) exhibiting muramidase-deficient antimicrobial activity.lysozymes are widely distributed immune effectors exerting muramidase activity against the peptidoglycan of the bacterial cell wall to trigger cell lysis. however, some invertebrate-type (i-type) lysozymes deficient of muramidase activity still exhibit antimicrobial activity. to date, the mechanism underlying the antimicrobial effect of muramidase-deficient i-type lysozymes remains unclear. accordingly, this study characterized a novel i-type lysozyme, splys-i, in the mud crab scylla paramamosai ...201728438599
plasma immune protein analysis in the orange-spotted grouper epinephelus coioides: evidence for altered expressions of immune factors associated with a choline-supplemented diet.this study aimed to unravel the regulatory roles of choline in activating immune responses and disease resistance of the orange-spotted grouper epinephelus coioides. fish were fed a choline-supplemented diet at 1 g kg(-1) of feed for 30 days. fish fed a fish meal basal diet without choline-supplement served as controls. at the end of the feeding trial, fish were challenged with vibrio alginolyticus. meanwhile, plasma proteomics of fish in each group were also evaluated by two-dimensional gel ele ...201728454818
molecular cloning, characterization and functional analysis of a putative mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 4 (mekk4) from blood clam tegillarca granosa.the mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) cascades stand for one of the most important signaling mechanisms in response to environmental stimuli. in the present study, we cloned and identified for the first time the full-length cdna of mapk kinase kinase 4 (tgmekk4) from blood clam tegillarca granosa using rapid amplification of cdna ends method. the full-length cdna of tgmekk4 was of 1605 bp in length, encoding a polypeptide of 364 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 41.22 kda and ...201728476674
characterization of three caspases and their pathogen-induced expression pattern in portunus trituberculatus.caspases are a family of proteases involved in many important biological processes including apoptosis and inflammation. in this study, we analyzed the expression patterns and effects on immune response in various tissues of the edible crab portunus trituberculatus. ptcas 2, ptcas 3 and ptcas 4 share overall sequence identities of 55.88%-74.86%, 8.47%-46.54% and 20.11%-50.87%, respectively, with their other crustacean species. ptcas 2, ptcas 3 and ptcas 4 have the same caspase domain and catalyt ...201728478258
immunogenicity and efficacy of dna vaccine encoding antigenic acfa via addition of the molecular adjuvant myd88 against vibrio alginolyticus in epinephelus coioides.dna vaccines had been widely used against microbial infection in animals. the use of molecular adjuvants to improve the immunogenicity of dna vaccines has been increasingly studied in recent years. myd88 is one of the adapter molecules to activate the signaling cascades and produces inflammatory mediators, and its immunological role and adjuvant potential which had been proved in mammals were rarely reported in fish species. in this study, plasmid pcmyd88 was constructed and the capacity of myd8 ...201728487211
a proteomic study of hemocyte proteins from mud crab (scylla paramamosain) infected with white spot syndrome virus or vibrio alginolyticus.in this study, we investigated the hemocytes' immune response to white spot syndrome virus (wssv) or vibrio alginolyticus infection at the protein level. the differential proteomes from crab hemocytes infected with wssv or v. alginolyticus were analyzed using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation approach immediately after infection. using this approach, we identified 1,799 proteins by their by lc-ms/ms spectra and sequencing data. these included 157 upregulated proteins and 1 ...201728496442
helical jackknives control the gates of the double-pore k(+) uptake system ktrab.ion channel gating is essential for cellular homeostasis and is tightly controlled. in some eukaryotic and most bacterial ligand-gated k(+) channels, rck domains regulate ion fluxes. until now, a single regulatory mechanism has been proposed for all rck-regulated channels, involving signal transduction from the rck domain to the gating area. here, we present an inactive adp-bound structure of ktrab from vibrio alginolyticus, determined by cryo-electron microscopy, which, combined with epr spectr ...201728504641
virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance in environmental strains of vibrio alginolyticus.vibrio alginolyticus has acquired increasing importance because this microorganism may be pathogenic to aquatic animals and humans. it has been reported that some v. alginolyticus strains carry virulence genes derived from pathogenic v. cholerae and v. parahaemolyticus strains. in this work v. alginolyticus was isolated from oyster samples acquired from a food-market in mexico city. thirty isolates were identified as v. alginolitycus. strains showed β-haemolysis and proteolytic activity and prod ...201628504816
localization and domain characterization of the sfla regulator of flagellar formation in vibrio alginolyticus.many swimming bacteria use flagella as locomotive organelles. the spatial and numerical regulation of flagellar biosynthesis differs by bacterial species. the marine bacteria vibrio alginolyticus use a single polar flagellum whose number is regulated positively by flhf and negatively by flhg. cells lacking flhf and flhg have no flagellum. the motility defect in an flhfg deletion was suppressed by a mutation in the sfla gene that resulted in the production of multiple, peritrichous flagella. sfla ...201728544270
the crustin-like peptide plays opposite role in shrimp immune response to vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (wssv) infection.crustin is an antimicrobial peptide (amp) that plays a key role in innate immunity of crustaceans. in this study, we cloned the entire 660 bp crustin-like sequence with a 507 bp open reading frame encoding a 168 amino acid from marsupenaeus japonicus. the crustin-like gene was primarily expressed in gills and over-expressed in shrimp hemocytes after challenge with wssv or vibrio alginolyticus. after knockdown crustin-like gene using specific double-stranded rna (cru-dsrna), imd, rab7, l-lectin, ...201728546026
the force-sensing peptide vemp employs extreme compaction and secondary structure formation to induce ribosomal stalling.interaction between the nascent polypeptide chain and the ribosomal exit tunnel can modulate the rate of translation and induce translational arrest to regulate expression of downstream genes. the ribosomal tunnel also provides a protected environment for initial protein folding events. here, we present a 2.9 å cryo-electron microscopy structure of a ribosome stalled during translation of the extremely compacted vemp nascent chain. the nascent chain forms two α-helices connected by an α-turn and ...201728556777
molecular cloning and characterization of a hemocyanin from sepiella maindroni.hemocyanins are respiratory proteins occurring freely dissolved in the hemolymph of many arthropods and molluscs. hemocyanin and hemocyanin-derived peptides have been linked to key aspects of innate immunity. in the present study, the full-length cdna encoding hemocyanin in sepiella maindroni (smhc) was cloned and characterized. bioinformatic analysis predicted that smhc contains one open reading frame of 10,032 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 3343 amino acids. sequence analysis showed that the ...201728602684
isolation and characterization of antimicrobial peptides derived from bacillus subtilis e20-fermented soybean meal and its use for preventing vibrio infection in shrimp aquaculture.bacillus subtilis e20-fermented soybean meal (fsbm) was found to produce antimicrobial peptides (amps) with great antimicrobial activity against vibrio alginolyticus (va) and v. parahaemolyticus (vp). three amps were purified with a 5 kda ultrafiltration, sephadex g-15 column and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (rp-hplc). the fsb-amp, htskalldmlkrlgk, identified by an rp-nano-ultrapure liquid chromatography (uplc) electrospray ionization (esi)-tandem mass spectroscopic (ms/m ...201728602685
molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of (b-cell lymphoma-2) bcl-2 in the orange-spotted grouper (epinephelus coioides).bcl-2 is a pro-survival member of bcl-2 like superfamily, playing an important role in regulating the apoptotic process. in this study, the full-length bcl-2 (ecbcl-2) was obtained, consisting of a 5'utr of 290 bp, an orf of 699 bp and a 3'utr of 920 bp. ecbcl-2 gene encoded a polypeptide of 232 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 26.12 kda and a predicted isoelectric point (pi) of 6.93. the deduced amino acid sequence analysis showed that ecbcl-2 consisted of the conserved residues ...201728606801
peroxiredoxin 1 from cuttlefish (sepiella maindroni): molecular characterization of development and its immune response against vibrio alginolyticus.the aim of this work was constructive to understand the function of peroxiredoxin (prdx) family member peroxiredoxin 1 in sepiella maindroni (smprx1) through molecular mechanisms of reproduction, embryonic development and immune responses to vibrio alginolyticus. the full-length cdna of smprx1 was of 1062 bp, contains a 5' untranslated region (utr) of 79bp, a 3' utr of 359 bp, an open reading frame of 624 bp encoding 207 amino acids. the conserved peroxidase catalytic center "fypldftfvcptei" and ...201728619362
a rapid and efficient screening method for antibacterial compound-producing bacteria.antibacterial compounds are widely used in the treatment of human and animal diseases. the overuse of antibiotics has led to a rapid rise in the prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria, making the development of new antibacterial compounds essential. this study focused on developing a fast and easy method for identifying marine bacteria that produce antibiotic compounds. eight randomly selected marine target bacterial species (agrococcus terreus, bacillus algicola, mesoflavibacter zeaxanthinifacie ...201728621106
molecular cloning and functional analysis of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (traf6) in crossastrea gigas.tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (traf6) has been demonstrated to be a key signaling molecule involved in adaptive and innate immunity. in this study, we obtained the full length cgtraf6 cdna and analyzed the characteristics of the orf and the peptide sequence in crassostrea gigas. the deduced protein sequence of cgtraf6 includes a conserved c-terminal traf domain following the ring and the zinc finger domain. the traf domain is composed of coiled-coil traf-n and math (meprin a ...201728648883
evidence for the presence of cell-surface-bound and intracellular bactericidal toxins in the dinoflagellate heterocapsa circularisquama.heterocapsa circularisquama, a harmful dinoflagellate, has multiple haemolytic toxins that are considered to be involved in the toxic mechanism against shellfish and certain species of zooplankton. to evaluate the further nature of the toxins of h. circularisquama, we investigated its effects on several species of bacteria. by colony formation assay, we found that h. circularisquama had antibacterial activity toward the marine bacterium vibrio alginolyticus in a cell density-dependent manner. wh ...201728654772
coordination of bactericidal and iron regulatory functions of hepcidin in innate antimicrobial immunity in a zebrafish model.hepcidin acts as both an antimicrobial peptide and a hormonal regulator of iron homeostasis; however, the biological significance of this dual-function in immune reactions remains elusive. in this study, we provide experimental evidence regarding the coordination of this dual-function in the innate antimicrobial immunity using a zebrafish model. the transcription of hepcidin gene was significantly upregulated in liver by aeromonas hydrophila (a.h) dna stimulation, which was accompanied by an inc ...201728655927
detection of diverse n-acyl-homoserine lactones in vibrio alginolyticus and regulation of biofilm formation by n-(3-oxodecanoyl) homoserine lactone in vitro.quorum sensing (qs) is a cell-to-cell communication system based on the exchange of small intercellular signal molecules, such as n-acyl homoserine lactones (ahls), which act as cell-density mediators of qs gene expression, and are highly variable both in types and amounts in most gram-negative proteobacteria. understanding the regulation of ahls may contribute to the elucidation of cell density-dependent phenomena, such as biofilm formation. vibrio alginolyticus is among the most frequently obs ...201728670299
evaluation of candidate reference genes for quantitative expression studies in asian seabass (lates calcarifer) during ontogenesis and in tissues of healthy and infected fishes.quantitative real-time pcr (qrt-pcr), used to determine the gene expression profile, is an important tool in functional genomic research, including fishes. to obtain more robust and meaningful result, the best possible normalization of the data is of utmost significance. in the present study, we have evaluated the potential of five commonly used housekeeping genes i.e., elongation factor 1-α (ef1a), β-actin (actb), 18s ribosomal rna (18s), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh) and β-2 ...201628699725
vibrio parahaemolyticus- and v. alginolyticus-associated meningo-encephalitis in a bottlenose dolphin (tursiops truncatus) from the adriatic coast of italy.a case of vibrio parahaemolyticus- and v. alginolyticus-associated meningo-encephalitis in a bottlenose dolphin (tursiops truncatus) found stranded along the adriatic coast of italy in 2016 is herein reported, along with a minireview on v. parahaemolyticus and v. alginolyticus infections in aquatic mammals. macroscopically, two abscesses were found in the dolphin's forebrain, along with an extensive, bilateral, parasitic broncho-pneumonia. histologically, a suppurative-to-pyogranulomatous mening ...201728709108
involvement of dopamine beta-hydroxylase in the neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network of white shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei.in shrimp, the biosynthesis of catecholamines, including dopamine and norepinephrine, is required for physiological and immunological responses against stress. dopamine beta-hydroxylase (dbh), a copper-containing monooxygenase enzyme that plays an important role in catecholamine synthesis of the neuroendocrine regulatory network, was identified in litopenaeus vannamei. in the present study, the potential role of dbh in the immunocompetence of l. vannamei was further estimated by depleting dbh by ...201728709722
contributions of the oligopeptide permeases in multistep of vibrio alginolyticus pathogenesis.vibrio alginolyticus has been associated with several diseases of cultivated marine animals, and has led to considerable economic losses. the oligopeptide permease (opp) has been proven to play a variety of important roles in nutrition and virulence in several bacteria. in our previous research, the opp gene cluster was identified in vibrio alginolyticus with transcriptome sequence, which also indicated that the opp system might play roles in the regulation of adhesion. in this study, the relati ...201728714216
identification of the regulon of aphb and its essential roles in luxr and exotoxin asp expression in the pathogen vibrio alginolyticus.in vibrios, aphb is essential to activate virulence cascades by sensing low ph and anaerobiosis signals. however, its regulon remains largely unknown. here, aphb is found as a key virulence regulator in v. alginolyticus, a pathogen for marine animals and humans. chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput dna sequencing (chip-seq) enabled the detection of 20 loci in the v. alginolyticus genome that contain aphb-binding peaks. an aphb-specific binding consensus was confirmed by elec ...201728739675
identification and characterization of atypical 2-cysteine peroxiredoxins from mud crab scylla paramamosain: the first evidence of two peroxiredoxin 5 genes in non-primate species and their involvement in immune defense against pathogen infection.peroxiredoxin 5 (prx5) belongs to a novel family of evolutionarily conserved antioxidant proteins that protect cells against various oxidative stresses. generally, no more than one prx5 transcript had been reported in non-primate species. in this study, two prx5 genes (coined as spprx5-1 and spprx5-2) were firstly isolated from the mud crab, scylla paramamosain, through rt-pcr and race methods. the open reading frame of spprx5-1 and spprx5-2 were 561 bp and 429 bp in length, encoding 186 and 142 ...201728743622
mcp, aer, cheb, and chev contribute to the regulation of vibrio alginolyticus (nd-01) adhesion under gradients of environmental factors.adhesion is a key virulence factor of pathogens and can be affected by the environment. our previously research with rna-seq indicated that mcp, aer, cheb, and chev might play roles in the regulation of adhesion in vibrio alginolyticus (nd-01). in order to determine whether and how environmental factors affect adhesion through these genes, gene silencing was performed followed by quantitative real-time pcr (qrt-pcr), rnai, transmission electron microscopy, and adhesion, capillary, and motility a ...201728744982
selection and evaluation of malaysian bacillus spp. strains as potential probiotics in cultured tiger grouper (epinephelus fuscoguttatus).a total of 58 gram-positive bacteria strains were isolated from the marine environment and screened for potential probiotics for disease prevention and improving the productivity of tiger grouper epinephelus fuscoguttatus larvae and juveniles. the bacteria were identified as bacillus licheniformis, b. subtilis, b. circulans, b. sphaericus, b. cereus, brevibacillus brevis, corynebacterium propinquum, leifsonia aquatica and paenibacillus macerans. only 24 strains showed antagonistic activities aga ...201628779739
screening and evaluation of local bacteria isolated from shellfish as potential probiotics against pathogenic vibrios.the present study was carried out to isolate, screen and evaluate potential candidates of local bacteria isolated from tiger shrimp penaeus monodon and slipper cupped oysters crassostrea iredalei as probiotics in shellfish aquaculture. a total of 144 of bacteria were successfully isolated from the intestine and stomach of 20 tails of healthy adult tiger shrimp p. monodon, while 136 were successfully isolated from the digestive tract, gills and inner shells of 10 healthy adult c. iredalei. the nu ...201628779740
the transcription of atypical protein kinase c in hemocytes of the giant freshwater prawn, macrobrachium rosenbergii, during the molt stage and injection of pathogen-associated compounds.protein kinase c (pkc), which is involved in cell signaling pathways, comprises a family of serine/threonine kinases ubiquitously present in animals and its members are grouped on the basis of structural and activation characteristics into novel, classical, and atypical pkc forms. in this study, an atypical pkc of macrobrachium rosenbergii, designated mrapkc, was successfully cloned, and its protein comprised structural domains similar to those of atypical pkc homologues, including the phox and ...201728818614
occurrence of vibrio species, beta-lactam resistant vibrio species, and indicator bacteria in ballast and port waters of a tropical harbor.ballast water discharges are potential sources for the spread of invasive and pathogenic aquatic organisms. ballast waters from six ships docked in the port of singapore were tested to determine if indictor organisms fell within proposed standards for ballast water discharge according to regulation d-2 of the ballast water management convention (bwmc) guidelines. vibrio species were cultured on media supplemented with beta-lactam antibiotics to determine the presence of antibiotic resistant vibr ...201728822933
microencapsulation of essential thyme oil by spray drying and its antimicrobial evaluation against vibrio alginolyticus and vibrio parahaemolyticus.the aims of this research were first, to evaluate the antibacterial potential of commercial thyme essential oil against v. alginolyticus and v. parahaemolyticys and second, using the spray drying technique to produce microcapsules. chemical compounds of thyme oil and microcapsules were identified and quantified being thymol the chemical component present at the highest concentration. oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions were prepared and the microcapsules were obtained with a spray dryer using maltodext ...201728832836
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