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complete nucleotide sequence of a quinolone resistance gene (qnrs2) carrying plasmid of aeromonas hydrophila isolated from fish.aeromonas hydrophila strain ao1 isolated from an infected fish was found to be resistant to several quinolones. a plasmid isolated from the strain ao1, termed pbrst7.6, was cloned and sequenced and shown to be 7621bp in length with a gc content of 60%. further analysis confirmed that it contained a gene with 100% identity to qnrs2 genes described in plasmids associated with other aeromonas species, the product of which usually confers increased resistance to quinolones. the plasmid backbone cont ...201121664930
molecular cloning, characterization and expression of a c-type lectin cdna in chinese mitten crab, eriocheir sinensis.c-type lectins are pattern-recognition proteins which are functionally important for pathogen recognition and immune regulation in vertebrates and invertebrates. in this study, a lectin cdna named as es-lectin was cloned and characterized from the chinese mitten crab, eriocheir sinensis. the full-length sequence of this es-lectin cdna was 651 bp, including an open reading frame of 483 bp encoding 160 amino acids. the predicted molecular weight of the es-lectin was 11.8 kda. a typical signal pept ...201121669290
antibiotic contamination and occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in aquatic environments of northern vietnam.the ubiquitous application and release of antibiotics to the environment can result in bacterial antibiotic resistance, which in turn can be a serious risk to humans and other animals. southeast asian countries commonly apply an integrated recycling farm system called vac (vegetable, aquaculture and caged animal). in the vac environment, antibiotics are released from animal and human origins, which would cause antibiotic-resistant bacteria (arb). this study evaluated occurrence of arb in the vac ...201121669325
aeromonas spp.-mediated cell-contact cytotoxicity is associated with the presence of type iii secretion system.in the study we examined the production of cytotonic and cytotoxic toxins and the presence of a type iii secretion system (ttss) in 64 aeromonas spp. strains isolated from fecal specimens of patients with gastroenteritis. we observed that contact of the bacteria with host epithelial cells is a prerequisite for their cytotoxicity at 3 h incubation. cell-contact cytotoxic activity of the strains was strongly associated with the presence of the ttss. culture supernatants of the strains induced low ...201121809027
bioremediation and detoxification of synthetic wastewater containing triarylmethane dyes by aeromonas hydrophila isolated from industrial effluent.economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remediate dye-contaminated wastewater from various industries. in this study, a novel bacterial strain capable of decolorizing triarylmethane dyes was isolated from a textile wastewater treatment plant in greece. the bacterial isolate was identified as aeromonas hydrophila and was shown to decolorize three triarylmethane dyes tested within 24?h with color removal in the range of 72% to 96%. decolorization efficiency of the bacterium was a func ...201121808740
physical, chemical and microbiological quality of ice used to cool drinks and foods in greece and its public health implications.ice used for direct human consumption or to preserve foods and cool down drinks can be contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms and may potentially become a vehicle for consumer's infection. to evaluate physical, chemical and microbiological quality of commercial ice and ice used for fish and seafood, 100 ice samples collected at 10 different retail points in the region of epirus were studied. the following microbiological parameters were determined: total coliforms, fecal coliforms, salmonel ...201121802520
characterization of granulocyte colony stimulating factor receptor of the goldfish (carassius auratus l.).granulocyte colony stimulating factor receptor (gcsfr) is a member of the class i cytokine receptor superfamily and signaling through this receptor is important for the proliferation, differentiation and activation of neutrophils and their precursors. in this study we report on the cloning and molecular characterization of goldfish gcsfr. the identified goldfish gcsfr sequence possesses the conserved ig-like domain, the cytokine receptor homology domain (crh), three fibronectin domains as well a ...201121801744
biochemical and hematological reference intervals for krefft's turtles emydura macquarii krefftii from the burnett river catchment, australia.biochemical and hematological reference intervals have not previously been reported for emydura macquarii krefftii. in 2009, 56 e. m. krefftii were captured by hand from the burnett catchment, clinically assessed to determine health status and blood sampled. reference intervals were calculated from the 35 clinically healthy turtles using techniques established in other chelonid species. aberrant blood results were identified from the 21 clinically unhealthy turtles. low numbers of observed cases ...201121797034
isolation and identification of a novel inducible antibacterial peptide from the skin mucus of japanese eel, anguilla japonica.in this study, acetone extracts and acidic extracts were prepared from skin mucus, gill, kidney, liver and spleen of the japanese eel, anguilla japonica, and they exhibited different levels of antibacterial activities against three strains of gram-negative bacteria, edwardsiella tarda, aeromonas hydrophila, aeromonas sp. and one gram-positive bacterium micrococcus leteus. the mucus was chosen as the source of antibacterial peptide for further purification of antibacterial peptides. following the ...201121796440
emerging gram-negative infections in burn wounds.gram-negative infection remains a major contributor to morbidity, mortality, and cost of care. in the absence of comparative multinational epidemiological studies specific to burn patients, we sought to review literature trends in emerging gram-negative burn wound infections within the past 60 years. mapping trends in these organisms, although in a minority compared with the six "eskape" pathogens currently being targeted by the infectious diseases society of north america, would identify pathog ...201121792068
molecular identification and virulence of three aeromonas hydrophila isolates cultured from infected channel catfish during a disease outbreak in west alabama (usa) in 2009.three isolates (al09-71, al09-72, and al09-73) of aeromonas hydrophila were cultured from infected channel catfish ictalurus punctatus during a disease outbreak in west alabama, usa, in august 2009. sequence analysis of the 16s-23s rdna intergenic spacer region (isr), cpn60, gyrb, and rpod genes of the 3 strains revealed that the 3 strains were closely related to each other, sharing 97 to 99% nucleotide sequence similarities. however, isr sequences of the 3 isolates from 2009 shared only 64% nuc ...201121790073
soft tissue infections caused by marine bacterial pathogens: epidemiology, diagnosis, and management.skin and soft tissue infections (sstis) are one of the most common infection syndromes and may be caused by a large number of microorganisms. some principles of aquatic injuries are different than those of land-based trauma. wounds sustained in marine environment are exposed to a milieu of bacteria rarely encountered in different settings. these include vibrio spp., aeromonas spp., shewanella spp., erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, mycobacterium marinum, streptococcus iniae, and other microbes. fail ...201121785929
aeromonas hydrophila polar flagellum gene transcriptional hierarchy.aeromonas hydrophila polar flagellum class i gene transcription is s(70)-dependent, which is consistent with the fact that a. hydrophila polar flagellum is constitutively expressed. in contrast to other bacteria with dual flagella systems such as vibrio parahaemolyticus, the a. hydrophila lafk protein does not compensate for the lack of the polar flagella regulator flra (v. parahaemolyticus flak homologue). this is consistent with the fact that the a. hydrophila flra mutation abolishes polar fla ...201121784933
effects of dietary ß-1,3-glucan, chitosan or raffinose on the growth, innate immunity and resistance of koi (cyprinus carpio koi).this study was performed to determine the efficacy of three immunomodulators viz., ß-1,3 glucan, chitosan and raffinose on the innate immune response of koi, cyprinus carpio koi. kois were divided into 4 groups and each group was fed with diets supplemented with or without immunostimulant for 56 days. total leukocyte counts (wbc), the non-specific humoral (lysozyme, alternative complement pathway and superoxide dismutase) and cellular (phagocytic capacity and respiratory burst activity) response ...201121784160
pathogenic bacteria in sewage treatment plants as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing.this study applied 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing to analyze potentially pathogenic bacteria in activated sludge from 14 municipal wastewater treatment plants (wwtps) across four countries (china, u.s., canada, and singapore), plus the influent and effluent of one of the 14 wwtps. a total of 370?870 16s rrna gene sequences with average length of 207 bps were obtained and all of them were assigned to corresponding taxonomic ranks by using rdp classifier and megan. it was found that the most a ...201121780772
bacterial communities in the gut of the freshwater copepod eudiaptomus gracilis.eudiaptomus gracilis is the most abundant member of the zooplankton, plays a key role in the food web of lake balaton (hungary). in the present study the composition of bacterial communities of this copepod was investigated based on cultivation and molecular cloning. the cultivated bacterial strains from the gut homogenate samples of eudiaptomus gracilis belonged to four different clades: firmicutes, actinobacteria, bacteriodetes and proteobacteria. clone library showed high species diversity, f ...201121780147
gastrointestinal colonization rates for human clinical isolates of aeromonas veronii using a mouse model.a variety of environment-associated gastrointestinal infections have been associated with the aeromonas group of bacteria which contain both non-virulent strains as well as virulent strains within a particular species. this study monitors the colonization rates of colon tissue in a mouse-streptomycin dose/response model involving isolates of aeromonas veronii biovar sobria obtained from human clinical specimens. the ability to successfully colonize mouse colon tissues by the human clinical isola ...201121779939
comparative molecular characterization of the regucalcin (rgn) gene in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) and maraena whitefish (coregonus marena).the ca(2+)-binding protein regucalcin (rgn) is crucial for the regulation of ca(2+) ion homeostasis and signal transduction of cells. it is involved in the regulation of ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases and ca(2+) pump enzymes in cell membranes. comparative transcriptome analysis in healthy fish of two aquacultured rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) lines (born, tco) varying in susceptibility to environmental stress identified significant differences in the expression of the rgn gene. therefore ...201121779798
dual chaperone role of the c-terminal propeptide in folding and oligomerization of the pore-forming toxin aerolysin.throughout evolution, one of the most ancient forms of aggression between cells or organisms has been the production of proteins or peptides affecting the permeability of the target cell membrane. this class of virulence factors includes the largest family of bacterial toxins, the pore-forming toxins (pfts). pfts are bistable structures that can exist in a soluble and a transmembrane state. it is unclear what drives biosynthetic folding towards the soluble state, a requirement that is essential ...201121779171
multi-functional characteristics of the pseudomonas aeruginosa type iii needle-tip protein, pcrv; comparison to orthologs in other gram-negative bacteria.pseudomonas aeruginosa possesses a type iii secretion system (t3ss) to intoxicate host cells and evade innate immunity. this virulence-related machinery consists of a molecular syringe and needle assembled on the bacterial surface, which allows delivery of t3 effector proteins into infected cells. to accomplish a one-step effector translocation, a tip protein is required at the top end of the t3 needle structure. strains lacking expression of the functional tip protein fail to intoxicate host ce ...201121772833
in vitro antibacterial effect of aqueous and ethanolic moringa leaf extracts.to evaluate the antibacterial effect of aqueous and ethanolic moringa leaf extracts (moringa oleifera) on the growth of gram-positive and negative bacteria.201121771453
immune response of gilthead seabream (sparus aurata) following experimental infection with aeromonas hydrophila.the gram-negative bacteria aeromonas hydrophila is a heterogeneous organism that causes the disease known as motile aeromonad septicaemia, which is responsible for serious economic loss in seabream culture due to bacterial infections. however, the immune mechanisms involved in this disease in fish are still poorly understood. for the purpose of this study, gilthead seabream (sparus aurata l.) specimens received a double intraperitoneal injection of bacterial inoculums: a primary infection with 1 ...201121767651
molecular characterization of nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (nod)-2, analysis of its inductive expression and down-stream signaling following ligands exposure and bacterial infection in rohu (labeo rohita).nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (nod)-2 is a cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptor (prr) and is a member of nod like receptor (nlr) family. it senses a wide range of bacteria and viruses or their products and is involved in innate immune responses. in this report, nod-2 gene was cloned and characterized from rohu (labeo rohita) which is highly commercially important fish species in the indian subcontinent. the full length rohu nod-2 (rnod-2) cdna comprised of 3176bp with a singl ...201121767564
molecular basis of sulfonamide and trimethoprim resistance in fish-pathogenic aeromonas isolates.sulfonamide-trimethoprim-resistant aeromonas salmonicida and motile aeromonas spp. from diseased fish of the germ-vet study carried the sul1 gene together with mostly cassette-borne trimethoprim resistance genes, including the novel gene dfra28. the seven dfra and dfrb genes identified were mostly located in class 1 integrons which commonly harboured other gene cassettes.201121764945
identification of aeromonas isolates by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.we evaluated the accuracy of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for identifying aeromonads with an extraction procedure. genus-level accuracy was 100%. compared to rpob gene sequencing, species-level accuracy was 90.6% (29/32) for type and reference strains and 91.4% for a collection of 139 clinical and environmental isolates, making this system one of the most accurate and rapid methods for phenotypic identification. the reliability of this technique wa ...201121763094
crystal structure of serratia fonticola sfh-i: activation of the nucleophile in mono-zinc metallo-ß-lactamases.metallo-ß-lactamases (mbls) or class b ß-lactamases are zinc-dependent enzymes capable of inactivating almost all classes of ß-lactam antibiotics. to date, no mbl inhibitors are available for clinical use. of the three mbl subclasses, b2 enzymes, unlike those from subclasses b1 and b3, are fully active with one zinc ion bound and possess a narrow spectrum of activity, hydrolyzing carbapenem substrates almost exclusively. these remain the least studied mbls. sfh-i, originally identified from the ...201121762699
effect of dietary supplements on cytokine gene expression in rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum). 201121762174
incidence of class 1 integron and other antibiotic resistance determinants in aeromonas spp. from rainbow trout farms in australia.there is limited information on antibiotic resistance determinants present in bacteria of aquaculture origin in australia. the presence of integron and other resistance determinants was investigated in 90 aeromonas isolates derived from nine freshwater trout farms in victoria (australia). polymerase chain reaction was carried out for the detection of integrase genes int1, int2 and int3, gene cassette array, integron-associated aada, sul1 and qac1 genes, streptomycin resistance genes stra-strb, ß ...201121762170
a unique epidermal mucus lectin identified from catfish (silurus asotus): first evidence of intelectin in fish skin slime.the present study reports a new type of skin mucus lectin found in catfish silurus asotus. the lectin exhibited calcium-dependent mannose-binding activity. when mannose eluate from chromatography with mannose-conjugated agarose was analyzed by sds-page, the lectin appeared as a single 35-kda band. gel filtration showed that the lectin forms monomers and dimers. a 1216-bp cdna sequence obtained by race-pcr from the skin encoded a 308 amino acid secretory protein with homology to mammalian and fis ...201121757471
three goose-type lysozymes in the gastropod oncomelania hupensis: cdna sequences and lytic activity of recombinant proteins.three goose-type (g-type) lysozymes, designated as ohlysg1, ohlysg2 and ohlysg3 were identified from expressed sequence tags (ests) of a gastropod oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host of schistosoma japonicum. the full cdna sequences of ohlysg1, ohlysg2 and ohlysg3 consisted of 735, 909 and 808 nucleotides, with an open reading frame of 198, 214 and 249 codons containing a 21, 7 and 8 amino acid (aa) signal peptide at the n-terminus, respectively. the three g-type lysozymes shared conserv ...201121756934
bacillus amyloliquefaciens g1: a potential antagonistic bacterium against eel-pathogenic aeromonas hydrophila.recent studies have revealed that the use of probiotics is an alternative to control marine aeromonas. however, few probiotics are available against aeromonas hydrophila infections in eels. in the present study, a potential antagonistic strain g1 against the eel-pathogenic a. hydrophila was isolated from sediment underlying brackish water. its extracellular products with antibacterial activities were shown to be stable under wide range of ph, temperature, and proteinase k. it was initially ident ...201121754944
influence of the diet on the microbial diversity of faecal and gastrointestinal contents in gilthead sea bream (sparus aurata) and intestinal contents in goldfish (carassius auratus).fish intestinal microbiota changes with the diet and this effect is of particular interest considering the increasing substitution of fish meal by plant protein sources. the objective of this work was to study the effects of partial substitution of fish meal with lupin and rapeseed meals on gut microbiota of the gilthead sea bream (sparus aurata) and in goldfish (carassius auratus). faecal, gastrointestinal and intestinal contents were characterized using culture-based and molecular methods. vib ...201121692817
[in process citation]. 201121720695
identification and expression profiles of multiple genes in nile tilapia in response to bacterial infections.to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in response of nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) to bacterial infection, suppression subtractive cdna hybridization technique was used to identify upregulated genes in the posterior kidney of nile tilapia at 6h post infection with aeromonas hydrophila. a total of 31 unique expressed sequence tags (ests) were identified from 192 clones of the subtractive cdna library. quantitative pcr revealed that nine of the 31 ests were significantly (p<0.05) ...201121840065
bacterial symbiont and salivary peptide evolution in the context of leech phylogeny.summarythe evolutionary history of leeches is employed as a general framework for understanding more than merely the systematics of this charismatic group of annelid worms, and serves as a basis for understanding blood-feeding related correlates ranging from the specifics of gut-associated bacterial symbionts to salivary anticoagulant peptides. a variety of medicinal leech families were examined for intraluminal crop bacterial symbionts. species of aeromonas and bacteroidetes were characterized ...201121729354
bacterial infection of mudfish clarias gariepinus (siluriformes: clariidae) fingerlings in tropical nursery ponds.bacterial infection among the most common cultured mudfish clarias gariepinus in africa, has become a cause of concern, because it constitutes the largest economic loss in fish farms. in order to provide useful biological data of the pathogens for good management practices, samples were collected monthly between january 2008 and december 2009 in three monoculture nursery ponds, located in three different positions: upriver (a, grassland), mid-river (b, mixed forest and grassland) and downriver ( ...201121717856
lactobacillus plantarum (vr1) isolated from an ayurvedic medicine (kutajarista) ameliorates in vitro cellular damage caused by aeromonas veronii.abstract:201121707995
a specific inorganic triphosphatase from nitrosomonas europaea: structure and catalytic mechanism.the cyth superfamily of proteins is named after its two founding members, the cyab adenylyl cyclase from aeromonas hydrophila and the human 25-kda thiamine triphosphatase. because these proteins often form a closed +¦-barrel, they are also referred to as "triphosphate tunnel metalloenzymes" (ttm). functionally, they are characterized by their ability to bind triphosphorylated substrates and divalent metal ions. these proteins exist in most organisms and catalyze different reactions, depending on ...201121840996
prevalence, characterization, and antimicrobial resistance of aeromonas strains from various retail food products in mumbai, india.ôçé a total of 154 food samples (chicken, fish, and ready-to-eat sprouts) from various retail outlets in mumbai, india, were analyzed for the presence of aeromonas spp. over a period of 2 y (january 2006 to march 2008). twenty-two aeromonas isolates belonging to 7 different species were isolated from 18 (11.7%) food samples. the highest percentages of isolation were from chicken (28.6%) followed by fish (20%) and sprout (2.5%) samples. aeromonas caviae, a. veronii bv. sobria, and a. salmonicida ...201121824136
selection for improved resistance to aeromonas hydrophila in indian major carp labeo rohita: survival and innate immune responses in first generation of resistant and susceptible lines.selection for disease resistance in fish may be performed directly on basis of survival data obtained in controlled challenge trials, or indirectly using information from immunological or molecular markers linked to differential survival. in the present study, several key innate immune parameters were measured in aeromoniasis resistant and susceptible lines of rohu labeo rohita to assess their suitability as immune markers for use in indirect selection for increased resistance. experimental infe ...201121712094
the microbiological profile and presence of bloodstream infection influence mortality rates in necrotizing fasciitis.abstract: introduction: necrotizing fasciitis (nf) is a life threatening infectious disease with a high mortality rate. we carried out a microbiological characterization of the causative pathogens. we investigated the correlation of mortality in nf with bloodstream infection and with the presence of co-morbidities. methods: in this retrospective study, we analyzed 323 patients who presented with necrotizing fasciitis at two different institutions. bloodstream infection (bsi) was defined as a pos ...201121693053
effects of a prebiotic, immunogen(-«) , on feed utilization, body composition, immunity and resistance to aeromonas hydrophila infection in the common carp cyprinus carpio (linnaeus) fingerlings.this study evaluated the effects of a commercial prebiotic, immunogen, on feed utilization, growth rate, immunity promotion and carcass composition of the common carp cyprinus carpio fingerlings. the fingerlings were adopted for 2ôçâweeks and then reared in triplicate groups in 250-l tanks (nôçâ=ôçâ15 per tank with average initial weights of 11.12ôçâ-¦ôçâ0.55ôçâg). the fish fed on five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic experimental diets containing different levels of immunogen (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and ...201121707781
aeromonas hydrophila moty is essential for polar flagellum function, requires coordinate expression of motx and pom proteins.by the analysis of aeromonas hydrophila atcc7966t genome we identified a. hydrophila ah-3 moty. a. hydrophila moty, like motx, is essential for the polar flagellum function energized by an electrochemical potential of na+ as coupling ion, but is not involved in lateral flagella function energized by proton motive force. thus, a. hydrophila polar flagellum stator is a complex integrated by two essential proteins: motx and moty, which interact with one of two redundant pairs of proteins: pomab and ...201121737499
differential immune responses of the green neon shrimp (neocaridina denticulate) to dipropyl phthalate.this study set out to understand the sublethal effect of xenobiotic phthalate esters (paes) on the relationship between the susceptibility of shrimp to bacterial infection and the immune response of the shrimp. neocaridina denticulate were exposed to different concentrations of the pae dipropyl phthalate (dprp), and mortality and six immune parameters were measured on days 1, 3, 5, and 10 after exposure. on days 1 and 3 after exposure, shrimp exposed to 0, 1, 5, 10, and 50 mg/l of dprp and chall ...201121740974
phylogenetic identification of aeromonas from pigs slaughtered for consumption in slaughterhouses at the north of portugal.in the present study, 710 isolates of aeromonas spp. have been collected from pig carcasses, diaphragm muscle, faeces, dehairing equipment and water in slaughterhouses at the north of portugal. the isolates were obtained from a total of 154 samples. all presumptive aeromonas isolates were subjected to eric-pcr analysis and those which presented a different pattern were taken and the species classified by gyrb gene sequencing. we have found the species a. hydrophila, a. salmonicida, a. bestiarum, ...201121402427
etiology of diarrhea in young children and patterns of antibiotic resistance in cambodia.little is known about diarrhea etiology and antibiotic resistance in developing countries where diarrhea is a major public health problem.201121412204
directed culturing of microorganisms using metatranscriptomics.the vast majority of bacterial species remain uncultured, and this severely limits the investigation of their physiology, metabolic capabilities, and role in the environment. high-throughput sequencing of rna transcripts (rna-seq) allows the investigation of the diverse physiologies from uncultured microorganisms in their natural habitat. here, we report the use of rna-seq for characterizing the metatranscriptome of the simple gut microbiome from the medicinal leech hirudo verbana and for utiliz ...201121467263
distribution and expression analysis of transcription factors in tissues and progenitor cell populations of the goldfish (carassius auratus l.) in response to growth factors and pathogens.we report on the mrna levels of a panel of transcription factors in the kidney and spleen tissues, and in the cell populations from the blood, the spleen, and in the sorted kidney progenitor cells. the mrna levels of cebpα, cjun, cmyb, egr1, gata1, gata2, gata3, lmo2, mafb, pax5, pu.1 and runx1 were assessed in healthy goldfish as well as in fish challenged with two different pathogens, aeromonas salmonicida a449 or trypanosoma carassii. spleen tissue from healthy goldfish showed higher expressi ...201121474183
new developments in traveler's diarrhea.traveler's diarrhea (td) is a crucial area for research, as it affects millions of tourists each year and creates a large economic burden. more than 60% of td cases are caused by a variety of bacterial enteropathogens: diarrhea-producing escherichia coli, shigella, campylobacter, salmonella, aeromonas, plesiomonas, and noncholera vibrios. noroviruses are also an important cause of morbidity among travelers. recent studies have identified host genetic risk factors associated with susceptibility t ...201121475415
dissemination of ndm-1 positive bacteria in the new delhi environment and its implications for human health: an environmental point prevalence study.not all patients infected with ndm-1-positive bacteria have a history of hospital admission in india, and extended-spectrum β-lactamases are known to be circulating in the indian community. we therefore measured the prevalence of the ndm-1 gene in drinking water and seepage samples in new delhi.201121478057
multidrug resistance in hydrocarbon-tolerant gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.new gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were isolated from poeni oily sludge, using enrichment procedures. the six gram-positive strains belong to bacillus, lysinibacillus and rhodococcus genera. the eight gram-negative strains belong to shewanella, aeromonas, pseudomonas and klebsiella genera. isolated bacterial strains were tolerant to saturated (i.e., n-hexane, n-heptane, n-decane, n-pentadecane, n-hexadecane, cyclohexane), monoaromatic (i.e., benzene, toluene, styrene, xylene isomers, e ...201121478643
k+ efflux, is required for histone-h3 dephosphorylation by listeria llo and other pore forming toxins.chromatin modification triggered by bacteria is a newly described mechanism by which pathogens impact host transcription. listeria monocytogenes dephosphorylates histone h3 through the action of listeriolysin o (llo), however, the underlying mechanism is unknown. here we show that an unrelated pore forming toxin, aeromonas aerolysin also provokes h3 dephosphorylation. as reported for aerolysin, we show that llo, and related toxins induce a pore-dependent k(+) efflux, and that this efflux is the ...201121482680
preparation and evaluation of oleoyl-carboxymethy-chitosan (ocmcs) nanoparticles as oral protein carriers.oleoyl-carboxymethy chitosan (ocmcs) nanoparticles based on chitosan with different molecular weights (50, 170 and 820 kda) were prepared by self-assembled method. the nanoparticles had spherical shape, positive surface charges and the mean diameters were 157.4, 274.1 and 396.7 nm, respectively. fitc-labeled ocmcs nanoparticles were internalized via the intestinal mucosa and observed in liver, spleen, intestine and heart following oral deliverance to carps (cyprinus carpio). extracellular produc ...201122139537
Occurrence of enterotoxigenic Aeromonas species in foods of animal origin in North East India.The aim of the present study was to isolate and identify Aeromonas (A.) species and assess their toxin producing ability in foods of animal origin from North East India.201121845798
Bacteriophages with potential for inactivation of fish pathogenic bacteria: survival, host specificity and effect on bacterial community structure.Phage therapy may represent a viable alternative to antibiotics to inactivate fish pathogenic bacteria. Its use, however, requires the awareness of novel kinetics phenomena not applied to conventional drug treatments. The main objective of this work was to isolate bacteriophages with potential to inactivate fish pathogenic bacteria, without major effects on the structure of natural bacterial communities of aquaculture waters. The survival was determined in marine water, through quantification by ...201122163184
Over-expression, purification and immune responses to Aeromonas hydrophila AL09-73 flagellar proteins.Aeromonas hydrophila is ubiquitous in aquatic environments worldwide and causes many diseases in fish as well as human. Recent outbreaks of aeromonad diseases in channel catfish prompted us to investigate catfish immune responses during infection of A. hydrophila. In this communication, we report to amplify, over-express, purify and characterize 19 A. hydrophila flagellar proteins. All recombinant proteins were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing of expression plasmids, SDS-PAGE analysis and His ...201121963857
Aeromonas hydrophila-associated septicemia in captive crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni and Crocodylus porosus).Five 25-yr-old crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni and Crocodylus porosus) were diagnosed with Aeromonas hydrophila-associated septicemia accelerated by improper thermoregulation. At necropsy, pulmonary congestion and pleural effusion were the main lesions in the thorax. Necrotizing enteritis, intestinal hemorrhage, fibrinous serositis, hepatitis, and pancreatitis were observed in the abdominal cavities of all five crocodiles. Aeromonas hydrophila was identified in the pleural effusions and abdomin ...201122204074
Clinical characteristics of seven patients with Aeromonas septicemia in a Japanese hospital.The genus Aeromonas comprises flagellated gram-negative rods widely distributed in freshwater, estuarine and marine environments. Aeromonas species may cause a variety of illnesses in humans, such as enterocolitis and septicemia, especially in warmer tropical or subtropical environments. To recognize the characteristics of Aeromonas septicemia in Japan, we reviewed laboratory data and medical records in our hospital. During 11 years (from 2000 to 2010), Aeromonas septicemia was observed in seven ...201121892001
Identification of differentially expressed protective genes in liver of two rainbow trout strains.Since 1975, the rainbow trout strain BORN (Germany) has been bred in brackish water from a coastal form imported from Denmark. Accompanying phenotypic monitoring of the adapted BORN trout until now revealed that this selection strain manifested a generally elevated resistance towards high stress and pathogenic challenge including lower susceptibility towards Aeromonas salmonicida infections in comparison to other trout strains in local aqua farms. We focus on the elucidation of both, genetic bac ...201122196148
the effect of metals on condition and pathologies of european eel (anguilla anguilla): in situ and laboratory experiments.forty-nine wild eels (anguilla anguilla) caught in the albufera lake (spain), measuring 24.0-75.0cm in length and 25.0-637.7g in weight, were examined for metals (cd, co, cr, cu, fe, hg, mn, pb, se and zn), condition (ci and hsi indices), as well as for diseases (anguillicola infestation; bacterial infections). total metal load significantly increased in eel liver tissue parallel to total length and body weight (log), while silvering females (w(b)>200g; l≥500mm) exhibited the highest amounts of ...201122030412
occurrence of aeromonas spp. in a random sample of drinking water distribution systems in the usa.aeromonads are aquatic bacteria found in drinking water supplies worldwide. some species, such as aeromonas hydrophila, can cause disease in humans. for this survey, 293 united states public water systems were selected using random sampling, stratified by water source and system type. water samples were collected during one year from three sites (six samples per site) in each system. temperature, ph, turbidity, total and free chlorine were measured using standard methods. aeromonads were detecte ...201122048437
immunomodulatory and protective roles of quorum sensing signaling molecules n-acyl homoserine lactones during infection of mice with aeromonas hydrophila.aeromonas hydrophila leads to both intestinal and extra-intestinal infections in animals and humans, and the underlying mechanisms leading to mortality are largely unknown. by using a septicemic mouse model of infection, we showed that animals challenged with a. hydrophila die because of kidney and liver damage, hypoglycemia, and thrombocytopenia. pretreatment of animals with quorum sensing-associated signaling molecules n-acyl homoserine lactones (ahls), such as butanoyl and hexanoyl homoserine ...201121536794
iron-regulated lysis of recombinant escherichia coli in host to release protective antigen and confer biological containment.recombinant bacterial vector vaccine is an attractive vaccination strategy to induce immune response to a carried protective antigen. the superiorities of live bacterial vectors include mimicry of a natural infection, intrinsic adjuvant properties and the potential for administration by mucosal routes. escherichia coli is a simple and efficient vector system for production of exogenous proteins. in addition, many strains are nonpathogenic and avirulent making it a good candidate for use in recom ...201121536797
involvement of peroxinectin in the defence of red swamp crayfish procambarus clarkii against pathogenic aeromonas hydrophila.cell adhesion factors are important immune components for invertebrate to immobilize, phagocytose or encapsulate invasive microorganisms and foreign particles. in this study, a new cell adhesion factor, peroxinectin (refered as pcpxin) was isolated from hemocytes of red swamp crayfish (procambarus clarkii). the full-length cdna of pcpxin was 3014 bp encoding a protein of 819 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 89.0 kda and a calculational isoelectric point of 6.93. the putat ...201121539922
osteomyelitis associated to ctx-m-15-producing aeromonas hydrophila: first description in the literature. 201121546197
identification and epidemiological relationships of aeromonas isolates from patients with diarrhea, drinking water and foods.a collection of aeromonas isolates obtained over a three-year period in the same geographic area (león, nw of spain) was characterized by (gtg)(5)-pcr fingerprinting, amplified fragment length polymorphism (aflp) analysis and gyrb gene sequence analysis. the isolates originated from human diarrheal stools (29 isolates), potable water (13 isolates), rabbit meat (13 isolates) and marine fish (5 isolates). the distribution of aeromonas species varied with the strain source. aeromonas caviae hg4 and ...201121550680
complete genome sequence of aeromonas veronii strain b565.aeromonas veronii strain b565 was isolated from aquaculture pond sediment in china. we present here the complete genome sequence of b565 and compare it with 2 published genome sequences of pathogenic strains in aeromonas genus. the result represents an independent step-wise acquisition of virulence factors of pathogenic strains in this genus.201121551296
isolation and characterization of virulent aeromonas veronii from ascitic fluid of oscar astronotus ocellatus showing signs of infectious dropsy.the cichlid oscar astronotus ocellatus has worldwide commercial value in the pet fish industry because of its early maturation, relatively high fecundity, ability to identify its caretaker and also to alter colouration amongst conspecifics. pathogenic strains of aeromonas veronii resistant to multiple antibiotics were isolated from a. ocellatus individuals showing signs of infectious abdominal dropsy. the moribund fish showed haemorrhage in all internal organs, and pure cultures could be obtaine ...201121553566
crystal structure of the heteromolecular chaperone, asce-ascg, from the type iii secretion system in aeromonas hydrophila.the putative needle complex subunit ascf forms a ternary complex with the chaperones asce and ascg in the type iii secretion system of aeromonas hydrophila so as to avoid premature assembly. previously, we demonstrated that the c-terminal region of ascg (residues 62-116) in the hetero-molecular chaperone, asce-ascg, is disordered and susceptible to limited protease digestion.201121559439
identification of unique dna sequences present in highly virulent 2009 alabama isolates of aeromonas hydrophila.in 2009, a disease outbreak caused by aeromonas hydrophila occurred in 48 catfish farms in west alabama, causing an estimated loss of more than 3 million pounds of food size channel catfish. virulence studies have revealed that the 2009 isolates of a. hydrophila are at least 200-fold more virulent than a 1998 alabama isolate al98-c1b. however, up to now, no molecular markers have been identified to differentiate the highly virulent 2009 isolates from other isolates of a. hydrophila. to understan ...201121561726
aeromonas aquariorum is widely distributed in clinical and environmental specimens and can be misidentified as aeromonas hydrophila.genotypic characterization of 215 aeromonas strains (143 clinical, 52 environmental, and 20 reference strains) showed that aeromonas aquariorum (60 strains, 30.4%) was the most frequently isolated species in clinical and water samples and could be misidentified as aeromonas hydrophila by phenotypic methods.201121697316
a novel amino-benzosuberone derivative is a picomolar inhibitor of mammalian aminopeptidase n/cd13.a new class of low molecular weight, highly potent and selective non peptidic inhibitors of aminopeptidase n (apn/cd13) is described. we report the synthesis and in vitro evaluation of racemic substituted analogues of 7-amino-benzocyclohepten-6-one 1a. we investigated various substitutions on the aromatic ring with phenyl and halogen groups. in vitro kinetic studies revealed that these compounds are among the most effective apn/cd13 inhibitors found so far. hydrophobic substituents placed at pos ...201121843945
extending the aerolysin family: from bacteria to vertebrates.a number of bacterial virulence factors have been observed to adopt structures similar to that of aerolysin, the principal toxin of aeromonas species. however, a comprehensive description of architecture and structure of the aerolysin-like superfamily has not been determined. in this study, we define a more compact aerolysin-like domain--or aerolysin fold--and show that this domain is far more widely spread than anticipated since it can be found throughout kingdoms. the aerolysin-fold could be f ...201121687664
[role of aeromonas in the monitoring of a hydroecosystem in the volga-caspian area].the paper gives data obtained over many years on the quantity of bacteria of the genus aeromonas in the hydroecosystems of the delta of the volga and caspian sea and in commercial fishes (sturgeon (acipenseridae), pike perch (stizostedion), carp (cyprinus carpio), silurus (silurus glanis), etc.). it provides a detailed analysis of their seasonal trends and spatial distribution, markers of their pathogenicity, and antibiotic resistance. the findings suggest that aeromonas is a causative agent of ...201121842729
metabolic engineering of aeromonas hydrophila 4ak4 for production of copolymers of 3-hydroxybutyrate and medium-chain-length 3-hydroxyalkanoate.a mutant termed aeromonas hydrophila aklf was constructed by deleting acetic acid pathway related genes pta and acka in a. hydrophila 4ak4. accumulation of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (phbhhx) in a. hydrophila aklf was increased by 47% from 2.11 to 3.10g/l associated with a reduction on acetic acid formation compared with a. hydrophila 4ak4 when lauric acid was used as carbon resource. a. hydrophila aklf harboring pvgab encoding vitreoscilla hemoglobin, +¦-ketothiolase and acet ...201121680176
protection against atypical aeromonas salmonicida infection in common carp, cyprinus carpio l., by oral administration of a mixed microbial culture of lactobacillus paracasei, pichia membranifaciens and saccharomyces cereviciae.a microbial culture was prepared by co-cultivation of lactobacillus paracasei, pichia membranifaciens and saccharomyces cereviciae for 48 hr at 30 c in rice bran extract medium, supplemented with dextrose. oral administration of the resulting non-viable heat-inactivated microbial culture to common carp, cyprinus carpio l., delivered in feed for four weeks, induced effective protection against experimental atypical aeromonas salmonicida infection which causes "ulcer disease". after challenge of t ...201121685718
independent predictors of mortality for necrotizing fasciitis: a retrospective analysis in a single institution.necrotizing fasciitis (nf), a life-threatening soft tissue infection, requires early diagnosis, prompt and repeated surgical intervention, and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. the aim of this study was to identify the independent predictors of mortality among patients with nf in taiwan.201121825948
[Phenotypic characteristics and virulence factors in Aeromonas strains isolated from patients with diarrheic disease in Cuba].Fifty four strains of Aeromonas spp were isolated from patients with acute diarrheic episodes by using Aerokey II and Aeroesquema methods. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence factors were analyzed. The most frequently isolated specie was Aeromonas caviae. Over 75% of strains exhibited resistance to penicillins and ce-phalosporins; for the other antibiotic groups resistance was under 20%. Twenty six strains (48.1 %) were multiresist-ant. At least one virulence factor among those e ...201121720696
silent spread of imp-13-producing pseudomonas aeruginosa belonging to sequence type 621 in belgium. 201121693463
a putative g protein-coupled receptor involved in innate immune defense of procambarus clarkii against bacterial infection.the immune functions of g protein-coupled receptor (gpcr) were widely investigated in mammals. however, limited researches on immune function of gpcrs were reported in invertebrates. in the present study, the immune functions of hp1r gene, a putative gpcr identified from red swamp crayfish procambarus clarkii were reported. expression of hp1r gene was significant up-regulated in response to heat-killed aeromonas hydrophila challenge. hp1r gene silencing mediated by rna interference significantly ...201121964155
colorimetric detection of pcr product with dnazymes induced by 5'-nuclease activity of dna polymerases. 201121161971
detection of autoinducer (ai-2)-like activity in food samples.the contamination, survival, and possible foodborne disease outbreaks are major issues confronting the food industry. however, from a microbial perspective, any food whether natural or processed is just another environmental niche that is available for colonization. quorum sensing or cell-cell communication is a process by which microorganisms are thought to communicate with each other using a variety of small molecules termed autoinducers. the autoinducer ai-2 is thought to be a universal signa ...201121031305
exploring characteristics of bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization of mixed and pure bacterial cultures from wine-bearing wastewater treatment.this study uncovered microbial characteristics of bioelectricity generation and dye decolorization in single-chamber microbial fuel cells (mfcs) using activated sludge for wine-containing wastewater treatment. phylogenetic tree analysis on 16s rrna gene fragments indicated that the predominant strains on anodic biofilm in acclimatized mfcs were gamma-proteobacteria aeromonas punctata niu-p9, pseudomonas plecoglossicida niu-y3, pseudomonas koreensis niu-x8, acinetobacter junii niu-y8, stenotropho ...201120859654
an ancient molecule with novel function: alanine aminotransferase as a lipopolysaccharide binding protein with bacteriocidal activity.alanine aminotransaminase (alt) has been identified from bacteria to plants to animals including humans. the increase in serum alt is regarded as an index for clinical diagnosis of liver function in humans. however, alt elevation is also reported in non-liver injury conditions and in apparently healthy people, suggesting it may play a fundamental role physiologically. herein we isolated an alt homolog, amphialt, from branchiostoma japonicus, an intermediatary species from invertebrates to verteb ...201120816894
type vi secretion regulation: crosstalk and intracellular communication.pathogens use type vi secretion systems (t6sss) to transport proteins into the environment or host cells in response to external stimuli. t6sss are tightly regulated together with other virulence determinants such as type iii secretion systems, quorum sensing (qs), and flagella synthesis. five pathogens (salmonella enterica, edwardsiella tarda, aeromonas hydrophila, vibrio cholerae, and pseudomonas aeruginosa) are examined for crosstalk proteins (global regulators) that connect t6sss to other vi ...201120971679
zebrafish mast cells possess an fcɛri-like receptor and participate in innate and adaptive immune responses.we previously identified a zebrafish mast cell (mc) lineage and now aim to determine if these cells function analogously in innate and adaptive immunity like their mammalian counterparts. intraperitoneal (ip) injection of compound 48/80 or live aeromonas salmonicida resulted in significant mc degranulation evident histologically and by increased plasma tryptase compared with saline-injected controls (p=0.0006, 0.005, respectively). pre-treatment with ketotifen abrogated these responses (p=0.0004 ...201120849876
molecular characterization and functional analysis of myd88 in chinese soft-shelled turtle trionyx sinensis.myeloid differentiation factor 88 (myd88) is one of the key adaptor proteins to signal transduction that triggers downstream cascades involved in innate immunity. in this study, the myd88 gene from chinese soft-shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis) (tmyd88) was identified, representing the fist example from reptile species. the tmyd88 has a 894-bp orf and encodes a polypeptide of 297 amino acids including a typical death domain (dd) at the n-terminus and a conservative toll/il-1r (tir) domain at the ...201120850547
identification and pathogenicity of aeromonas sobria on tail-rot disease in juvenile tilapia oreochromis niloticus.thirty-six strains, numbered from py01 to py36, were isolated from six moribund oreochromis niloticus. the biochemical characteristics of all strains conformed to the species description of aeromonas sobria on the basis of api 20e and biolog gn system. furthermore, gyrb sequence of strain py36 was sequenced and showed high similarity (99.8%) with a. sobria in genbank. antibiotic-resistance of strain py36 was assessed by the kirby-bauer disk diffusion method, and the results showed it was suscept ...201120853167
enhanced chloroplast transgene expression in a nuclear mutant of chlamydomonas.chloroplast transformation in microalgae offers great promise for the production of proteins of pharmaceutical interest or for the development of novel biofuels. for many applications, high level expression of transgenes is desirable. we have transformed the chloroplast of chlamydomonas reinhardtii with two genes, acrv and vapa, which encode antigens from the fish pathogen aeromonas salmonicida. the promoters and 5' untranslated regions of four chloroplast genes were compared for their ability t ...201120809927
quorum sensing in aeromonas species isolated from patients in malaysia.bacterial quorum sensing signal molecules called n-acylhomoserine lactone (ahl) controls the expression of virulence determinants in many gram-negative bacteria. we determined ahl production in 22 aeromonas strains isolated from various infected sites from patients (bile, blood, peritoneal fluid, pus, stool and urine). all isolates produced the two principal ahls, n-butanoylhomoserine lactone (c4-hsl) and n-hexanoyl homoserine lactone (c6-hsl). ten isolates also produced additional ahls. this re ...201120544198
quorum sensing in aeromonas salmonicida subsp. achromogenes and the effect of the autoinducer synthase asai on bacterial virulence.the gram-negative fish pathogenic bacterium aeromonas salmonicida possesses the luxir-type quorum sensing (qs) system, termed asair. in this study the role of qs in a. salmonicida subsp. achromogenes virulence and pigment production was investigated. five wild-type asa strains induced the n-acyl-homoserinelactone (ahl) monitor bacteria. hplc-hr-ms analysis identified only one type of ahl, n-butanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (c4-hsl). a knock out mutant of asai, constructed by allelic exchange, did n ...201120708354
molecular quantification of virulence gene-containing aeromonas in water samples collected from different drinking water treatment processes.pathogenic species of aeromonas produce a range of virulence factors, including aerolysin, cytotonic enterotoxins, and serine protease, to cause acute gastroenteritis and wound infections in humans and animals. recognizing that not all aeromonas strains are pathogenic, in this study, we proposed to evaluate aeromonas removal effectiveness based on the presence of virulence gene-containing aeromonas as a proper means to assess microbial risk of aeromonas. we developed and applied real-time pcr as ...201120632090
in vitro study of possible microbial indicators for drowning: salinity and types of bacterioplankton proliferating in blood.numbers and types of bacterioplankton proliferating in blood samples mixed with water of various salinity levels were examined to determine the characteristics of species associated with salinity. water samples (total n=88) were collected from the midstream of two rivers (freshwater; n=10; salinity <0.05%), from around their estuaries (areas of freshwater, n=20, salinity <0.05%; areas of brackish water, n=20, salinity <0.05-3.1%; areas of marine water beyond the mouths of the rivers, n=28, salin ...201120554407
chemical and structural characterization of hydroxamate siderophore produced by marine vibrio harveyi.in the present study, 22 different bacteria were isolated from open ocean water from the gulf of mannar, india. of the 22 isolates, 4 were identified as vibrio spp. (vm1, vm2, vm3 and vm4) and found to produce siderophores (iron-binding chelators) under iron-limited conditions. different media were found to have an influence on siderophore production. maximum siderophore production was observed with vm1 isolate in mm9 salts medium at 48 h of incubation. the isolate was confirmed as vibrio harvey ...201120602146
Simultaneous Detection of Six Diarrhea-Causing Bacterial Pathogens with an In-House PCR-Luminex Assay.Diarrhea can be caused by a range of pathogens, including several bacteria. Conventional diagnostic methods, such as culture, biochemical tests, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), are laborious. We developed a 7-plex PCR-Luminex assay to simultaneously screen for several of the major diarrhea-causing bacteria directly in fecal specimens, including pathogenic Aeromonas, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Salmonella, Shigella, enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC), Vibrio, and ...201222075596
inductive expression of toll-like receptor 5 (tlr5) and associated downstream signaling molecules following ligand exposure and bacterial infection in the indian major carp, mrigal (cirrhinus mrigala).toll-like receptors (tlrs) are one of the key components of innate immunity. among various types of tlrs, tlr5 is involved in recognizing bacterial flagellin and after binding, it triggers myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (myd88)-dependent signaling pathway to induce pro-inflammatory cytokines. in this report, we analyzed the expression profile of tlr5 and its associated downstream signaling molecules like myd88 and tumor necrosis factor (tnf) receptor-associated factor (traf) 6 ...201222085689
The spoilage of air-packaged broiler meat during storage at normal and fluctuating storage temperatures.Bacterial diversity and the major flora present on air-packaged broiler meat during storage at normal (4°C) and fluctuating storage temperatures (0-4°C and 4-10°C) were investigated using culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. Culture-dependent analysis revealed that the growth of microflora was retarded when broiler meat was stored at lower temperatures (0-4°C). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles showed that Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp., ...201222184446
Interactions of bacteria with different mechanisms for chitin degradation result in the formation of a mixed-species biofilm.In this study, interactions between bacteria possessing either released or cell-associated enzymes for polymer degradation were investigated. For this, a co-culture of Aeromonas hydrophila strain AH-1N as an enzyme-releasing bacterium and of Flavobacterium sp. strain 4D9 as a bacterium with cell-associated enzymes was set up with chitin embedded into agarose beads to account for natural conditions, under which polymers are usually embedded in organic aggregates. In single cultures, strain AH-1N ...201222092834
the two-component qsebc signalling system regulates in vitro and in vivo virulence of aeromonas hydrophila.we recently demonstrated that the n-acyl-homoserine lactone [autoinducer (ai)-1] and luxs (ai-2)-based quorum-sensing (qs) systems exerted positive and negative regulation, respectively, on the virulence of a diarrhoeal isolate ssu of aeromonas hydrophila. however, the role of a newly identified, two-component-based qsebc qs system in the regulation of bacterial virulence in general is not well understood, with only a limited number of studies showing its function in bacterial pathogenesis. in t ...201221998161
characterization and functional analyses of r-specific enoyl coenzyme a hydratases in polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing ralstonia eutropha.a genome survey of polyhydroxyalkanoate (pha)-producing ralstonia eutropha h16 detected the presence of 16 orthologs of r-specific enoyl coenzyme a (enoyl-coa) hydratase, among which three proteins shared high homologies with the enzyme specific to enoyl-coas of medium chain length encoded by phaj4 from pseudomonas aeruginosa (phaj4(pa)). the recombinant forms of the three proteins, termed phaj4a(re) to phaj4c(re), actually showed enoyl-coa hydratase activity with r specificity, and the catalyti ...201222081565
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