PMID(sorted ascending)
vibrio alginolyticus as the cause of pleural empyema and bacteremia in an immunocompromised patient. 200212072928
[immunotropic properties of exoglycan obtained from the marine micro-organism vibrio alginolyticus].immune system modulating activity of exoglycane isolated from culture media of vibrio alginolyticus (strain 945-80) was investigated. the substance demonstrated stimulating activity on the humoral and cell immune system, potentiated phagocyte activity of macrophage and neutrophils, increased survival index of the animals infected by gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.200212077940
the systematic substitutions around the conserved charged residues of the cytoplasmic loop of na+-driven flagellar motor component poma.poma, a homolog of mota in the h+-driven flagellar motor, is an essential component for torque generation in the na+-driven flagellar motor. previous studies suggested that two charged residues, r90 and e98, which are in the single cytoplasmic loop of mota, are directly involved in this process. these residues are conserved in poma of vibrio alginolyticus as r88 and e96, respectively. to explore the role of these charged residues in the na+-driven motor, we replaced them with other amino acids. ...200212079395
comparative susceptibility of veliger larvae of four bivalve mollusks to a vibrio alginolyticus strain.the susceptibility of 7 d old veliger larvae of the scallops argopecten ventricosus and nodipecten subnodosus, the penshell atrina maura, and the pacific oyster crassostrea gigas to a pathogenic strain of vibrio alginolyticus was investigated by challenging the larvae with different bacterial concentrations in a semi-static assay. the results indicate that the larvae of the 2 scallop species are more susceptible to the v. alginolyticus strain than those of the oyster and the penshell. signs of t ...200212113308
motx and moty, specific components of the sodium-driven flagellar motor, colocalize to the outer membrane in vibrio alginolyticus.rotation of the sodium-driven polar flagella of vibrio alginolyticus requires four motor proteins: poma, pomb, motx and moty. motx and moty, which are unique components of the sodium-driven motor of vibrio, have been believed to be localized in the inner (cytoplasmic) membrane via their n-terminal hydrophobic segments. here we show that motx and moty colocalize to the outer membrane. both proteins, when expressed together, were detected in the outer membrane fraction separated by sucrose density ...200212366836
presence of vibrios in seawater and mytilus galloprovincialis (lam.) from the mar piccolo of taranto (ionian sea).during the spring-summer period, vibrios were detected in water and mussels (mytilus galloprovincialis) collected in 30 sampling sites located in the mar piccolo of taranto (ionian sea, italy). in order to evaluate the degree of microbial pollution of the investigated area, fecal coliforms and escherichia coli densities were also determined. vibrio alginolyticus constituted the predominant component of the total culturable vibrios. some vibrio species such as v. mediterranei, v. parahaemolyticus ...200212369519
usefulness of r72h pcr assay for differentiation between vibrio parahaemolyticus and vibrio alginolyticus species: validation by dna-dna hybridization.we compared the efficiencies of biochemical methods and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for the identification of vibrio parahaemolyticus strains. the 122 isolates studied, identified by biochemical tests as v. parahaemolyticus or vibrio alginolyticus, were tested by r72h pcr assay. the results obtained with the two methods were consistent for 90% of the strains studied. pcr amplification of the r72h fragment generated two unique amplicons, 387 bp and 320 bp in length. for 11% of the strains fro ...200212393193
phylogenetic study and identification of human pathogenic vibrio species based on partial hsp60 gene sequences.the use of hsp60 gene sequences for phylogenetic study and identification of pathogenic marine vibrios was investigated. a 600-bp partial hsp60 gene was amplified by pcr and sequenced from 29 strains representing 15 vibrio species within the family vibrionaceae. sequence comparison of the amplified partial hsp60 gene revealed 71-82% sequence identity among different vibrio species and 96-100% sequence identity among epidemiologically distinct strains with the same species designation. this degre ...200212489780
in the spiny lobster (panulirus interruptus) the prophenoloxidase is located in plasma not in the spiny lobster (panulirus interruptus), unlike other crustaceans most of the prophenoloxidase (propo) was detected in cell-free plasma (86.3%). in spite of its location, lobster propo activating system has a similar activation mechanism to other crustacean propo systems. haemocyte lysate was able to activate the plasma propo indicating location of the prophenoloxidase activating enzyme (ppae) in haemocytes. lobster haemocyte ppae was isolated by affinity chromatography and its participatio ...200312526875
[antibiotic resistance and plasmid profiles of vibrio isolates from cultured sparus sarba].a total of 51 potential pathogenic vibrios were isolated from moribund silver seabream sparus sarba, which were collected from local fish farms of hong kong. all the isolates were classified and identified as 7 species by the api 20 e system and the scheme of alsina & blanch. these species were vibrio alginolyticus (24 strains), vibrio vulnificus (12 strains), vibrio parahaemolyticus(7 strains), vibrio logei(4 strains), vibrio pelagius ii(2 strains), vibrio fluvialis (1 strains) and vibrio medit ...199912555529
ktrab and ktrcd: two k+ uptake systems in bacillus subtilis and their role in adaptation to hypertonicity.recently, a new type of k+ transporter, ktr, has been identified in the bacterium vibrio alginolyticus (t. nakamura, r. yuda, t. unemoto, and e. p. bakker, j. bacteriol. 180:3491-3494, 1998). the ktr transport system consists of ktrb, an integral membrane subunit, and ktra, a subunit peripherally bound to the cytoplasmic membrane. the genome sequence of bacillus subtilis contains two genes for each of these subunits: yuaa (ktra) and ykqb (ktrc) encode homologues to the v. alginolyticus ktra prot ...200312562800
numerical taxonomy of vibrionaceae isolated from cultured amberjack (seriola dumerili) and surrounding water.a numerical taxonomic study was performed on 148 isolates of gram-negative, heterotrophic, facultative anaerobic bacteria isolated from amberjack (seriola dumerili) and its surrounding culture water. the study included 30 type and reference strains belonging to genera vibrio, listonella, and photobacterium. the strains were characterized by 109 morphological, biochemical, physiological, and nutritional tests. cluster analysis of similarity matrices obtained with s(sm) and s(j) coefficients was c ...200312567241
ion-coupling determinants of na+-driven and h+-driven flagellar motors.the bacterial flagellar motor is a tiny molecular machine that uses a transmembrane flux of h(+) or na(+) ions to drive flagellar rotation. in proton-driven motors, the membrane proteins mota and motb interact via their transmembrane regions to form a proton channel. the sodium-driven motors that power the polar flagellum of vibrio species contain homologs of mota and motb, called poma and pomb. they require the unique proteins motx and moty. in this study, we investigated how ion selectivity is ...200312628250
vibrio rotiferianus sp. nov., isolated from cultures of the rotifer brachionus plicatilis.five gram-negative bacterial strains, oxidase-positive, motile by means of more than one polar flagella, facultative anaerobe, arginine dihydrolase-negative, lysine- and omithine decarboxylase-positive, sensitive to the vibriostatic agent o/129, were isolated from a flow-through rotifer culture system in gent, belgium, and previously characterized by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism. comparison of the 16s rdna sequence of strain lmg 21460t indicated close relationships (approxi ...200312656179
torque-speed relationship of the na+-driven flagellar motor of vibrio alginolyticus.the torque-speed relationship of the na(+)-driven flagellar motor of vibrio alginolyticus was investigated. the rotation rate of the motor was measured by following the position of a bead, attached to a flagellar filament, using optical nanometry. in the presence of 50mm nacl, the generated torque was relatively constant ( approximately 3800pnnm) at lower speeds (speeds up to approximately 300hz) and then decreased steeply, similar to the h(+)-driven flagellar motor of escherichia coli. when the ...200312662929
molecular characterisation and antimicrobial resistance of vibrio vulnificus and vibrio alginolyticus isolated from mussels (mytilus galloprovincialis).twelve vibrio vulnificus biotype 1 and 11 vibrio alginolyticus isolated from mussels in italy were analysed by antimicrobial resistance, plasmid profiles, random amplification of polymorphic dna (rapd), and single enzyme amplified fragment length polymorphism (saflp). plasmid dna was detected in three v. vulnificus and four v. alginolyticus cultures. all isolates were resistant to at least two antimicrobial agents: all isolates were resistant to ampicillin, carbenicillin and streptomycin, except ...200312747419
necrotizing fasciitis due to vibrio alginolyticus in an immunocompetent patient.we describe a patient with a history of asthma and remote use of steroids the development of necrotizing fascitis due to vibrio alginolyticus after an injury from a coral reef during bathing in the caribbean sea off colombia. the patient recovered with aggressive surgical debridement and antibiotics.200312843111
molecular cloning, expression of orange-spotted grouper goose-type lysozyme cdna, and lytic activity of its recombinant protein.lysozyme acts as a non-specific innate-immunity molecule against the invasion of bacteria pathogens. a leukocyte cdna library of orange-spotted grouper epinephelus coioides was constructed and the goose-type (g-type) lysozyme cdna was isolated. the complete cdna consists of an open reading frame of 585 bp encoding a protein of 194 amino acids. this protein shows a 72.2% amino acid sequence identity with the flounder g-type lysozyme. similar to most other species, the glu catalytic residue in g-t ...200312911059
hepatic cholangiocarcinoma and testicular mesothelioma in a wild-caught blue shark, prionace glauca (l.).an adult male blue shark, prionace glauca (l.), caught in july 2000 by a recreational fisherman off long island, new york, usa, had a retained fishing hook from a previous capture. the hook penetrated the gastric wall and lacerated the right liver lobe. macroscopic lesions consisted of transmural gastritis and peritonitis. alteromonas sp. and vibrio alginolyticus were isolated from the peritoneal fluid. in addition, a well delineated, sessile mass was found on the otherwise normal serosa of the ...200312962210
oral administration of formalin-inactivated cells of aeromonas hydrophila a3-51 controls infection by atypical a. salmonicida in goldfish, carassius auratus (l.).there has been increasing interest in the use of probiotics in aquaculture to control fish diseases (e.g. douillet langdon 1994; gildberg, mikkelsen, sandaker & ringo 1997; kennedy, tucker, neidic, vermeer, cooper, jarrell & sennett 1998; deschrijver & ollevier 2000; robertson, o'dowd, burrells, williams & austin 2000), and a diverse range of gram-positive (such as carnobacterium inhibens) (robertson et al. 2000) and gram-negative bacteria, including vibrio alginolyticus (garriques & arevalo 199 ...200312962220
misidentification of aeromonas veronii biovar sobria as vibrio alginolyticus by the vitek find the cause of misidentification of aeromonads when using the vitek system.200312969502
pseudomonas creosotensis sp. n., a creosote-tolerant marine a study of the marine biological environment in which creosoted pilings are located, a previously unreported species of bacteria was isolated. this species was detected on creosoted piling from 11 widely differing locations and was the predominant species of bacteria found on these piling. the new organism was identified as a gram-negative rod belonging to the genus pseudomonas and has been named pseudomonas creosotensis. it has been completely described by the standard morphological and bioc ...196114480909
retention of virulence in viable but non-culturable halophilic vibrio spp.the viable but non-culturable (vbnc) forms of two environmental strains of vibrio alginolyticus 1 and vibrio parahaemolyticus 66 and one strain of v. parahaemolyticus atcc 43996 showing virulence characteristics (hemolysin production, adhesive and/or cytotoxic ability, in vivo enteropathogenicity) were obtained by culturing bacteria in a microcosm consisting of artificial sea water (asw) and incubating at 5 degrees c with shaking. every 2 days, culturability of the cells in the microcosm was mon ...200314580971
imprisonment in a death-row cell: the fates of microbes entrapped in the limulus blood clot. 200314583530
description of vibrio alginolyticus infection in cultured sepia officinalis, sepia apama, and sepia pharaonis. 200314583547
quinoxalin-2-ones. part 5. synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of 3-alkyl-, 3-halomethyl- and 3-carboxyethylquinoxaline-2-ones variously substituted on the benzo-moiety.a new series of 3-alkyl-, 3-trifluoromethyl-, 3-carboxyethyl- and 3-bromomethylquinoxaline-2-ones and 2,3-bis(bromomethyl)quinoxalines bearing cl, cf3, morpholine on the benzo-moiety, were synthesised and submitted to a preliminary in vitro evaluation for antibacterial and anticandida activities. results of the screening showed that compounds 9b, 14b and 19b (mic=62.5 microg/ml) and 10b (mic=15.6 microg/ml) were the most active against vibrio alginolyticus.200314630235
intraspecific characterization of vibrio alginolyticus isolates recovered from cultured fish in spain.intraspecific differentiation and characterization of vibrio alginolyticus strains isolated from cultured fish in spain.200314633040
accuracy of six commercially available systems for identification of members of the family vibrionaceae.six commercially available bacterial identification products were tested with vibrio alginolyticus (12 strains), v. cholerae (30 strains), photobacterium (vibrio) damselae (10 strains), v. fluvialis (10 strains), v. furnissii (4 strains), v. hollisae (10 strains), v. metschnikovii (9 strains), v. mimicus (10 strains), v. parahaemolyticus (30 strains), and v. vulnificus (10 strains) to determine the accuracy of each system for identification. the products included api 20e, crystal e/nf, microscan ...200314662957
in vitro inhibition of microbial flora of fish by nisin and lactoperoxidase test the antimicrobial effects of nisin and lactoperoxidase system (lp system) against sardines flora. this study is part of a programme designed to investigate the preservability of fish using these inhibitors as potential biopreservatives.200414687217
vibrio alginolyticus associated with white spot disease of penaeus february 2000, white spot disease outbreaks occurred among cultured penaeus monodon in extensive shrimp farms on the southwest coast of india. bacteria were isolated from infected shrimp that showed reddish body coloration and white spots in the cuticle. the isolates were screened on thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose (tcbs) agar plates for the selection of vibrio species. the primary isolate (qs7) was characterized as v. alginolyticus based on morphological, biochemical and physiological ...200314735933
a single wap domain-containing protein from litopenaeus vannamei hemocytes.a cdna clone coding for a single wap domain (swd) protein was isolated from a hemocyte cdna library of litopenaeus vannamei. the full-length cdna sequence is 0.4kb long and encodes a 93-amino acid protein. using this sequence as a probe a similar clone coding for a 92-amino acids protein was found in a cdna library from penaeus monodon hemocytes. the mrna size was confirmed by northern blot as well as that gene is expressed in hemocytes, but not in hepatopancreas. mrna levels of the shrimp swd p ...200414741689
vibrio hispanicus sp. nov., isolated from artemia sp. and sea water in spain.three gram-negative, small, motile, rod-shaped bacteria were isolated from artemia sp. and sea water in barcelona, spain, during 1990 and 1991. they were fermentative, oxidase-positive, sensitive to vibriostatic agent o/129, arginine dihydrolase-positive, lysine and ornithine decarboxylase-negative and grew in the absence of nacl. they differed from phenotypically related species by their ability to grow at 4 degrees c and utilize l-rhamnose. cloning of the 16s rrna gene of the type strain produ ...200414742490
a k+ yptake protein, trka, is required for serum, protamine, and polymyxin b resistance in vibrio vulnificus.vibrio vulnificus, a highly virulent marine bacterium, is the causative agent of both serious wound infections and fatal septicemia in many areas of the world. to identify the genes required for resistance to human serum, we constructed a library of transposon mutants of v. vulnificus and screened them for hypersensitivity to human serum. here we report that one of the isolated serum-susceptible mutants had a mutation in an open reading frame identified as trka, a gene encoding an amino acid seq ...200414742502
isolation and characterization of pathogenic vibrio alginolyticus from diseased cobia rachycentron canadum.outbreaks of serious mortality among cultured juvenile cobia rachycentron canadum l. (weighing 8-10 g) characterized by lethargy, dark skin and ascites in the peritoneal cavity while some fish possessing damaged eyes occurred in july and august of 2001 in taiwan. fifteen motile bacterial strains were isolated from head kidney and/or the ascites on tryptic soy agar supplemented with 1% nacl (tsa1) and/or thiosulphate citrate bile salt (tcbs) sucrose agar plates during the two outbreaks. all the i ...200414768024
in vitro growth characteristics of five candidate aquaculture probiotics and two fish pathogens grown in fish intestinal mucus.the selection of probiotics for aquaculture is usually based on their antagonism towards pathogens. however, other criteria such as growth, attachment to intestinal mucus and production of beneficial compounds should also be considered. we suggest a protocol for the isolation and selection of potential probiotic bacteria based on their in vitro growth characteristics and propose a ranking index (ri) to screen potential aquaculture probionts. we suggest that the lag period and doubling time are t ...200414769479
synthesis, anti-mycobacterial, anti-trichomonas and anti-candida in vitro activities of 2-substituted-6,7-difluoro-3-methylquinoxaline 1,4-dioxides.a new series of 23 6,7-difluoro-3-methyl-2-phenylthio/phenylsulfonyl/phenylsulfinyl/benzylamino/phenylamino-quinoxaline 1,4-dioxides variously substituted in the phenyl moiety, was synthesized and submitted to in vitro evaluation for anti-mycobacterial, anti-trichomonas, anti-candida, anti-mycoplasma and antibacterial activities. in anti-mycobacterial assays, several compounds resulted active (mic90 = 2.0-4.0 microg/ml) against mycobacterium tuberculosis h37rv. anti-trichomonas screening showed ...200414987828
multimeric structure of the poma/pomb channel complex in the na+-driven flagellar motor of vibrio is known that poma and pomb form a complex that functions as a na(+) channel and generates the torque of the na(+)-driven flagellar motor of vibrio alginolyticus. it has been suggested that poma works as a dimer and that the poma/pomb complex is composed of four poma and two pomb molecules. poma does not have any cys residues and pomb has three cys residues. therefore, a mutant pomb (pomb(cl)) whose three cys residues were replaced by ala was constructed and found to be motile as well. we car ...200414999008
[investigation of the bacteria in the seawater of xisha in the south china sea and their antibiotic sensitivity profile].to investigate the distribution and antibiotic sensitivity of the bacteria in the seawater of xisha in the south china sea.200415041561
isolation of vibrio alginolyticus sodium-driven flagellar motor complex composed of poma and pomb solubilized by sucrose monocaprate.the polar flagella of vibrio alginolyticus have sodium-driven motors, and four membrane proteins, poma, pomb, motx and moty, are essential for torque generation of the motor. poma and pomb are believed to form a sodium-conducting channel. this paper reports the purification of the motor complex by using sucrose monocaprate, a non-ionic detergent, to solubilize the complex. plasmid pkj301, which encodes intact poma, and pomb tagged with a c-terminal hexahistidine that does not interfere with pomb ...200415073300
effect of ammonia on the immune response of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei and its susceptibility to vibrio alginolyticus.growth of vibrio alginolyticus was not affected by tsb medium containing ammonia-n concentration in the range of 0-20 mg l(-1). white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei (7-12 g in the intermolt stage) were challenged with v. alginolyticus, which had been incubated for 24 h in the tsb medium containing different concentrations of ammonia-n (0, 1, 5. 10 and 20 mg l(-1)). there was no significant difference in cumulative mortality for shrimp incubated in the tsb medium containing 0, 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg l(- ...200415123301
the immune response of the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei and its susceptibility to vibrio infection in relation with the moult cycle.the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei (8.0-14.4 g) was examined for haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst (release of superoxide anion), phagocytic activity, and clearance efficiency to the pathogen vibrio alginolyticus in relation with moult cycle (postmoult, a, b; intermoult, c; premoult, d(0)/d(1)d(2)/d(3)). granular cells were the highest at c and d(0)/d(1)stage, and the lowest at a stage. hyaline cells and thc (total haemocyte count) were higher at c stage, but lower at ...200415123319
otitis media associated with vibrio alginolyticus in a child with pressure-equalizing tubes.vibrio alginolyticus is an unusual cause of otitis media. infection usually occurs in the presence of a chronically perforated eardrum or patent pressure-equalizing tube. infection with v. alginolyticus can occur after even mild, brief exposure to seawater, and the interval between exposure to seawater and onset of clinical infection can be prolonged.200415131479
the immune stimulatory effect of sodium alginate on the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against vibrio alginolyticus.the total haemocyte count (thc), differential haemocyte count (dhc), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst (release of superoxide anion), superoxide dismutase activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to the pathogen vibrio alginolyticus were measured when the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei (9.4-11.3 g) were injected individually with sodium alginate at 10, 20 or 50 microg g(-1). no significant differences in thc, dhc and superoxide dismutase activity were observed among the ...200415145416
competition for attachment of aquaculture candidate probiotic and pathogenic bacteria on fish intestinal mucus.probiotics for aquaculture are generally only selected by their ability to produce antimicrobial metabolites; however, attachment to intestinal mucus is important in order to remain within the gut of its host. five candidate probiotics (ap1-ap5), isolated from the clownfish, amphiprion percula (lacepéde), were examined for their ability to attach to fish intestinal mucus and compete with two pathogens, aeromonas hydrophila and vibrio alginolyticus. two different radioactive isotopes were used to ...200415189372
effect of vibrio alginolyticus on larval survival of the blue mussel mytilus galloprovincialis.the effect of increasing concentrations of vibrio alginolyticus on survival of mytilus galloprovincialis larvae was studied in a 48 h static bioassay in 1 l glass bottles. five bacterial densities were tested ranging from 10(2) to 10(6) bacteria ml(-1). larval survival and normality (veliger larvae with the typical d-shape) were evaluated after 48 h. an inverse relationship between bacterial concentration and larval survival and normality was observed. in spite of high larval survival (79%) unde ...200415212277
bacterial dynamics associated with algal antibacterial substances during post harvest desiccation process of sargassum stolonifolium phang et yoshida.brown algae of genus sargassum are known to produce relatively higher amount of alginic acid. optimal extraction of this algalcolloid for local consumption requires in-depth studies on post-harvest treatment of the algal fronds. present investigation endeavors to establish the dynamics and inter-relationship of moisture content and bacteria found on the surface of the alga and alginic acid content during post-harvest desiccation of sargassum stolonifolium phang et yoshida. harvested fronds were ...200315248481
interaction of pomb with the third transmembrane segment of poma in the na+-driven polar flagellum of vibrio alginolyticus.the marine bacterium vibrio alginolyticus has four motor components, poma, pomb, motx, and moty, responsible for its na(+)-driven flagellar rotation. poma and pomb are integral inner membrane proteins having four and one transmembrane segments (tms), respectively, which are thought to form an ion channel complex. first, site-directed cys mutagenesis was systematically performed from asp-24 to glu-41 of pomb, and the resulting mutant proteins were examined for susceptibility to a sulfhydryl reage ...200415292129
[case report: otitis due to vibrio alginolyticus].infections caused by vibrio alginolyticus is generally disregarded because of the fact that it is an unusual pathogen for humans. in this report, a 57 years old male patient with otitis media has been presented. intense and pure isolation of v. alginolyticus was achieved from the ear discharge sample. according to the history, it was detected that he was on vacation at mediterranean coast three weeks ago, thus the transmission of the bacteria is possibly via seawater. the isolate was found sensi ...200415293914
the immune response of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei and its susceptibility to vibrio alginolyticus under nitrite stress.the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei were challenged with tryptic soy broth (tsb)-grown vibrio alginolyticus at a dose of 1 x 10(6) colony-forming units (cfu) shrimp(-1), and then placed in water containing concentrations of nitrite-n at 0 (control), 1.12, 5.15, 11.06 and 21.40 mg l(-1). mortality of shrimp in 5.15, 11.06 and 21.40 mg l(-1) was significantly higher than those in the control solution after 48-168 h. l. vannamei that had been exposed to control, 0.98, 4.94, 9.87 and 19.99 mg l(-1 ...200415312659
effect of copper sulfate on the immune response and susceptibility to vibrio alginolyticus in the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei.white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei (boone) held in 35 per thousand seawater were challenged with vibrio alginolyticus at a dose of 3 x 10(5) colony-forming units (cfu) shrimp(-1), and then placed in water containing concentrations of cu2+ at 0 (control), 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg l(-1). mortality of shrimp in 5, 10 and 20 mg l(-1) cu2+ was significantly higher than those in 1 mg l(-1) cu2+ and the control solution after 24-96 h. in another experiment, l. vannamei which had been exposed to control, 1, 5, ...200415313510
structural and functional differences of litopenaeus vannamei crustins.penaeid crustins were described in litopenaeus vannamei and l. setiferus as proteins belonging to an antibacterial peptide family with similar sequences but different sizes. six crustin-coding clones were isolated from a cdna library from l. vannamei hemocytes, sequenced and compared. two different isoforms (named i and p) were found, based on two nucleotide differences that produce one change in amino acid sequence (ile/pro). other single differences in nucleotide sequences were also noted, but ...200415325343
digestive pathology of sea turtles stranded in the canary islands between 1993 and 2001.digestive lesions were observed in 84 of 136 sea turtles (128 caretta caretta, four chelonia mydas and four dermochelys coriacea) stranded in the canary islands between january 1993 and december 2001. in the oral cavity ulcerative and necropurulent stomatitis were the most frequently observed lesions, and in the oesophagus ulcerative and fibrinous oesophagitis, and traumatic oesophageal perforation were most frequently observed; all these lesions were mainly associated with the ingestion of fish ...200415357377
dietary administration of sodium alginate enhances the immune ability of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against vibrio alginolyticus.haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst (release of superoxide anion), superoxide dismutase (sod) activity, glutathione peroxidase (gpx) activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to the pathogen vibrio alginolyticus were measured in white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei juveniles (12.3 +/- 1.2 g) which had been fed diets containing sodium alginate at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 g kg(-1) after five months. l. vannamei fed a diet containing 2.0 g kg(-1) sodium alginate had increased ...200515450964
two novel species of tetrodotoxin-producing bacteria isolated from toxic marine puffer fishes.out of eight dominant discrete bacterial colonies isolated and purified from the toxic marine puffer fishes collected in hong kong waters, two novel species of non-sporing, non-acid-fast and chemoorganotrophic bacteria capable of producing tetrodotoxin (ttx, a potent non-protein neurotoxin), as well as one previously reported and confirmed ttx-producing bacterium. they were identified as microbacterium arabinogalactanolyticum, serratia marcescens and vibrio alginolyticus, respectively, all of wh ...200415501290
functional characterization of two type iii secretion systems of vibrio parahaemolyticus.vibrio parahaemolyticus, a gram-negative marine bacterium, is a worldwide cause of food-borne gastroenteritis. recent genome sequencing of the clinical v. parahaemolyticus strain rimd2210633 identified two sets of genes for the type iii secretion system (ttss), ttss1 and ttss2. here, we constructed a series of mutant strains from rimd2210633 to determine whether the two putative ttss apparatus are functional. the cytotoxic activity of mutant strains having a deletion in one of the ttss1 genes wa ...200415501799
the immune response of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei and its susceptibility to vibrio alginolyticus at different salinity levels.white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei held in 25 per thousand seawater were injected with tsb-grown vibrio alginolyticus (1 x 10(4) cfu shrimp(-1)), and then transferred to 5, 15, 25 (control) and 35 per thousand. over 24-96 h, the mortality of v. alginolyticus-injected shrimp held in 5 per thousand and 15 per thousand was significantly higher than that of shrimp held in 25 per thousand and 35 per thousand, and the mortality of v. alginolyticus-injected shrimp held in 5 per thousand was the highest. ...200515561558
molecular cloning and characterisation of a pattern recognition molecule, lipopolysaccharide- and beta-1,3-glucan binding protein (lgbp) from the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei.a lipopolysaccharide- and beta-1,3-glucan binding protein (lgbp) cdna was cloned from the haemocyte and hepatopancreas of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei using oligonucleotide primers and rt-pcr. both 3'- and 5'-regions were isolated by rapid amplification of cdna end race method. analysis of nucleotide sequence revealed that the cdna clone has an open reading frame of 1101 bp encoding a protein of 367 amino acids including a 17 amino acid signal peptide. the calculated molecular mass of the m ...200515561560
equilibrium unfolding of an oligomeric protein involves formation of a multimeric intermediate state(s).superoxide dismutases (sods) are important metalloenzymes which protect cells against oxidative stress by scavenging reactive superoxides. missense mutations in sods are known to lead to some familial cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and several forms of cancers. in the present study, we investigate the guanidinium hydrochloride (gdnhcl)-induced equilibrium unfolding of apo-manganese superoxide dismutase (apo-mnsod) isolated from vibrio alginolyticus using a variety of biophysical techniqu ...200515567159
vibrio alginolyticus infection in the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and 16s rdna sequencing.a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium identified as vibrio alginolyticus was isolated from diseased litopenaeus vannamei (also called penaeus vannamei) in taiwanese culture ponds. the diseased shrimp displayed poor growth, anorexia, inactivity, reddish pleural borders of antennae, uropods and telson, opaque and whitish musculature, and mortality. in histological preparations, melanized hemocytic granulomas were observed in the connective tissue around hemal sinuses together with hemocytic aggreg ...200415584425
asymmetric swimming pattern of vibrio alginolyticus cells with single polar flagella.the swimming pattern of bacteria with single polar flagella has usually been described as "run and reverse". we observed the swimming traces of monotrichously flagellated vibrio alginolyticus cells and examined the relationship between the swimming pattern and the sense of progress. swimming in regions other than a solid surface was confirmed to be linear run and reverse. near a solid surface, the traces consisted of "run and arc"; the cells were found to curve sharply during backward swimming, ...200515621441
[cloning and sequence analysis of variable region gene of anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody against vibrio alginolyticus].to clone and sequence v(h) and v(l) genes of anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody (mab) against vibrio alginolyticus.200515629085
deletion analysis of the carboxyl-terminal region of the pomb component of the vibrio alginolyticus polar flagellar motor.the stator of the sodium-driven flagellar motor of vibrio alginolyticus is a membrane protein complex composed of four poma and two pomb subunits. pomb has a peptidoglycan-binding motif in the c-terminal region. in this study, four kinds of pomb deletions in the c terminus were constructed. none of the deletion proteins restored motility of the deltapomb strain. the poma protein was coisolated with all of the pomb derivatives under detergent-solubilized conditions. homotypic disulfide cross-link ...200515629950
isolation of vibrio alginolyticus and vibrio splendidus from aquacultured carpet shell clam (ruditapes decussatus) larvae associated with mass mortalities.two episodes of mortality of cultured carpet shell clams (ruditapes decussatus) associated with bacterial infections were recorded during 2001 and 2002 in a commercial hatchery located in spain. vibrio alginolyticus was isolated as the primary organism from moribund clam larvae that were obtained during the two separate events. vibrio splendidus biovar ii, in addition to v. alginolyticus, was isolated as a result of a mixed vibrio infection from moribund clam larvae obtained from the second mort ...200515640176
modulated heat shock protein expression during pathogenic vibrio alginolyticus stress of sea bream.the effects of infective vibrio alginolyticus and its extracellular product (ecp) on host fish function are not well understood. in this study a partial biochemical characterization of the ecp from an infective strain of v. alginolyticus isolated from diseased silver sea bream sparus sarba was achieved and the effects of live v. alginolyticus and ecp on hepatic heat shock protein (hsp) expression was compared. the ecp fraction was found to contain several hydrolytic enzymes including both haemol ...200415672876
antibiotic resistance in aeromonas hydrophila and vibrio alginolyticus isolated from a wound infection: a case report. 200515674175
the peroxinectin of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei is synthesised in the semi-granular and granular cells, and its transcription is up-regulated with vibrio alginolyticus infection.peroxinectin mrna expression in the different types of haemocytes of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei was studied by in situ hybridisation using digoxigenin-utp-labelled riboprobes and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr). granular cells (gc) and a mixture of semi-granular cells (sgc) and hyaline cells (hc) were separated by 70% percoll gradient centrifugation. peroxinectin was synthesised in both gc and the mixture of sgc-hc. an in situ hybridisation assay indicated that pe ...200515683919
a collagenase-targeted multiplex pcr assay for identification of vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio cholerae, and vibrio parahaemolyticus.a multiplex pcr assay using three collagenase-targeted primer pairs for the species-specific detection of vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio cholerae, and vibrio parahaemolyticus was developed. the results highlight the species specificity of the three primer sets designed. because of the increasing importance of vibrio spp. in human foodborne diseases, molecular approaches for routine microbial screening and monitoring of clinical, environmental, and food samples also have become more important. the ...200515690817
difference in bacterial motion between forward and backward swimming caused by the wall effect.a bacterial cell that has a single polar flagellum alternately repeats forward swimming, in which the flagellum pushes the cell body, and backward swimming, in which the flagellum pulls the cell body. we have reported that the backward swimming speeds of vibrio alginolyticus are on average greater than the forward swimming speeds. in this study, we quantitatively measured the shape of the trajectory as well as the swimming speed. the trajectory shape in the forward mode was almost straight, wher ...200515695638
a four-kazal domain protein in litopenaeus vannamei hemocytes.a cdna clone coding for a kazal protein was isolated from a cdna library of litopenaeus vannamei hemocytes. the full-length cdna sequence is 1.32 kb long and encodes a 24 kda protein. four kazal domains, 43-46 residues long, were detected in the deduced primary structure. apparently, the first and second domains do not have inhibitory activity, as predicted by the sequence between the second and third cys. the third and fourth domains have the sequences cpeiyapvc and cpknyrpvc, indicating that t ...200415707660
the immunostimulatory effect of hot-water extract of gracilaria tenuistipitata on the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against vibrio alginolyticus.the total haemocyte count (thc), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase (sod) activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to the pathogen vibrio alginolyticus were examined in the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei (10.3+/-1.5 g) injected individually with hot-water extract of gracilaria tenuistipitata at 4 or 6 microg g-1. l. vannamei receiving hot-water extract of g. tenuistipitata at either dose increased significantly its thc, phenoloxidase activity, and re ...200515752651
diseases and causes of mortality among sea turtles stranded in the canary islands, spain (1998-2001).this paper lists the pathological findings and causes of mortality of 93 sea turtles (88 caretta caretta, 3 chelonia mydas, and 2 dermochelys coriacea) stranded on the coasts of the canary islands between january 1998 and december 2001. of these, 25 (26.88%) had died of spontaneous diseases including different types of pneumonia, hepatitis, meningitis, septicemic processes and neoplasm. however, 65 turtles (69.89%) had died from lesions associated with human activities such as boat-strike injuri ...200515759796
the protective effect of chitin and chitosan against vibrio alginolyticus in white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei.white shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei, which had been injected with chitin at 4, 6 and 8 microg g(-1) or chitosan at 2, 4 and 6 microg g(-1), were challenged with pathogen vibrio alginolyticus at 2 x 10(6) colony-forming units (cfu) shrimp(-1) and then placed in seawater of 34 per thousand. the survival of shrimp that received chitin or chitosan at either dose was significantly higher than that of control shrimp after 1 day, and at the termination of the experiment (6 days after the challenge). in ...200515820121
genetic heterogeneity among vibrio alginolyticus isolated from shrimp farms by pcr study the strain variability among vibrio alginolyticus isolates from different sources by insertion sequence-targeted pcr fingerprinting and whole cell protein profile analysis.200515836741
effects of dopamine on the immunity of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei.the total haemocyte count (thc), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase (sod) activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency in response to pathogen vibrio alginolyticus were measured when the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei (20.0+/-1.5 g) were injected individually with dopamine at 10(-8), 10(-7) and 10(-6)mol shrimp(-1), respectively. for the shrimp that received dopamine at 10(-7) and 10(-6)mol shrimp(-1), the thc decreased by 25% and 39%, phenoloxidase acti ...200515863017
interactions of motx with moty and with the poma/pomb sodium ion channel complex of the vibrio alginolyticus polar flagellum.rotation of the sodium ion-driven polar flagellum of vibrio alginolyticus requires the inner membrane sodium ion channel complex poma/pomb and the outer membrane components motx and moty. none of the detergents used in this study were able to solubilize motx when it was expressed alone. however, when co-expressed with moty, motx was solubilized by some detergents. the change in the solubility of motx suggests that moty interacts with motx. in agreement with this, a pull-down assay showed the ass ...200515866878
the occurrence of vibrio species in tropical shrimp culture environments; implications for food safety.the occurrence of various vibrio species in water, sediment and shrimp samples from multiple shrimp farm environments from the east and west coast of india was studied. the relative abundance was higher in west coast farms (ca. 10(4) cfu/ml water) when compared to the east coast (ca. 10(2) cfu/ml water). vibrio alginolyticus (3-19%), v. parahaemolyticus (2-13%), v. harveyi (1-7%) and v. vulnificus (1-4%) were the predominant vibrio species identified by standard biochemical testing. in some case ...200515992615
proteomic analysis on the expression of outer membrane proteins of vibrio alginolyticus at different sodium concentrations.the ability of osmoregulation is crucial to marine pathogens that always face the change of osmotic pressure when they shift between natural marine water-bodies and hosts. previous studies indicated that the expressional patterns of outer membrane proteins (omps) changed when gram-negative bacteria were transferred in different environments. in the present study, proteomic methodologies were used to investigate the expressional pattern of omps of vibrio alginolyticus, a universal marine pathogen ...200516021606
vibrio splendidus biotype 1 as a cause of mortalities in hatchery-reared larval turbot, scophthalmus maximus (l.).to characterize bacteria associated with turbot larvae feeding on artemia and identify pathogens causing mortalities in larvae.200516033454
investigation of seven vibrio virulence genes among vibrio alginolyticus and vibrio parahaemolyticus strains from the coastal mariculture systems in guangdong, investigate the distribution of the virulence of two vibrio species among different strains obtained from the mariculture systems on the coast of guangdong in china and the correlation between the virulence strains and the virulence genes among vibrio alginolyticus.200516033522
assembly of motor proteins, poma and pomb, in the na+-driven stator of the flagellar motor.poma and pomb are transmembrane proteins that form the stator complex in the sodium-driven flagellar motor of vibrio alginolyticus and are believed to surround the rotor part of the flagellar motor. we constructed and observed green fluorescent protein (gfp) fusions of the stator proteins poma and pomb in living cells to clarify how stator proteins are assembled and installed into the flagellar motor. we were able to demonstrate that gfp-poma and gfp-pomb localized to a cell pole dependent on th ...200516038931
white spot syndrome virus isolates of tiger shrimp penaeus monodon (fabricious) in india are similar to exotic isolates as revealed by polymerase chain reaction and electron microscopy.microbiological analysis of samples collected from cases of white spot disease outbreaks in cultured shrimp in different farms located in three regions along east coast of india viz. chidambram (tamil nadu), nellore (andhra pradesh) and balasore (orissa), revealed presence of vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio parahaemolyticus, and aeromonas spp. but experimental infection trials in penaeus monodon with these isolates did not induce any acute mortality or formation of white spots on carapace. infectio ...200516053274
influence of water temperature and salinity on seasonal occurrences of vibrio cholerae and enteric bacteria in oyster-producing areas of veracruz, méxico.the influence of temperature and salinity on the occurrence of vibrio cholerae, escherichia coli and salmonella spp. associated with water and oyster samples was investigated in two lagoons on the atlantic coast of veracruz, mexico over a 1-year period. the results indicated that seasonal salinity variability and warm temperatures, as well as nutrient influx, may influence the occurrence of v. cholera. non-o1 and o1. the conditions found in the alvarado (31.12 degrees c, 6.27 per thousand, ph=8. ...200516061261
white shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei) recombinant lysozyme has antibacterial activity against gram negative bacteria: vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio parahemolyticus and vibrio cholerae.c-type lysozyme has been described as an antibacterial component of the shrimp innate defence system. we determined quantitatively the antibacterial activity of white shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei) recombinant lysozyme against three gram negative bacteria: vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio parahemolyticus and vibrio cholerae, using a turbidimetric assay with live bacteria and differential bacterial viable count after interaction with the protein. in conclusion, the antibacterial activity of recombinan ...200616098764
biological deinking of inkjet-printed paper using vibrio alginolyticus and its enzymes.recycling of office waste paper (photocopy, inkjet, and laser prints) is a major problem due to difficulty in removal of nonimpact ink. biological deinking of office waste paper is reported using several microorganisms and their enzymes. we report here deinking and decolorization of the dislodged ink particles from inkjet printed paper pulp by a marine bacterium, vibrio alginolyticus isolate no. nio/di/32, obtained from marine sediments. decolorization of this pulp was achieved within 72 h by gr ...200516133100
a fluid-dynamic interpretation of the asymmetric motion of singly flagellated bacteria swimming close to a boundary.the singly flagellated bacterium, vibrio alginolyticus, moves forward and backward by alternating the rotational direction of its flagellum. the bacterium has been observed retracing a previous path almost exactly and swimming in a zigzag pattern. in the presence of a boundary, however, the motion changes significantly, to something closer to a circular trajectory. additionally, when the cell swims close to a wall, the forward and backward speeds differ noticeably. this study details a boundary ...200516150964
direct observation of steps in rotation of the bacterial flagellar motor.the bacterial flagellar motor is a rotary molecular machine that rotates the helical filaments that propel many species of swimming bacteria. the rotor is a set of rings up to 45 nm in diameter in the cytoplasmic membrane; the stator contains about ten torque-generating units anchored to the cell wall at the perimeter of the rotor. the free-energy source for the motor is an inward-directed electrochemical gradient of ions across the cytoplasmic membrane, the protonmotive force or sodium-motive f ...200516208378
all four putative selectivity filter glycine residues in ktrb are essential for high affinity and selective k+ uptake by the ktrab system from vibrio alginolyticus.the subunit ktrb of bacterial na+-dependent k+-translocating ktrab systems belongs to a superfamily of k+ transporters. these proteins contain four repeated domains, each composed of two transmembrane helices connected by a putative pore loop (p-loop). the four p-loops harbor a conserved glycine residue at a position equivalent to a glycine selectivity filter residue in k+ channels. we investigated whether these glycines also form a selectivity filter in ktrb. the single residues gly70, gly185, ...200516210320
purification and properties of beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase from vibrio alginolyticus h-8.beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase [ec] from vibrio alginolyticus h-8 was purified by column chromatography on deae-sepharose ff, phenyl-sepharose hp, superdex 200hr, and mono q. the molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated by sds-gel electrophoresis (sds-page) to be 75 kda. the pi was 4.6. the activity was inhibited by ag+, hg2+, iodoacetate, p-chloromercuribenzoate, and n-ethylmaleimide.199916232581
cloning and sequencing of a chitinase gene from vibrio alginolyticus h-8.a gene from vibrio alginolyticus h-8, encoding chitinase, designated as chitinase b, was cloned by the shot-gun method using puc118 and sequenced. the open reading frame consisted of 846 amino acids including a signal peptide. the molecular mass of the enzyme estimated based on the amino acid sequence data was 90 kda. the n-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme was different from that of chitinase c1 which we had previously reported. this cloned chitinase b was considered one out of four ch ...200016232787
removal of a high load of ammonia gas by a marine bacterium, vibrio alginolyticus.a newly isolated marine bacterium, vibrio alginolyticus was used to remove a high load of ammonia gas. by a stepwise increase in ammonia supply over the concentration range of 120-2000 ppm (v/v), complete removal of ammonia was observed from the start of the experiment in a suspended culture of the bacterium in basal medium containing 3% nacl. when cells were inoculated onto an inorganic packing material in a biofilter, and a high load of ammonia was introduced continuously under nonsterile cond ...200016232881
cloning and sequencing of the deacetylase gene from vibrio alginolyticus h-8.a gene encoding deacetylase da1 that is specific for n, n'-diacetylchitobiose was cloned using the shot-gun method with puc118 and sequenced. the open reading frame encoded a protein of 427 amino acids including the signal peptide. the molecular mass of the mature enzyme estimated from the amino acid sequence data was 44.7 kda, which is approximately similar to that, estimated by sds-page (48.0 kda), of the purified enzyme reported previously. the n-terminal amino acid sequence deduced from the ...200016232910
clearance rates of sabella spallanzanii and branchiomma luctuosum (annelida: polychaeta) on a pure culture of vibrio alginolyticus.the influence exerted by filter-feeding activity on bacterial density by two sabellid species from the mediterranean sea (ionian sea, italy), branchiomma luctuosum grube and sabella spallanzanii gmelin (annelida: polychaeta) was investigated. clearance rates and retention efficiencies were estimated utilizing the species vibrio alginolyticus selected on account of previous field studies and its importance in fish culture pathogenicity. the cmax was 43.2+/-2.63 l h(-1) g(-1) dw for b. luctuosum a ...200516242172
[studies on extracellular virulent factors produced by potential pathogenic bacteria isolated from abalone postlarvae and biofilms].to find out the potential pathogen(s) that caused massive death of abalone postlarvae( haliotis diversicolor supertesta ) in southern china, 105 bacterial strains were isolated from the water, whitened postlarvae and their biofilms of an abalone farm in guangdong province. extra-cellular protease, gelatinase, lipase as well as haemolysis tests were performed on them. lysophospholipase (tlh)-targeted pcr was also carried out in order to reveal if the haemolysis caused by bacterial strains were re ...200516245888
microcalorimetric measurements of glucose metabolism by marine bacterium vibrio alginolyticus.microcalorimetric measurements of heat production from glucose by vibrio alginolyticus were made to assess the viability of calorimetry as a technique for studying the metabolism of marine bacteria at organic nutrient concentrations found in marine waters. the results show that the metabolism of glucose by this bacterium can be measured by calorimetry at submicromolar concentrations. a linear correlation between glucose concentration and total heat production was observed over a concentration ra ...198216346131
electrolyte effects on attachment of an estuarine bacterium.the effect of electrolyte concentration on attachment of vibrio alginolyticus to hydroxyapatite was determined. bacterial affinity for attachment to the surface and surface capacity were derived from linearization of bacterial adsorption isotherms. at low concentrations (<0.1 m) the affinity of the bacteria for the surface increased with increasing ionic strength, in agreement with the d.l.v.o. theory of colloid interaction. at higher concentrations, bacterial affinity for the surface decreased ...198416346489
influence of alginate on attachment of vibrio spp. to stainless steel surfaces in seawater.the influence of alginate on the attachment of vibrio alginolyticus and vibrio pelagius biovar ii to stainless steel was investigated. when the bacteria were in stationary phase, alginate decreased the number of attached bacteria in the case of each vibrio sp. in contrast, when v. pelagius biovar ii was grown on alginate and harvested in log phase, attachment was increased. this effect may be due to nutrient availability at the surface or to receptors on the bacterial surface which interact with ...198716347345
method designed to detect alginate-degrading bacteria.a simple turbidimetric method was developed to detect alginate degradation. bacteria were grown in alginate-containing media, and culture fluids were mixed with an acidic albumin solution. failure to develop a white turbidity indicated an alginate degrader. the method showed alginate degradation by vibrio alginolyticus atcc 17749, in contrast to prior descriptions.199016348303
occurrence of vibrio alginolyticus in ligurian coast rock pools (tyrrhenian sea, italy) and its association with the copepod tigriopus fulvus (fisher 1860).a study of heterotrophic bacteria and vibrios adhering to the copepod tigriopus fulvus, which lives in ligurian coast rock pools (tyrrhenian sea), was carried out from november 1990 to october 1991. heterotrophic bacteria, which were always found both free in the water and bound to the t. fulvus organisms, showed a correlation with water temperature and salinity. vibrio alginolyticus was found free in the water and bound to t. fulvus surfaces during the warmest months. temperature is the main fa ...199316348971
electrochemical prevention of marine biofouling with a carbon-chloroprene sheet.a carbon-chloroprene sheet (ccs) electrode was used for the electrochemical disinfection of the marine gram-negative bacterium vibrio alginolyticus. when the electrode was incubated in seawater containing 10 cells per ml for 90 min, the amount of adsorbed cells was 4.5 x 10 cells per cm. when a potential of 1.2 v versus a saturated calomel electrode was applied to the ccs for 20 min, 67% of adsorbed cells were killed. this disinfection was due to the direct electrochemical oxidation of cells and ...199316349089
humoral immune responses of amphioxus branchiostoma belcheri to challenge with escherichia coli.humoral parameters of amphioxus branchiostoma belcheri, including lysozyme, antimicrobial activity, microbial agglutinin and haemagglutinins were measured before and after challenge with escherichia coli. humoral fluids from unchallenged b. belcheri had lysozyme, antimicrobial, microbial agglutinating and haemagglutinating activities, which may represent part of the baseline level of innate immunity in this organism. after challenge with e. coli, the lysozyme activity, growth-inhibiting activiti ...200616352447
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