studies on adrenal cortical function in patients with lung cancer. 20154306935
[clinical examination of patients with multiple injuries]. 20165078491
joint hypermobility--asset or liability? a study of joint mobility in ballet dancers. 20165016858
[variability of the oils of juniperus communis. 3. the oils in plants of different populations and growth-types (author's transl)]. 20164859185
[letter: consent to donate organs]. 20164849067
origins of time. a reconstruction of the ontogenetic development of the sense of time based on object-relations theory. 20164832046
[improvement in hospital care]. 20164700975
[antiparkinsonism drug (parkan) as a hallucinogen]. 20164698717
effects of environmental variation on arousal during vigilance performance. 20164711977
integrating conjugative elements as vectors of antibiotic, mercury, and quaternary ammonium compound resistance in marine aquaculture environments.the presence of sxt/r391-related integrating conjugative elements (ices) in bacterial strains isolated from fish obtained from marine aquaculture environments in 2001 to 2010 in the northwestern iberian peninsula was studied. ices were detected in 12 strains taxonomically related to vibrio scophthalmi (3 strains), vibrio splendidus (5 strains), vibrio alginolyticus (1 strain), shewanella haliotis (1 strain), and enterovibrio nigricans (2 strains), broadening the known host range able to harbor s ...201222314526
identification of outer membrane proteins altered in response to uvc-radiation in vibrio parahaemolyticus and vibrio alginolyticus.vibrio parahaemolyticus and v. alginolyticus, marine foodborne pathogens, were treated with uvc-radiation (240 j/m(2)) to evaluate alterations in their outer membrane protein profiles. outer membrane protein patterns of uvc-irradiated bacteria were found altered when analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. altered proteins were identified by mass spectrometry (ms and ms/ms) and analysis revealed that ompw, ompa, long-chain fatty acid transport protein, outer membr ...201224293727
occurrence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from seawater organisms caught in campania region: preliminary study.environmental contamination by pharmaceuticals is a public health concern: drugs administered to humans and animals are excreted with urine or faeces and attend the sewage treatment. the main consequences of use and abuse of antibiotics is the development and diffusion of antibiotic resistance that has become a serious global problem. aim of the study is to evaluate the presence of antimicrobial residues and to assess the antimicrobial resistance in bacteria species isolated from different wild ...201425027759
draft genome sequences of vibrio sp. strains isolated from tetrodotoxin-bearing scavenging gastropod.vibrio sp. strains jcm 18905 and jcm 19053 were isolated from a tetrodotoxin (ttx)-bearing scavenging gastropod, and vibrio sp. strain jcm 18904 was isolated from a sea cucumber. all these are closely related to vibrio alginolyticus. their comparative genome information is useful for studies of ttx production in bacteria.201424948773
ethanolamine utilization in vibrio alginolyticus.ethanolamine is used as an energy source by phylogenetically diverse bacteria including pathogens, by the concerted action of proteins from the eut-operon. previous studies have revealed the presence of eutbc genes encoding ethanolamine-ammonia lyase, a key enzyme that breaks ethanolamine into acetaldehyde and ammonia, in about 100 bacterial genomes including members of gamma-proteobacteria. however, ethanolamine utilization has not been reported for any member of the vibrio genus. our comparati ...201223234435
bacterial motility patterns reveal importance of exploitation over exploration in marine microhabitats. part i: theory.bacteria use different motility patterns to navigate and explore natural habitats. however, how these motility patterns are selected, and what their benefits may be, are not understood. in this article, we analyze the effect of motility patterns on a cell's ability to migrate in a chemical gradient and to localize at the top of the gradient, the two most important characteristics of bacterial chemotaxis. we will focus on two motility patterns, run-tumble and run-reverse-flick, that are observed ...201425296325
a non-poissonian flagellar motor switch increases bacterial chemotactic potential.we investigate bacterial chemotactic strategies using run-tumble and run-reverse-flick motility patterns. the former is typically observed in enteric bacteria such as escherichia coli and salmonella and the latter was recently observed in the marine bacteria vibrio alginolyticus and is possibly exhibited by other polar flagellated species. it is shown that although the three-step motility pattern helps the bacterium to localize near hot spots, an exploitative behavior, its exploratory potential ...201526331263
nascent chain-monitored remodeling of the sec machinery for salinity adaptation of marine bacteria.secdf interacts with the secyeg translocon in bacteria and enhances protein export in a proton-motive-force-dependent manner. vibrio alginolyticus, a marine-estuarine bacterium, contains two secdf paralogs, v.secdf1 and v.secdf2. here, we show that the export-enhancing function of v.secdf1 requires na+ instead of h+, whereas v.secdf2 is na+-independent, presumably requiring h+. in accord with the cation-preference difference, v.secdf2 was only expressed under limited na+ concentrations whereas v ...201526392525
use of pseudomonas stutzeri and candida utilis in the improvement of the conditions of artemia culture and protection against evaluate the effect of two bacterial strains isolated from artemia cysts and yeast (candida utilis) on the survival, growth and total biomass production of its larvae, challenge tests were performed with candida utilis, pseudomonas stutzeri and pasteurella haemolityca. in addition, a pathogenic strain of vibrio alginolyticus was tested for comparative purposes. pseudomonas stutzeri and candida utilis have no impact on survival, but enhance growth and total biomass production of the larvae. ho ...201024031470
isolation, characterization, and antibiotic resistance of vibrio spp. in sea turtles from northwestern mexico.the aerobic oral and cloacal bacterial microbiota and their antimicrobial resistance were characterized for 64 apparently healthy sea turtles captured at their foraging grounds in ojo de liebre lagoon (oll), baja california sur (bcs), mexico (pacific ocean) and the lagoon system of navachiste (lsn) and marine area of influence (mai), guasave, sinaloa (gulf of california). a total of 34 black turtles (chelonia mydas agassizii) were sampled in oll and eight black turtles and 22 olive ridley turtle ...201526161078
a novel dnaj family gene, sfla, encodes an inhibitor of flagellation in marine vibrio species.the marine bacterium vibrio alginolyticus has a single polar flagellum. formation of that flagellum is regulated positively and negatively by flhf and by flhg, respectively. the δflhf mutant makes no flagellum, whereas the δflhfg double-deletion mutant usually lacks a flagellum. however, the δflhfg mutant occasionally reverts to become motile by forming peritrichous flagella. we have isolated a suppressor pseudorevertant from the δflhfg strain (δflhfg-sup). the suppressor strain forms peritricho ...201323222726
flra, flrb and flrc regulate adhesion by controlling the expression of critical virulence genes in vibrio alginolyticus.adhesion is an important virulence trait of vibrio alginolyticus. bacterial adhesion is influenced by environmental conditions; however, the molecular mechanism underlying this effect remains unknown. the expression levels of flra, flrb and flrc were significantly downregulated in adhesion-deficient v. alginolyticus strains cultured under cu(2+), pb(2+), hg(2+) and low-ph stresses. silencing these genes led to deficiencies in adhesion, motility, flagellar assembly, biofilm formation and exopolys ...201627485498
transcriptome analysis of the effect of vibrio alginolyticus infection on the innate immunity-related complement pathway in epinephelus grouper (epinephelus coioides) with protogynous hermaphroditic features are one of the most economically important aquaculture species in taiwan. however, larvae stage grouper are susceptible to infection by the bacterial pathogen vibrio alginolyticus. to better understand the molecular mechanisms of the immune response to v. alginolyticus in epinephelus coioides larvae, we used high-throughput deep sequencing technology to study the effect of infection on gene expression.201425496447
structure of an amino acid-decorated exopolysaccharide secreted by a vibrio alginolyticus strain.vibrio alginolyticus (cncm i-4994) secretes an exopolysaccharide that can be used as an ingredient in cosmetic applications. the structure was resolved using chromatography and one- and two-dimensional nmr spectroscopy experiments. the results show that the carbohydrate backbone is made of two residues: d-galacturonic acid and n-acetyl-d-glucosamine (glcnac), which together constitute a tetrasaccharide repetition unit: [→3)-α-d-gala-(1→4)-α-d-gala-(1→3)-α-d-gala-(1→3)-β-glcnac(1→]. two amino aci ...201526528992
the rna chaperone hfq is involved in colony morphology, nutrient utilization and oxidative and envelope stress response in vibrio alginolyticus.hfq is a global regulator that is involved in environmental adaptation of bacteria and in pathogenicity. to gain insight into the role of hfq in vibrio alginolyticus, an hfq deletion mutant was constructed in v. alginolyticus zj-t strain and phenotypically characterized. deletion of hfq led to an alteration of colony morphology and reduced extracellular polysaccharide production, a general impairment of growth in both rich medium and minimal media with different carbon sources or amino acids, en ...201627685640
purification and host specificity of predatory halobacteriovorax isolates from seawater.halobacteriovorax (formerly bacteriovorax) is a small predatory bacterium found in the marine environment and modulates bacterial pathogens in shellfish. four strains of halobacteriovorax originally isolated in vibrio parahaemolyticus o3:k6 host cells were separated from their prey by an enrichment-filtration-dilution technique for specificity testing in other bacteria. this technique was essential, since 0.45-μm filtration alone was unable to remove infectious vibrio minicells, as determined by ...201626590288
an innovative method for rapid identification and detection of vibrio alginolyticus in different infection models.vibrio alginolyticus is one of the most common pathogenic marine vibrio species, and has been found to cause serious seafood-poisoning or fatal extra-intestinal infections in humans, such as necrotizing soft-tissue infections, bacteremia, septic shock, and multiple organ failures. delayed accurate diagnosis and treatment of most vibrio infections usually result to high mortality rates. the objective of this study was to establish a rapid diagnostic method to detect and identify the presence of v ...201627199971
characterization of an inca/c multidrug resistance plasmid in vibrio alginolyticus.cephalosporin-resistant vibrio alginolyticus was first isolated from food products, with β-lactamases encoded by blaper-1, blaveb-1, and blacmy-2 being the major mechanisms mediating their cephalosporin resistance. the complete sequence of a multidrug resistance plasmid, pvas3-1, harboring the blacmy-2 and qnrvc4 genes was decoded in this study. its backbone exhibited genetic homology to known inca/c plasmids recoverable from members of the family enterobacteriaceae, suggesting its possible orig ...201626976864
a transmissible plasmid-borne pathogenicity island confers piscibactin biosynthesis in the fish pathogen photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida.the fish pathogen photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida produces the siderophore piscibactin. a gene cluster that resembles the yersinia high-pathogenicity island (hpi) encodes piscibactin biosynthesis. here, we report that this hpi-like cluster is part of a hitherto-uncharacterized 68-kb plasmid dubbed pphdp70. this plasmid lacks homologs of genes that mediate conjugation, but we found that it could be transferred at low frequencies from p. damselae subsp. piscicida to a mollusk pathogenic v ...201526092457
transcriptome analysis and discovery of genes involved in immune pathways from hepatopancreas of microbial challenged mitten crab eriocheir sinensis.the chinese mitten crab eriocheir sinensis is an important economic crustacean and has been seriously attacked by various diseases, which requires more and more information for immune relevant genes on genome background. recently, high-throughput rna sequencing (rna-seq) technology provides a powerful and efficient method for transcript analysis and immune gene discovery.201323874555
a new membrane lipid raft gene spflt-1 facilitating the endocytosis of vibrio alginolyticus in the crab scylla paramamosain.pathogens can enter their host cells by way of endocytosis in which the membrane lipid raft gene flotillins are probably involved in the invasion process and this is an important way to cause infection. in this study, a new gene spflt-1 was identified in scylla paramamosain, which shared high identity with the flotillin-1 of other species. the spflt-1 gene was widely distributed in tissues and showed the highest level of mrna transcripts in the hemocytes. this gene might be a maternal gene based ...201526186350
vaccination enhances early immune responses in white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei after secondary exposure to vibrio alginolyticus.recent work suggested that the presence of specific memory or some form of adaptive immunity occurs in insects and shrimp. hypervariable pattern recognition molecules, known as down syndrome cell adhesion molecules, are able to mount specific recognition, and immune priming in invertebrates. in the present study, we attempted to understand the immune response pattern of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei which received primary (pe) and secondary exposure (se) to vibrio alginolyticus.201323894531
amy63, a novel type of marine bacterial multifunctional enzyme possessing amylase, agarase and carrageenase activities.a multifunctional enzyme is one that performs multiple physiological functions, thus benefiting the organism. characterization of multifunctional enzymes is important for researchers to understand how organisms adapt to different environmental challenges. in the present study, we report the discovery of a novel multifunctional enzyme amy63 produced by marine bacterium vibrio alginolyticus 63. remarkably, amy63 possesses amylase, agarase and carrageenase activities. amy63 is a substrate promiscuo ...201626725302
transcriptome analysis reveals comprehensive insights into the early immune response of large yellow croaker (larimichthys crocea) induced by trivalent bacterial vaccine.vaccination is an effective and safe strategy for combating bacterial diseases in fish, but the mechanisms underlying the early immune response after vaccination remain to be elucidated. in the present study, we used rna-seq technology to perform transcriptome analysis of spleens from large yellow croaker (larimichthys crocea) induced by inactivated trivalent bacterial vaccine (vibrio parahaemolyticus, vibrio alginolyticus and aeromonas hydrophila). a total of 2,789 or 1,511 differentially expre ...201728135311
induction of type i interferons in response to bacterial stimuli in large yellow croaker larimichthys addition to the crucial roles in coordinating antiviral immune responses, type i interferons (ifns) also play a role in the host immunity against bacterial pathogens. our previous study identified two type i ifns from large yellow croaker larimichthys croaea(lc), lcifnd and lcifnh, and showed their strong induction by poly(i:c) and antiviral activities. in the present study, both lcifnd and lcifnh were found to be rapidly induced in head kidney and spleen by mixed bacteria of vibrio alginolyt ...201728119146
molecular characterization and functional analysis of a piscidin gene in large yellow croaker (larimichthys crocea).the piscidin family, which includes potent antimicrobial peptides with broad-spectrum activity, plays an important role in the innate immune system of fish. in this study, we cloned piscidin-5-like type 3 (lcpis5lt3) in large yellow croaker (larimichthys crocea). multiple alignments with other known piscidins revealed amino acid conservation throughout the fish, especially at the signal peptide (22 amino acids). the phylogenetic tree confirmed that lcpis5lt3 and large yellow croaker piscidin-5-l ...201628105799
laurus nobilis, zingiber officinale and anethum graveolens essential oils: composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities against bacteria isolated from fish and shellfish.several bacterial strains were isolated from wild and reared fish and shellfish. the identification of these strains showed the dominance of the aeromonas hydrophila species in all seafood samples, followed by staphylococcus spp., vibrio alginolyticus, enterobacter cloacae, klebsiella ornithinolytica, klebsiella oxytoca and serratia odorifera. the isolates were studied for their ability to produce exoenzymes and biofilms. the chemical composition of the essential oils from laurus nobilis leaves, ...201627782086
chemical constituents from campylotropis hirtella.a phytochemical investigation on the roots of campylotropis hirtella afforded nine new isoflavones (3-9, 12, 15), two new isoflavans (10 and 11), one new coumestan (1), and three new prenylated benzoic acid derivatives (2, 13, 14), together with twenty-four known compounds. their structures were established by spectroscopic analysis and circular dichroism data. the isolated compounds were also evaluated for their antibacterial activities against enterococcus faecalis, salmonella gallinarum, stre ...201627220079
a novel c-type lectin, nattectin-like protein, with a wide range of bacterial agglutination activity in large yellow croaker larimichthys crocea.c-type lectins (ctls) are generally recognized as a superfamily of ca(2+)-dependent carbohydrate-binding proteins, which serve as pattern recognition receptors (prrs) in innate immunity of vertebrates. in this study, the molecular characterization and immune roles of a novel ctl from larimichthys crocea (designated as lcntc) were investigated. lcntc is a novel protein that shared 33%-49% homology with other teleosts ctls. the full-length cdna of lcntc was composed of 859 bp with a 465 bp open re ...201626828263
identification of a novel clip domain serine proteinase (sp-csp) and its roles in innate immune system of mud crab scylla paramamosain.clip domain serine proteinases and their homologs are involved in the innate immunity of invertebrates. to identify the frontline defense molecules against pathogenic infection, we isolated a novel clip domain serine proteinase (sp-csp) from the hemocytes of mud crab scylla paramamosain. the full-length 1362 bp sp-csp contains a 1155 bp open reading frame (orf) encoding 384 amino acids. multiple alignment analysis showed that the putative amino acid sequence of sp-csp has about 52% and 51% ident ...201526272638
isolation and function analysis of apolipoprotein a-i gene response to virus infection in grouper.apolipoproteins, synthesized mainly in liver and intestine and bounded to lipids, play important roles in lipid transport and uptake through the circulation system. in this study, an apolipoprotein a-i gene homologue was cloned from orange-spotted grouper epinephelus coioides (designed as ec-apoa-i) by rapid amplification of cdna ends (race) pcr. the full-length cdna of ec-apoa-i was comprised of 1278 bp with a 792 bp open reading frame (orf) that encodes a putative protein of 264 amino acids. q ...201525613342
characterization of a novel anti-lipopolysaccharide factor isoform (spalf5) in mud crab, scylla paramamosain.anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (alfs), the potential antimicrobial peptides that bind and neutralize lipopolysaccharide (lps), are common effectors of innate immunity in crustaceans. in this study, a novel isoform of alfs (spalf5) was isolated from the hemocytes of mud crab scylla paramamosain. the full-length 975bp spalf5 contains a 375bp open reading frame (orf) encoding 125 amino acids. although spalf5 exhibits a low degree of nucleotide homology with other reported alfs, it contains the con ...201525553523
molecular cloning and functional characterization of the hepcidin gene from the convict cichlid (amatitlania nigrofasciata) and its expression pattern in response to lipopolysaccharide challenge.the hepcidin gene is widely expressed in many fish species and functions as an antimicrobial peptide, suggesting that it plays an important role in the innate immune system of fish. in the present study, the amatitlania nigrofasciata hepcidin gene (an-hepc) was cloned from the liver and its expression during an immune response was characterized. the results of quantitative pcr and rt-pcr showed that the an-hepc transcript was most abundant in the liver. the expression of an-hepc mrna was signifi ...201525280727
liposome-encapsulated cinnamaldehyde enhances zebrafish (danio rerio) immunity and survival when challenged with vibrio vulnificus and streptococcus agalactiae.cinnamaldehyde, which is extracted from cinnamon, is a natural compound with activity against bacteria and a modulatory immune function. however, the antibacterial activity and immunostimulation of cinnamaldehyde in fish has not been well investigated due to the compound's poor water solubility. thus, liposome-encapsulated cinnamaldehyde (lec) was used to evaluate the effects of cinnamaldehyde on in vitro antibacterial activity against aquatic pathogens and in vivo immunity and protection parame ...201424632045
spalf4: a newly identified anti-lipopolysaccharide factor from the mud crab scylla paramamosain with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity.anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (alfs) are antimicrobial peptides with binding and neutralizing activities to lipopolysaccharide (lps) in crustaceans. this study identified and characterized a novel alf homolog (spalf4) from the mud crab scylla paramamosain. the complete cdna of spalf4 had 756 bp with a 381 bp open reading frame encoding a protein with 126 aa. the deduced protein contained a signal peptide and a lps-binding domain. spalf4 shared the highest identity with ptalf5 at amino acid lev ...201424239582
antibiofilm activity of dendrophthoe falcata against different bacterial pathogens.dendrophthoe falcata is a hemiparasitic plant commonly used for ailments such as ulcers, asthma, impotence, paralysis, skin diseases, menstrual troubles, pulmonary tuberculosis, and wounds. in this context, the validations of the traditional claim that the leaf extract of d. falcata possesses antibiofilm and anti-quorum sensing activity against different bacterial pathogens were assessed. the bacterial biofilms were quantified by crystal violet staining. among the 17 bacterial pathogens screened ...201223115018
effects of enteromyxum leei (myxozoa) infection on gilthead sea bream (sparus aurata) (teleostei) intestinal mucus: glycoprotein profile and bacterial adhesion.the intestinal myxosporean parasite enteromyxum leei causes severe desquamative enteritis in gilthead sea bream (sparus aurata) (teleostei) that impairs nutrient absorption causing anorexia and cachexia. in fish, as in terrestrial vertebrates, intestinal goblet cells are responsible for the adherent mucus secretion overlying epithelial cells, which constitutes a first line of innate immune defense against offending microorganisms but serves also as substrate and nutrient source for the commensal ...201323086443
immune response of turbot (scophthalmus maximus l.) to a broad spectrum vaccine candidate, recombinant glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of edwardsiella tarda.edwardsiella tarda is a gram-negative pathogen which causes systemic infection in turbot. the increasing frequency of edwardsiellosis in turbot farming has stressed the need to understand the immune responses of fish, for the further development of prevention and control strategies. as a broad spectrum protective antigen, a recombinant glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh) of e. tarda eib202 has been proven to present remarkable protection against e. tarda, aeromonas hydrophila, vibri ...201223084627
antimicrobial activities of secondary metabolites and phylogenetic study of sponge endosymbiotic bacteria, bacillus sp. at agatti island, lakshadweep archipelago.twenty-one species of sponges were recorded under the class of demospongiae and calcareous sponges of which 19 species were new to agatti reef. a total of 113 sponge endosymbiotic bacterial strains were isolated from twenty-one species of sponges and screened for antimicrobial activity. five bacterial strains of sponge endosymbiotic bacteria (seb) namely seb32, seb33, seb36, seb43 and seb51 showed antimicrobial activity against virulent marine fish pathogens such as vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio ...201628352539
preliminary study on the in vitro and in vivo effects of asparagopsis taxiformis bioactive phycoderivates on teleosts.several compounds from marine organisms have been studied for their potential use in aquaculture. among the red algae, asparagopsis taxiformis is considered one of the most promising species for the production of bioactive metabolites with numerous proposed applications. here, the in vitro antibacterial activity, the easy handling and the absence of adverse effects on marine fish species are reported. depending on the seasonal period of sampling, ethanol extracts of a. taxiformis exhibited signi ...201627826246
high concentration of red clay as an alternative for antibiotics in aquaculture.the use of antibiotics in aquaculture raises environmental and food safety concerns because chronic exposure of an aquatic ecosystem to antibiotics can result in the spread of antibiotic resistance, bioaccumulation of antibiotics in the organisms, and transfer of antibiotics to humans. in an attempt to overcome these problems, high-concentration red clay was applied as an alternative antibiotic against the following common fish pathogens: aeromonas salmonicida, vibrio alginolyticus, and streptoc ...201626528535
marine lactobacillus pentosus h16 protects artemia franciscana from vibrio alginolyticus pathogenic effects.vibrio alginolyticus is an opportunistic pathogen which may affect different aquatic organisms. the aim of this study was to assess the probiotic properties and the protective mode of action of lactobacillus pentosus h16 against v. alginolyticus 03/8525, through in vitro and in vivo studies using artemia franciscana (hereafter artemia). this strain showed antimicrobial activity against v. alginolyticus 03/8525 and aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida atcc33658 possibly related to lactobacill ...201525667335
antibacterial efficacy of recombinant siganus oramin l-amino acid oxidase expressed in pichia pastoris.siganus oraminl-amino acid oxidase is a novel natural protein (named sr-laao) isolated from serum of the rabbitfish (s. oramin), which showed antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and had a lethal effect on the parasites cryptocaryon irritans, trypanosoma brucei brucei and ichthyophthirius multifiliis. in order to test whether recombinant sr-laao (rsr-laao) produced by the eukaryotic expression system also has antimicrobial activity, the yeast pichia pastor ...201425238719
skin lesion-associated pathogens from octopus vulgaris: first detection of photobacterium swingsii, lactococcus garvieae and betanodavirus.the common octopus octopus vulgaris cuvier, 1798 is extremely important in fisheries and is a useful protein source in most mediterranean countries. here we investigated pathogens associated with skin lesions in 9 naturally deceased specimens that included both cultured and wild common octopus. within 30 min after death, each octopus was stored at 4°c and microbiologically examined within 24 h. bacterial colonies, cultured from swabs taken from the lesions, were examined using taxonomical and bi ...201526203886
caenorhabditis elegans-based in vivo screening of bioactives from marine sponge-associated bacteria against vibrio establish caenorhabditis elegans based in vivo method for screening bioactives from marine sponge associated bacteria (sab) against vibrio species.201324034129
a preliminary study on the antibacterial mechanism of tegillarca granosa hemoglobin by derived peptides and peroxidase activity.the blood clam, tegillarca granosa, is one of the few bivalve molluscs containing hemoglobin (hb). in the present study, we purified two types of t. granosa hemoglobin, tg-hbi and tg-hbii, using size exclusion chromatography and measured their antibacterial and peroxidase activities. we also tested antibacterial activities of peptides prepared by trypsin digestion of purified tg-hb and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography purification. purified tg-hbi and tg-hbii showed antibact ...201626876330
recombinant expression of a modified shrimp anti-lipopolysaccharide factor gene in pichia pastoris gs115 and its characteristic analysis.anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (alfs) with a lps-binding domain (lbd) are considered to have broad spectrum antimicrobial activities and certain antiviral properties in crustaceans. fcalf2 was one isoform of alfs isolated from the chinese shrimp fenneropenaeus chinensis. our previous study showed that a modified lbd domain (named lbdv) of fcalf2 exhibited a highly enhanced antimicrobial activity. in the present study, a modified fcalf2 gene (mfcalf2), in which the lbd was substituted by lbdv, w ...201627517939
molecular cloning and characterization of antimicrobial peptides from skin of hylarana guentheri.the cdnas encoding antimicrobial peptides (amps) in the skin of hylarana guentheri were identified, namely temporin (five peptides, termed temporin-gha-ghd and temporin-gua), brevinin-1 (one peptide, brevinin-1gub), and brevinin-2 (eight peptides, brevinin-2ghd-2ghj, and brevinin-2ghb). eleven of the 14 peptides have novel primary structures. synthesized temporin gha-ghd have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities against gram-positive bacteria (staphylococcus aureus and bacillus subtilis), gra ...201728338958
a specific antimicrobial protein cap-1 from pseudomonas sp. isolated from the jellyfish cyanea capillata.a bacterium strain, designated as cmf-2, was isolated from the jellyfish cyanea capillata and its culture supernatant exhibited a significant antimicrobial activity. the strain cmf-2 was identified as pseudomonas sp. based on the morphological, biochemical and physiological characteristics as well as 16s rrna sequence analysis. in this study, an antimicrobial protein, named as cap-1, was isolated from the culture of cmf-2 through ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography. ...201626529191
identification of a c-type lectin with antiviral and antibacterial activity from pacific white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei.c-type lectins (ctls) play crucial roles in innate immune responses in invertebrates by recognizing and eliminating microinvaders. in this study, a ctl from pacific white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei (lvctl3) was identified. lvctl3 contains a single c-type lectin-like domain (ctld), which shows similarities to those of other shrimp ctls and has a mutated 'epd' motif in ca(2+)-binding site 2. lvctl3 mrna can be detected in all tested tissues and expression of lvctl3 in gills was up-regulated after ...201424792214
biological characteristics and probiotic effect of leuconostoc lactis strain isolated from the intestine of black porgy fish.a strain of lactic acid bacteria, leuconostoc lactis, was isolated from the intestinal tract of black porgy, sparus macrocephalus, and identified by conventional biochemical characteristics and 16s rdna gene sequence analysis. the isolated strain had the ability of bile tolerance and resistance to low ph, and survived well in the trypsinase and pepsin solution. but the highly concentrated dose of trypsinase and pepsin affect the viability of the isolated strain. the isolate was resistant to seve ...201324516418
expression of allograft inflammatory factor-1 (aif-1) in response to bacterial challenge and tissue injury in the pearl oyster, pinctada martensii.allograft inflammatory factor-1 (aif-1), an interferon (ifn)-γ-inducible calcium-binding cytokine, is associated with the inflammatory response and defense. we cloned and analyzed the expression pattern of the aif-1 gene of the pearl oyster pinctada martensii, hereafter designated pmaif-1. the full-length pmaif-1 cdna is 946 bp in length and consists of a 5'-untranslated region (utr) of 120 bp, a 3'-utr of 376 bp, and an open reading frame (orf) of 450 bp encoding a polypeptide of 149 amino acid ...201323178259
induction of phenoloxidase and other immunological activities in the humoral fluids of amphioxus branchiostoma belcheri challenged with lipopolysaccharide (lps).the knowledge concerning the humoral immunity is scarce in amphioxus branchiostoma belcheri. this study measured the humoral parameters including phenoloxidase (po) activity, lysozyme activity, antimicrobial activity, microbial agglutinin, and hemagglutinin in amphioxus humoral fluids before and after lipopolysaccharide (lps) challenge. humoral fluids from unchallenged branchiostoma belcheri (b. belcheri) had po activity, lysozyme, antimicrobial, microbial agglutinating, and hemagglutinating act ...201222733094
antiadhesive activity of poly-hydroxy butyrate biopolymer from a marine brevibacterium casei msi04 against shrimp pathogenic vibrios.vibrio pathogens are causative agents of mid-culture outbreaks, and early mortality syndrome and secondary aetiology of most dreadful viral outbreaks in shrimp aquaculture. among the pathogenic vibrios group, vibrio alginolyticus and v. harveyi are considered as the most significant ones in the grow-out ponds of giant black tiger shrimp penaeus monodon in india. use of antibiotics was banned in many countries due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains and accumulation of residual antib ...201425115578
[atypical agents of wound infection and targeted samples].all open wounds are primarily contaminated and subsequently colonized by microorganisms, predominantly bacteria. only about 30% of chronic wounds are also infected. factors which favor the development of infection are the following: large quantity of bacteria, presence of virulence factors, their quantity and number, predominantly the synergy of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and formation of biofilm. common agents of infection of acute and chronic wounds are staphylococcus aureus, mrsa, strept ...201223193825
construction and immune protection evaluation of recombinant polyvalent ompas derived from genetically divergent ompa by dna shuffling.a wide variety of bacterial infections is a major challenge in aquaculture. development of polyvalent vaccines that can fight against as many pathogens as possible is especially necessary. the present study uses dna shuffling to create a new hybrid ompa with improved cross-protection against vibrio alginolyticus and edwardsiella tarda through the recombination of six ompa genes from vibrio parahaemolyticus, v. alginolyticus, e. tarda and escherichia coli. out of the 43 recombinant chimeras genes ...201626707781
electrochemical disinfection of fish pathogens in seawater without the production of a lethal concentration of chlorine using a flow electrochemical disinfection system employing a honeycombed platinum coated titanium electrode was developed for the disinfection of seawater. cell suspensions (2 l, 10³ cells/ml) of the fish pathogens, vibrio alginolyticus, edwardsiella tarda, lactococcus garvieae and vibrio anguillarum were circulated in a reactor equipped with 10 sets of these electrodes at a flow rate of 200 ml/min with an applied potential of 1.0 v vs. ag/agcl reference electrode. the circulated cells were completely dis ...201323648105
daily variations in pathogenic bacterial populations in a monsoon influenced tropical environment.changing climatic conditions have influenced the monsoon pattern in recent years. variations in bacterial population in one such tropical environment were observed everyday over two years and point out intra and inter annual changes driven by the intensity of rainfall. vibrio spp. were abundant during the monsoon and so were faecal coliforms. vibrio alginolyticus were negatively influenced by nitrate, whereas, silicate and rainfall positively influenced vibrio parahaemolyticus numbers. it is als ...201525956443
characterization and functional analysis of a novel c-type lectin from the swimming crab portunus trituberculatus.c-type lectins (ctls) are a family of calcium-dependent carbohydrate-binding proteins. in the present study, a novel c-type lectin (designated as ptctl1) was identified and characterized from portunus trituberculatus. the full-length cdna of ptctl1 was of 702 bp, containing a 5' untranslated region (utr) of 91 bp, a 3' utr of 110 bp with a poly (a) tail, and an open reading frame (orf) of 501 bp encoding a polypeptide of 166 amino acids with a putative signaling peptide of 21 amino acids. a c-ty ...201728288910
biochemical characterization of the flagellar stator-associated inner membrane protein flil from vibrio alginolyticus.the flagellar motor is embedded in the cell envelope and rotates upon interaction between the stator and the rotor. the rotation is powered by ion flow through the stator. a single transmembrane protein named flil is associated with torque generation in the flagellar motor. we established an escherichia coli over-expression system for flil of vibrio alginolyticus, a marine bacterium that has a sodium-driven polar flagellum. we successfully expressed, purified, and crystallized the ca. 17 kda ful ...201628013221
evidences of abundant hemocyanin variants in shrimp litopenaeus vannamei.hemocyanin (hmc) is a multifunctional immune molecule present in mollusks and arthropods and functions as an important antigen non-specific immune protein. our previous evidences demonstrated that litopenaeus vannamei hmc might display extensive molecular diversities. in this study, bioinformatics analysis showed dozens of variant sequences of the hmc subunit with higher molecular weight from l. vannamei (lvhmc). three variant fragments, named as lvhmcv1-3, which shared 85-99% nucleotide identit ...201627497189
speed-dependent chemotactic precision in marine bacteria.chemotaxis underpins important ecological processes in marine bacteria, from the association with primary producers to the colonization of particles and hosts. marine bacteria often swim with a single flagellum at high speeds, alternating "runs" with either 180° reversals or ∼90° "flicks," the latter resulting from a buckling instability of the flagellum. these adaptations diverge from escherichia coli's classic run-and-tumble motility, yet how they relate to the strong and rapid chemotaxis char ...201627439872
specific inflammatory response of anemonia sulcata (cnidaria) after bacterial injection causes tissue reaction and enzymatic activity alteration.the evolution of multicellular organisms was marked by adaptations to protect against pathogens. the mechanisms for discriminating the ''self'' from ''non-self" have evolved into a long history of cellular and molecular strategies, from damage repair to the co-evolution of host-pathogen interactions. we investigated the inflammatory response in anemonia sulcata (cnidaria: anthozoa) following injection of substances that varied in type and dimension, and observed clear, strong and specific reacti ...201626836977
an element of determinism in a stochastic flagellar motor switch.marine bacterium vibrio alginolyticus uses a single polar flagellum to navigate in an aqueous environment. similar to escherichia coli cells, the polar flagellar motor has two states; when the motor is counter-clockwise, the cell swims forward and when the motor is clockwise, the cell swims backward. v. alginolyticus also incorporates a direction randomization step at the start of the forward swimming interval by flicking its flagellum. to gain an understanding on how the polar flagellar motor s ...201526554590
cloning and characterization of a novel hemocyanin variant lvhmcv4 from shrimp litopenaeus vannamei.recently, we found 3 variants of hemocyanin subunit with higher molecular weight in shrimp litopenaeus vannamei (named as lvhmcv1-3). in this study, a novel l. vannamei hemocyanin variant (named as lvhmcv4) was further cloned and characterized. bioinformatic analysis predicted that lvhmcv4 contains one open reading frame of 2137 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 678 amino acids. it shares 84-99% cdna sequences identity to that of the classical form of l. vannamei hemocyanin (lvhmc, aj250830.1) and ...201526115633
hygiene and health risks associated with the consumption of edible lamellibranch molluscs.edible lamellibranch molluscs are frequently the cause of very serious outbreaks of food poisoning. microbiological suitability for human consumption, according to ec reg. n. 1441/2007, is only based on two faecal bacteriological contamination parameters (escherichia coli and salmonella) and does not consider other microorganisms which are naturally present within the marine environment and are potentially pathogenic such as those belonging to the genus vibrio. in this study, a total of 540 samp ...201525744696
functional chimeras of flagellar stator proteins between e. coli motb and vibrio pomb at the periplasmic region in vibrio or e. coli.the bacterial flagellar motor has a stator and a rotor. the stator is composed of two membrane proteins, mota and motb in escherichia coli and poma and pomb in vibrio alginolyticus. the vibrio motor has a unique structure, the t ring, which is composed of motx and moty. based on the structural information of pomb and motb, we constructed three chimeric proteins between pomb and motb, named potb91 , potb129, and potb138 , with various chimeric junctions. when those chimeric proteins were produced ...201525630862
ptplc, a pacifastin-related inhibitor involved in antibacterial defense and prophenoloxidase cascade of the swimming crab portunus trituberculatus.pacifastin-related inhibitor is a new family of serine protease inhibitors that regulate the proteolytic cascade in multiple biological processes. contrary to the knowledge on the structure and inhibitory mechanism of pacifastin-like members in locust, very little is known about their functions. here, we report the inhibitory activities in relation to the structural characteristics of pacifastin light chain (ptplc) gene identified from the swimming crab portunus trituberculatus. the mature ptplc ...201525542376
interaction of the c-terminal tail of flif with flig from the na+-driven flagellar motor of vibrio alginolyticus.rotation of the polar flagellum of vibrio alginolyticus is driven by a na(+)-type flagellar motor. flig, one of the essential rotor proteins located at the upper rim of the c ring, binds to the membrane-embedded ms ring. the ms ring is composed of a single membrane protein, flif, and serves as a foundation for flagellar assembly. unexpectedly, about half of the vibrio flif protein produced at high levels in escherichia coli was found in the soluble fraction. soluble flif purifies as an oligomer ...201525313387
characteristic and functional analysis of a ficolin-like protein from the oyster crassostrea hongkongensis.ficolins are a group of soluble animal proteins with multiple roles in innate immunity. these proteins recognize and bind carbohydrates in pathogens and activate the complement system, leading to opsonization, leukocyte activation, and direct pathogen killing, which have been reported in many animal species but might not be present in the shellfish lineage. in the present study, we identified the first fibrinogen-related protein from the oyster, crassostrea hongkongensis. this novel ficolin-like ...201425120216
occurrence of vibrio and salmonella species in mussels (mytilus galloprovincialis) collected along the moroccan atlantic coast.this study reports the occurrence of different vibrio and salmonella species in 52 samples of mytilus galloprovincialis collected from four sites along the atlantic coast between agadir and essaouira (anza, cap ghir, imssouane and essaouira). the level of escherichia coli (e. coli) was also determined to evaluate the degree of microbial pollution in the investigated areas. in this study three methods were used : afnor nf en iso 6579 v08-013 for salmonella spp., the provisional method routinely u ...201424936389
ptserpin from the swimming crab portunus trituberculatus, a putative regulator of prophenoloxidase activation with antibacterial activity.serpin or serine protease inhibitor is the largest family of protease inhibitors involved in many innate immune pathways, particularly the prophenoloxidase (propo) activating system in arthropod. here, we report the molecular and functional characterization of ptserpin identified from the swimming crab portunus trituberculatus. the genomic sequence encoding mature peptide of ptserpin gene contained two exons of 84 and 1098 bp separated by one intron of 111 bp. the recombinant ptserpin (rptserpin ...201424861890
dynamics of an interactive network composed of a bacterial two-component system, a transporter and k+ as mediator.kdpd and kdpe form a histidine kinase/response regulator system that senses k(+) limitation and induces the kdpfabc operon, which encodes a high-affinity k(+) uptake complex. to define the primary stimulus perceived by kdpd we focused in this study on the dynamics of the kdp response. escherichia coli cells were subjected to severe k(+) limitation, and all relevant parameters of the kdp response, i.e., levels of kdpfabc transcripts and kdpfabc proteins, as well as extra- and intracellular k(+) c ...201424586952
construction of functional fragments of the cytoplasmic loop with the c-terminal region of poma, a stator component of the vibrio na+ driven flagellar motor.the membrane motor proteins, poma (polar flagellar motility protein a) and pomb (polar flagellar motility protein b), of vibrio alginolyticus form a stator complex that converts energy from the ion flow to mechanical work in bacterial flagellar motors. the cytoplasmic domain of poma is believed to interact with the rotor protein flig to make a torque. in this study, to investigate the function of the cytoplasmic domain of poma, we constructed a series of fragments that flank the cytoplasmic loop ...201424398784
cloning and immune characterization of the c-type lysozyme gene in red-spotted grouper, epinephelus akaara.lysozyme is an important component of the innate immune response against pathogen infection. the gene coding for c-type lysozyme in red-spotted grouper epinephelus akaara was cloned and designated eaclys. the complete cdna contains a 432 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 144 amino acids displaying 65-91% similarity with the amino acid sequences of human, mouse, chicken, and fish counterparts. recombinant eaclys (reaclys) was expressed in escherichia coli, displayed antibacterial activi ...201424239919
the mosaic accessory gene structures of the sxt/r391-like integrative and conjugative elements derived from vibrio spp. isolated from aquatic products and environment in the yangtze river estuary, china.the emergence, resurgence and spread of human food-borne pathogenic vibrios are one of the major contributors to disease burden and mortality particularly in developing countries with disputable sanitary conditions. previous research on pathogenic vibrio cholerae and vibrio parahaemolitycus derived from clinical samples has proposed links between acquisition of virulence and multiple drug resistance traits and intercellular transmissibility of mobile genetic elements in the environment. to date, ...201324074349
development and characterization of a novel bioactive polymer with antibacterial and lysozyme-like activity.the development and characterization of a novel bioactive polymer based on the immobilization of glucose oxidase enzyme (gox) in a polyvinyl alcohol (pva) film showing antibacterial activity is presented. the pva-gox composite material was extensively characterized by uv-vis, x-ray photoelectron (xps) spectroscopy and by fourier transform infrared (ftir) spectroscopy to verify the preservation of enzyme structural integrity and activity. the antimicrobial activity of this composite material agai ...201423996728
insight into the assembly mechanism in the supramolecular rings of the sodium-driven vibrio flagellar motor from the structure of flgt.flagellar motility is a key factor for bacterial survival and growth in fluctuating environments. the polar flagellum of a marine bacterium, vibrio alginolyticus, is driven by sodium ion influx and rotates approximately six times faster than the proton-driven motor of escherichia coli. the basal body of the sodium motor has two unique ring structures, the t ring and the h ring. these structures are essential for proper assembly of the stator unit into the basal body and to stabilize the motor. f ...201323530206
fluorescence imaging of gfp-fused periplasmic components of na+-driven flagellar motor using tat pathway in vibrio alginolyticus.the twin-arginine translocation (tat) system works to export folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane via specific signal peptides harbouring a twin-arginine motif. in escherichia coli, a functional gfp is exported to the periplasm through the tat pathway by fusion of the signal peptide of tora, which is one of the periplasmic proteins exported by the tat pathway. in this study, we fused the signal peptide of vibrio alginolyticus tora (torasp) to gfp and demonstrate the export of function ...201323457404
na+ conductivity of the na+-driven flagellar motor complex composed of unplugged wild-type or mutant pomb with poma.poma and pomb form the stator complex, which functions as a na(+) channel, in the na(+)-driven flagellar motor of vibrio alginolyticus. the plug region of pomb is thought to regulate the na(+) flow and to suppress massive ion influx through the stator channel. in this study, in order to measure the na(+) conductivity of the unplugged stator, we over-produced a plug-deleted stator of the na(+)-driven flagellar motor in escherichia coli. the over-production of the plug-deleted stator in e. coli ce ...201323420849
cloning, expression of vibrio alginolyticus outer membrane protein-ompu gene and its potential application as vaccine in crimson snapper, lutjanus erythropterus bloch.the outer membrane proteins of the marine aquatic animal pathogen, vibrio alginolyticus, play an important role in the virulence of the bacterium and are potential candidates for vaccine development. in this study, the gene encoding an outer membrane protein-ompu was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli. polyclonal antibodies were raised in rabbits against the purified recombinant ompu, and the reaction of the antibody was confirmed by western blotting using the isolated ompu and the recombi ...201323383977
expression, purification and biochemical characterization of the cytoplasmic loop of poma, a stator component of the na(+) driven flagellar motor.flagellar motors embedded in bacterial membranes are molecular machines powered by specific ion flows. each motor is composed of a stator and a rotor and the interactions of those components are believed to generate the torque. na(+) influx through the poma/pomb stator complex of vibrio alginolyticus is coupled to torque generation and is speculated to trigger structural changes in the cytoplasmic domain of poma that interacts with a rotor protein in the c-ring, flig, to drive the rotation. in t ...201327493537
intragenic suppressor of a plug deletion nonmotility mutation in potb, a chimeric stator protein of sodium-driven flagella.the torque of bacterial flagellar motors is generated by interactions between the rotor and the stator and is coupled to the influx of h(+) or na(+) through the stator. a chimeric protein, potb, in which the n-terminal region of vibrio alginolyticus pomb was fused to the c-terminal region of escherichia coli motb, can function with poma as a na(+)-driven stator in e. coli. here, we constructed a deletion variant of potb (with a deletion of residues 41 to 91 [δ41-91], called potbδl), which lacks ...201223024347
integrating conjugative elements of the sxt/r391 family from fish-isolated vibrios encode restriction-modification systems that confer resistance to bacteriophages.integrating conjugative elements (ices) of the sxt/r391 family have been described in vibrios, mainly vibrio cholerae, and other bacteria as carriers of variable gene content conferring adaptive advantages upon their hosts, including antimicrobial resistance and motility regulation. however, our knowledge on their host range and ecological significance is still limited. here, we report the identification and characterization of icevsppor3 and icevalspa1, two novel ices of the sxt/r391 family fro ...201322974320
critical involvement of the e373-d434 region in the acid sensitivity of a nhab-type na(+)/h(+) antiporter from vibrio has been well established that vanhab, a nhab-type na(+)/h(+) antiporter found in vibrio alginolyticus, exhibits a striking acid sensitivity. however, the molecular basis of the ph-dependent regulatory mechanism of the antiport activity is yet to be investigated. in this study, we generated various chimeric proteins composed of vanhab and a ph insensitive ortholog found in escherichia coli (ecnhab) and analyzed the ph responses of their na(+)/h(+) antiport activities to search for the key res ...201222953996
construction of a fusion flagellin complex and evaluation of the protective immunity of it in red snapper (lutjanus sanguineus).the main aims of this study were to construct a bivalent subunit vaccine containing flagellin flaa gene and flagellin flab gene from vibrio alginolyticus strain hy9901 and to explore the potential application of the fusion protein flaa-(g(4) s)(3)-flab as a vaccine candidate for red snapper (lutjanus sanguineus).201222591449
characterization of a new beta-lactamase gene from isolates of vibrio spp. in korea.pcr was performed to analyze the beta-lactamase genes carried by ampicillin-resistant vibrio spp. strains isolated from marine environments in korea between 2006 and 2009. all 36 strains tested showed negative results in pcr with the primers designed from the nucleotide sequences of various known beta-lactamase genes. this prompted us to screen new beta-lactamase genes. a novel beta-lactamase gene was cloned from vibrio alginolyticus kv3 isolated from the aquaculture water of geoje island of kor ...201222534305
comparative study of the ion flux pathway in stator units of proton- and sodium-driven flagellar motors.flagellar motor proteins, mota/b and poma/b, are essential for the motility of escherichia coli and vibrio alginolyticus, respectively. those complexes work as a h(+) and a na(+) channel, respectively and play important roles in torque generation as the stators of the flagellar motors. although asp32 of motb and asp24 of pomb are believed to function as ion binding site(s), the ion flux pathway from the periplasm to the cytoplasm is still unclear. conserved residues, ala39 of motb and cys31 of p ...200927857578
isolation characterization and growth of locally isolated hydrocarbonoclastic marine bacteria (eastern algerian coast).the algerian coastline is being exposed to several types of pollution, including that of hydrocarbons. this environment rich in oil could be the source of proliferation of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. the objective of the study is to isolate and identify indigenous bacterial strains from marine waters of two ports in the eastern algerian coast and to test their growth in the presence of hydrocarbons with and without biostimulation throughout the intake of nitrogen and phosphate. results recorde ...201728058612
surgical removal of an abscess associated with fusarium solani from a kemp's ridley sea turtle (lepidochelys kempii).a cold-stunned kemp's ridley sea turtle, lepidochelys kempii, developed an abscess associated with fusarium solani, vibrio alginolyticus, and a shewenalla species after receiving a bite wound to the front flipper during rehabilitation. the lesion failed to respond to medical therapy and was treated successfully with surgery. histopathology of the excised tissue demonstrated septic heterophilic inflammation with necrosis and granulation tissue, fungal elements, and bacteria, despite appropriate a ...201222779250
chlorophyll a might structure a community of potentially pathogenic culturable vibrionaceae. insights from a one-year study of water and mussels surveyed on the french atlantic coast.the present study focused on the isolation of culturable bacteria from mussels and sea water to identify vibrionaceae potentially pathogenic for humans. three sites located on the french atlantic coast were monitored monthly (twice each month during summer) for 1 year. environmental parameters were surveyed (water temperature, salinity, turbidity, chlorophyll a) and bacteria were detected by culture and identified by api 20e(®) systems (biomérieux) and pcr. a total of seven species were detected ...201023766015
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