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identification, molecular characterization and expression analysis of a mucosal c-type lectin in the eastern oyster, crassostrea virginica.lectins are well known to actively participate in the defense functions of vertebrates and invertebrates where they play an important role in the recognition of foreign particles. they have also been reported to be involved in other processes requiring carbohydrate-lectin interactions such as symbiosis or fertilization. in this study, we report a novel putative c-type lectin (cvml) from the eastern oyster crassostrea virginica and we investigated its involvement in oyster physiology. the cdna of ...201121256965
an mpeg (macrophage expressed gene) from the pacific oyster crassostrea gigas: molecular characterization and gene expression.mpegs (macrophage expressed genes) encode members of the macpf (membrane-attack complex/perforin) protein superfamily that play essential roles in innate immunity. in the present study, a homolog of mpeg1 was identified in crassostrea gigas and designed cg-mpeg1. the complete cdna of cg-mpeg1 is 2781 bp in length, containing an orf of 2226 bp, which encodes a putative protein of 742 amino acids with a predicted 19-aa hydrophobic signal peptide, an macpf domain, and a transmembrane domain. phylog ...201121272653
reverse and flick: hybrid locomotion in bacteria. 201121289282
establishment of a caenorhabditis elegans infection model for vibrio alginolyticus.vibrio alginolyticus, a common bacterium in the marine environment, is a threat to marine animals and humans by causing serious infections. the present study reveals the establishment of a caenorhabditis elegans infection model for vibrio alginolyticus. the infection and colonization was localized in the animal by tagging v. alginolyticus with gfp and using confocal laser scanning microscopy. chemotactic response of c. elegans to v. alginolyticus, pharyngeal distention and blockage of vulval reg ...201121298688
enumeration of vibrio parahaemolyticus in the viable but nonculturable state using direct plate counts and recognition of individual gene fluorescence in situ hybridization.vibrio parahaemolyticus is a gram-negative, halophilic bacterium indigenous to marine and estuarine environments and it is capable of causing food and water-borne illness in humans. it can also cause disease in marine animals, including cultured species. currently, culture-based techniques are used for quantification of v. parahaemolyticus in environmental samples; however, these can be misleading as they fail to detect v. parahaemolyticus in a viable but nonculturable (vbnc) state which leads t ...201121329738
screening and characterization of a cellulase gene from the gut microflora of abalone using metagenomic library.a metagenomic fosmid library was constructed using genomic dna isolated from abalone intestine. screening of a library of 3,840 clones revealed a 36 kb insert of a cellulase positive clone (pamhelo). a shotgun clone library was constructed using the positive clone (pamhelo) and further screening of 3,840 shotgun clones with an approximately 5 kb insert size using a congo red overlay revealed only one cellulase positive clone (pamhl9). the pamhl9 consisted of a 5,293-bp dna sequence and three ope ...201121369991
susceptibility to antibiotics of vibrio spp. and photobacterium damsela ssp. piscicida strains isolated from italian aquaculture farms.the antibiotic resistance patterns of aetiological agents responsible for vibriosis and pasteurellosis were studied to contribute to control the spread of these two bacterial diseases in mediterranean fish farming. strains of photobacterium damsela ssp. piscicida, vibrio fluvialis, vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio parahaemolyticus, vibrio metschnikovii, isolated from italian aquaculture (fish, shellfish and crustaceans) sites, were assayed for their susceptibility to some antibacterial agents curren ...201121344147
passive immune-protection of small abalone against vibrio alginolyticus infection by anti-vibrio igy-encapsulated feed.small abalone (haliotis diversicolor supertexta) is a high value-added shellfish. it however has been suffering vibrio alginolyticus infections, which cause mass death of small abalone and thus great economic losses, particularly in artificial aquaculture. in this study, we attempted to treat small abalone with anti-vibrio igy to elicit a passive immunity directly against v. alginolyticus infections. anti-vibrio igy was alginate encapsulated in egg powders as feed, which may avoid antibody inact ...201121300158
a selective and differential medium for vibrio alginolyticus.in this paper, we present a selective and differential medium, termed vibrio alginolyticus (val) agar, developed for the isolation and identification of v. alginolyticus. the presence of bile salts, high salinity and high incubation temperature allows the selective growth of moderately halophilic vibrio species. differentiation of bacteria is achieved by identifying species capable of sucrose fermentation, made visible by the ph indicator bromocresol purple. in this study, all of the 26 strains ...201121306589
antimicrobial resistance of vibrio parahaemolyticus and vibrio alginolyticus strains isolated from farmed fish in korea from 2005 through 2007.the antimicrobial resistance patterns to 15 antimicrobial agents of vibrio parahaemolyticus and vibrio alginolyticus isolated from farmed fishes, including olive flounder (paralichthys olivaceus), black rockfish (sebastes schlegeli), red sea bream (pagrus major), and sea bass (lateolabrax japonicus), were investigated from 2005 through 2007. a total of 218 v. parahaemolyticus isolates and 153 v. alginolyticus isolates were obtained from the 180 fish samples collected from fish farms located alon ...201121375873
the cq ratio of surface energy components influences adhesion and removal of fouling bacteria.the interaction energy between bacteria and substrata with different surface energies was modelled by the extended dlvo-á(derjaguin, landau, verwey and overbeek) theory. the modeling results revealed that the interaction energy has a strong correlation with the cq (chen and qi) ratio, which is defined as the ratio of the lifshitz-van der waals (lw) apolar to the electron donor surface energy components of substrata. both modeling and experimental results with different bacteria including p. fluo ...201121390912
genotype analysis of collagenase gene by pcr-sscp in vibrio alginolyticus and its association with virulence to marine fish.in this article, the genotypes for vibrio alginolyticus were analyzed based on collagenase gene by pcr-single strand conformation polymorphism (sscp) method and their relationship to the virulence for marine fish were studied by a bacteria challenging experiment. results showed total 13 genotypes designated as a1, a2, a3, a4, b, c, d, e, f, g1, g2, h, and i were identified. among them, isolates from type a1 were dominant in abundance (48.1%) and the isolates from nanyou had the highest polymorph ...201121394507
enhanced immune defences in pacific white shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei) post-exposure to a vibrio vaccine.this study was conducted to determine if exposure of shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei, to a commercial anti-vibrio vaccine caused changes in antibacterial and cellular (phagocytosis) defences. shrimp post-larvae were administered either vibromax™ vaccine or a blank preparation. whole body homogenates were prepared before (day 0), during (day 10) and after (day 20) vaccination and incubated with a selection of pathogenic vibrios. homogenate from day 0 animals showed natural antibacterial activity tow ...201121377471
antimicrobial effects of essential oils of cinnamosma fragrans on the bacterial communities in the rearing water of penaeus monodon larvae.farmed shrimps are vectors of various vibrio species that are considered a potential health hazard. previous study has shown that vibrio parahaemolyticus, vibrio vulnificus, and vibrio alginolyticus dominated in the water and larval samples of shrimp hatchery (randrianarivelo et al. 2010 ). the effects of two essential oils (eos) of cinnamosma fragrans, an endemic plant to madagascar (b8: linalool-type and b143: 1,8-cineole-type), were determined on the total heterotrophic aerobic bacteria and t ...201121395412
bacterial chemotaxis in an optical trap.an optical trapping technique is implemented to investigate the chemotactic behavior of a marine bacterial strain vibrio alginolyticus. the technique takes the advantage that the bacterium has only a single polar flagellum, which can rotate either in the counter-clock-wise or clock-wise direction. the two rotation states of the motor can be readily and instantaneously resolved in the optical trap, allowing the flagellar motor switching rate s(t) to be measured under different chemical stimulatio ...201121494608
cloning and expression of toll-like receptors 1 and 2 from a teleost fish, the orange-spotted grouper epinephelus coioides.the two toll-like receptors, tlr1 and tlr2 were cloned from orange-spotted grouper, epinephelus coioides, an important teleost fish in mariculture of asia. the cdna sequences of tlr1 and tlr2 are 3195 and 3439 bp long, with an open reading frame (orf) of 2406 and 2466 bp, encoding 801 and 821 amino acids, respectively. the tlr family motifs, i.e. leucine-rich repeat (lrr) domains and toll/interleukin (il)-1 receptor (tir) domains are conserved in the tlr1 and tlr2, with nine and ten leucine-rich ...201121440311
sybr green i-based real-time pcr targeting the rpox gene for sensitive and rapid detection of vibrio alginolyticus.rpox, a vibrio alginolyticus specific stress regulating gene, was used to detect this fish pathogen by sybr green i-based real-time pcr. the specificity of the detection was confirmed in different samples. the minimum level of detection was 10(3) cells from pure culture and 10(2) cells from seawater.201121402144
a macrophage migration inhibitory factor like oxidoreductase from pearl oyster pinctada fucata involved in innate immune responses.macrophage migration inhibitory factor (mif) is an important cytokine and plays a crucial role as a pivotal regulator of innate immunity. in this study, a mif cdna was identified and characterized from the pearl oyster pinctada fucata (designated as pomif). the full-length of pomif was 1544 bp and consisted of a 5'-untranslated region (utr) of 45 bp, a 3'-utr of 1139 bp with a polyadenylation signal (aataaa) at 12 nucleotides upstream of the poly (a) tail. the open reading frame (orf) of pomif w ...201121496487
cloning of a novel collagenase gene from the gram-negative bacterium grimontia (vibrio) hollisae 1706b and its efficient expression in brevibacillus choshinensis.the collagenase gene was cloned from grimontia (vibrio) hollisae 1706b, and its complete nucleotide sequence was determined. nucleotide sequencing showed that the open reading frame was 2,301 bp in length and encoded an 84-kda protein of 767 amino acid residues. the deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence and a zinc metalloprotease consensus sequence, the hexxh motif. g. hollisae collagenase showed 60 and 59% amino acid sequence identities to vibrio parahaemolyticus and v ...201121515782
a smaller particle size improved the oral bioavailability of monkey head mushroom, hericium erinaceum, powder resulting in enhancement of the immune response and disease resistance of white shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei.the effects of different particle sizes (100-150, 74-100, and <74 µm) of powder of the dried and ground stipe from the monkey head mushroom, hericium erinaceum, on the immune response and disease resistance of white shrimp, litopenaeus vannamei, against the pathogen, vibrio alginolyticus, were examined. mushroom powder with a particle size of <74 µm had a significantly higher effect on the disease resistance of shrimp compared to particle sizes of >74 µm. mortality of shrimp after being injected ...201121421058
roles of hfq in the stress adaptation and virulence in fish pathogen vibrio alginolyticus and its potential application as a target for live attenuated vaccine.vibrio alginolyticus has brought about severe economic damage to the mariculture industry by causing vibriosis in various fish species in south china. the virulent determinants of this bacterium have not been well characterized except the exotoxin alkaline serine protease, asp. in addition, the mechanism of virulence regulation in v. alginolyticus remains largely unknown apart from a vibrio harveyi-like quorum sensing (qs) system which is established to manipulate the expression of various virul ...201121523476
transcriptional analysis of disk abalone (haliotis discus discus) antioxidant enzymes against marine bacteria and virus challenge.diverse antioxidant enzymes are essential for marine organisms to overcome oxidative stress as well as for the fine-tuning of immune reactions through activating different signal transduction pathways. this study describes the transcriptional analysis of antioxidant enzymes of disk abalone by challenging with bacteria (vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio parahemolyticus, and listeria monocytogenes) and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (vhsv). upon bacteria and vhsv challenge, manganese superoxide dis ...201121549200
cloning and expression of a heat shock protein (hsp) 90 gene in the haemocytes of crassostrea hongkongensis under osmotic stress and bacterial challenge.heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) is a highly conserved and multi-functional molecular chaperone that plays an essential role in both cellular metabolism and stress response. here, we report the cloning of the hsp90 homologue in crassostrea hongkongensis (chhsp90) through ssh in combination with race from cdna of haemocytes. the full-length cdna of chhsp90 is 2459 bp in length, consisting of a 3', 5'-untranslated region (utr) and an open reading frame of 2169 bp encoding 722 amino acids. the identit ...201121565272
mx expression in gilthead sea bream (sparus aurata l.) in response to poly i:c, bacterial lps and chromosomal dna: preliminary study. 201121575726
heterodisaccharide 4-o-(n-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminyl)-d-glucosamine is an effective chemotactic attractant for vibrio bacteria that produce chitin oligosaccharide deacetylase.aims:  to investigate the attractant effect of 4-o-(n-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminyl)-d-glucosamine (glcnac-glcn) in the chemotaxis of vibrio bacteria that produce carbohydrate esterase (ce) family 4 chitin oligosaccharide deacetylase (cod), an enzyme that catalyzes the production of glcnac-glcn from n,n'-diacetylchitobiose (glcnac)(2) . methods and results:  the chemotactic effect of disaccharides from chitin on several strains of vibrio bacteria was investigated using an agar gel lane-migration metho ...201121575022
occurrence of vibrio parahaemolyticus and vibrio alginolyticus in the german bight over a seasonal cycle.bacteria of the genus vibrio are an important component of marine ecosystems worldwide. the genus harbors several human pathogens, for instance the species vibrio parahaemolyticus, a main cause for foodborne gastroenteritis in asia and the usa. pathogenic v. parahaemolyticus strains emerged also in europe, but little is known about the abundance, pathogenicity and ecology of v. parahaemolyticus especially in northern european waters. this study focuses on v. parahaemolyticus and its close relati ...201121598011
white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater containing sargassum hemiphyllum var. chinense powder and its extract showed increased immunity and resistance against vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus.this study was to examine the immune response of white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against vibrio alginolyticus and wssv when shrimp received the sargassum hemiphyllum var. chinense powder and its hot-water extract. both powder and extract showed activation of prophenoloxidase and generation of superoxide anion in the shrimp in vitro. the haemocyte count, phenoloxidase (po) activity, respiratory burst, and lysozyme activity were examined after the shrimp were immersed in seawa ...201121658452
characterization of the periplasmic region of pomb, a na+-driven flagellar stator protein in vibrio alginolyticus.the stator proteins poma and pomb form a complex that couples na(+) influx to torque generation in the polar flagellar motor of vibrio alginolyticus. this stator complex is anchored to an appropriate place around the rotor through a putative peptidoglycan-binding (pgb) domain in the periplasmic region of pomb (pomb(c)). to investigate the function of pomb(c), a series of n-terminally truncated and in-frame deletions between the transmembrane (tm) segment and the pgb domain of pomb was constructe ...201121602350
the critical role of a conserved residue, pomb-f22, in the transmembrane segment of the flagellar stator complex for conducting ions and generating torque.bacterial flagellar motors exploit the electrochemical potential gradient of a coupling ion (h(+) or na(+)) as their energy source, and are composed of stator and rotor proteins. sodium-driven and proton-driven motors have the stator proteins, poma and pomb, or mota and motb, respectively, which interact with each other in their transmembrane (tm) regions to form an ion channel. the single tm region of pomb or motb, which forms the ion-conduction pathway together with tm3 and tm4 of poma or mota ...201121636648
the structure of the flagellar motor protein complex pomab: implications for the torque-generating conformation.the bacterial flagellar motor is driven by an ion flux through a channel called motab in escherichia coli or salmonella and pomab in vibrio alginolyticus. pomab is composed of two transmembrane (tm) components, poma and pomb, and converts a sodium ion flux to rotation of the flagellum. its homolog, motab, utilizes protons instead of sodium ions. pomb/motb has a peptidoglycan (pg)-binding motif in the periplasmic domain, allowing it to function as the stator by being anchored to the pg layer. to ...201121642461
anticoagulant, antiherpetic and antibacterial activities of sulphated polysaccharide from indian medicinal plant tridax procumbens l. (asteraceae).the sulphated polysaccharide from the widespread tridax procumbens plant was studied for the anticoagulant, antiherpetic and antibacterial activity. the anticoagulant activity was determined by the activated partial thromboplastin time assay. the sulphated polysaccharide from t. procumbens represented potent anticoagulant reaching the efficacy to heparin and chondroitin sulphate. moreover, the sulphated polysaccharide extracted from t. procumbens was found non-toxic on vero cell lines up to the ...201121671053
two superoxide dismutase (sod) with different subcellular localizations involved in innate immunity in crassostrea hongkongensis.sods are ubiquitous metalloenzymes that can scavenge superoxides in response to various stresses. in the present study, full-length cdnas of two sod genes were isolated from crassostrea hongkongensis (designated chmnsod and chcuznsod). the cdnas are 997 and 918 bp in length with orfs of 675 and 468 bp (encoding 225 and 156 amino acids), respectively. sequence analysis revealed a conserved sod_fe domain in chmnsod, and a sod_cu_zn domain in chcuznsod. subcellular localization of chmnsod is mitoch ...201121745578
kalopanax pictus as feed additive controls bacterial and parasitic infections in kelp grouper, epinephelus bruneus.feeding kelp grouper, epinephelus bruneus (26.1 ± 1.4), with 0%, 0.1%, 1.0%, and 2.0% kalopanax pictus extract-supplementation diets, for 30 days reduced mortality on being challenged intraperitoneally 100 µl with bacterium vibrio alginolyticus (2.1 × 10(7) cfu ml(-1)) and ciliate parasite philasterides dicentrarchi (2.3 × 10(7) ciliates ml(-1)). the red blood cells (rbc), white blood cells (wbc), haemoglobin, haematocrit, lymphocytes, and monocytes levels significantly increased in kelp grouper ...201121782952
molecular cloning and expression analysis of heat-shock protein 70 in orange-spotted grouper epinephelus coioides following heat shock and vibrio alginolyticus challenge.in this study, the complementary (c)dna encoding heat-shock protein 70 (hsp70) of orange-spotted grouper epinephelus coioides (osghsp70) was cloned. osghsp70 was 2206 bp and encoded 652 amino acids with predicted molecular mass of 70·89 kda and theoretical isoelectric point of 5·48. three hsp70 family signatures, bipartite nuclear localization signal sequence (nls) and cytoplasmic characteristic motif (eevd) were observed in the osghsp70, which shared high similarity in amino-acid sequences with ...201121781104
gene expression analysis of clams ruditapes philippinarum and ruditapes decussatus following bacterial infection yields molecular insights into pathogen resistance and immunity.the carpet shell clam (ruditapes decussatus) and manila clam (ruditapes philippinarum), which are cultured bivalve species with important commercial value, are affected by diseases that result in large economic losses. because the molecular mechanism of the immune response of bivalves, especially clams, is scarce and fragmentary, we have examined all expressed sequence tags (est) resources available in public databases for these two species in order to increase our knowledge on genes related wit ...201121756933
dietary administration of a gracilaria tenuistipitata extract enhances the immune response and resistance against vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus in the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei.the haemogram, phenoloxidase (po) activity, respiratory bursts (rbs), superoxide dismutase (sod) activity, glutathione peroxidase (gpx) activity, lysozyme activity, and the mitotic index of haematopoietic tissue (hpt) were examined after the white shrimp litopenaeus vannamei had been fed diets containing the hot-water extract of gracilaria tenuistipitata at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0-ág-ákg(-1) for 7-35-ádays. results indicated that these parameters directly increased with the amount of extr ...201121820059
ktrb, a member of the superfamily of k+ transporters.ktrb is the k(+)-translocating subunit of the k(+)-uptake system ktrab from bacteria. it is a member of the superfamily of k(+)transporters (skt proteins) with other sub-families occurring in archaea, bacteria, fungi, plants and trypanosomes. skt proteins may have originated from small k(+) channels by at least two gene duplication and two gene fusion events. they contain four covalently linked m(1)pm(2) domains, in which m(1) and m(2) stand for transmembrane stretches, and p for a p-loop, which ...201121680052
molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of two novel tolls (lvtoll2 and lvtoll3) and three putative sp+ñtzle-like toll ligands (lvspz1-3) from litopenaeus vannamei.toll-like receptor-mediated nf-+¦b pathways are essential for inducing immune related-gene expression in the defense against bacterial, fungal and viral infections in insects and mammals. although a toll receptor (lvtoll1) was cloned in litopenaeus vannamei, relatively little is known about other types of toll-like receptors and their endogenous cytokine-like ligand, sp+ñtzle. here, we report two novel toll-like receptors (lvtoll2 and lvtoll3) and three sp+ñtzle-like proteins (lvspz1-3) from l. ...201121827783
cloning and expression of an actin gene in the haemocytes of pearl oyster (pinctada fucata, gould 1850).an actin gene (designated pfact1) of pearl oyster, pinctada fucata, was cloned from haemocytes by the techniques of homological cloning and rapid amplification of cdna ends (race). the full length of pfact1 cdna was 1608-ábp in length, having a 5' untranslated region (utr) of 82-ábp, a 3' utr of 395-ábp, and an open reading frame (orf) of 1131-ábp encoding a polypeptide of 376 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 41.76-ákda and an estimated isoelectric point of 5.29. sequence analysi ...200821798155
Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily gene, TNF receptor superfamily gene and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-+¦ factor (LITAF) gene from Litopenaeus vannamei.In vertebrates, the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor (TNFR) system participates in diverse physiological and pathological events, such as inflammation and protective immune responses to microbial infections. There are few reports about the role of the invertebrate TNF-TNFR system in immune responses. Here, we isolated and characterized the TNF superfamily (LvTNFSF) gene, TNFR superfamily (LvTNFRSF) gene and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-+¦ factor (LvLITAF) gene from Litopenaeus vannamei. Lv ...201121736897
biological characterization of two marine bdellovibrio-and-like organisms isolated from daya bay of shenzhen, china and their application in the elimination of vibrio parahaemolyticus in oyster.bdellovibrio-and-like organisms (balos) are a group of highly motile delta-proteobacteria that prey on other gram-negative bacteria. however, nothing is known of the application potential of marine balos in safeguarding seafood safety. here, biological characterization of two marine balos strains and their application in the elimination of vibrio parahaemolyticus in oyster (crassostrea ariakensis) at the laboratory scale were investigated. balos strains bdh12 and bdhsh06 were isolated from sedim ...201121899909
a putative g protein-coupled receptor involved in innate immune defense of procambarus clarkii against bacterial infection.the immune functions of g protein-coupled receptor (gpcr) were widely investigated in mammals. however, limited researches on immune function of gpcrs were reported in invertebrates. in the present study, the immune functions of hp1r gene, a putative gpcr identified from red swamp crayfish procambarus clarkii were reported. expression of hp1r gene was significant up-regulated in response to heat-killed aeromonas hydrophila challenge. hp1r gene silencing mediated by rna interference significantly ...201121964155
Detection and characterization of pathogenic vibrios in shellfish by a Ligation Detection Reaction-Universal Array approach.Vibrios are a group of major foodborne pathogens widely distributed in marine environment. Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus are the pathogenic species of Vibrio that pose the greatest threat to human health. However, other vibrios, e.g. Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio mimicus and Grimontia hollisae, apparently less relevant in the group of foodborne pathogens, have been sporadically found in outbreaks. For seafood safety and economic purposes, a rapid and powerful met ...201122177227
sodium-driven motor of the polar flagellum in marine bacteria vibrio.the na(+) -driven bacterial flagellar motor is a molecular machine powered by an electrochemical potential gradient of sodium ions across the cytoplasmic membrane. the marine bacterium vibrio alginolyticus has a single polar flagellum that enables it to swim in liquid. the flagellar motor contains a basal body and a stator complexes, which are composed of several proteins. poma, pomb, motx, and moty are thought to be essential components of the stator that are required to generate the torque of ...201121895888
molecular characterization and mrna expression of catalase from pearl oyster pinctada fucata.catalase (ec 1.11.1.6) is an important antioxidant enzyme that protects aerobic organisms against oxidative damage by degrading hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. in the present study, a catalase cdna of peal oyster pincatada fucata (designated as pocat) is cloned and characterized by expressed sequence tag (est) and rapid amplification of cdna ends (race) methods. pocat is 2428 bp long and consists of a 5'-utr of 140 bp, an unusually long 3'-utr of 749 bp, and an open reading frame (orf) of ...201122118636
characterization of a new quorum sensing regulator luxt and its roles in the extracellular protease production, motility, and virulence in fish pathogen vibrio alginolyticus.vibrio alginolyticus, an opportunistic pathogen that causes vibriosis in miscellaneous fish species, has brought about serious economic damage to the mariculture industry in south china. the mechanism of virulence regulation in v. alginolyticus is yet not known except a vibrio harveyi-like quorum sensing (qs) system that is established to manipulate the expression of diverse genes including those encoding virulence determinants. in this study, a new tetr family qs regulator, luxt, was identified ...201122130678
Characterization of anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant properties and chemical compositions of Peperomia pellucida leaf extract.Peperomia pellucida leaf extract was characterized for its anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant activities, and chemical compositions. Anticancer activity of P. pellucida leaf extract was determined through Colorimetric MTT (tetrazolium) assay against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line and the antimicrobial property of the plant extract was revealed by using two-fold broth micro-dilution method against 10 bacterial isolates. Antioxidant activity of the plant extract was then charact ...201122071643
salt gland adenitis as only cause of stranding of loggerhead sea turtles caretta caretta.the present study describes pathological and microbiological findings in 9 stranded loggerhead sea turtles caretta caretta, whose only observed lesion was bilateral purulent salt gland adenitis. histological lesions ranged from the presence of abundant eosinophilic material associated with bacterial colonies in the lumen of the central ducts of the glandular lobules to the destruction of the glandular tissue and presence of abundant eosinophilic material composed of heterophils and cell debris, ...201121848124
occurance and survival of vibrio alginolyticus in tamouda bay (morocco).the objectives of this study were to investigate the spatial and seasonal fluctuations of vibrio alginolyticus in marine environment of the tamouda bay on the mediterranean coast of morocco and to determine the dominant factors of the environment that govern these fluctuations. the samples (sea water, plankton, shellfish and sediment) were collected fortnightly for two years from three study sites on the coast tamouda bay in northern morocco. the charge of vibrio alginolyticus is determined by m ...201122000489
[preparation and identification of ompw monoclonal antibodies].to prepare and characterize the mouse monoclonal antibodies against vibrio parahaemolyticus ompw.201121906472
Mutations targeting the C-terminal domain of FliG can disrupt motor assembly in the Na(+)-driven flagella of Vibrio alginolyticus.The torque of the bacterial flagellar motor is generated by the rotor-stator interaction coupled with specific ion translocation through the stator channel. To produce a fully functional motor, multiple stator units must be properly incorporated around the rotor by an as yet unknown mechanism to engage the rotor-stator interactions. Here, we investigated stator assembly using a mutational approach of the Na(+)-driven polar flagellar motor of Vibrio alginolyticus, whose stator is localized at the ...201121986199
Phenoloxidase in the scallop Chlamys farreri: Purification and antibacterial activity of its reaction products generated in vitro.Phenoloxidase (PO) was purified from hemocytes of the scallop Chlamys farreri using native-PAGE and gel permeation column chromatography, and then substrate specificity and antibacterial activity generated from reaction products of purified PO were analyzed. The results showed purified PO had a molecular mass of 576 kDa in native-PAGE and 53 kDa in denatured PAGE, and could catalyze the substrates L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), dopamine, catechol and hydroquinone suggesting it is a type ...201222119576
The first homolog of pacifastin-related precursor in the swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus): Characterization and potential role in immune response to bacteria and fungi.Among all the serine proteinase inhibitor families (SPIs), the pacifastin-related inhibitor is seldom isolated. A pacifastin-related SPI named as PtPLC was identified from the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus in this study. The full-length of PtPLC was cloned from haemocytes cDNA library by the combination of homology cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The PtPLC contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1098 bp encoding a putative pacifastin-related precursor of 365 amino ...201222154999
study on the immune enhancement of different immunoadjuvants used in the pentavalent vaccine for turbots.in this study, we investigated the immune enhancing effects of different adjuvants used in a pentavalent vaccine for turbots. the pentavalent vaccine consisted of inactive bacterial cells from five common pathogenic strains (vibrio anguillarum, vibrio scophtalmi, edwardsiella tarda, vibrio harveyi and vibrio alginolyticus) and the adjuvants were astragalus polysaccharides (aps), propolis, and the freund's complete adjuvant (fca). turbots were immunized with the pentavalent vaccine alone or with ...201122178783
Dietary administration of zingerone to enhance growth, non-specific immune response, and resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) juveniles.Zingerone, one of the active components of ginger, is a phenolic alkanone with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The effects of zingerone supplementation on the growth, immunity, and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) juveniles were studied. Four experimental diets, including a control diet (without zingerone enrichment) and 1, 2.5, and 5 mg zingerone (kg diet)(-1) were used. After 56 days of culture, shrimp fed diets supplemented with 1, 2.5, and 5 mg ...201222173270
a novel sialic acid binding lectin with anti-bacterial activity from the hong kong oyster (crassostrea hongkongensis).lectins play an important role in immune recognition and host defense. in the present study, a full-length cdna encoding a novel sialic acid binding lectin was cloned from crassostrea hongkongensis (designated ch-salectin) by rapid amplification of cdna ends (race). it is 531 bp in length, containing a 21 bp 5' utr, a 39 bp 3' utr and a 468 bp orf coding for 156 amino acids. the ch-salectin protein contains a signal peptide and a conserved complement component c1q domain. the purified recombinan ...201121906682
vibrio alginolyticus-associated wound infection acquired in british waters, guernsey, july 2011.in july 2011, a vibrio alginolyticus infection was diagnosed in a woman from guernsey in the channel islands, british isles after sea bathing and application of a natural seaweed dressing to a pre-existing leg wound. microbiological investigation confirmed vibrio in the wound and the species of seaweed used for the dressing. the washing of open wounds in seawater and use of unsterilised seaweed dressings should be discouraged, particularly in individuals with underlying risk conditions.201122027377
characterization of role of the toxr gene in the physiology and pathogenicity of vibrio alginolyticus.toxr, a conserved virulence-associated gene in vibrios, is identified in vibrio alginolyticus zj51-o, a pathogenic strain isolated from diseased fish. to reveal the role of toxr in the pathogenicity of v. alginolyticus, a deletion mutant was constructed by allelic exchange. the mutant showed the same level of growth in trypticase soy broth (tsb) and iron-limiting condition, as the wild type strain. however, deletion of toxr severely reduced resistance against bile salts and the capability of bio ...201121915613
In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of Asparagopsis taxiformis from the Straits of Messina against pathogens relevant in aquaculture.Ethanol extracts of Asparagopsis taxiformis collected from the Straits of Messina (Italy) were screened for antibacterial activity against pathogenic shellfish and fish bacteria previously isolated from local marine and brackish environments. Genetic labelling by DNA barcoding allowed us to identify the algal population as a biogeographical strain conspecific to A. taxiformis. The extract obtained in May showed the broadest antibacterial activity against all tested pathogenic bacteria, especiall ...201222078751
Susceptibility of a Vibrio alginolyticus rpoS mutant to environmental stresses and its expression of OMPs.Vibrio alginolyticus, one of the most important opportunistic pathogens, can be detected in human being and marine animals. Like other bacteria, V. alginolyticus is able to adapt to a variety of stressful environmental changes. The alternate sigma factor RpoS, which is a regulator during stationary phase, plays an important role in surviving under these stressful situations in many bacteria. Sequence analysis reveals a 990 bp open reading frame which is predicted to encode a 330-amino-acid prote ...201122052546
a tandem-repeat galectin involved in innate immune response of the pearl oyster pinctada fucata.the cdna of a tandem-repeat galectin from the pearl oyster pinctada fucata (designated pfgal) was cloned by expressed sequence tag (est) and rapid amplification of cdna ends (race) techniques. the full-length cdna of pfgal was 1386bp, consisting of a 5' untranslated region (utr) of 26bp, a 3' utr of 313bp, and an open reading frame (orf) of 1047bp encoding a polypeptide of 348 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 38.09kda and theoretical isoelectric point of 8.49. similar to other ta ...201121867976
Secreted glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as a broad spectrum vaccine candidate against microbial infection in aquaculture.Aims: Subcellullar localizations and cross-immunities of GAPDHs from six common pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture were investigated. Methods and Results: Subcellullar localizations of GAPDHs of Edwardsiella tarda EIB202, Edwardsiella ictaluri ATCC33202, Aeromonas hydrophila LSA34, Vibrio anguillarum MVM425, Vibrio alginolyticus EPGS020401 and Vibrio harveyi VIB647 were analysed with Western blotting, indirect immunofluorescence and flow cytometry examinations. Immunoprotections of different r ...201222017642
Cloning and expression of arginine kinase from a swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus.Arginine kinase (AK) is an important phosphotransferase that plays a critical role in energy metabolism in invertebrates. In this paper, the cDNA of AK (designated as PtAK) was identified from the eyestalk cDNA library of swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus. The full-length cDNA was 1,479 bp, containing an open reading frame of 1,074 bp that coded for 357 amino acids. The estimated molecular mass of mature PtAK was 40.30 kDa and theoretical isoelectric point was 6.18. Amino acid sequence alig ...201122101972
Vibrio jasicida sp. nov., a member of the Harveyi clade, from marine animals (packhorse lobster, abalone, and Atlantic salmon).Six isolates of a facultatively anaerobic bacterium were recovered in culture from marine invertebrates and vertebrates, including packhorse lobster (Jasus verreauxi), abalone (Haliotis sp.) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) between 1994 and 2002. The bacteria are Gram-negative, rod shaped and motile by means of more than one polar flagellum, oxidase-positive, catalase-positive and able to grow between 0.5-8.0% NaCl (optimum 3.0-6.0%) and at temperatures of 10-37 °C (optimum 25-30 °C). On the ba ...201121984666
quorum sensing and alternative sigma factor rpon regulate type vi secretion system i (t6ssva1) in fish pathogen vibrio alginolyticus.type vi secretion system (t6ss) is a highly conserved bacterial protein secretion system and is precisely regulated in gram-negative pathogens. in vibrio alginolyticus, an important fish pathogen, two complete t6ss gene clusters (t6ssva1 and t6ssva2) were identified. in this study, expression of a hemolysin coregulated protein (hcp1), which is one of the hallmarks of t6ss, was found to be strictly regulated in this bacterium. we showed that the expression of hcp1 was growth phase-dependent and t ...201122173829
cdna cloning and mrna expression of a tandem-repeat galectin (pogal2) from the pearl oyster, pinctada fucata.galectins can recognize and specifically bind to β-galactoside residues, playing crucial roles in innate immune responses of vertebrates and invertebrates. we cloned the cdna of a tandem-repeat galectin from the pearl oyster pinctada fucata (designated as pogal2). pogal2 cdna is 1347 bp long and consists of a 5'-untranslated region (utr) of 3 bp, a 3'-utr of 297 bp with one cytokine rna instability motif (attta), and an open reading frame of 1047 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 349 amino acids, wi ...201121948759
cloning and expression analysis of recombination activating genes (rag1/2) in red snapper (lutjanus sanguineus).recombination activating genes (rag1 and rag2), involved in the v(d)j recombination of immunoglobulin and t-cell receptor genes play a crucial role in the adaptive immune response in vertebrates. the expression of these genes was required for the proper development and maturity of lymphocytes so that they can be used as useful markers to evaluate the development of lymphoid organ. in this paper, the cdna of rag1 and rag2 in red snapper, lutjanus sanguineus were cloned by homological cloning and ...201222266137
identification and characterization of a serine protease inhibitor (ptserpin) in the swimming crab portunus trituberculatus.serine protease inhibitors (serpins) play a key role in diverse immune biological processes. a serine protease inhibitor (serpin), namely ptserpin, was identified from the haemocyte cdna library of swimming crab portunus trituberculatus. the full-length ptserpin cdna was 1593 bp, including an open reading frame (orf) of 1227 bp encoding a polypeptide of 408 amino acids with estimated molecular mass of 45.048 kda and theoretical isoelectric point of 7.23. predicted tertiary structure of ptserpin ...201222245590
ulcerated yellow spot syndrome: implications of aquaculture-related pathogens associated with soft coral sarcophyton ehrenbergi tissue lesions.we introduce a new marine syndrome called ulcerated yellow spot, affecting the soft coral sarcophyton ehrenbergi. to identify bacteria associated with tissue lesions, tissue and mucus samples were taken during a 2009 indo-pacific research expedition near the wakatobi island chain, indonesia. polymerase chain reaction targeting the 16s rdna gene indicated associations with the known fish-disease-causing bacterium photobacterium damselae, as well as multiple vibrio species. results indicate a shif ...201223269388
determination of small differences in buoyant density of macromolecules by analytical density gradient equilibrium centrifugation.a sensitive method is proposed for the determination of small differences between the buoyant densities of different species of monodisperse macromolecules by analytical density gradient equilibrium centrifugation. the procedure involves the measurement at sedimentation equilibrium of the bandwidths of the concentration distribution of the separate macromolecules and of a mixture of the different species. the difference in buoyant densities can then be estimated from the difference between the b ...200195253
[acromegaly. recent physiopathological and therapeutic acquisitions]. 1998108635
phylogenetic study of sponge associated bacteria from the lakshadweep archipelago and the antimicrobial activities of their secondary metabolites.marine ecosystem of the lakshadweep archipelago is unique and known to have a very high degree of biodiversity with a number of endemic flora and fauna. the present study focuses to isolate the endosymbiotic microorganism from sponges and its effectiveness against marine ornamental fish pathogens. the sponges were collected from agatti island of lakshadweep archipelago and identified as clathria procera, sigmadocia fibulata and dysidea granulosa. in which, 15 different types of bacteria were iso ...201122806873
fetal heart rate during a maternal grand mal epileptic seizure.although maternal ingestion of antiepileptic drugs is strongly suspected of causing congenital defects, particularly oral clefts, the effect of epilepsy itself or a combined effect of drug intake and epilepsy have not been excluded as etiological factors. very little is known about fetal oxygenation during a maternal grand mal epileptic seizure. we describe two cases in which fetal heart rate was recorded during a maternal epileptic seizure during labor. the first fetus became clearly asphyctic ...1998106102
[the "cavernous sinus" (author's transl)]. 199991130
remission in acute myeloblastic leukaemia. 199991055
mesonephric duct remnants (gartner's duct).in a review of 820 hysterosalpingograms, unilateral opacification of the mesonephric duct (gartner's duct) was observed in five individuals. no associated anomalies of the genitourinary tract or definite evidence of pelvic inflammatory disease was found in any of these patients. the embryology of the genitourinary tract is discussed in some detail, and histologic studies of the uterine cervix are reviewed to explain the radiographic observations.200098997
long-term outpatient vasodilator therapy of congestive heart failure. consideration of agents at rest and during exercise.increased left ventricular filling pressure and reduced cardiac output are two major hemodynamic deficits in pump failure. in patients with chronic heart failure, consequences of these hemodynamic deficits and diminished cardiac reserve are manifested initially during stress and eventually at rest. the purpose of therapeutic interventions include reduction of ventricular filling pressure increase in cardiac output and improvement in cardiac reserve. to achieve these goals, the hemodynamic effect ...200199031
pelvic displacement of a cardiac pacemaker following trauma. a case report.the rate migration of an implanted cardiac pacemaker from the subrectus area anterior to the peritoneum to the pelvis following a motor vehicle accident is reported. discovery of dislodgement was made by observing a marked increase of pacemaker impulse amplitude in the three standard limb leads as measured on an oscilloscope.2003152472
platelet monoamine oxidase activity in patients with chronic schizophrenic illnesses untreated by neuroleptic drugs [proceedings]. 20051234010
effect of a mixture of cryoprotectants in attaining liquid nitrogen survival of callus cultures of a tropical plant. 2005544179
[measurement of orthodontic appliance force using prototype sensors].in introductory remarks the most important biomechanical principles, which are relevant for the research, and conditions which must be satisfied presented in intraoral measuring of orthodontic forces were pointed out. first the aim of the research was defined, and then the investigation of mechanical properties of acrylics as a material for orthodontic appliances were carried out. the type of strain gauges, bonds and measuring system configurations, as well as measuring amplifiers and recording ...20082635572
[complications of catheter cerebral angiography]. 20113229240
prevalence of mobile genetic elements and transposase genes in vibrio alginolyticus from the southern coastal region of china and their role in horizontal gene transfer.vibrio alginolyticus has high genetic diversity, but little is known about the means by which it has been acquired. in this study, the distributions of mobile genetic elements (mges), including integrating conjugative elements (ices), superintegron-like cassettes (sics), insertion sequences (iss), and two types of transposase genes (valt1 and valt2), in 192 strains of v. alginolyticus were investigated. ice, sic, and is elements, valt1, and valt2 were detected in 8.9%, 13.0%, 4.7%, 9.4%, and 2.6 ...201223844479
annual summary 1984. reported morbidity and mortality in the united states. 20113092006
demonstration of the "no-reflow" phenomenon by digital coronary arteriography. 20123510523
urinary diversion: a new angle? 20123671701
electrohydraulic lithotripsy of gallstones in humans. 20123366335
13c nmr studies of carboxylate inhibitor binding to cobalt(ii) carboxypeptidase a.both 13c nmr and electronic absorption spectral studies on cobalt(ii) carboxypeptidase a in the presence of acetate and phenylacetate provide evidence for two binding sites for each of these agents. the transverse relaxation rate t2-1 for the 13c-enriched carboxyl groups of the inhibitors is significantly increased when bound to the paramagnetic cobalt carboxypeptidase as compared to the diamagnetic zinc enzyme. the acetate concentration dependence of t2p-1 shows two inflections indicative of se ...20123346659
anti-rh globulin in massachusetts. 20144178642
technical contribution. tungsten ball microelectrode for extracellular single-unit recording. 20144128160
carcinoembryonic antigen (cea) plasma level determination in the management of gastric cancer patients.carcinoembryonic antigen (cea) levels of 161 patients with gastric cancer and of 12 patients with noncarcinomatous diseases of the stomach were retrospectively analyzed. in this study, we examined the correlation between cea level and histologic type, t and n stage, and the value of the preoperative cea determination for diagnosis, operability and prognosis for patients with gastric cancer. summarizing our results: there exist significant higher cea levels in patients with gastric cancer in comp ...20144064038
[hyperphenylalaninemia and banal infections]. 20154821507
[hyperphenylalaninemia and banal infections]. 20154821507
degradation products and the role of coagulation in "persistent" glomerulonephritis. 20164931741
career-ladder breakthrough. now, an associate degree without attending college. 20154485178
rapid and accurate diagnosis of acute cholecystitis with 99mtc-hida cholescintigraphy.technetium-99m dimethyl acetanilide iminodiacetic acid (hida) cholescintigraphy was performed on 90 patients with suspected acute cholecystitis. visualization of the gallbladder established patency of the cystic duct and excluded the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis in 50 of 52 patients. nonvisualization of the gallbladder with visualization of the common bile duct was diagnostic of acute cholecystitis in 38 patients, all subsequently proven at surgery. the observed accuracy of this procedure is ...1998106679
deficiency of eosinophil peroxidase detected by automated cytochemistry. 20113122494
frontiers of quantitative cytochemistry: a review of recent developments and potentials.this article attempts to describe the current state of quantitative cytochemical methods and to point out areas where, in the author's opinion, the greatest progress is either being made or can be expected. nearly 300 references to the current literature are cited.200094776
[current status of kidney transplantation and results]. 20012860545
[state of the pituitary-adrenal system in burns]. 2003201039
Displaying items 1001 - 1100 of 1999