PMID(sorted ascending)
[the differentiation of specimiens of vibrio parahaemolyticua and vobrio alginolyticus].vibrio parahaemolyticua and vobrio alginolyticus are phylogenetically closely-related species. they have common ecological niches, same cultural features and similar biochemical characteristics. the phenotype variability and taxonomy similarity of strains of these species impedes differentiation of vibrio parahaemolyticua and vobrio alginolyticus according biochemical characteristics. to obtain reliable results of diagnostic application of additional methods of differentiation and identification ...201425872271
first description and expression analysis of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (traf6) from the swimming crab, portunus trituberculatus.tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (traf6) is a cytoplasmic adapter protein that mediates signals induced by the tumor necrosis factor receptor (tnfr) superfamily and the interleukin-1 receptor (il-1r). in the present study, the full-length cdna of traf6 (pt-traf6) was identified in a marine crab, portunus trituberculatus. pt-traf6 orf is predicted to encode a 599-amino acid protein, including a ring type zinc finger, two traf-type zinc fingers, and a meprin and traf homology (ma ...201525882635
a rac1 gtpase is a critical factor in the immune response of shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei) to vibrio alginolyticus infection.the small gtpase rac1 acts as a molecular switch for signal transduction that regulates various cellular functions. however, its functions in crustaceans remain unclear. in this study, a cdna encoding a ras gtpase (lvrac1) in the pacific white shrimp (l. vannamei) was identified and characterized. a recombinant variant of this gtpase, rlvrac1, was expressed in the model organism p. pastoris and its expression was confirmed by mass spectrometry. biochemical assays indicated that the recombinant p ...201525892021
a novel biomarker for marine environmental pollution of pi-class glutathione s-transferase from mytilus coruscus.glutathione s-transferases (gsts) are the superfamily of phase ii detoxification enzymes that play crucial roles in innate immunity. in this study, a pi-class gst homolog was identified from mytilus coruscus (named as mcgst1, kc525103). the full-length cdna sequence of mcgst1 was 621bp with a 5' untranslated region (utr) of 70bp and a 3'-utr of 201bp. the deduced amino acid sequence was 206 residues in length with theoretical pi/mw of 5.60/23.72kda, containing the conserved g-site and diversifor ...201525910687
the sea urchin paracentrotus lividus immunological response to chemical pollution exposure: the case of the marine environment organochlorine insecticides can be broadly detected in water, sediments, and biota. these pollutants may have major ecological consequences since they may affect marine organisms and endanger organismal growth, reproduction or survival. in this study we investigated the modification of some sea urchin immunological parameters in response to subchronic lindane (γ-hch) exposure. adult specimens of the sea urchin paracentrotus lividus were exposed to two different concentr ...201525911048
calmodulin of the tropical sea cucumber: gene structure, inducible expression and contribution to nitric oxide production and pathogen clearance during immune response.calmodulin (cam) is an essential second messenger protein that transduces calcium signals by binding calcium ions (ca(2+)) and modulating its interactions with various target proteins. in contrast to vertebrates, where cam is well established as a cofactor for ca(2+)-dependent physiological and cellular functions including host defense, there is a paucity of understanding on cam in invertebrates (such as echinoderms) in response to immune challenge or microbial infections. in this study, we obta ...201525913576
daily variations in pathogenic bacterial populations in a monsoon influenced tropical environment.changing climatic conditions have influenced the monsoon pattern in recent years. variations in bacterial population in one such tropical environment were observed everyday over two years and point out intra and inter annual changes driven by the intensity of rainfall. vibrio spp. were abundant during the monsoon and so were faecal coliforms. vibrio alginolyticus were negatively influenced by nitrate, whereas, silicate and rainfall positively influenced vibrio parahaemolyticus numbers. it is als ...201525956443
characterization and expression analysis of calmodulin (cam) in orange-spotted grouper (epinephelus coioides) in response to vibrio alginolyticus challenge.vibrio alginolyticus containing the highly toxic extracellular product is one of the most serious threats to grouper survival and its minimum lethal dose is approximately 500 cfu/g fish body weight in grouper. to study the toxic effects of v. alginolyticus on the immune system in teleost, calmodulin (cam), an important molecular indicator gene, was cloned from the orange-spotted grouper (epinephelus coioides). the full-length ec-cam consisted of a 5'-utr of 103 bp, an orf of 450 bp and a 3'-utr ...201525956977
expression and function analysis of two naturally truncated myd88 variants in the pacific oyster crassostrea gigas.myeloid differentiation factor 88 (myd88) is the classic signaling adaptor that mediates toll/interleukin-1 receptor (tir/il-1r) dependent activation of nuclear factor-kappa b (nf-κb). in this study, two naturally truncated myd88 members were identified from the pacific oyster (crassostrea gigas), namely cgmyd88-t1 and cgmyd88-t2. the full-length cdna of cgmyd88-t1, cgmyd88-t2 are 976 bp and 1038 bp in length, containing an orf of 552 bp and 555 bp, respectively. the two orf encode a putative pr ...201525963623
deep-sea hydrothermal vent bacteria related to human pathogenic vibrio species.vibrio species are both ubiquitous and abundant in marine coastal waters, estuaries, ocean sediment, and aquaculture settings worldwide. we report here the isolation, characterization, and genome sequence of a novel vibrio species, vibrio antiquarius, isolated from a mesophilic bacterial community associated with hydrothermal vents located along the east pacific rise, near the southwest coast of mexico. genomic and phenotypic analysis revealed v. antiquarius is closely related to pathogenic vibr ...201525964331
molecular characterization of an il-1β gene from the large yellow croaker (larimichthys crocea) and its effect on fish defense against vibrio alginolyticus infection.interleukin 1β (il-1β), the first interleukin to be characterized, plays a key role in regulating the immune response. in this study, we determined the cdna and genomic dna sequences of the il-1β gene from the large yellow croaker, larimichthys crocea. phylogenetic analysis indicated that the il-1β (lcil-1β) gene was most closely related to that of european seabass (dicentrarchus labrax), sharing 67.8% amino acid identity. in healthy large yellow croaker, lcil-1β transcription was detected in al ...201526018856
prevalence of vibrio spp. in raw shrimps (parapenaeus longirostris) and performance of a chromogenic medium for the isolation of vibrio strains.vibrios are natural inhabitants of estuarine ecosystems and some species may pose public health problem as agents of sporadic or collective food-borne infections associated with the consumption of fish or shellfish. samples of raw shrimp (n = 299), fished in coastal areas of the city of agadir, morocco, and collected from its fish marketplace, were examined for the presence of pathogenic vibrios. microbiological analysis was carried out according to a protocol using thiosulphate citrate bile suc ...201526081523
a transmissible plasmid-borne pathogenicity island confers piscibactin biosynthesis in the fish pathogen photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida.the fish pathogen photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida produces the siderophore piscibactin. a gene cluster that resembles the yersinia high-pathogenicity island (hpi) encodes piscibactin biosynthesis. here, we report that this hpi-like cluster is part of a hitherto-uncharacterized 68-kb plasmid dubbed pphdp70. this plasmid lacks homologs of genes that mediate conjugation, but we found that it could be transferred at low frequencies from p. damselae subsp. piscicida to a mollusk pathogenic v ...201526092457
activation of immunity, immune response, antioxidant ability, and resistance against vibrio alginolyticus in white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei decrease under long-term culture at low ph.the growth, activation of immunity, immune parameters, and transcript levels of cytmnsod, mtmnsod, eccuznsod, glutathione peroxidase (gpx), catalase, lysozyme, and penaeidin 3a were examined in white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei reared at ph 6.8 and 8.1 after 24 weeks. no significant difference in growth was observed between the two groups. an in vitro study indicated that phenoloxidase activity and respiratory bursts (rb, release of the superoxide anion) were significantly higher in the haemocyt ...201526093205
flil associates with the stator to support torque generation of the sodium-driven polar flagellar motor of vibrio.flagellar motors generate torque to rotate flagellar filaments and drive bacterial cells. each motor is composed of a rotor and many stators. the stator is a force-generating complex that converts ion flux into torque. previous reports have suggested that the membrane protein flil is located near the stator and is involved in torque generation. we investigated the role of flil in the sodium-driven polar flagellar motor of vibrio alginolyticus. our results revealed that flil is a cytoplasmic memb ...201526103585
the mind homolog flhg regulates the synthesis of the single polar flagellum of vibrio alginolyticus.flhg, a mind homolog and an atpase, is known to mediate the formation of the single polar flagellum of vibrio alginolyticus together with flhf. flhg and flhf work antagonistically, with flhf promoting flagellar assembly and flhg inhibiting it. here, we demonstrate that purified flhg exhibits a low basal atpase activity. as with mind, the basal atpase activity of flhg can be activated and the d171a residue substitution enhances its atpase activity sevenfold. flhg-d171a localizes strongly at the c ...201526112286
cloning and characterization of a novel hemocyanin variant lvhmcv4 from shrimp litopenaeus vannamei.recently, we found 3 variants of hemocyanin subunit with higher molecular weight in shrimp litopenaeus vannamei (named as lvhmcv1-3). in this study, a novel l. vannamei hemocyanin variant (named as lvhmcv4) was further cloned and characterized. bioinformatic analysis predicted that lvhmcv4 contains one open reading frame of 2137 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 678 amino acids. it shares 84-99% cdna sequences identity to that of the classical form of l. vannamei hemocyanin (lvhmc, aj250830.1) and ...201526115633
draft genome sequences of vibrio alginolyticus strains v1 and v2, opportunistic marine pathogens.we announce the draft genome sequences of vibrio alginolyticus strains v1 and v2, isolated from juvenile sparus aurata and dentex dentex, respectively, during outbreaks of vibriosis. the genome sequences are 5,257,950 bp with a g+c content of 44.5% for v. alginolyticus v1 and 5,068,299 bp with a g+c content of 44.8% for strain v2. these genomes provide further insights into the putative virulence factors, prophage carriage, and evolution of this opportunistic marine pathogen.201526139724
cutaneous ulcer at the site of radiation-induced dermatitis caused by infection with vibrio alginolyticus. 201526141002
effect of flig three amino acids deletion in vibrio polar-flagellar rotation and formation.most of bacteria can swim by rotating flagella bidirectionally. the c ring, located at the bottom of the flagellum and in the cytoplasmic space, consists of flig, flim and flin, and has an important function in flagellar protein secretion, torque generation and rotational switch of the motor. flig is the most important part of the c ring that interacts directly with a stator subunit. here, we introduced a three-amino acids in-frame deletion mutation (δpsa) into flig from vibrio alginolyticus, wh ...201526142283
isolation, characterization, and antibiotic resistance of vibrio spp. in sea turtles from northwestern mexico.the aerobic oral and cloacal bacterial microbiota and their antimicrobial resistance were characterized for 64 apparently healthy sea turtles captured at their foraging grounds in ojo de liebre lagoon (oll), baja california sur (bcs), mexico (pacific ocean) and the lagoon system of navachiste (lsn) and marine area of influence (mai), guasave, sinaloa (gulf of california). a total of 34 black turtles (chelonia mydas agassizii) were sampled in oll and eight black turtles and 22 olive ridley turtle ...201526161078
a new membrane lipid raft gene spflt-1 facilitating the endocytosis of vibrio alginolyticus in the crab scylla paramamosain.pathogens can enter their host cells by way of endocytosis in which the membrane lipid raft gene flotillins are probably involved in the invasion process and this is an important way to cause infection. in this study, a new gene spflt-1 was identified in scylla paramamosain, which shared high identity with the flotillin-1 of other species. the spflt-1 gene was widely distributed in tissues and showed the highest level of mrna transcripts in the hemocytes. this gene might be a maternal gene based ...201526186350
skin lesion-associated pathogens from octopus vulgaris: first detection of photobacterium swingsii, lactococcus garvieae and betanodavirus.the common octopus octopus vulgaris cuvier, 1798 is extremely important in fisheries and is a useful protein source in most mediterranean countries. here we investigated pathogens associated with skin lesions in 9 naturally deceased specimens that included both cultured and wild common octopus. within 30 min after death, each octopus was stored at 4°c and microbiologically examined within 24 h. bacterial colonies, cultured from swabs taken from the lesions, were examined using taxonomical and bi ...201526203886
identification and function of an evolutionarily conserved signaling intermediate in toll pathways (ecsit) from crassostrea hongkongensis.evolutionarily conserved signaling intermediate in toll pathways (ecsit) is a multifunctional adaptor protein that plays a key role in the regulation of the oxidative phosphorylation (oxphos) system, bone morphogenetic protein (bmp) pathway and toll-like receptor (tlr) signaling pathway in mammals. however, the function of ecsit homologs in mollusks, the second most diverse group of animals, is not well understood. in this study, we identified an ecsit homolog in the hong kong oyster crassostrea ...201526204814
identification and characterization of three vibrio alginolyticus non-coding rnas involved in adhesion, chemotaxis, and motility processes.the capability of vibrio alginolyticus to adhere to fish mucus is a key virulence factor of the bacteria. our previous research showed that stress conditions, such as cu(2+), pb(2+), hg(2+), and low ph, can reduce this adhesion ability. non-coding (nc) rnas play a crucial role in regulating bacterial gene expression, affecting the bacteria's pathogenicity. to investigate the mechanism(s) underlying the decline in adhesion ability caused by stressors, we combined high-throughput sequencing with c ...201526217589
rapid and sensitive detection of vibrio alginolyticus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick targeted to the rpox gene.vibrio alginolyticus is a major bacterial pathogen causing disease in marine animals. the present study aimed to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) coupled with a lateral flow dipstick (lfd) for rapid and simple visual detection of v. alginolyticus-specific amplicons. the biotin-labeled lamp amplicons from the targeted portion of a gene encoding rpos-like sigma factor (rpox) were generated at 60°c for 1 h and then hybridized with a fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled probe fo ...201526220075
three novel toll genes (pttoll1-3) identified from a marine crab, portunus trituberculatus: different tissue expression and response to pathogens.the toll signaling pathway is one of the most important regulators of the immune response in both vertebrates and invertebrates. herein, three novel toll (pttoll1-3) cdna sequences were cloned from the swimming crab, portunus trituberculatus. pttoll1 has 1003 amino acid residues and consists of an extracellular domain containing 15 leucine-rich repeats (lrrs) and a cytoplasmic toll/interleukin-1 receptor (tir) domain of 139 residues. pttoll2 encodes 1196 peptides, with an extracellular domain co ...201526238349
identification of a novel clip domain serine proteinase (sp-csp) and its roles in innate immune system of mud crab scylla paramamosain.clip domain serine proteinases and their homologs are involved in the innate immunity of invertebrates. to identify the frontline defense molecules against pathogenic infection, we isolated a novel clip domain serine proteinase (sp-csp) from the hemocytes of mud crab scylla paramamosain. the full-length 1362 bp sp-csp contains a 1155 bp open reading frame (orf) encoding 384 amino acids. multiple alignment analysis showed that the putative amino acid sequence of sp-csp has about 52% and 51% ident ...201526272638
roles of receptor for activated protein kinase c1 for modulating immune responses in white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei.complementary (c)dna encoding a receptor for activated protein kinase c1 (rack1) messenger (m)rna of the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei, designated lvrack1, consisted a 1136-bp cdna containing an open reading frame (orf) of 954 bp, a 111-bp 5'-untranslated region (utr), and a 71-bp 3'-utr, which is a 36 kda cytosolic protein, belonging to the trp-asp40 (wd40) family of proteins, characterized by containing seven highly conserved trp-asp40 (wd40) internal repeats, and a poly a tail. the wd rep ...201526297966
type vi secretion system toxins horizontally shared between marine bacteria.the type vi secretion system (t6ss) is a widespread protein secretion apparatus used by gram-negative bacteria to deliver toxic effector proteins into adjacent bacterial or host cells. here, we uncovered a role in interbacterial competition for the two t6sss encoded by the marine pathogen vibrio alginolyticus. using comparative proteomics and genetics, we identified their effector repertoires. in addition to the previously described effector v12g01_02265, we identified three new effectors secret ...201526305100
involvement of the flagellar assembly pathway in vibrio alginolyticus adhesion under environmental stresses.adhesion is an important virulence factor of vibrio alginolyticus. this factor may be affected by environmental conditions; however, its molecular mechanism remains unclear. in our previous research, adhesion deficient strains were obtained by culturing v. alginolyticus under stresses including cu, pb, hg, and low ph. with rna-seq and bioinformatics analysis, we found that all of these stress treatments significantly affected the flagellar assembly pathway, which may play an important role in v. ...201526322276
a non-poissonian flagellar motor switch increases bacterial chemotactic potential.we investigate bacterial chemotactic strategies using run-tumble and run-reverse-flick motility patterns. the former is typically observed in enteric bacteria such as escherichia coli and salmonella and the latter was recently observed in the marine bacteria vibrio alginolyticus and is possibly exhibited by other polar flagellated species. it is shown that although the three-step motility pattern helps the bacterium to localize near hot spots, an exploitative behavior, its exploratory potential ...201526331263
the srec-i and srec-ii associated with epidermal growth factor in scavenger receptor family are the potential regulative transmembrane receptors in larimichthys innate immunity, the regulation of the immunologic gene expression plays a vital role in defense against pathogenic threat. the class f scavenger receptors (scarfs), a kind of crucial immunologic type i transmembrane receptors, mainly involve in the signal transmission and eliminating pathogens in host immune system. in this study, the srec-i and srec-ii of scarfs in larimichthys crocea (designated as lycsrec1 and lycsrec2 respectively) were first identified, the potential genetic locus relat ...201526343178
transcriptome analysis of the pearl oyster (pinctada fucata) hemocytes in response to vibrio alginolyticus infection.the pearl oyster pinctada fucata is cultured widely for production of marine pearls in china, while mass mortalities, likely related to pathogenic infections, have occurred frequently in juvenile, mother and operated oysters. to address this issue, understanding host defense mechanisms of p. fucata against pathogenic challenge is extremely important. in the present study, a comparative analysis of hemocyte transcriptomes of p. fucata before and after vibrio alginolyticus infection was conducted ...201626363408
a novel innexin2 forming membrane hemichannel exhibits immune responses and cell apoptosis in scylla paramamosain.innexins are a class of transmembrane proteins that are important for embryonic development, morphogenesis and electrical synapse formation. in the present study, a novel innexin2 gene from scylla paramamosain was named sp-inx2 and characterized. the complete cdna and genomic dna sequences of sp-inx2 were revealed. sp-inx2 mrna transcripts were distributed in various tissues of s. paramamosain and were most abundant in the hemocytes. the sp-inx2 was significantly upregulated in hemocyte, gill an ...201526384843
nascent chain-monitored remodeling of the sec machinery for salinity adaptation of marine bacteria.secdf interacts with the secyeg translocon in bacteria and enhances protein export in a proton-motive-force-dependent manner. vibrio alginolyticus, a marine-estuarine bacterium, contains two secdf paralogs, v.secdf1 and v.secdf2. here, we show that the export-enhancing function of v.secdf1 requires na+ instead of h+, whereas v.secdf2 is na+-independent, presumably requiring h+. in accord with the cation-preference difference, v.secdf2 was only expressed under limited na+ concentrations whereas v ...201526392525
optimization and characterization of biosurfactant production from marine vibrio sp. strain 3b-2.a biosurfactant-producing bacterium, designated 3b-2, was isolated from marine sediment and identified as vibrio sp. by 16s rrna gene sequencing. the culture medium composition was optimized to increase the capability of 3b-2 for producing biosurfactant. the produced biosurfactant was characterized in terms of protein concentration, surface tension, and oil-displacement efficiency. the optimal medium for biosurfactant production contained: 0.5% lactose, 1.1% yeast extract, 2% sodium chloride, an ...201526441908
efficacy of chitosan oligosaccharide as aquatic adjuvant administrated with a formalin-inactivated vibrio anguillarum vaccine.vaccine is one of the efficient candidates to prevent fish disease through activating host immune response in aquaculture. actually, several vaccines are often administered with adjuvants to increase immunostimulation, especially for some water-based formalin-killed vaccines. however, side effects are inevitable after vaccination of some adjuvants. therefore, exploration for effective and harmless aquatic adjuvants is urgently needed. in this study, immunoprotection of a formalin-inactivated vib ...201526476108
the first mollusk spätzle homolog gene in the clam, paphia undulate.spätzle, is the only identified endogenous toll receptor ligand, plays a critical role in initiatinge innate immune responses and controlling dorsal-ventral axis formation in drosophila. here we identified the first spätzle gene homolog, pu-spz, in the marine mollusk paphia undulate. the full-length of pu-spz cdna is 1248 bp, including an open reading frame (orf) of 702 bp, a 5'-untranslated region (utr) of 26 bp and a 3'-utr of 203 bp. the orf encodes a 233-amino-acid protein with conserved dom ...201526477575
identification and characterization of a mitochondrial unfolded protein response transcription factor atfs-1 in litopenaeus vannamei.a mitochondrial specific stress response termed mitochondrial unfolded protein response (upr(mt)) is activated in responding to disturbance of protein homeostasis in mitochondria. the activating transcription factor associated with stress-1 (designated as atfs-1) is the key regulator of upr(mt). to investigating the roles of atfs-1 (lvatfs-1) in litopenaeus vannamei mitochondrial stress remission and immunity, it's full length cdna was cloned. the open reading frame of lvatfs-1 was 1, 557 bp in ...201626481519
differential expression of micrornas in shrimp marsupenaeus japonicus in response to vibrio alginolyticus infection.till date numerous micrornas (mirnas) have been discovered from various organisms, including mammals, plants, insects, nematodes and viruses. they are known to have antiviral functions in crustaceans such as shrimp marsupenaeus japonicas. however, little is known about the role of mirnas against bacterial infection in this shrimp caused by vibrio alginolyticus. we performed small rna sequencing to characterize the differentially expressed micrornas in v. alginolyticus challenged shrimp, in compa ...201626483347
high concentration of red clay as an alternative for antibiotics in aquaculture.the use of antibiotics in aquaculture raises environmental and food safety concerns because chronic exposure of an aquatic ecosystem to antibiotics can result in the spread of antibiotic resistance, bioaccumulation of antibiotics in the organisms, and transfer of antibiotics to humans. in an attempt to overcome these problems, high-concentration red clay was applied as an alternative antibiotic against the following common fish pathogens: aeromonas salmonicida, vibrio alginolyticus, and streptoc ...201626528535
structure of an amino acid-decorated exopolysaccharide secreted by a vibrio alginolyticus strain.vibrio alginolyticus (cncm i-4994) secretes an exopolysaccharide that can be used as an ingredient in cosmetic applications. the structure was resolved using chromatography and one- and two-dimensional nmr spectroscopy experiments. the results show that the carbohydrate backbone is made of two residues: d-galacturonic acid and n-acetyl-d-glucosamine (glcnac), which together constitute a tetrasaccharide repetition unit: [→3)-α-d-gala-(1→4)-α-d-gala-(1→3)-α-d-gala-(1→3)-β-glcnac(1→]. two amino aci ...201526528992
a specific antimicrobial protein cap-1 from pseudomonas sp. isolated from the jellyfish cyanea capillata.a bacterium strain, designated as cmf-2, was isolated from the jellyfish cyanea capillata and its culture supernatant exhibited a significant antimicrobial activity. the strain cmf-2 was identified as pseudomonas sp. based on the morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics as well as 16s rrna sequence analysis. in this study, an antimicrobial protein, named as cap-1, was isolated from the culture of cmf-2 through ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography. ...201626529191
an element of determinism in a stochastic flagellar motor switch.marine bacterium vibrio alginolyticus uses a single polar flagellum to navigate in an aqueous environment. similar to escherichia coli cells, the polar flagellar motor has two states; when the motor is counter-clockwise, the cell swims forward and when the motor is clockwise, the cell swims backward. v. alginolyticus also incorporates a direction randomization step at the start of the forward swimming interval by flicking its flagellum. to gain an understanding on how the polar flagellar motor s ...201526554590
prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of vibrio spp. in retail and farm shrimps in ecuador.the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vibrio spp. in shrimp at retail and in shrimp farms in ecuador and to determine the antimicrobial agent resistance patterns of farm isolates. the presence of genes linked to early mortality syndrome (ems) or acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (ahpnd) also was evaluated. vibrio spp. were isolated from retail shrimps in cuenca, ecuador, and farm shrimps originating from provinces el oro and guayas, ecuador. a total of 229 shrimp sampl ...201526555534
identification of dld, by immunoproteomic analysis and evaluation as a potential vaccine antigen against three vibrio species in epinephelus coioides.vibrio spp. represent a serious threat to the culture of epinephelus coioides (orange-spotted grouper) in southeast asia. in this study we used two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-de) and western blotting to identify common immunogenic proteins of vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio harveyi and vibrio parahaemolyticus. membranes were probed with orange-spotted grouper anti-v. alginolyticus sera and accordingly 60, 58 and 48 immunogenic protein spots were detected. by matching analysis for the three west ...201626562319
purification and host specificity of predatory halobacteriovorax isolates from seawater.halobacteriovorax (formerly bacteriovorax) is a small predatory bacterium found in the marine environment and modulates bacterial pathogens in shellfish. four strains of halobacteriovorax originally isolated in vibrio parahaemolyticus o3:k6 host cells were separated from their prey by an enrichment-filtration-dilution technique for specificity testing in other bacteria. this technique was essential, since 0.45-μm filtration alone was unable to remove infectious vibrio minicells, as determined by ...201626590288
vibrio alginolyticus associated chronic myringitis acquired in mediterranean waters of turkey.vibrio alginolyticus was originally classified as biotype 2 of vibrio parahaemolyticus. most clinical isolates are recovered from superficial wounds or the external ear infections. v. alginolyticus is acknowledged to be nearly nonpathogenic in humans. the reason for presence of v. alginolyticus's virulence is uncertain. we describe a chronic myringitis case in a 47-year-old female due to v. alginolyticus. according to her anamnesis, it was detected that she had sea bathing history in mugla coast ...201526605095
molecular characterization and functional analysis of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 in the pacific oyster.tumor necrosis factor receptor (tnfr)-associated factors (trafs) are a family of crucial adaptors, playing vital roles in mediating signal transduction in immune signaling pathways, including rig-i-like receptor (rlr) signaling pathway. in the present study, a new traf family member (cgtraf2) was identified in the pacific oyster, crassostrea gigas. comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that cgtraf2 could be a new member of the invertebrate traf2 family. quantitative real-time pcr reveale ...201626621757
molecular variations in vibrio alginolyticus and v. harveyi in shrimp-farming systems upon stress.a study was performed to investigate the genomic variations in the shrimp farm isolates of vibrio alginolyticus and v. harveyi when the isolates were subjected to environmental stress. samples of shrimps, water and sediment were collected from southern indian coastal shrimp farms. vibrio isolates were biochemically identified and confirmed using 16s rdna and gyrb gene specific pcr. the bacterial strains were genotyped by pcr fingerprinting using gtg(5) and is (insertion sequence) primers. seven ...201626691457
the grim-19 plays a vital role in shrimps' responses to vibrio alginolyticus.grim-19 (gene associated with retinoid-interferon-induced mortality 19), a novel cell death regulatory gene, plays important roles in cell apoptosis, mitochondrial respiratory chain and immune response. it has been reported to interact physically with stat3 and inhibit stat3-dependent signal transduction. in this study, a new grim-19 gene, which is a 789-bp gene encoding a 149 amino acids protein, is identified and characterized from litopenaeus vannamei. the tissue distribution patterns showed ...201626702559
construction and immune protection evaluation of recombinant polyvalent ompas derived from genetically divergent ompa by dna shuffling.a wide variety of bacterial infections is a major challenge in aquaculture. development of polyvalent vaccines that can fight against as many pathogens as possible is especially necessary. the present study uses dna shuffling to create a new hybrid ompa with improved cross-protection against vibrio alginolyticus and edwardsiella tarda through the recombination of six ompa genes from vibrio parahaemolyticus, v. alginolyticus, e. tarda and escherichia coli. out of the 43 recombinant chimeras genes ...201626707781
amy63, a novel type of marine bacterial multifunctional enzyme possessing amylase, agarase and carrageenase activities.a multifunctional enzyme is one that performs multiple physiological functions, thus benefiting the organism. characterization of multifunctional enzymes is important for researchers to understand how organisms adapt to different environmental challenges. in the present study, we report the discovery of a novel multifunctional enzyme amy63 produced by marine bacterium vibrio alginolyticus 63. remarkably, amy63 possesses amylase, agarase and carrageenase activities. amy63 is a substrate promiscuo ...201626725302
vaccination of silver sea bream (sparus sarba) against vibrio alginolyticus: protective evaluation of different vaccinating order to develop more effective immunological strategies to prevent vibriosis of farmed marine fish in hong kong and southern china, various vaccine preparations including formalin-, phenol-, chloroform- and heat-killed whole cell bacterins and subcellular lipopolysaccharides (lps), as well as different administration routes, were investigated. fish immunized with the subcellular lps exhibited the best protection [relative percent of survival (rps) = 100], while fish immunized with whole cell ...201526729096
molecular characterization and function of a pten gene from litopenaeus vannamei after vibrio alginolyticus challenge.pten, a tumor suppressor gene, suppresses cell survival, growth, apoptosis, cell migration and dna damage repair by inhibiting the pi3k/akt signaling pathway. in this study, the full-length litopenaeus vannamei pten (lvpten) cdna was obtained, containing a 5'utr of 59bp, an orf of 1269bp and a 3'utr of 146bp besides the poly (a) tail. the pten gene encoded a protein of 422 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 48.3 kda and a predicted isoelectric point (pi) of 7.6. subcellular localiza ...201626801100
establishment and characterization of a novel cell line from the brain of golden pompano (trachinotus ovatus).golden pompano is a commercially important marine fish that is widely cultured in china, japan, and southeast asian countries but has been seriously threatened by pathogen. a novel cell line (togb) derived from the brain of golden pompano trachinotus ovatus was established and characterized in this study. togb cell line showed high virus susceptibility, especially grouper nervous necrosis virus (gnnv) and singapore grouper iridovirus (sgiv). as one of the most devastating viruses in marine fish ...201626822430
a novel c-type lectin, nattectin-like protein, with a wide range of bacterial agglutination activity in large yellow croaker larimichthys crocea.c-type lectins (ctls) are generally recognized as a superfamily of ca(2+)-dependent carbohydrate-binding proteins, which serve as pattern recognition receptors (prrs) in innate immunity of vertebrates. in this study, the molecular characterization and immune roles of a novel ctl from larimichthys crocea (designated as lcntc) were investigated. lcntc is a novel protein that shared 33%-49% homology with other teleosts ctls. the full-length cdna of lcntc was composed of 859 bp with a 465 bp open re ...201626828263
specific inflammatory response of anemonia sulcata (cnidaria) after bacterial injection causes tissue reaction and enzymatic activity alteration.the evolution of multicellular organisms was marked by adaptations to protect against pathogens. the mechanisms for discriminating the ''self'' from ''non-self" have evolved into a long history of cellular and molecular strategies, from damage repair to the co-evolution of host-pathogen interactions. we investigated the inflammatory response in anemonia sulcata (cnidaria: anthozoa) following injection of substances that varied in type and dimension, and observed clear, strong and specific reacti ...201626836977
the known two types of transglutaminases regulate immune and stress responses in white shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei.transglutaminases (tgs) play critical roles in blood coagulation, immune responses, and other biochemical functions, which undergo post-translational remodeling such as acetylation, phosphorylation and fatty acylation. two types of tg have been identified in white shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei, and further investigation on their potential function was conducted by gene silencing in the present study. total haemocyte count (thc), differential haemocyte count (dhc), phenoloxidase activity, respirat ...201626855013
the tca pathway is an important player in the regulatory network governing vibrio alginolyticus adhesion under adversity.adhesion is a critical step in the initial stage of vibrio alginolyticus infection; therefore, it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms governing the adhesion of v. alginolyticus and determine if environmental factors have any effect. a greater understanding of this process may assist in developing preventive measures for reducing infection. in our previous research, we presented the first rna-seq data from v. alginolyticus cultured under stress conditions that resulted in reduced ...201626870007
a preliminary study on the antibacterial mechanism of tegillarca granosa hemoglobin by derived peptides and peroxidase activity.the blood clam, tegillarca granosa, is one of the few bivalve molluscs containing hemoglobin (hb). in the present study, we purified two types of t. granosa hemoglobin, tg-hbi and tg-hbii, using size exclusion chromatography and measured their antibacterial and peroxidase activities. we also tested antibacterial activities of peptides prepared by trypsin digestion of purified tg-hb and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography purification. purified tg-hbi and tg-hbii showed antibact ...201626876330
abundant members of scavenger receptors family and their identification, characterization and expression against vibrio alginolyticus infection in juvenile larimichthys crocea.scavenger receptors (srs) are crucial pattern recognition receptors (prrs) to defense pathogen infection in fish innate immunity. in this paper, some members in srs family of larimichthys crocea were identified, including eight genes in the class a, b, d and f families. (g + c) % of all srs members held 51% ∼ 59%, and these genes were no obvious codon bias by analyzing the distribution of a-, t-, g- and c-ended codons. the order of enc for all srs members by sequencing was lyccd68 > lycscara5 > ...201626876357
characterisation and expression analysis of two terminal complement components: c7 and c9 from large yellow croaker, larimichthys crocea.the large yellow croaker larimichthys crocea, as one of the most economically important marine fish in china and east asian countries, are facing the fatal attraction of various pathogens in recent years. elucidation of the organism immunomodulatory mechanism of croaker response to pathogen infection is essential for the disease control. in present study, we reported for the first time the molecular characterization and expression analysis of two terminal complement components (tccs) of croaker, ...201626902705
molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of (b-cell lymphoma-2 associated x protein) bax in the orange-spotted grouper (epinephelus coioides) after the vibrio alginolyticus challenge.bax is a pro-apoptotic member of bcl-2 like superfamily, playing an important role in regulating the apoptosis. in this study, the full-length bax (ecbax) was obtained, containing a 5'utr of 64 bp, an orf of 579 bp and a 3'utr of 1021 bp. the ecbax gene encoded a polypeptide of 192 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 21.55 kda and a predicted isoelectric point (pi) of 6.75. the deduced amino acid sequence analysis showed that ecbax comprised the conserved residues and the characteris ...201626905633
dynamics of snake-like swarming behavior of vibrio alginolyticus.swarming represents a special case of bacterial behavior where motile bacteria migrate rapidly and collectively on surfaces. swarming and swimming motility of bacteria has been studied well for rigid, self-propelled rods. in this study we report a strain of vibrio alginolyticus, a species that exhibits similar collective motility but a fundamentally different cell morphology with highly flexible snake-like swarming cells. investigating swarming dynamics requires high-resolution imaging of single ...201626910435
effects of methanolic macroalgae extracts from caulerpa sertularioides and ulva lactuca on litopenaeus vannamei survival in the presence of vibrio bacteria.macroalgae are potentially excellent sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that are useful for the development of new functional ingredients. this study was conducted to determine whether methanolic extracts from caulerpa sertularioides and ulva lactuca macroalgae might be possible alternatives for the prevention of shrimp vibriosis, which is caused by vibrio parahaemolyticus and vibrio alginolyticus. macroalgae extracts prepared with methanol as the solvent were evaluated for antiba ...201626915309
isolation and characterization of two lytic bacteriophages, φst2 and φgrn1; phage therapy application for biological control of vibrio alginolyticus in aquaculture live feeds.bacterial infections are a serious problem in aquaculture since they can result in massive mortalities in farmed fish and invertebrates. vibriosis is one of the most common diseases in marine aquaculture hatcheries and its causative agents are bacteria of the genus vibrio mostly entering larval rearing water through live feeds, such as artemia and rotifers. the pathogenic vibrio alginolyticus strain v1, isolated during a vibriosis outbreak in cultured seabream, sparus aurata, was used as host to ...201626950336
the immune responses and antioxidant status of portunus trituberculatus individuals with different body weights.vibrio alginolyticus is a virulent pathogen that affects crab aquacultures. in the present study, the immune responses and antioxidant status of big and small (based on body weight and size) 80-, 100- and 120-day-old specimens of portunus trituberculatus, challenged for 72 h with vibrio alginolyticus, were studied. the total hemocyte count (thc), and phagocytic, prophenoloxidase and phenoloxidase activities, of the big individuals (bis) were higher than those of the small individuals (sis) (p <  ...201626952172
transcriptome analysis of the effect of vibrio alginolyticus infection on the innate immunity-related tlr5-mediated induction of cytokines in epinephelus lanceolatus.epinephelus lanceolatus, considered to be an aquaculture fish species of high economic value in east asia, is one of the largest groupers in the epinephelus genus. vibrio alginolyticus is a bacterial species that causes high morbidity in marine fish; infection can cause exophthalmia, ulcers, septicemia, and corneal opaqueness in fish. epinephelus lanceolatus larvae infected with vibrio alginolyticus were subjected to transcriptome analysis to study the immune regulation pathway. grouper larvae w ...201626975410
characterization of an inca/c multidrug resistance plasmid in vibrio alginolyticus.cephalosporin-resistant vibrio alginolyticus was first isolated from food products, with β-lactamases encoded by blaper-1, blaveb-1, and blacmy-2 being the major mechanisms mediating their cephalosporin resistance. the complete sequence of a multidrug resistance plasmid, pvas3-1, harboring the blacmy-2 and qnrvc4 genes was decoded in this study. its backbone exhibited genetic homology to known inca/c plasmids recoverable from members of the family enterobacteriaceae, suggesting its possible orig ...201626976864
serine suppresses the motor function of a periplasmic pomb mutation in the vibrio flagella stator.the flagellar motor of vibrio alginolyticus is made of two parts: a stator consisting of proteins poma and pomb, and a rotor whose main component is flig. the interaction between flig and poma generates torque for flagellar rotation. based on cross-linking experiments of double-cys mutants of pomb, we previously proposed that a conformational change in the periplasmic region of pomb caused stator activation. double-cys mutants lost their motility due to an intramolecular disulfide bridge. in thi ...201627004994
the bacterial (vibrio alginolyticus) production of tetrodotoxin in the ribbon worm lineus longissimus-just a false positive?we test previous claims that the bacteria vibrio alginolyticus produces tetrodotoxin (ttx) when living in symbiosis with the nemertean lineus longissimus by a setup with bacteria cultivation for ttx production. toxicity experiments on the shore crab, carcinus maenas, demonstrated the presence of a paralytic toxin, but evidence from lc-ms and electrophysiological measurements of voltage-gated sodium channel-dependent nerve conductance in male wistar rat tissue showed conclusively that this effect ...201627023570
discovery, structural characterization and functional analysis of alpha-2-macroglobulin, a novel immune-related molecule from holothuria atra.the non-specific protease inhibitor alpha-2-macroglobulin (a2m) is a key macromolecular glycoprotein that involved in host immune defense against pathogens in vertebrates and invertebrates. however, no research regarding a2m has been developed in echinoderms to date. in this study, the full-length cdna of a2m was cloned from the sea cucumber (holothuria atra), which is a tropical species widely distributed along the coasts of the south china sea and designated haa2m. haa2m possesses all three co ...201627033585
microbiome analysis and detection of pathogenic bacteria of penaeus monodon from jakarta bay and bali.penaeus monodon, the asian black tiger shrimp is one of the most widely consumed marine crustaceans worldwide. in this study, we examine and compare the fecal microbiota of p. monodon from highly polluted waters around jakarta bay, with those of less polluted waters of bali. using next generation sequencing techniques, we identified potential bacterial pathogens and common viral diseases of shrimp. proteobacteria (96.08%) was found to be the most predominant phylum, followed by bacteriodetes (2. ...201627090886
complete genome sequence of a giant vibrio phage valkk3 infecting vibrio alginolyticus.this paper describes the complete sequence of a giant lytic marine myophage, vibrio phage valkk3 that is specific to vibrio alginolyticus atcc(®) 17749™. vibrio phage valkk3 was subjected to whole genome sequencing on miseq sequencing platform and annotated using blast2go. the complete sequence of valkk3 genome was deposited in dbbj/embl/genbank under accession number kp671755.201627114905
comparative genomic analysis of six new-found integrative conjugative elements (ices) in vibrio alginolyticus.vibrio alginolyticus is ubiquitous in marine and estuarine environments. in 2012-2013, sxt/r391-like integrative conjugative elements (ices) in environmental v. alginolyticus strains were discovered and found to occur in 8.9 % of 192 v. alginolyticus strains, which suggests that v. alginolyticus may be a natural pool possessing resourceful ices. however, complete ice sequences originating from this bacterium have not been reported, which represents a significant barrier to characterizing the ice ...201627145747
beta-1,3-1,6-glucan modulate the non-specific immune response to enhance the survival in the vibrio alginolyticus infection of taiwan abalone (haliotis diversicolor supertexta).this research aims to investigate the non-specific immune response of taiwan abalone (haliotis diversicolor supertexta) which was treated with the beta-1,3-1,6-glucan to be observed in the survival impact after the vibrio alginolyticus infection. the non-specific immune and physiological response of superoxide anion radical (o2(-)), phenoloxidase (po), phagocytic index (pi), phagocytic rate (pr) and lucigenin-chemiluminescence for reactive oxygen intermediates (rois) were enhanced via in-vitro e ...201627150049
whole-genome sequence of vibrio alginolyticus isolated from the mucus of the coral fungia danai in the andaman sea, india.vibrio alginolyticus, a halophilic gram-negative bacterium, which is found in temperate marine and estuarine environments, is known to cause infections in humans and other organisms. we sequenced the genome of sulfamethoxazole-trimthoprim-positive v. alginolyticus strain 4-19 isolated from the mucus of the coral fungia danai in the andaman sea, india.201627151803
identification of odontella aurita by rbcl gene sequence - a high antibacterial potential centric marine diatom.the antibacterial potential of centric marine diatoms has been compared against the clinical pathogens and identified the potential diatom by rbcl gene sequencing. totally, five diatoms namely odontella aurita, thalassiosira subtilis, chaetoceros curvisetus, skeletonema costatum and coscinodiscus centralis were isolated from cuddalore coastal waters. the diatoms were morphologically identified and isolated using micro capillary-pipette and serial dilution method. the isolated diatoms were cultur ...201627159722
saharan dust nutrients promote vibrio bloom formation in marine surface waters.vibrio is a ubiquitous genus of marine bacteria, typically comprising a small fraction of the total microbial community in surface waters, but capable of becoming a dominant taxon in response to poorly characterized factors. iron (fe), often restricted by limited bioavailability and low external supply, is an essential micronutrient that can limit vibrio growth. vibrio species have robust metabolic capabilities and an array of fe-acquisition mechanisms, and are able to respond rapidly to nutrien ...201627162369
genome-wide detection of predicted non-coding rnas related to the adhesion process in vibrio alginolyticus using high-throughput sequencing.the ability of bacteria to adhere to fish mucus can be affected by environmental conditions and is considered to be a key virulence factor of vibrio alginolyticus. however, the molecular mechanism underlying this ability remains unclear. our previous study showed that stress conditions such as exposure to cu, pb, hg, and low ph are capable of reducing the adhesion ability of v. alginolyticus. non-coding rnas (ncrnas) play a crucial role in the intricate regulation of bacterial gene expression, t ...201627199948
an innovative method for rapid identification and detection of vibrio alginolyticus in different infection models.vibrio alginolyticus is one of the most common pathogenic marine vibrio species, and has been found to cause serious seafood-poisoning or fatal extra-intestinal infections in humans, such as necrotizing soft-tissue infections, bacteremia, septic shock, and multiple organ failures. delayed accurate diagnosis and treatment of most vibrio infections usually result to high mortality rates. the objective of this study was to establish a rapid diagnostic method to detect and identify the presence of v ...201627199971
complete genome sequence of vibrio alginolyticus atcc 33787(t) isolated from seawater with three native megaplasmids.vibrio alginolyticus, an opportunistic pathogen, is commonly associated with vibriosis in fish and shellfish and can also cause superficial and ear infections in humans. v. alginolyticus atcc 33787(t) was originally isolated from seawater and has been used as one of the type strains for exploring the virulence factors of marine bacteria and for developing vaccine against vibriosis. here we sequenced and assembled the whole genome of this strain, and identified three megaplasmids and three type v ...201627211073
chemical constituents from campylotropis hirtella.a phytochemical investigation on the roots of campylotropis hirtella afforded nine new isoflavones (3-9, 12, 15), two new isoflavans (10 and 11), one new coumestan (1), and three new prenylated benzoic acid derivatives (2, 13, 14), together with twenty-four known compounds. their structures were established by spectroscopic analysis and circular dichroism data. the isolated compounds were also evaluated for their antibacterial activities against enterococcus faecalis, salmonella gallinarum, stre ...201627220079
a σe-mediated temperature gauge controls a switch from luxr-mediated virulence gene expression to thermal stress adaptation in vibrio vibrios, the expression of virulence factors is often controlled by luxr, the master quorum-sensing regulator. here, we investigate the interplay between luxr and σe, an alternative sigma factor, during the control of virulence-related gene expression and adaptations to temperature elevations in the zoonotic pathogen vibrio alginolyticus. an rpoe null v. alginolyticus mutant was unable to adapt to various stresses and was survival-deficient in fish. in wild type v. alginolyticus, the expressi ...201627253371
isolation and characterization of agar-digesting vibrio species from the rotten thallus of gracilariopsis heteroclada zhang et xia.gracilariopsis heteroclada zhang et xia (gracilariaceae, rhodophyta) is one of the most studied marine seaweeds due to its economic importance. this has been cultivated extensively on commercial scale in the philippines and other asian countries. however, sustainable production of g. heteroclada in the philippines could not be maximized due to the occurrence of rotten thallus disease. thus, isolation and characterization of agar-digesting bacteria from the rotten thalli of g. heteroclada was con ...201627285614
[post nearly drowning vibrio alginolyticus septicemia acquired in reunion (indian ocean)].abstractwe report the first case of vibrio alginolyticus septicemia in the indian ocean (reunion island), in a patient (70-year-old-man) with multiple underlying conditions, following a nearly drowning in the lagoon of reunion. from now on, v. alginolyticus should be considered as a possible agent of septicemia in the indian ocean, particularly following marine activities.201627325174
an alpha-2 macroglobulin in the pearl oyster pinctada fucata: characterization and function in hemocyte phagocytosis of vibrio alginolyticus.alpha-2 macroglobulin (α2m) is a ubiquitous protease inhibitor and considered to be an evolutionarily conserved constituent of innate host defence system. here, an α2m gene (designated as pfα2m) was obtained from the pearl oyster pinctada fucata by rt-pcr, pcr walking and rapid amplification of cdna ends (race). the pfα2m cdna consists of 6394 bp with an open reading frame (orf) of 5745 bp encoding a protein of 1914 amino acids with a 19 residues signal peptide. pfα2m sequence contains three put ...201627346151
identification of nod like receptor c3 (nlrc3) in asian seabass, lates calcarifer: characterisation, ontogeny and expression analysis after experimental infection and ligand stimulation.nod like receptors (nlrs) are a large group of cytoplasmic prrs believed to play an important role in bacterial recognition in higher vertebrates. in this study, a novel nod like receptor c3 (asnlrc3) has been identified, cloned and characterised from asian seabass, lates calcarifer. the full-length asnlrc3 transcript composed of a 4142 bp nucleic acid sequence encode for a protein of 1134 deduced amino acids. three signature domains identified are conserved nacht-domain, c-terminal llr domain a ...201627346158
spirulina elicits the activation of innate immunity and increases resistance against vibrio alginolyticus in shrimp.the effect of spirulina dried powder (sdp) on the immune response of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei was studied in vitro and in vivo. incubating shrimp haemocytes in 0.5 mg ml(-1) sdp caused the degranulation of haemocytes and a reduction in the percentage of large cells within 30 min. shrimp haemocytes incubated in 1 mg ml(-1) sdp significantly increased their phenoloxidase (po) activity, serine proteinase activity, and respiratory burst activity (rb, release of superoxide anion). a recombin ...201627368541
tank-binding kinase-1 broadly affects oyster immune response to bacteria and a benthic filter feeder of estuaries, the immune system of oysters provides one of the best models for studying the genetic and molecular basis of the innate immune pathway in marine invertebrates and examining the influence of environmental factors on the immune system. here, the molecular function of molluscan tank-binding kinase-1 (tbk1) (which we named cgtbk1) was studied in the pacific oyster, crassostrea gigas. compared with known tbk1 proteins in other model organisms, cgtbk1 contains ...201627422757
speed-dependent chemotactic precision in marine bacteria.chemotaxis underpins important ecological processes in marine bacteria, from the association with primary producers to the colonization of particles and hosts. marine bacteria often swim with a single flagellum at high speeds, alternating "runs" with either 180° reversals or ∼90° "flicks," the latter resulting from a buckling instability of the flagellum. these adaptations diverge from escherichia coli's classic run-and-tumble motility, yet how they relate to the strong and rapid chemotaxis char ...201627439872
collagenase from vibrio alginolyticus cultures: experimental study and clinical perspectives.purpose the purpose of this study is to examine the activity of collagenase from cultures of vibrio alginolyticus as in vitro as in biological samples and to evaluate clinical perspectives of this product about the treatment of fibroproliferative diseases like dupuytren's contracture. methods the experimental part of the study has been divided in 2 stages. in the first stage, the collagenase has been produced in laboratory, assessing its purity, verifying the in vitro degradation of collagen by ...201627448558
eutrophication, ammonia intoxication, and infectious diseases: interdisciplinary factors of mass mortalities in cultured nile tilapia.the present study was designed to assess the possible causes of the mass mortalities of nile tilapia oreochromis niloticus at el-behera governorate, egypt, in relationship to environmental and microbiotic factors. water samples were collected from fish farms at different locations and from lake edku to analyze water temperature, water ph, salinity, biological oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, total ammonia nitrogen, and un-ionized ammonia. a number of moribund and freshly dead fish were sampled a ...201627484819
flra, flrb and flrc regulate adhesion by controlling the expression of critical virulence genes in vibrio alginolyticus.adhesion is an important virulence trait of vibrio alginolyticus. bacterial adhesion is influenced by environmental conditions; however, the molecular mechanism underlying this effect remains unknown. the expression levels of flra, flrb and flrc were significantly downregulated in adhesion-deficient v. alginolyticus strains cultured under cu(2+), pb(2+), hg(2+) and low-ph stresses. silencing these genes led to deficiencies in adhesion, motility, flagellar assembly, biofilm formation and exopolys ...201627485498
a novel biomarker for marine environmental pollution of hsp90 from mytilus coruscus.heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) is a conserved molecular chaperone contributing to cell cycle control, organism development and the proper regulation of cytosolic proteins. the full-length hsp90 cdna of mytilus coruscus (mchsp90, kt946644) was 2420bp, including an orf of 2169bp encoding a polypeptide of 722 amino acids with predicted pi/mw 4.89/83.22kda. blastp analysis and phylogenetic relationship strongly suggested mchsp90 was a member of hsp90 family, and it was highly conserved with other kno ...201627491367
expression, purification and biochemical characterization of the cytoplasmic loop of poma, a stator component of the na(+) driven flagellar motor.flagellar motors embedded in bacterial membranes are molecular machines powered by specific ion flows. each motor is composed of a stator and a rotor and the interactions of those components are believed to generate the torque. na(+) influx through the poma/pomb stator complex of vibrio alginolyticus is coupled to torque generation and is speculated to trigger structural changes in the cytoplasmic domain of poma that interacts with a rotor protein in the c-ring, flig, to drive the rotation. in t ...201327493537
evidences of abundant hemocyanin variants in shrimp litopenaeus vannamei.hemocyanin (hmc) is a multifunctional immune molecule present in mollusks and arthropods and functions as an important antigen non-specific immune protein. our previous evidences demonstrated that litopenaeus vannamei hmc might display extensive molecular diversities. in this study, bioinformatics analysis showed dozens of variant sequences of the hmc subunit with higher molecular weight from l. vannamei (lvhmc). three variant fragments, named as lvhmcv1-3, which shared 85-99% nucleotide identit ...201627497189
cloning and characterization of tyrosine hydroxylase (th) from the pacific white leg shrimp litopenaeus vannamei, and its expression following pathogen challenge and hypothermal stress.tyrosine hydroxylase (th) belongs to the biopterin-dependent aromatic amino acid hydroxylase enzyme family, and it represents the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of catecholamines that are required for physiological and immune process in invertebrates and vertebrates. cloned litopenaeus vannamei th (lvth), containing a short alpha helix domain, a catalytic core, a regulatory domain, a phosphorylation site and two potential n-linked glycosylation sites as presented in vertebrate and ...201627514780
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