TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
bacterial enteropathogens of neonates admitted to an urban diarrhoeal hospital in on the aetiology of diarrhoea in neonates are scarce, especially from developing countries including bangladesh. a retrospective review of the electronic database of the microbiology laboratory of the international centre for diarrhoeal disease research, bangladesh (icddr,b), was carried out to examine enteropathogens associated with diarrhoea in neonates. stool specimens of the neonates on admission to the dhaka hospital of icddr,b were collected and sent to the laboratory for direct plati ...200918840632
chinese herbs (astragalus radix and ganoderma lucidum) enhance immune response of carp, cyprinus carpio, and protection against aeromonas hydrophila.the effect of chinese herbs (astragalus radix and ganoderma lucidum) on immune response of carp was investigated. fish were fed diets containing astragalus (0.5%), ganoderma (0.5%) and combination of two herbs (astragalus 0.5% and ganoderma 0.5%) for 5 weeks. other groups of fish were vaccinated (i.p.) against aeromonas hydrophila/aeromonas salmonicida (shering plough, essex, u.k.) at the beginning of the experiment and fed the same diets as described above. control fish (negative control) and f ...200918817878
molecular and biochemical characterization of a distinct tyrosinase involved in melanin production from aeromonas media.a new tyrosinase was isolated from aeromonas media strain ws and purified to homogeneity. the purified tyrosinase, termed tyra, had a molecular mass of 58 kda and an isoelectric point of 4.90. it exhibited optimal monophenol and diphenol oxidase activities under basic conditions (ph>8.0). tyra had a relatively higher affinity to diphenol substrate l-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-dopa) than many other tyrosinases. edta or glutathione notably inhibited the enzymatic activities of tyra, whereas triton ...200918931836
effect of a probiotic bacterium bacillus circulans pb7 in the formulated diets: on growth, nutritional quality and immunity of catla catla (ham.).bacillus circulans pb7, isolated from the intestine of catla catla, was evaluated for use as a probiotic supplement in the feeds for the fingerlings of catla catla. the effect of supplement on the growth performance, feed utilization efficiency, and immune response was evaluated. catla fingerlings (ave. wt. 6.48 +/- 0.43 g) were fed diets supplemented with 2 x 10(4) (feed c1), 2 x 10(5) (feed c2), and 2 x 10(6) (feed c3) b. circulans pb 7 cells per 100 g feed for 60 days at 5% of the body weight ...200918931930
expression profiles of cytokines released in intestinal epithelial cells of the rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, in response to bacterial determine whether fish intestinal epithelial cells (iecs) contribute to mucosal immunity, we established a method for isolating iecs from the rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss and examined cytokine production in these cells. components of the intestinal epithelium were released by incubation of intestinal pieces with 1mm dithiothreitol (dtt)/ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (edta). the iec-rich fraction (purity >90%; survival rate approximately 95%) was obtained by centrifugation on a 35%/40% ...200918952122
the asap1 peptidase of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes is a highly conserved deuterolysin metalloprotease (family m35) and a major virulence factor.infections by the bacterium aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes cause significant disease in a number of fish species. in this study, we showed that asap1, a toxic 19-kda metallopeptidase produced by a. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes, belongs to the group of extracellular peptidases (aeromonas type) (merops id m35.003) of the deuterolysin family of zinc-dependent aspzincin endopeptidases. the structural gene of asap1 was sequenced and found to be highly conserved among gram-negative bacte ...200918952802
biocompatibility of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) with bone marrow mesenchymal stem a new member of the polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) family, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (phbvhhx) was produced by recombinant aeromonas hydrophila 4ak4. phbvhhx showed a rougher surface and had higher hydrophobicity than the well-studied polymers poly(l-lactic acid) (pla) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (phbhhx). human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (mscs) adhered better on phbvhhx film than on tissue culture plates (tcps), pla film and ...200918976972
aeromonas sobria sepsis complicated by rhabdomyolysis in an hiv-positive patient: case report and evaluation of traits associated with bacterial virulence.human infection with aeromonas species is uncommon and most often due to trauma with exposure to contaminated water or soil. a 43-year-old hiv- and hepatitis c virus (hcv)-infected male, after a two-week course of corticosteroid therapy for an autoimmune anemia, developed diarrhea, dermatologic manifestations and a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, resulting in death. although stool samples were repeatedly negative, two sets of blood cultures obtained during a single peak of fever yielded the ...200918977680
aeromonas spp. human isolates induce apoptosis of murine macrophages.interactions of aeromonas caviae, aeromonas veronii biotype sobria, and aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from fecal specimens of humans with gastroenteritis on murine macrophages, j774 cells, were investigated. analyses of cellular morphology and dna fragmentation in phagocytes infected with these strains exhibited typical characteristic features of cells undergoing apoptosis. we observed the morphological changes, including condensation of nuclear chromatin, formation of apoptotic bodies a ...200919005723
high diversity of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in association with cyanobacterial water blooms.cyanobacterial mass occurrences (water blooms) cause ecological, economic and health problems worldwide. still, little is known about heterotrophic bacteria associated with cyanobacteria and the interactions between those organisms. we isolated 460 bacterial strains from more than 40 lakes and rivers (151 samples), baltic sea (32 samples) and treated drinking water of seven treatment plants (29 samples). the water bodies and the raw water of the treatment plants were frequently dominated by high ...200919020559
biosorption of cr(vi) from water using biomass of aeromonas hydrophila: central composite design for optimization of process variables.the potential use of biomass of aeromonas hydrophila for biosorption of chromium from aqueous solution was investigated. the variables (ph, initial cr(vi) concentration, biomass dose, and temperature) affecting process were optimized by performing minimum number of experimental runs with the help of central composite design. the results predicted by design were found to be in good agreement (r2 = 99.1%) with those obtained by performing experiments. multiple regression analysis shows that uptake ...200919031053
virulence plasmid of aeromonas hydrophila induces macrophage apoptosis and helps in developing systemic infection in mice.pathogenic aeromonas hydrophila strain ao1 bears a 21kb plasmid encoding several virulence determinants. infection studies revealed that this isolate induced cytotoxicity in balb/c mice splenic macrophages involving reactive oxygen species generation. dna gel, hoechst 33342, annexin-v and tunel assay documented macrophage death induced by 21kb plasmid bearing isolates to be apoptotic in nature. apoptosis induced by the plasmid bearing isolates involved initiator caspase-8 and caspase-9 and execu ...200919041935
immunohistochemical localization of rainbow trout ladderlectin and intelectin in healthy and infected rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss).in the present study, the pattern of immuno-reactive ladderlectin and intelectin in healthy rainbow trout is compared to rainbow trout infected with a variety of infectious agents. in healthy rainbow trout, both proteins were localized to individual epithelial cells of the gill and intestine and both proteins were clearly demonstrated within cytoplasmic granules of polymorphonuclear leucocytes and macrophages/monocytes found in blood vessels, hepatic sinusoids, renal interstitium, mucosal epithe ...200919046637
isolation and functional characterization of neutrophil-like cells, from goldfish (carassius auratus l.) kidney.neutrophils are one of the first cells to arrive at the site of inflammation and are central cells of innate immunity of vertebrates. upon activation, neutrophils are capable of producing an intense respiratory burst response, they rapidly degranulate in the presence of pathogens, and deploy neutrophil extracellular traps that efficiently remove infections agents. we report on the isolation, cultivation and characterization of neutrophil-like cells isolated from the goldfish kidney. neutrophil-l ...200919046985
characterization of aeromonas encheleia strains isolated from aquatic environments in the czech republic.characterization and identification of aeromonas strains isolated from surface and underground waters using phenotypic and genotyping methods.200919055626
high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in tissues of atlantic turtles stranded in the canary islands, spain.polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs 28, 31, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180, and 209) were measured in tissue samples (liver and fat) from 30 loggerhead turtles caretta caretta, 1 green turtle chelonia mydas, and 1 leatherback dermochelys coriacea stranded on the coasts of the canary islands, trying to establish a possible relation between pcb concentrations and the lesions and causes of death. tissues from these turtles contained higher levels of pcbs than those reported in turtles from other geographical r ...200919062067
fishy business. 200919079348
comparison of antibody responses in atlantic cod (gadus morhua l.) to vibrio anguillarum, aeromonas salmonicida and francisella sp.bacterial diseases such as vibriosis, atypical furunculosis and francisellosis, are registered as an increasing problem in cod farming in norway. in order to develop efficient vaccines against diseases it is of interest to investigate if the cod immune system differentiates between various serotypes of vibrio anguillarum and variants of aeromonas salmonicida associated with the diseases by raising specific antibody responses. cod of the same origin were shown to raise significant responses to v. ...200919084603
effects of c-terminal amino acids truncation on enzyme properties of aeromonas caviae d1 chitinase.c-terminal truncation mutagenesis was used to explore the functional and structural significance of the c-terminal region of aeromonas caviae d1 chitinase (acd1chia). comparative studies between the engineered full-length acd1chia and the truncated mutant (acd1chiak606) included initial rate kinetics, fluorescence and circular dichroism (cd) spectrometric properties, and substrate binding and hydrolysis abilities. the overall catalytic efficiency, k(cat)/k(m), of acd1chiak606 with the 4mu-(glcna ...200919089411
a mouse model for characterization of gastrointestinal colonization rates among environmental aeromonas isolates.the colonization rates of 10 different environmental aeromonas isolates were determined using a novel mouse-streptomycin pretreatment method. as demonstrated, alterations to the colon flora of mice pretreated with streptomycin allowed transient colonization by bacterial species normally excluded by host competition. a novel procedure is described for determining the colonization abilities of aeromonas isolates under these conditions. the colonization rates of a. salmonicida, a. encheleia, and a. ...200919130126
gene cloning, expression and homology modeling of hemolysin gene from aeromonas hydrophila.hemolysin is a significant toxin secreted by aeromonas hydrophila, which contributes pathogenicity of fish to humans. the complete orf of hemolysin gene (1886 bp) was amplified using pcr. it was cloned in ta and sub-cloned in pet28a vector then transformed into escherichia coli bl21(de3) codon plus rp cells expressed by the induction with 1.0 mm of iptg. the expected size of expressed protein was 68.0 kda estimated by migration in 12% sds-page. anti-his monoclonal antibodies were used to substan ...200919136063
giardia duodenalis assemblages associated with diarrhea in children in south india identified by pcr-rflp.giardial diarrhea in a birth cohort of 452 children in an urban slum in south india was characterized. of the 155 episodes that occurred in 99 children, 73% were acute diarrhea. children with better educated mothers and a toilet at home had lower odds of acquiring giardial diarrhea, whereas low socioeconomic status and drinking municipal water were associated with greater risk. children with co-infections tended to have a slightly longer duration of diarrhea (p = 0.061) and showed significantly ...200919141832
improvement in detection of enterotoxigenic escherichia coli in patients with travelers' diarrhea by increasing the number of e. coli colonies cause of one-third of travelers' diarrhea (td) cases can be detected despite microbiologic assessment. we propose that these pathogen-negative td cases include undetected enterotoxigenic escherichia coli (etec). as a standard in diagnostic microbiology, samples of five e. coli colonies were tested to detect etec from stool cultures. we compared the sensitivities and the number of etec detected by 20 colonies with those of 5, 10, and 15 colonies. the percent detection of etec with five e. coli ...200919141833
use of whole cell culture of aeromonas sp. as enantioselective scavenger: a facile preparation of l-amino acid derivatives in high enantiomeric excess.the bacterium aeromonas sp. (cgmcc 2226) can enantioselectively scavenge d-isomer, making l-amino acid derivatives (aads) in high ee. the enantioselective scavenger (es) has shown a broad substrate scope. eleven l-aads, phe derivatives substituted with methyl-, mono- and dichloro-, bromo-, and nitro-group, were produced in high ee from corresponding racemates.200919150596
cloning and expression of a hepcidin gene from a marine fish (pseudosciaena crocea) and the antimicrobial activity of its synthetic peptide.hepcidin gene is widely expressed in various fish, suggesting that this antimicrobial peptide is a very important component in the innate immune system. large yellow croaker (pseudosciaena crocea) is one of the important economic species of marine-cultured fish but knowledge of its innate immune mechanism is lacking. in this study, we characterize a p. crocea hepcidin gene named as pc-hepc. it consists of an open reading frame of 258 bases encoding 85 amino acids and has a conserved sequence in ...200919150638
genetics and proteomics of aeromonas salmonicida lipopolysaccharide core biosynthesis.comparison between the lipopolysaccharide (lps) core structures of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida a450 and aeromonas hydrophila ah-3 shows great similarity in the inner lps core and part of the outer lps core but some differences in the distal part of the outer lps core (residues ld-hep, d-gal, and d-galnac). the three genomic regions encoding lps core biosynthetic genes in a. salmonicida a450, of which regions 2 and 3 have genes identical to those of a. hydrophila ah-3, were fully seq ...200919151135
expression of aeromonas caviae st pyruvate dehydrogenase complex components mediate tellurite resistance in escherichia coli.potassium tellurite (k(2)teo(3)) is harmful to most organisms and specific mechanisms explaining its toxicity are not well known to date. we previously reported that the lpda gene product of the tellurite-resistant environmental isolate aeromonas caviae st is involved in the reduction of tellurite to elemental tellurium. in this work, we show that expression of a. caviae st acee, acef, and lpda genes, encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoamide transacetylase, and dihydrolipoamide dehydrog ...200919168030
an rna hairpin sequesters the ribosome binding site of the homing endonuclease mobe gene.previous transcript mapping of the bacteriophage aeh1 nrd operon revealed a predicted rna hairpin upstream of the homing endonuclease mobe gene. we enzymatically mapped the hairpin, showing that the mobe ribosome binding site is sequestered. cloning of the hairpin upstream of lacz resulted in reduced beta-galactosidase activity, consistent with translational regulation.200919181807
two redundant sodium-driven stator motor proteins are involved in aeromonas hydrophila polar flagellum rotation.motility is an essential characteristic for mesophilic aeromonas strains. we identified a new polar flagellum region (region 6) in the a. hydrophila ah-3 (serotype o34) chromosome that contained two additional polar stator genes, named poma2 and pomb2. a. hydrophila poma2 and pomb2 are highly homologous to other sodium-conducting polar flagellum stator motors as well as to the previously described a. hydrophila ah-3 poma and pomb. pomab and poma2b2 were present in all the mesophilic aeromonas st ...200919181813
propolis and herba epimedii extracts enhance the non-specific immune response and disease resistance of chinese sucker, myxocyprinus asiaticus.the effect of traditional chinese medicine (tcm) formulated from propolis and herba epimedii extracts at the ratio of 3:1 (w/w) on non-specific immune response of chinese sucker (myxocyprinus asiaticus) was investigated. fish were fed diets containing 0 (control), 0.1%, 0.5% or 1.0% tcm extracts for five weeks. the respiratory burst and phagocytic activities of blood leukocytes, lysozyme and natural haemolytic complement activities in plasma were measured weekly. after five weeks of feeding, fis ...200919185611
revealing interactive toxicity of aromatic amines to azo dye decolorizer aeromonas hydrophila.this study attempted to combine chemostat pulse technique (cpt) and dose-mortality assessment in pursuit of quantitative rankings of toxicity of model aromatic amines (maas) in the presence of diazo dye reactive red 141 (or evercion red h-e7b; rr141) upon aeromonas hydrophila. as known, bacterial decolorization performance of azo dyes is directly dependent upon both the characteristics of biochemical reactivity and biotoxicity of dyes and related aromatic amines towards color removal. thus, the ...200919111981
antimicrobial activity of prulifloxacin tested against a worldwide collection of gastroenteritis-producing pathogens, including those causing traveler's diarrhea.prulifloxacin, the prodrug of ulifloxacin (active component), is a newer fluoroquinolone with broad activity against enteric and nonenteric gram-negative bacilli. ulifloxacin and other oral comparator agents were tested for activity against 582 gastroenteritis strains from global surveillance studies. ulifloxacin was highly active against escherichia coli, salmonella spp., shigella spp., yersinia spp., vibrio spp., aeromonas spp., and plesiomonas spp. (mic(50)s and mic(90)s, <or=0.03 microg/ml a ...200919114678
surgical site infection due to aeromonas species: report of nine cases and literature review.gastrointestinal and wound infections are the most common clinical presentation of aeromonas. surgical site infections (ssis) due to this microorganism are rare. we studied the clinical and microbiological characteristics of 9 cases that appeared at 2 spanish hospitals and reviewed 15 cases available in the literature. all patients (including our cases) had gastrointestinal or biliary diseases. 21 patients (91.3%) developed ssis after abdominal or pelvic surgery. the mean duration from surgery t ...200919117246
evaluation of a digoxigenin-labelled probe for detection of aeromonas outer membrane protein-based digoxigenin (dig)-labelled dna probe was developed for the specific detection of aeromonas sp. from food/environmental/clinical samples. dot blot reaction answered for all the aeromonas isolates and was negative for escherichia coli, pseudomonas sp., klebsiella sp., vibrio parahaemolyticus, v. harveyi, v. alginolyticus, v. vulnificus. edwardsiella tarda and staphylococcus sp. as this protein is highly conserved in various aeromonas species, the probe has the poten ...200919187505
genetic characterization of pasa6, a new plasmid from aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida that encodes a type iii effector protein aoph homolog.a new plasmid designated pasa6 from an aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain isolated from diseased turbot has been characterized. pasa6 consists of 18536bp, has a g+c content of 53.8% and encodes 20 predicted open-reading frames (orfs). eight orfs showed homology to transposases, of which six are complete and two are partial is sequences. two orfs showed homology to replication proteins, and six orfs showed homology to hypothetical proteins. two orfs are truncated homologs of putative ...200919195484
development of a bacterial challenge test for gnotobiotic sea bass (dicentrarchus labrax) larvae.the use of probiotic microorganisms in aquaculture is gaining a lot of interest. gnotobiotic model systems are required in order to fully understand the effects and modes-of-action of these microorganisms, as the native microbial communities present in non-sterile animals can lead to false conclusions. in this study, a gnotobiotic sea bass larvae (dicentrarchus labrax) test system was developed. in order to obtain bacteria-free animals, the eggs were disinfected with glutaraldehyde and subsequen ...200919196282
a review of necrotising fasciitis in the review currently available evidence on the epidemiology and methods of management for necrotising fasciitis, with particular reference to hong kong.200919197096
isolation and identification of two novel sds-resistant secreted chitinases from aeromonas schubertii.two sds-resistant endochitinases, designated as aschi53 and aschi61, were isolated from aeromonas schubertii in a soil sample from southern taiwan. maldi-tof mass measurement indicates the molecular weights of 53,527 for aschi53 and 61,202 for aschi61. n-terminal and internal amino acid sequences were obtained, and blast analysis of the sequences and ms/ms peptide sequencing showed that they were novel proteins. degradation of chitin by these two endochitinases gave rise to hexameric chitin olig ...200919197977
[diarrhea from the infectologist's point of view].gastroenteritis is a nonspecific term for various pathologic states of the gastrointestinal tract. gastroenteritis causing pathogens are the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. in the developed countries diarrhea is the most common reason for missing work, while in the developing world, it is a leading cause of death. internationally, the mortality rate is 5-10 million deaths each year. "traveller's diarrhea" is a polyetiologic common health problem of international travel ...200919218145
an aeromonas caviae genomic island is required for both o-antigen lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and flagellin glycosylation.aeromonas caviae sch3n possesses a small genomic island that is involved in both flagellin glycosylation and lipopolysaccharide (lps) o-antigen biosynthesis. this island appears to have been laterally acquired as it is flanked by insertion element-like sequences and has a much lower g+c content than the average aeromonad g+c content. most of the gene products encoded by the island are orthologues of proteins that have been shown to be involved in pseudaminic acid biosynthesis and flagellin glyco ...200919218387
first organisms with acquired metallo-beta-lactamases (imp-13, imp-22, and vim-2) reported in austria. 200919223629
maternal transfer and protective role of the alternative complement components in zebrafish danio rerio.embryos of most fish develop externally and are exposed to an aquatic environment full of potential pathogens, whereas they have little or only limited ability to mount an efficient and protective response. how fish embryos survive pathogenic attacks remains poorly defined. here we demonstrate that the maternal immunization of female zebrafish with formalin-killed aeromonas hydrophila causes a significant increase in c3 and bf contents in the mother, a corresponding rise in the offspring, and in ...200919223977
chimeric enzyme composed of polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) synthases from ralstonia eutropha and aeromonas caviae enhances production of phas in recombinant escherichia coli.chimeric enzymes composed of polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha) synthases from ralstonia eutropha (cupriavidus necator) (phac(re)) and aeromonas caviae (phac(ac)) were constructed. phac(re) is known for its potent enzymatic activity among the characterized pha synthases. phacac has broad substrate specificity and synthesizes short-chain-length (scl)/medium-chain-length (mcl) pha. we attempted to create chimeric enzymes inheriting both of the advantageous properties. among eight chimeras, acre12, with 26 ...200919226108
beta-glucan administration enhances disease resistance and some innate immune responses in zebrafish (danio rerio).the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of beta-glucan (derived from saccharomyces cerevisiae) on the immune response and its protection against an infection of the bacterial pathogen aeromonas hydrophila in zebrafish (danio rerio). zebrafish received beta-glucan by intraperitoneal injection at three different concentrations (5, 2 and 0.5 mgml(-1)) at 6, 4 and 2 days prior the challenge. on challenge day the control and beta-glucan pretreated zebrafish were intraperitoneally in ...200919232393
a highly virulent pathogen, aeromonas hydrophila, from the freshwater crayfish pacifastacus leniusculus.aeromonas spp. are characteristic bacteria of freshwaters and many of them can be components of the bacterial flora of aquatic animals and may become pathogens on animals including humans. in this study aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from the freshwater crayfish, pacifastacus leniusculus, and was found to be a highly pathogenic bacterium among many isolated bacteria. mortality reached 100% within 6h when 200 microl of 1.24 x 10(7)cfu/ml was applied by injection. histopathological studies of m ...200919233188
heterologous expression and purification of vibrio proteolyticus (aeromonas proteolytica) aminopeptidase: a rapid protocol.metalloaminopeptidases (maps) are enzymes that are involved in hiv infectivity, tumor growth and metastasis, angiogenesis, and bacterial infection. investigation of structure-function relationships in maps is a prerequisite to rational design of anti-map chemotherapeutics. the most intensively studied member of the biomedically important dinuclear maps is the prototypical secreted vibrio proteolyticus di-zinc aminopeptidase (vpap). the wild-type enzyme is readily purified from the supernatant of ...200919233285
microbiology of the external ear canal in six african elephants (loxodonta africana).samples collected from both external ear canals of six adult female african elephants (loxodonta africana) were cultured for fungi, yeasts and aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. all the samples produced heavy growths of several aerobic bacteria, but anaerobic bacteria were rare and no fungi or yeasts were isolated. the most common bacterium isolated was staphylococcus epidermidis, which was cultured from 11 of the 12 ears. acinetobacter calcoaceticus lwoffi, alpha-haemolytic streptococcus and coryn ...200919234325
development and characterization of cell lines derived from rohu, labeo rohita (hamilton), and catla, catla catla (hamilton).two new cell lines, designated re and cb, were derived from the eye of rohu, labeo rohita, and the brain of catla, catla catla, respectively. the cell lines were maintained in leibovitz's l-15 supplemented with 20% foetal bovine serum. the re cell line was sub-cultured for more than 70 passages and the cb cell line for more than 35 passages. the re cells are rounded and consist predominantly of epithelial cells. the cb cell line consists of predominantly fibroblastic-like cells. both cell lines ...200919236559
chronic exposure to low concentration of arsenic is immunotoxic to fish: role of head kidney macrophages as biomarkers of arsenic toxicity to clarias batrachus.the present study was aimed at elucidating the effect of chronic low-level arsenic exposure on the head kidney (hk) of clarias batrachus and at determining the changes in head kidney macrophage (hkm) activity in response to arsenic exposure. chronic exposure (30 days) to arsenic (as(2)o(3), 0.50 microm) led to significant increase in arsenic content in the hk accompanied by reduction in both hkm number and head kidney somatic index (hksi). arsenic induced hk hypertrophy, reduction in melano-macr ...200919237206
understanding effects of chemical structure on azo dye decolorization characteristics by aeromonas hydrophila.this novel comparative study tended to disclose how the molecular structures present in seven azo dyes including two types of azo dyes (i.e., naphthol type azo dyes--reactive black 5 (rb 5), reactive blue 171 (rb 171), reactive green 19 (rg19), reactive red 198 (rr198), reactive red 141 (rr141), and non-naphthol type azo dyes--direct yellow 86 (dy86), reactive yellow 84 (ry84)) affected color removal capability of aeromonas hydrophila. generally speaking, the decolorization rate of naphthol type ...200919237244
identification and analysis of differentially expressed genes in immune tissues of atlantic cod stimulated with formalin-killed, atypical aeromonas salmonicida.physiological changes, elicited in animal immune tissues by exposure to pathogens, may be studied using functional genomics approaches. we created and characterized reciprocal suppression subtractive hybridization (ssh) cdna libraries to identify differentially expressed genes in spleen and head kidney tissues of atlantic cod (gadus morhua) challenged with intraperitoneal injections of formalin-killed, atypical aeromonas salmonicida. of 4,154 ests from four cdna libraries, 10 genes with immune-r ...200919240301
dna-based real-time detection and quantification of aeromonads from fresh water beaches on lake ontario.the present study was designed to develop a novel, rapid, direct dna-based protocol to enumerate aeromonads in recreational waters. an aeromonas genus-specific real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-pcr) protocol was developed and optimized using newly designed genus-specific oligonucleotide primers derived from the gyrase b subunit (gyrb) gene. a standard curve was developed based on the pcr protocol with a minimum quantification limit of 10 cell equivalents ml(-1) achieved using a ...200919240357
prospective nationwide study of aeromonas infections in france.we report a systematic prospective multicenter nationwide study of clinical aeromonas infections in france. during 6 months (may to october 2006), 78 cases of aeromonosis were reviewed for risk factors and clinical, microbiological, and antimicrobial susceptibility data. they included wound infections (44%), bacteremia (26%), enteritis (19%), respiratory tract infections (6%), and miscellaneous (5%) infections.200919244464
[microbial load of reprocessable trocars after gynecological videolaparoscopy].to identify the microbial charge present in reusable trocars used in gynecological laparoscopies.200920101372
prevalence of intestinal parasitic and bacterial pathogens in diarrhoeal and non-diarroeal human stools from vhembe district, south the present study, a cross-sectional survey of intestinal parasitic and bacterial infections in relation to diarrhoea in vhembe district and the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of isolated bacterial pathogens was conducted. stool samples were collected from 528 patients attending major public hospitals and 295 children attending two public primary schools and were analyzed by standard microbiological and parasitological techniques. entamoeba histolytica/e. dispar (34.2%) and cryptospori ...200920099757
evaluation of dairy-yeast prebiotic supplementation in the diet of juvenile goldfish in the presence or absence of phytoplankton and zooplankton.prebiotics recently have been shown to increase immune responses and disease resistance in certain fish species; therefore, the current study was conducted to evaluate the commercially available dairy-yeast prebiotic, grobiotic-a, for use with juvenile goldfish carassius auratus. the study consisted of two 10-week feeding trials in which juvenile goldfish were fed practical diets that were either unsupplemented or supplemented with the dairy-yeast prebiotic at 2% by dry weight. juvenile fish wer ...200920043400
mutations in the aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida type iii secretion system affect atlantic salmon leucocyte activation and downstream immune responses.deletion mutants of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida were used to determine the effect of the type three secretion system (ttss) on atlantic salmon anterior head kidney leucocytes (ahkl). one strain had a deletion in the outer membrane pore gene, ascc; and the other in three effector genes: aopo, aoph and aext (we call this strain deltaaop3). host cell invasion success and 24h survival were depressed in deltaascc, as was 24h survival of deltaaop3, when compared to the wild type strain. c ...200919751835
[isolation and identification of pathogenic aeromonas veronii isolated from infected siberian sturgeon (acipenser baerii)].our study aimed at searching for the pathogenic factor causing siberian sturgeon (acipenser baerii) disease.200920069873
beta-lactam resistance in variants of aeromonas spp. selected in vitro under antibiotic pressure. 200920071297
high prevalence of multidrug-tolerant bacteria and associated antimicrobial resistance genes isolated from ornamental fish and their carriage water.antimicrobials are used to directly control bacterial infections in pet (ornamental) fish and are routinely added to the water these fish are shipped in to suppress the growth of potential pathogens during transport.200920027306
comparative immunological analysis of innate immunity activation after oral administration of wheat fermented extract to teleost fish.intradermal or oral administration of lipopolysaccharide derived from pantoea agglomerans (ip-pa1) has shown prophylactic and antitumor effects without serious side-effects. while it is known that tumor necrosis factor (tnf)-alpha produced by activated macrophages plays an important role in the expression mechanism following intradermal administration, details of the mechanism after oral administration remain unclear. in this study, the activation of innate immunity using fish as an animal model ...200920032450
[real-time pcr in rapid diagnosis of aeromonas hydrophila necrotizing soft tissue infections].we report a case of rapidly progressive necrotizing soft tissue infection and sepsis followed by a patient's death. we suspected vibrio vulnificus infection because the patient's underlying disease was cirrhosis and the course extremely rapid. no microbe had been detected at death. we extracted dna from a blood culture bottle. sybr green i real-time pcr was conducted but could not detect v. vulnificus vvh in the dna sample. aeromonas hydrophila was cultured and identified in blood and necrotized ...200920034324
in vitro susceptibilities of aerobic and facultative anaerobic gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections at a medical center in taiwan: results of the study for monitoring antimicrobial resistance trends (smart) 2002-2006.the study for monitoring antimicrobial resistance trends (smart) was initiated to monitor the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of aerobic and facultative anaerobic gram-negative bacilli (gnb) isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections (iai). this report summarizes the smart data from 1 of the study centers from 2002 to 2006.200919949755
inhibition by chestnut honey of n-acyl-l-homoserine lactones and biofilm formation in erwinia carotovora, yersinia enterocolitica, and aeromonas hydrophila.bacteria are able to communicate and coordinate certain processes using small secreted signaling molecules called autoinducers. this phenomenon, known as "quorum sensing" (qs), may be essential for the synchronization of virulence factors as well as biofilm development. the interruption of bacterial qs is acknowledged to attenuate virulence and considered to be a potential new therapy to treat infections caused by pathogenic bacteria. n-acyl-l-homoserine lactones (ahls) have been identified as t ...200919950997
[development of taqman real-time pcr in detection of aeromonas hydrophila].to develop a taqman real-time pcr for the detection of aeromonas hydrophila.200919954074
the carboxy-terminal tail of aeromonas sobria serine protease is associated with the chaperone.asp is the only bacterial protease in the kexin group of the subtilisin family. previous studies have revealed that the orf2 protein encoded at the 3' end of the asp operon is required for asp to change from a nascent form into an active form in the periplasm. however, the mechanism by which orf2 makes contact and interacts with asp in the maturation process remains unknown. the present study examined the effect of mutations in the carboxy-terminal region of asp on the asp maturation process. bo ...200919954452
decolorization of anthraquinone vat blue 4 by the free cells of an autochthonous bacterium, bacillus subtilis.uncontaminated soil, vat blue 4 contaminated soil and vat blue 4 effluent were screened for heterotrophic bacterial population and the bacterial density were found to be 19.3 x 10(4) colony forming units (cfu)/gm, 5.5 x 10(4) cfu/gm and 1.1 x 10(4) cfu/ml respectively. student's 't' test analysis affirmed that significant variation prevailed between the three set of 't' tests conducted (p<0.001 to 0.002). the heterotrophic bacterial population of dye contaminated soil comprised of 32.5% of pseud ...200919955647
viability of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria in distribution lines of treated sewage effluent used for irrigation.viability of multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria (marb) in tertiary treated sewage effluent (ttse) used for irrigation, was investigated at the sultan qaboos university sewage treatment plant (stp). this water recycle system is used here as a model for the systems commonly used throughout oman and the gulf region. samples of ttse were collected weekly from four sites, 1.5 km from each other. chlorine levels declined gradually at the three sites with increasing distance from the stp. viable ba ...200919934516
outbreaks of an ulcerative and haemorrhagic disease in arctic char salvelinus alpinus caused by aeromonas salmonicida subsp. smithia.arctic char salvelinus alpinus farmed in different places in austria and free of the viral diseases viral haemorrhagic septcaemia (vhs), infectious haematopoietic necrosis (ihn) and infectious pancreatic necrosis (ipn) experienced disease and mortality. diseased fish showed skin ulceration and pathological signs of sepsis. aeromonas sp. was isolated as pure culture from the kidney of freshly euthanized diseased fish. three independent isolates from outbreaks that occurred on 2 of the affected fa ...200919899353
aeromonas hydrophila sepsis in a preterm neonate. 200919887702
the dc-sign of zebrafish: insights into the existence of a cd209 homologue in a lower vertebrate and its involvement in adaptive immunity.dendritic cell-specific icam-3-grabbing nonintegrin (dc-sign/cd209) has become hot topic in recent studies because of its important roles in immune responses and immune escape. cd209 has been well characterized in humans and several other mammals, but little documentation exists about it in lower vertebrates. this is the first report on the identification and functional characterization of a fish dc-sign/cd209 molecule. the zebrafish dc-sign/cd209 cdna translates into 343 aa organized into three ...200919890038
are all koi ulcer cases associated with infection by atypical aeromonas salmonicida? polymerase chain reaction assays of koi carp skin swabs submitted by hobbyists.infection by atypical aeromonas salmonicida is regarded as the cause of ulcer disease (kud) in koi carp cyprinus carpio and goldfish carassius auratus. however, other causes--including parasites, viral infection, and fungi--have been proposed. in our diagnostic work, we often fail to isolate a. salmonicida even when clear clinical signs of kud are present. this failure may be because these fastidious and slow-growing bacteria are difficult to isolate in culture or because the bacteria are not ac ...200919873831
hepatic gene expression profiling reveals protective responses in atlantic salmon vaccinated against furunculosis.furunculosis, a disease caused with gram negative bacteria aeromonas salmonicida produces heavy losses in aquaculture. vaccination against furunculosis reduces mortality of atlantic salmon but fails to eradicate infection. factors that determine high individual variation of vaccination efficiency remain unknown. we used gene expression analyses to search for the correlates of vaccine protection against furunculosis in atlantic salmon.200919878563
assessment of microbiological quality of sachet-packaged drinking water in western nigeria and its public health assess the microbiological quality of sachet-packaged drinking water in western nigeria and its impact on public health.200919880150
aeromonas hydrophila ecthyma gangrenosum without bacteraemia in a diabetic man: the first case report in italy.ecthyma gangrenosum is a well recognized cutaneous manifestation of severe, invasive infection by pseudomonas aeruginosa usually in immunocompromised and critically ill patients. this type of infection is usually fatal. aeromonas infection is infrequently reported as the cause of ecthyma gangrenosum. here we show the first case described in italy of aeromonas hydrophila ecthyma gangrenosum in the lower extremities in an immunocompetent diabetic without bacteraemia. a 63-year-old obese diabetic m ...200919838092
aeromonas hydrophila folliculitis associated with an inflatable swimming pool: mimicking pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.aeromonas species are ubiquitous, facultative, anaerobic, gram-negative flagellated rods, mainly found in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. skin and soft-tissue infections, including cellulitis and wound infections, are the second most frequent location of isolations of aeromonas spp. in clinical samples, after the gastrointestinal tract. all three major aeromonas species (a. hydrophila, a. caviae, and a. veroni biotype sobria) have been associated with wound infections, but a. hydrophila predominat ...200919840320
use of garlic, allium sativum, to control aeromonas hydrophila infection in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum).garlic, allium sativum, which was fed at 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 g per 100 g of feed for 14 days to rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum), led to control of experimental infection with aeromonas hydrophila. at doses of 0.5 and 1.0 g garlic per 100 g of feed, there was a reduction in mortalities to 4% compared with the controls (88%). moreover, there was a significant increase in growth, feed conversion and protein efficiency. there was stimulation of the number of erythrocytes and leuco ...200919843196
use of dietary ginger, zingiber officinale roscoe, as an immunostimulant to control aeromonas hydrophila infections in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum).ginger, zingiber officinale, which was fed at 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 g per 100 g of feed for 14 days to rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum), led to control of experimental infection with aeromonas hydrophila. at 0.5 g ginger per 100 g of feed, there was a reduction in mortalities to 0% compared with the controls (64%). moreover, there was a significant increase in growth, feed conversion and protein efficiency. there was proliferation in the number of neutrophils, macrophages and lym ...200919843197
beneficial role of green plantain [musa paradisiaca] in the management of persistent diarrhea: a prospective randomized evaluate the beneficial effects of green plantain-based diet on stool volume, frequency and weight gain as compared with a traditional yogurt-based diet in children with persistent diarrhea.200919828902
comparison of the biolog omnilog identification system and 16s ribosomal rna gene sequencing for accuracy in identification of atypical bacteria of clinical origin.the biolog omnilog identification system (biolog) and the 16s ribosomal rna (rrna) gene sequencing methods were compared to conventional microbiological methods and evaluated for accuracy of bacterial identification. these methods were evaluated using 159 clinical isolates. each isolate was initially identified by conventional biochemical tests and morphological characteristics and subsequently placed into one of seven categories: aerobic actinomycetes, bacillus, coryneforms, fastidious gram-neg ...200919837117
clinical presentations, prognostic factors, and mortality in patients with aeromonas sobria complex bacteremia in a teaching hospital: a 5-year experience.bacteremia due to aeromonas sobria complex is an uncommon clinical presentation, associated with a high mortality rate. this retrospective study reviewed the clinical manifestations and prognostic factors of a. sobria complex bacteremia.200920422137
effect of chemotherapy, vaccines and immunostimulants on innate immunity of goldfish infected with aeromonas hydrophila.we report the effect of various chemicals, vaccines and immunostimulants on innate immune mechanisms such as phagocytosis activity, superoxide anion production of blood leukocytes, complement activity and plasma lysozyme activity and disease resistance in goldfish carassius auratus (23 +/- 2 g) against aeromonas hydrophila on days 15 and 30 post-infection. in infected fish, the administration of diets supplemented with either probiotics, tri-herbal extract or azadirachtin for 30 d significantly ...200920183964
molecular cloning, sequence analysis and homology modeling of gale encoding udp-galactose 4-epimerase of aeromonas hydrophila.a. hydrophila, a ubiquitous gram-negative bacterium present in aquatic environments, has been implicated in illness in humans, fish and amphibians. lipopolysaccharides (lps), a surface component of the outer membrane, are one of the main virulent factors of gram-negative bacteria. udp-galactose 4-epimerase (gale) catalyses the last step in the leloir pathway of galactose metabolism and provides precursor for the biosynthesis of extracellular lps and capsule. due to its key role in lps biosynthes ...200920461162
development of an inhibitive enzyme assay for this work the development of an inhibitive assay for copper using the molybdenum-reducing enzyme assay is presented. the enzyme is assayed using 12-molybdophosphoric acid at ph 5.0 as an electron acceptor substrate and nadh as the electron donor substrate. the enzyme converts the yellowish solution into a deep blue solution. the assay is based on the ability of copper to inhibit the molybdenum-reducing enzyme from the molybdate-reducing serratia sp. strain dry5. other heavy metals tested did ...200920112861
rosmarinus officinalis l.: chemical modifications of the essential oil and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity.rosmarinus officinalis essential oil was separated into its hydrocarbon and oxygenated fractions. the major compounds in the hydrocarbon fraction were alpha-pinene (44.2%), camphene (24.5%), and limonene (11.7%), while in the oxygenated fraction they were 1,8-cineole (37.6%), camphor (16.5%), and bornyl acetate (21.4%). the hydrocarbon fraction was submitted to a hydroformylation process and the antioxidant activity of the product was screened by the dpph and beta-carotene/linoleic acid tests. t ...200920120107
thiaminase activity of crucian carp carassius carassius injected with a bacterial fish pathogen, aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.dietary thiaminase i is a cause of thiamine deficiency in animals. the physiological significance of thiaminase in the organisms containing this enzyme is not known, nor are the factors causing variation in their thiaminase activity. tests were performed to evaluate the effect a pathogen might have on thiaminase activity in fish, when analyzed both with a cosubstrate added (cata tests) and no cosubstrate added (ncata tests). pyridine is known as a cosubstrate specific for thiaminase i activity t ...200920218496
expression, purification and molecular characterization of elastase from aeromonas hydrophila strain j-1.the enzyme elastase is an important virulent factor of the opportunistic pathogen aeromonas hydrophila. to know better about the molecular characterization of this enzyme, we purified the elatase and investigated its property and activity.200920222447
replication of legionella pneumophila in biofilms of water distribution pipes.biofilms similar to those present in water distribution pipes of anthropogenic aquatic systems were simulated in a rotating annular reactor using a non-legionella community consisting of aeromonas hydrophila, escherichia coli, flavobacterium breve and pseudomonas aeruginosa. the impact of this community and acanthamoeba castellanii on the replication of legionella pneumophila was investigated. despite the presence of 10(7) non-legionella bacteria, culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction ...200917644359
culturable heterotrophic bacteria in seawater and mytilus galloprovincialis from a mediterranean area (northern ionian sea-italy).although mar piccolo of taranto (ionian sea, italy) is one of the most important mytilus galloprovincialis farming areas, data concerning the natural bacterial microbiota of these mussels and their surrounding environment are still scant. this study was carried out seasonally, throughout a year, to determine culturable heterotrophic bacteria both in the water and mussels samples collected at three sampling sites in the northern ionian sea: s. vito, lido gandoli and lido silvana. culturable heter ...200918301997
molecular analysis of three aeromonas hydrophila ah-3 (serotype o34) lipopolysaccharide core biosynthesis gene the isolation of three different aeromonas hydrophila strain ah-3 (serotype o34) mutants with an altered lipopolysaccharide (lps) migration in gels, three genomic regions encompassing lps core biosynthesis genes were identified and characterized. when possible, mutants were constructed using each gene from the three regions, containing seven, four, and two genes (regions 1 to 3, respectively). the mutant lps core structures were elucidated by using mass spectrometry, methylation analysis, and ...200818310345
vibrio cholerae and aeromonas: do they share a mutual host?species of the genus aeromonas are native inhabitants of aquatic environments and have recently been considered as an emergent human pathogen. it is estimated that aeromonads cause up to 13% of reported gastroenteritis cases in the united states. although the autochthonous existence of aeromonas in the aquatic environment has been established, its natural reservoir is as yet unknown. chironomids are closely related to mosquitoes except they do not bite and they are the most widely distributed in ...200818317460
functionality of a bacillus cereus biological agent in response to physiological variables encountered in aquaculture.the potential of a bacillus cereus isolate (nrrl 100132) as a biological agent for aquaculture has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. the functionality of this isolate across a range of physiological conditions, including salinity, ph and temperature, based on rearing of high-value ornamental cyprinus carpio, was investigated. temperature had a significant influence on germination, specific growth rate and increase in cell number of b. cereus in shake-flask cultures, whilst salinity and ph ...200818317748
survival of freeze-dried bacteria.the aim of this study was to investigate the survival of freeze-dried bacterial species stored at the international patent organism depository (ipod) and to elucidate the characteristics affecting survival. bacterial strains were freeze-dried, sealed in ampoules under a vacuum (<1 pa), and stored in the dark at 5 degrees c. the survival of a variety of species following storage for up to 20 years was analyzed. the survival of freeze-dried species was analyzed in terms of two stages, freeze-dryin ...200818323678
[aeromonas spp. infections: retrospective study in nîmes university hospital, 1997-2004].retrospective study of patients presenting aeromonas spp. infections admitted to nîmes hospital from january 1997 to december 2004.200818329823
molecular cloning of liver angiotensinogen gene in ayu (plecoglossus altivelis) and mrna expression changes upon aeromonas hydrophila infection.angiotensinogen (agt) is thought to be an acute phase protein, because in mammals its plasma concentrations increase during inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharides (lps). a full-length cdna clone of the agt gene, 1828bp in size, was isolated from the fish ayu (plecoglossus altivelis). its deduced amino acid sequence of 462 residues had 57.7-68.6%, 30.2% and 23.3-27.4% identity to those sequenced from other fish, chicken and mammals, respectively. ayu-agt is most closely related to that of si ...200818337123
peptide hydrolysis by the binuclear zinc enzyme aminopeptidase from aeromonas proteolytica: a density functional theory study.aminopeptidase from aeromonas proteolytica (aap) is a binuclear zinc enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of the n-terminal amino acid residue of peptides and proteins. in this study, we used density functional methods to investigate the reaction mechanism of this enzyme. a model of the active site was constructed on the basis of the x-ray crystal structure of the native enzyme, and a model dipeptide was used as a substrate. it was concluded that the hydroxide is capable of performing a nucleophil ...200818247603
comparison of the hemagglutination of formalinized american channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus) erythrocytes between formalinized and live aeromonas hydrophila isolated from the catfish rearing in kasumigaura lake in japan.formalinized aeromonas (a.) hydrophila agglutinated loosely with the formalinized american channel catfish erythrocytes (facce), while live a. hydrophila agglutinated tightly with the facce. there was a significant difference on the number of attaching bacterial cells to the facce (p<0.01) (n=40 erythrocytes) between formalinized and live a. hydrophila. the other bacteria such as salmonella (s.) typhimurium st-5, escherichia (e.) coli v-517 and staphylococcus (s.) hyicus atcc1249 used in this ex ...200818250583
enhanced innate immune parameters in labeo rohita (ham.) following oral administration of bacillus subtilis.the present study assessed the use of bacillus subtilis in fish as a probiotic. the bacterium was administered orally at three different doses 0.5 x 10(7) (t(2)), 1 x 10(7) (t(3)), 1.5 x 10(7) (t(4)) cfu/g feed to labeo rohita for two weeks. the positive control group (t(1)) and negative control group (t(5,)) were fed feed without b. subtilis for the same period. on the 15th day blood and serum were sampled to determine respiratory burst activity (nbt assay), differential leukocyte counts (dlc) ...200818060807
isolation, identification and application of novel bacterial consortium tj-1 for the decolourization of structurally different azo dyes.a novel bacterial consortium (tj-1), which could decolorize acid orange 7 (ao7) and manyother azo dyes, was developed. in tj-1 three bacterial strains were identified as aeromonas caviae, proteus mirabilis and rhodococcus globerulus by 16s rrna gene sequence analysis. ao7 decolorization was significantly higher with the use of consortium as compared to the use of individual strains, indicating complementary interactions among these strains. ao7 decolorization was observed under microaerophilic c ...200818289845
identification of siderophore biosynthesis genes essential for growth of aeromonas salmonicida under iron limitation conditions.aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the etiological agent of furunculosis in fish, produces a catechol-type siderophore under iron-limiting conditions. in this study, the fur titration assay (furta) was used to identify a cluster of six genes, asbg, asbf, asbd, asbc, asbb, and asbi, encoding proteins similar to components of the siderophore biosynthetic machinery in other bacteria. reverse transcriptase pcr analyses showed that this cluster consists of four iron-regulated transcriptional u ...200818296539
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